D’ei Chochmah L’Nafshechah

Parshas Vayikra

Shalosh Seudos1 of Parshas Vayikra 5768

"...‫"וַיִּ קרא אֶ ל-מֹשׁה וַיְ דבֵּ ר ה' אֵ לָיו מֵ אֹהֶ ל מוֹעֵ ד לֵאמֹר‬ ַ ֶ ָ ְ
“And Hashem called to Moshe and spoke to him from the tent of meeting, saying...”2

The Small Alef The Arizal revealed that he achieved all that he did by virtue of the joy he felt in fulfilling mitzvos.3 He was as supremely happy with every single mitzvah that he fulfilled as a person would be if he had profited by a million golden dinars. In the merit of this joy, all of the worlds opened before him and he was privileged to ascend and travel through all of them, from level to level. In this way, his soul was completely incorporated within the soul of Moshe Rabbeinu. Similarly, the holy Baal Shem Tov—about whom Rav Mendel of Vitebesk testified that he was absolutely unique, and there had never been nor ever would be another like him—rose to all of the limitless levels that he did by virtue of being completely at one with every single Jewish soul. These traits—joy in mitzvos and unity with other Jews—are both expressed by the small alef of the initial word of Vayikra. The small alef symbolizes being small in one’s own estimation in comparison with every other Jew, no matter who he might be.
1

The lesson was delivered on Shabbos of Parshas Zachor, in Mezhibuzh where the holy Baal Shem Tov is buried. 2 Vayikra 1:1 3 Mishnah Berurah 669:10 3

D’ei Chochmah L’Nafshechah

Parshas Vayikra

One cannot just remember that there is a mitzvah of ahavas Yisrael when someone is ill or tragedy strikes, G-d forbid. Even though it is true that, at such times, the bond between Jews is sparked into life, nevertheless this is not true love of one’s fellow Jew. The Baal Shem Tov achieved all that he did because he honored every single Jew with total self-nullification, and it was this that brought him to complete incorporation within the soul of Moshe Rabbeinu to whom the little alef of Hashem’s call referred directly. He sought to embody the little alef absolutely. As the Zohar teaches, “He who is small is great [áø]”—by making oneself small before everyone, one becomes incorporated within the truly great, the true Rav. For us this means that we must also strive to think little of ourselves in comparison with others and not to cause any kind of pain or suffering to any Jew. Quite the contrary; we must be willing to sacrifice ourselves for their sake, and this is the uppermost yechidah aspect of one’s soul—to suffuse the soul of every single Jew you meet with joy and vitality, no matter who he is. Although, on the surface, this might appear to be a level that everyone can easily reach, it is not so simple. The alef means to teach4—humility demands great study and is not a simple avodah at all. To really intensify one’s love of his fellow Jews every single day and unite with all of their souls is a very deep kind of learning, and it was this that opened all of the gateways of heaven before the Baal Shem Tov just as simchah shel mitzvah had for the Arizal. One must actively contemplate and delve into the good that is in every single Jew. The Baal HaTanya teaches that all of the Torah’s secrets are a manifestation of Chochmah, and the light of dveikus and experiencing delight in Hashem’s presence is a manifestation of Kesser. We have a general principle in Kabbalah that when one reaches a higher level, one automatically attains all of the levels below it. For this reason, when a person really takes pleasure in Hashem’s presence in a holy way of dveikus, he naturally also experiences the light of Chochmah. In just this way did the Baal Shem Tov attain all of the levels—by binding himself to the light of Kesser which is a “lover
4

Iyov 33:33 4

D’ei Chochmah L’Nafshechah

Parshas Vayikra

of all of Yisrael.” This bound him to each and every Jew, and once he was attached to the root of everything, he also merited the light of all of the other sefiros. Rav Avraham b’Rav Nachman taught that this is why Moshiach is called “Prince of Peace.” Ultimately, Hashem will open all of the heavenly gates before Moshiach by virtue of his being a tzaddik who constantly seeks to foster peace among all Jews. The Baal Shem Tov shared a soul-root with Moshe because his main focus was also the avodah of the “small alef,” and in its merit he was privileged to hear Hashem “call to Moshe.” The Dveikus of the Tzaddikim It is said that, as a child, the Tzemach Tzedek cried inconsolably, “Why does Hashem not appear to me as He did to Avraham Avinu?” Each and every Jew must likewise weep over the fact that he has not merited to reach the levels of the tzaddikim throughout the generations. One must never despair and say that such a thing is only possible for rare individuals—he must know that Hashem wants to reveal to each and every Jew all of the spiritual delights that pervade all of the upper worlds that the tzaddikim experienced. In his innermost self, every single Jew certainly longs to “dwell in Hashem’s house all the days of his life and visit His chamber.” However, the precondition is the state of the little alef—“He who is small is great.” One must contemplate and study these good qualities and advance in them every day, from hour to hour, and take stock every minute whether or not one’s self-absorption has not resulted in harm to another Jew. And certainly, one must never do anything to sow enmity among Jews, G-d forbid. If a person only knew what heavenly gates would open before him if he only made sure to properly honor every Jew, he would certainly immediately repent any lapse. Such failings are more serious than any other sin in the Torah; even though Hashem zealously regards any sin, nevertheless any fostering of controversy or failure to properly honor one’s fellow Jew is viewed especially harshly on high.

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D’ei Chochmah L’Nafshechah

Parshas Vayikra

We find in the Zohar: “Rabbi Chiya opened his teaching with the verse, ‘Hashem stations an angel around those who fear Him and saves them.’ Fortunate are the tzaddikim, for Hashem is more zealous over their honor than He is over His own. Go and see how many human beings curse and blaspheme against heaven, like Sancheriv who cursed and blasphemed and said, ‘Who among all of the gods of the lands...’ and Hashem forbore and did not demand recompense of him. However, when Sancheriv stretched forth his hand to harm Chizkiyahu, what does the verse say? ‘And an angel of G-d went out and smote among the camp of Ashur...’ Yeravam ben Nevat served idolatry, brought incense and offerings to it, and Hashem did not demand recompense of him. Yet when Ido, His prophet, came and spoke prophecy before him and Yeravam stretched forth his hands against him, what does the verse say? ‘And his hand withered...and he could not retract it.’ Pharaoh cursed and blasphemed and said, ‘Who is Hashem?’ and the Holy One did not demand recompense of him until he refused to release the Jewish people. As the verse says, ‘Do you still toy with My people? Behold, the hand of Hashem shall be among your cattle...’ So too, in every case we find that the Holy One exacted retribution for the humiliation of tzaddikim more than He did for His own.”5 We see from this teaching that even though the subjects served idolatry, this was not the point that aroused Hashem’s anger. Rather, it was that they dared to lay a hand upon His prophets. So too, each and every Jew has a unique point in avodas Hashem that belongs to him alone, and if one causes him to lose his spirits one runs the risk of destroying his unique point of Divine service. In heaven they ask, “What happened to interrupt so-and-so’s avodah just now?” And when it becomes clear that it was because another Jew caused him emotional pain, well, woe to the person who has to bear that judgment and humiliation. We must therefore follow the pathway of the Baal Shem Tov, the pathway of love of our fellow Jews. The Baal Shem Tov not only merited to pray with total self5

Zohar II:64a 6

D’ei Chochmah L’Nafshechah

Parshas Vayikra

sacrifice on behalf of every Jew, he also merited to draw down to them an abundance of children, long and healthy lives, sustenance, and spiritual elevation. And the main thing that he accomplished was his total unity with all of the Jewish souls. Crowning Your Friend as King over Yourself The sages taught that every person is asked on the day of judgment, “Did you crown your fellow Jew as king over yourself with ease?”6 What the person is really going to be asked is, “Did you treat your fellow Jew like a king? Did you feel the importance of each and every Jew, that they were all kings? Did you take stock of your every movement, if it sufficiently honored your fellow Jew properly—and were you careful to never act disrespectfully toward any Jew at all, G-d forbid?” This awareness is the way of life that the Baal Shem Tov laid down for his disciples and all those who are bound to his path. The more lofty his teachings, the more mutual love there has to be in the heart of his students—this is the condition [éàðú] of learning the powerful and unifying [ïúéà] teachings of Chassidus that resonate in the highest level of the soul [äãéçé = ïúéà]. And this is why the Baal HaTanya named his work as he did—the letters àéðú are the same as those of éàðú and ïúéà. So we must know with certainty that unless we resolve to never cause pain to another Jew, we will not be able to experience the light of dveikus with Hashem and the light of the Baal Shem Tov. And we must be on our guard, because the sitra achra works very hard to convince us that conflicts with our fellow Jews are justified, even necessary. Even though, if it came to a questionable food, a person would rush to ask a Rav if it was permitted before putting it into his mouth, when it comes to this much more serious constellation of prohibitions, a person doesn’t think to ask if it is permitted or not. This, despite the fact that, according to the Tosafos, publicly humiliating another Jew is just another manifestation of murder which one should rather kill himself than willingly do.

6

Sha’arei Kedushah II:2 7

D’ei Chochmah L’Nafshechah

Parshas Vayikra

Preparing for Yom Tov The main light of the festival is the light of the tzaddik that shines into a person’s soul, and if a person wants to experience the holiness of the Yom Tov, he must know that it depends on his level of unity with other Jews. One prepares spiritually for the festival by destroying Amalek. Rebbe Nachman of Breslov explains that Amalek has the same gematria as the word íø, which means haughty.7 “And your heart shall become haughty and forget...”—pride is the blemish of Amalek. There are those who believe that they are already humble, that they know the way of true modesty. But this is false. Even though everyone begs Hashem every day that their soul should be, “like dust before all,” nevertheless they have no idea what this really means. It is only when a person constantly make a cheshbon nefesh to never insult another Jew and fulfills Hashem’s desire to achieve a state of unity with all of the souls of the Jewish people that he can be considered to be on the path of humility. And it is not enough to refrain from insulting others; one must also completely forgive others and never hold onto little bits of resentments in his heart. The way to destroy Amalek is by, “remembering what he did to you”—to strengthen one’s memory of the other person’s good points and how important it is to treat him with honor. One cannot forget himself and the importance of his words and actions, because they can have very profound effects on others. One cannot overestimate the great pleasure that Hashem derives from our efforts to achieve unity and mutual love with our fellow Jews—not superficially, but really within the depths of one’s heart and soul. We must bear in mind that every time we break down a barrier between us, we break down so many barriers in heaven. There is not a form of trouble or suffering that cannot be mitigated fully in heaven through breaking down the barriers of conflict among Jews here on earth. It is important to remember that the way of machlokes is the way of the sitra achra, and it is not the path that Hashem has chosen. “For Hashem has
7

Likutei Moharan I:30 8

D’ei Chochmah L’Nafshechah

Parshas Vayikra

chosen Tzion, He has desired it [äåà] as a habitation for Him.”8 Tzion represents Yesod, which is the point of unity—this is what Hashem has chosen. “He has desired”—äåà— comprises the alef that represents Hashem’s Throne of Glory, and the rest of the word comprises the final two letters of the Shem HaVaYaH. Through unifying the souls of the Jewish people, Hashem’s Throne and Name is made complete and His light can shine throughout all of the lower worlds. There are those who fulfill the mitzvah to love their fellow Jews by reaching out to some outcast soul that they meet once a year, but the main way in which we are to fulfill it is among the people with whom we live day in and day out. These are the friends that we must crown as kings over ourselves and avoid causing them anguish and disappointment. Forgiveness for the Sake of the Shechinah There is a story told of a certain man who once insulted the Ohr HaChaim HaKadosh very deeply, and the tzaddik underwent a great test not to hold it against him. However, when he thought about the pain that his resentment would cause the Shechinah, he immediately felt inspired to completely forgive his detractor. The tzaddikim know that the greatest pain one can cause to the Shechinah is in failing to accord proper respect to one’s fellow Jews. This is the main reason for this exile which was due to baseless hatred, and the redemption depends on this. Even though the geulah requires spiritual force, nevertheless the catalyst is indeed within our hands. Hashem will certain provide us with the strength we need to draw down the light of the redemption through unifying the souls of the Jewish people. Every single Jew is a “piece of G-d from above” and all of the Jewish people really are a single spiritual unity. It is absolutely forbidden to focus on physical externals, because each and every Jew is uniquely precious to Hashem just like the most beautiful diamonds and pearls. Even if it seems on the surface as though there are

8

Tehillim 132:13 9

D’ei Chochmah L’Nafshechah

Parshas Vayikra

people who act against him and cause him anguish, nevertheless one must look deeper, into the person’s inner nature which is entirely good and bound up with the King’s crown. And by doing so, one also will be able to more clearly see how much good he also has within him. This is the defining character of the tzaddikim—that they act with complete selfsacrifice on behalf of every single Jew. The son of the Rebbe Elimelech of Lizhensk, zy”a, testified of his father that he literally sacrificed his life for every single Jew. Even though we are far from such a level and Hashem is not a tyrant over us who demands that which we cannot give, nevertheless He does ask of each of us that we do what we can to fulfill this on our level. For us, this means making a cheshbon nefesh to determine if we are causing pain to others, and to completely forgive anyone who might have hurt us. This is also a form of self-sacrifice for the sake of ahavas Yisrael. There is a kind of ahavas Yisrael that is false—when a person prays on behalf of others with a kind of smug self-righteousness, and with this he feels as though he has fulfilled his duty to others. But this can hardly be called “crowning your friend over yourself!” One must really come to unity with others, heart and soul. As the verse says, “Write this for the final generation, and a newly created people will praise Hashem.”9 One must praise Hashem with this “newly created people”—the light of the tzaddikim must shine down to the final generation so that there will be someone to praise Hashem in the state of the “newly created people”—a nation formed of the fully united souls of the Jewish people. The Descent of the Tzaddik Now, as we prepare ourselves to receive the holy festival, we naturally ask Hashem to help us do so in a spirit of freshness and inspiration, in joy and with vitality. So we have to invest the energy to understand more deeply how we are to achieve our goal. The Arizal taught in his kavanos for the introduction to Shemonah Esrei, that the

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Tehillim 102:19 10

D’ei Chochmah L’Nafshechah

Parshas Vayikra

phrase: "íìàåâ ïåéìò ì-àì úåìéäú"—“Praises to the G-d above who is their redeemer”—is our way of preparing ourselves to enter into the world of Atzilus [since the four parts of the morning prayers parallel the four worlds]. The introductory phrase is the light of Abba of the world of Atzilus that descends to shine into the world of Beriyah. The word íìàåâ is a conjunction of í"ìà å"â—the light descends into the “people who are still mute” [íìà éåâ] and know nothing of how to truly prepare for the festival of redemption. However, there is a redeemer, there is the light of the true tzaddikim that shines into us, and it is by virtue of their influence that we can prepare ourselves to receive the holiness of the festival. “Those who come to purify themselves are helped from above.” The Pirkei D’Rabbi Eliezer teaches that the souls of the tzaddikim help us, or as the Arizal taught, they infiltrate within us in a state of gestation to give us strengths that we would not otherwise have. Yet we can only merit to experience this kind of ibbur if we make a start at following the pathway of the tzaddikim, the pathway of concern and love for our fellow Jews, which is true love of the Shechinah. We have to focus, really focus, on the fact that every single Jew is a part of the Shechinah. Gevalt! Don’t we want to have a connection with Hashem, to give Him nachas, to be a part of the avodah of the tzaddikim, and to bind with the light of the Torah and Hashem’s presence? And doesn’t each and every one of us want this for himself and his children, and all of the generations to come forth from him? Yet the key to all of this is so lowly, it is so despised in the eyes of the world because the Shechinah is herself lying in the dust. Everything connected with the Shechinah is likewise trod upon and no one stoops to raise it, and the matter is ignored in direct relation to its vital importance. Because if people knew where the gold and precious stones were buried, everyone would run to raise them out of the dirt. In order to maintain the structure of free will, then, the Shechinah is hidden and buried in the dirt and has no external importance. What is the concern of the Shechinah? Emunah and the collective souls of the Jewish people, and the awareness that every Jew is a “piece of G-d from above.” Literally a piece of G-d.

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D’ei Chochmah L’Nafshechah

Parshas Vayikra

But this point is buried deep; everyone knows it, yet the fact is insignificant to people and so no one reaches down to pick it up to conscious awareness and emphasis. What is the light of the tzaddik that prepares us for the world of Atzilus, for the holiness of the festival, for the redemption itself? It is faith in the essential holiness and value of every Jew and the path of unity with every one of them. He has to be able to say of himself honestly that every single Jew is incalculably significant to him, and not to only mouth the words but to really mean them and act on them. This is called keeping one’s attention on the Shechinah at all times; focusing on all of the limbs of the Shechinah, which are the Jewish people themselves. This was expressed by Rebbe Elimelech of Lizhensk when he said that the tzaddikim maintain the light of the Shem HaVaYaH before their eyes at all times by virtue of crowning the Jewish people upon themselves. One must likewise judge others favorably, because the Jewish people are in exile and have suffered terrible tortures and pain, and no one can really understand what another is going through. If a person would really understand his friend’s suffering in every detail he would really know his greatness, how despite it all he is still holding onto his Jewishness. Every Jew experiences new holy ideas and chiddushim even though he also experiences all kinds of obstacles and obscurity. If one should sometimes happen to see a Jew acting in a way that doesn’t befit him, one must realize that it isn’t purposeful—it is inadvertent and an error. If we would only see how each Jew is such a diamond, their innermost goodness would really come to shine out, and this is the greatest pleasure that Hashem derives from us. All of this was taught by Rebbe Nachman of Breslov in the lesson where he discusses the teaching, “The chazzan sees from where the little children read.”10 [The children begin to read from Vayikra.] The chazzan is the tzaddik, and his whole purpose is to see the good in every single Jew. And by seeing that good he helps every Jew repent fully and brings about the full and eternal redemption.
10

Likutei Moharan I:282 12

D’ei Chochmah L’Nafshechah

Parshas Vayikra

The Belzer Rebbe taught that the redemption will arrive in the merit of the Baal Shem Tov who had a “good eye” sourced in Arich Anpin, meaning that he constantly worked to only see good among the Jewish people. It stands to reason that the Baal Shem Tov also had internal resistance and challenge to this, just as we find that Moshe Rabbeinu was tested in this area. This is the aspect of Bilaam who had an “evil eye,” and Rav Mendel of Vitebsk taught that all of the tzaddikim have their tests in the area of this negative viewing, but they manage to banish their resentments and inclination to argue. They refine themselves from level to level until they attain the “good eye sourced in Atika” which has no left-side aspect of judgment to it at all. They only see the good and this binds them constantly to the Shechinah. There are those who believe that there are great avodos other than this, but all the while that a person has not come to this he will find endless rationalizations, all in accordance with halachah, for falling again and again into causing harm to others. This is the work of the yetzer hara which is very adept at formulating convincing justifications for wrongful behavior. As the Chovos Halevavos teaches, the evil inclination is an expert in all of the Talmud, and he serves a person will ample source material for the worst crimes against his fellow Jews, G-d forbid. We have no idea what is occurring beneath the surface of times and events. Who knows if this year it is especially auspicious to arouse Hashem’s mercy for the final redemption? Rav Yaakov Koppel taught that in heaven there are “windows” and there are “cracks” [as in Shir HaShirim], and there are times when heaven’s windows are thrown wide open so that an abundance of blessing can descend to the world. If a person has any sense, he will push himself forward at that time to enter in the breach so that he can draw down all of the good that awaits him. If, however, he misses the opportunity, then he will be subject to a different sort of heavenly conduct. Hashem’s ways are hidden from us, but certainly there are times when the way to redemption is more open to us if we will only arouse ourselves to take advantage of the time.

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D’ei Chochmah L’Nafshechah

Parshas Vayikra

The Baal Shem Tov taught that the aspect of the “Crown of Crowns,” which is Reisha d’lo Isyada’ah, is called ãçé, “one.” When, “the tribes of Yisrael are one,” when a person enters into the state of unity with his fellow Jews by acting with self-sacrifice and struggling against the sitra achra and its arguments, that is where he comes into contact with the Shechinah. Where the fight is hardest, that is where the Shechinah is hidden. Hashem rules over all, and so if a person will beg Him to illuminate his mind with the truth so that he can fulfill this duty, certainly he will receive help from above— from the hidden worlds called the Olam HaMalbush. In the merit of unity may we come to feel the light of the Torah, which is the unified light of Hashem and His people—to attain the innermost desire of every Jew, which is to become one with the King. The name Yisrael is an acronym of the phrase, “there are six hundred thousand letters of the Torah” [äøåúì úåéúåà àåáø íéùù ùé].11 Every single Jewish soul is bound to the Torah’s letters. The name Yeshurun is an acronym of the phrase, “there are six hundred thousand souls” [úåùôð àåáø íéùù ùé]. In the merit of binding ourselves to the souls of all the Jewish people, may we merit to feel the light of all of the letters of the Torah and to see supernatural miracles. Nature, òáèä, has the same gematria as the Name íéäìà—nature is only a garment that covers over the Shem HaVaYaH. May we be redeemed with outright miracles just as we were when we left Egypt, and may we merit to see Hashem’s Kingship revealed, to see “eye to eye” Hashem’s return to Tzion. May we receive a “G-dly eye” to see the good of others, not in a theoretical way but really and truly, to see the G-dliness in others, with the arrival of our righteous redeemer in mercy. Amen.

Translated and Adapted by Rav Micha Golshevsky.

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Me’or Einayim, Vayakhel 14

Derech Eitz Hachayim

Part Ten

Derech Eitz Hachayim
Part Ten: Connection to the Tzaddik
The Gate of Yichud and Emunah Before we begin a discussion of deeper matters, it is important to reiterate the assessment of Rav Aharon of Strasheleh, that the great benefit that the Baal Shem Tov brought to the study of Kabbalah was his way of demonstrating the parallels between the workings of the worlds and our human soul-dynamics. With that said, we can better approach a teaching of the Arizal as brought in Eitz Chaim: “The nature of Malchus, which is the sum total of the original and root-level ten sefiros mentioned [earlier], is not yet revealed now. However, we will first explain the manner in which everything began in Reisha d’lo Isyadah, and this will help you to understand the level of Malchus. It is the ‘crown upon the head of the tzaddik,’ and it ‘will be the cornerstone;’ in the ultimate future, its light will surpass that of the sun’s… The aspect of Malchus is always greater than the masculine aspect that is above it, and this is why it is called, ‘the crown of her husband.’”1 This concept is clarified further in the Mevo She’arim: “The aspect of Malchus alone does not appear in Arich Anpin on its own…yet, afterward, Malchus is revealed [by way of] the uppermost Reisha d’lo Isyadah, which is called Atik Yomin, which is higher than all of the nine sefiros of Arich Anpin. This is the deeper meaning of the verse, ‘A woman of valor is the crown of her husband’—she [Malchus, which is associated with the moon] will ultimately be greater than the sun, she will be the ‘rosh pinah.’ When Malchus is revealed below, an echo of Reisha d’lo Isyadah is also revealed below.”2 We see clearly, then, that Malchus has an advantage over Ze’ir Anpin,

1

Eitz Chaim, Sha’ar Arich Anpin, end of Chapter 3, Part I, p. 60; Ibid., end of Chapter 2, p. 61b Mevo She’arim, Sha’ar #3, Part I, Chapter 1, p. 18b; We find this concept also at the beginning of the Idra Zuta, Sha’ar Maamarei Rashbi, p. 48a; in Klalei Chasdei Dovid, #28; Ohr Zarua,
2

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Derech Eitz Hachayim

Part Ten

in the fact that it is secreted and rooted within Reisha d’lo Isyadah, while the root of Ze’ir Anpin is lower down, within the nine root-sefiros of Arich Anpin. [Note: Rabbi Yisrael Eliyahu Weintraub explains this in a simple manner. “In our world, at this time, the status of Malchus of Ze’ir Anpin depends upon our actions. When we act as we should, we declare Hashem King and ‘build up Malchus,’ bringing increasing awareness of G-dliness into ourselves and helping the world move closer to the ultimate future when Hashem’s Kingship will be revealed in an overt manner. Ze'ir Anpin alludes to Hashem giving from above, while Malchus creates a vessel to receive this blessing. While in our times, Ze’ir Anpin appears higher in the source Malchus is actually higher. In the ultimate future Malchus will rise to a towering level. Hashem’s Kingship in the world will no longer be contingent on our actions. At that time, the light of the ‘moon’ (which until then will have waxed and waned depending on our actions,) will be as constant as the light of the ‘sun.’ The source of this Malchus is Reisha d’lo Isyadah, referred to as Atik. This Malchus, which doesn’t depend on anyone, is the highest aspect of Kesser. Unlike all other Malchus which is the lowest of the ten sefiros, this Malchus is the highest. This explains why Malchus is called the ‘crown of her husband.’ Due to this inherent potential for greatness, it is possible even now for Malchus to be above Ze’ir Anpin.3 We access this level by making Hashem King with self sacrifice, by applying ourselves to His will especially when it is difficult.] We find a similar concept in the Arizal’s explanation of Eizehu Mekoman as well as in the Eitz Chaim itself, where he teaches that in the ultimate future the 45-Name [permutation of the Shem HaVaYaH that has a total gematria of 45, which we call the ‫שם‬ ‫ מ"ה‬and which is associated with Ze’ir Anpin] will cease to exist, and the 63-Name will have predominance in the world [the ‫ שם ס"ג‬is associated with the level above Ze’ir Anpin].4 [Note: On a simple level, the Name ‫ ]25[ ב"ן‬and the Name ‫ ]54[ מ"ה‬which

Sha’ar Haklalim, Chapter 2, “Nekudas Malchus,” p. 13; Ibid., Sha’ar Arich Anpin, Chapter 2, “V’hu Ateres Baalah,” p. 92; Ahavas Hashem, p. 72a 3 Nefesh Eliyahu on Mevo Sha’arim, Part II, p. 5 4 Eitz Chaim, Sha’ar Hatikkun, end of Chapter 3, p. 49b 16

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allude spiritual toil in this world and receiving from above due to our toil will no longer apply in the future. Instead, the higher names of ‫ ס"ג‬and ‫ ע"ב‬which allude to receiving reward will be dominant. As the Arizal explains in Sha’ar Ma’amarei Razal, in the future instead of yud-hei-vav-hei, Hashem’s name will be yud-hei-yud-hei. Even Ze’ir Anpin and Malchus—which are expressed by the vav-hei end of the Shem HaVaYaH— will be equal to the higher level of Chochmah and Binah alluded to in the initial yud-hei of the Shem.] Rav Chaim Vital added his own insight: “This is the inner meaning of the phrase [that is part of the birchas hamazon for Seder night], ‘the tzaddikim sit with their crowns on [literally, ‘in’] their heads’—the ‘woman of valor’ which is the 63-Name [associated with Binah] will be the ‘crown of her husband.”5 Elsewhere Rav Chaim Vital explains, “In the ultimate future, the 52-Name [associated with Malchus] will surpass the 45-Name [associated with Z”A].”6 [Note: Malchus will be subsumed by Binah, the “upper Shechinah”. It is only in our present state of darkness that the lower Shechinah descends and ascends, clarifying the sparks. In the ultimate future this will no longer be the case. Malchus will go back to its source in Binah, which is higher than Ze’ir Anpin. As Rav Avraham b’Rav Nachman writes, when a person is in a low state, his avodah is strongest since he feels bad and must sacrifice to stay on his level by doing whatever he can despite his negative feelings. This sacrifice ultimately is what brings Moshiach and will be higher than the avodah one does when he feels closest to Hashem.] “In the ultimate future, Hashem will create, ‘a new thing upon the earth,’ for the verse, ‘a woman shall surround a man,’ refers to Ze’ir Anpin… Malchus will rise above Ze’ir Anpin which is called Tiferes [the middlemost point of the six sefiros of Ze’ir Anpin], in fulfillment of the phrase, ‘tzaddikim sit with their crowns on [‘in’] their

Otzros Chaim, beginning of 18c Eitz Chaim, Sha’ar 40, Chapter 4, Part II, p. 81a; See also Sha’ar Hahakdamos, Hagahos u’Beiurim l’Eitz Chaim, #7; Eitz Chaim, Sha’ar 19, end of Chapter 7, p. 94a; Ibid., Sha’ar 14, Chapter 2, p. 70d
6

5

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heads…’”7 We find a similar statement in the Sha’ar Mati v’lo Mati: “…It is then that the illumination of the source of Chochmah is drawn down below, and then the masculine [Z”A] is incorporated within the feminine [Nukva / Malchus]. Nukva receives first…and they receive from her and are incorporated within her, in the manner of, ‘A woman of valor is the crown of her husband.’”8 In the Pri Eitz Chaim we learn, “However, now Rachel is called, ‘A woman of valor [who] is the crown of her husband.’ This is the nature of the future world, when the ‘tzaddikim sit with their crowns on [in] their heads…’”9 Malchus, which is associated with faith, is rooted in Reisha d’lo Isyadah—this is the “upper three” aspect of Atik. For this reason, all who truly attaches themselves to it [Malchus-emunah] with a lasting bond find that they rise with it to Reisha d’lo Isyadah, where the essential point of the yichud exists. Then emunah and the yichud are bonded together in a single bond. Even though the concepts that have been discussed until now are very lofty and abstract, they will help us to understand the great task that the Baal Shem Tov undertook in translating the teachings of the Arizal into parables that relate to our human nature. [Yet we can touch these towering levels which will be revealed in the next world even now.] It is well known that Malchus and the holy Shechinah are equivalent concepts, and they are synonymous with Knesses Yisrael—the collective soul of the Jewish people. The individual Jewish soul, then, is an element of Malchus, and all of the pathways in the service of the soul are facets of emunah, since faith at its root on high is the yichud itself. When it develops downward, all of the different aspects of avodah ramify into individual pathways of serving Hashem: absolute bitul (Kesser); bitul of external reality (Chochmah); bitul of the ego-self (Binah); love of G-d (Chessed); awe of G-d (Gevurah); dveikus (Tiferes); persistence for holiness (Netzach); gratitude (Hod);

7

Eitz Chaim, Sha’ar 44, beginning of Chapter 6, p. 100b; See also Hagahos u’Beiurim l’Eitz Chaim, Sha’ar Hatikkun, Chapter 3, #8 (as cited from Emes L’Yaakov, “Mem,” #63, #266 8 Sha’ar Mati v’lo Mati, Chapter 4, Part I, p. 33c 9 Pri Eitz Chaim, Sha’ar HaShabbos, Chapter 20 18

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holy connection (Yesod); acceptance of the yoke of heaven (Malchus). The common denominator among all of these aspects of avodah is that they are all parts of Malchus, which is the nefesh. When we make use of this parallel between the structure of the worlds and the different faculties within us, we can rise and grab hold of Reisha d’lo Isyadah, which is the source of Malchus. The practical pathway in avodah laid out for us in chassidus is the road that we take, higher and higher, to reach the innermost secrets—razin d’razin—of Reisha d’lo Isyadah. Chassidus serves as the “Gate of Yichud and Emunah” [which is an actual section of Sefer Tanya]. This idea of rising up to this ultimate source of the yichud by way of the parables taught by the Baal Shem Tov was first clearly articulated by Rav Aharon of Strasheleh (which appeared in full in an earlier lesson). He uses the term, “to climb and descend along the hierarchy that binds together all of the worlds,” and taught that chassidus—and specifically its pathway of seeing ourselves as parts of the Shechinah— is what provides each and every person with the ability to apprehend G-d’s yichud in accordance with his individual capacity. Earlier we learned that since Malchus is rooted in the highest place, in Reisha d’lo Isyadah, it has the ability to rise through the structure of all of the worlds and levels. When the individual Jew understands that his soul is a “portion of Malchus,” it provides him with the means to also rise and apprehend the yichud at the highest possible place. “Kabbalah is Commentary on Chassidus” The Rebbe Rav Shalom Dovber famously said, “People think that chassidus is commentary on Kabbalah, but this is an error. The truth is that Kabbalah is commentary on chassidus.”10 People mistakenly believe that chassidus is only meant to help us understand the depth of Kabbalah, to which end it provides us with parables that we can relate to on the human level and carry out as practical avodah. However, the truth is the very opposite; this is not the purpose of chassidus at all. Admittedly, the “down to

10

Toras Shalom, p. 271 19

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earth” understanding of chassidus did render the study of Kabbalah more accessible. But chassidus was sent to the world for a much loftier purpose than to simply provide commentary. It is meant to draw down the Torah of the ultimate future, which derives from the inner aspect of Atik—which is Reisha d’lo Isyadah. When we look at it from this perspective, Kabbalah is commentary on chassidus and not the other way around. Meaning, the study of Kabbalah is the gateway that allows a person to enter into a proper understanding of chassidus, and from there to the experience of yichud. [Note: In the words of Rebbe Nachman of Breslov: “The Eitz Chaim is a precious work of mussar.” That is, moral direction which teaches the student of discernment how to ascend to the highest levels of dveikus. Although one can only understand Kabbalah properly if he learns chassidus, he will fail to understand pshat in most of the earlier works of chassidus if he does not know Kabbalah. They bring too much Kabbalah without explaining the concepts in a basic way.] Rav Tzvi Elimelech of Dinov wrote: “We have received from our masters…that the words of the students of the Baal Shem Tov that are recorded in their works can only be understood by someone who is well-versed in the holy wisdom [i.e. Kabbalah]. Such a person will see that their words are broader than the sea and their peaks reach up to the heavens, to understand the path of Divine service in truth and simplicity by way of this wisdom.”11 As the Piaseczner Rebbe, Hy”d, taught: “Chassidus is bound up as one with Kabbalah, to the extent that it is impossible to understand the teachings of the Baal Shem Tov without it.”12 [So even if one thinks he understands the later works of the Chasidic master who do not write as much explicit Kabbalah really does not understand their real meaning.] The Kabbalists provided a model which, in retrospect, helps us to understand the link between Kabbalah and chassidus: “Abba and Imma only draw mochin to themselves from their own external aspects, because it is not the time to draw them from their internal aspects. [Rav Chaim Vital added,] I asked my master [the Arizal]
11 12

Addenda of Rav Tzvi Elimelech to Sur Mei’ra v’Asei Tov, #6 Mevo Hashe’arim, Chapter 4, p. 24a 20

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what the meaning of this is, and he answered that the innermost aspect of Abba is like the outer aspect of Atik. I do not understand more than the plain meaning of his words, however.”13 Since the inner aspect of Abba [Chochmah] is like that of the outer aspect of Atik, it seems that we should be able to draw down mochin from the inner aspect of Abba [during the recitation of Shema] since we do draw down mochin from outer aspect of Atik at that time. Why, then, are we not able to do so? The Mikdash Melech explains that the inner aspect of Abba is really like the inner aspect of Atik, and we cannot draw down mochin from that level at this time. [Not only in the sense of at the time of reciting Shema, but because of the limitations of our particular historical time.]14 The Baal HaTanya and all of the rebbes of Lubavitch that followed him also always drew a parallel between the inner aspect of Abba and the inner aspect of Atik.15 We have also discussed this subject at length in another lesson, and brought a number of proofs from the teachings of the Arizal himself to the effect that the inner aspect of Abba is equivalent to the inner aspect of Atik.16 For our purpose here, it is important to take these abstract concepts and clarify them. We have already explained that Kabbalah is the razin element of Torah, while chassidus is the razin d’razin, the innermost secrets. Kabbalah is equivalent to the chayah aspect of Torah, while chassidus is equivalent to the yechidah aspect. The level of chayah parallels that of Chochmah [while yechidah parallels that of Kesser]. The Arizal presented his concepts in the manner of, “And from my flesh, I see G-d”—they follow the pattern of the physical form as parables. The Baal Shem Tov went a step deeper, or more inward, and explained the concepts with the qualities of the nefesh as their parables. Kabbalah therefore is the innermost aspect of Chochmah, but chassidus
13 14

Sha’ar Hakavanos, Drush d’Keriyas Shema #2, p. 19d Mikdash Melech, commentary on the Zohar, Parshas Ki Seitzei, “K’yemei Tzeisecha,” p. 74; See also Toameha Chaim Zachu on Eitz Chaim, Sha’ar #26, Chapter 4, 24d, for his answer to Rav Chaim Vital’s question. 15 See the Mittler Rebbe’s comments at the beginning of his Sefer Beiurei HaZohar. 16 Eitz Chaim, Sha’ar #11, end of Chapter 3, p. 51c; Sha’ar #12, Chapter 1, p. 56b; Sha’ar #20, Chapter 12, p. 102a, among others 21

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goes to that which is within the mashal of the body—the mashal of the soul. That is the inner aspect of Atik. Yet we can see that they are really a single unit, just like body and soul. In this sense, the inner aspect of Atik is equivalent to that of Chochmah, since the teachings of chassidus provide vitality and meaning to the words of Kabbalah, just as the soul enlivens the body. Becoming a Fit Vessel for Chassidus As the expression of the yechidah aspect and the Torah of the ultimate future, chassidus demands that its students be fit to receive its wisdom. The teachings of chassidus descended into the world through the unique channels of individual tzaddikim by virtue of their lofty purity and holiness. If a person wants to truly absorb their teachings, he has to be bound up with them. If one wants to receive the highest aspect of Torah, he has to be connected with the ultimate transmitter of Torah: Moshe the faithful shepherd, the tzaddik ha’emes. In the words of the Mittler Rebbe: “It is only possible to apprehend [the light that] surrounds all worlds [i.e. Ohr Ein Sof] by way of faith that transcends knowledge. The matter is as follows—the essence of the mitzvah of reciting the Shema is that the power of this faith should come to be revealed within knowledge and understanding. It was to this that the verse refers, ‘And the tzaddik lives by his faith.’ The faith that transcends knowledge must come to enliven the nefesh so that it can delight upon Hashem through apprehension and knowledge… [But] this mitzvah of reciting Shema is the aspect of soveiv kol almin, which can only be received by Knesses Yisrael via Moshe, who said to [the Jewish people], ‘Shema Yisrael.’ Moshe himself taught this mitzvah, and Moshe is the aspect of the intermediary, who draws down the light of Hashem’s simple unity from above the place of knowledge so that it can enter into the Da’as of Knesses Yisrael, and enter into each and every individual in accordance with his own capacity. [Note: This means that it is impossible to draw down the higher aspects of Shema without connecting to the soul of Moshe Rabbeinu. It is only with a spark of his soul that we can draw down this illumination. The Shelah
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Hakadosh explains similarly, that every truly powerful chiddush must be drawn down by connecting to the soul of Moshe. It is for this reason that Moshe is called Moshe Rabbeinu, our teacher Moshe. He is still teaching us even now, since without his merit we would not be able to be mechadesh in Torah.] “The mitzvah of reciting Shema is therefore above all other mitzvos, for Hashem said, ‘And you, stand here with Me and I will speak to you all of the laws…and this is the mitzvah’—it [Shema] is the primary mitzvah that includes all other mitzvos [since it is the expression of simple emunah and yichud]…of the upper and lower yichudim, which is the revelation of faith as it will be in the ultimate future. As the verse says, ‘And the earth will be filled with knowledge’—the vitality that comes from HaVaYaH which is soveiv kol almin will be felt viscerally. This is the essential meaning of the statement, that ‘Hashem is Elokim’—that the aspect of soveiv kol almin will be [apprehended] with the mind just as Elokim [memalei kol almin, which we experience] can be grasped. This is the underlying meaning in all relevant passages in the Torah.”17 Rebbe Nachman of Breslov expands on these ideas in Likutei Moharan: “The main thing and the foundation upon which everything depends is to bind oneself to the tzaddik of the generation, and to accept his words about all that he speaks whatever it may be, whether it is minor or major, without straying from his words to the right or the left, G-d forbid, as the sages said…and to throw off of oneself all of his chochmos [pseudo-intellectualism and subjective view of matters] and remove his da’as entirely, as if he has no intelligence at all but for that which he receives from the tzaddik and the rav of the generation. As long as some bit of self-understanding remains within him, he is incomplete and is not bound to the tzaddik. When the Jewish people received the Torah, they had great chochmos, because, at that time, they were among the great heretics of their age whose false philosophies were based on chochmos and the manipulation of reason [sophistry]. If the Jewish people had not jettisoned the
17

Introduction to the Mittler Rebbe’s Imrei Binah 23

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chochmos, they would not have been able to receive the Torah… All that Moshe Rabbeinu accomplished among them would not have helped them; even all of the signs and wonders that they saw with their own eyes would not have helped them. For even now there are heretics who deny [the truth] based on the false [reasoning provided by their] chochmos. But the holy Jewish people saw the truth and threw off their chochmos, ‘and they believed in Hashem and in Moshe, His servant.’ This is what enabled them to receive the Torah. As Onkelos rendered, ‘A foolish people, and not wise’18—‘a people who received the Torah and were not wise.’ [The word for foolish is ‫ ,נבל‬which is a Kabbalistic reference to the Torah, which is called ‫נובלות‬ ‫ ,חכמה‬or the ‘fallout’ of the sefirah of Chochmah.] The main means of receiving the Torah was through, ‘they were not wise’—they threw off all of their chochmos.”19 See the entire lesson inside for a clearer view.20
Devarim 32 Likutei Moharan I:123 20 Earlier we explained that the hidden Torah descended into this world by way of five unique tzaddikim, but it is natural to ask a question about this approach. We know that there were other tzaddikim who said of themselves that they were ibburim of the Arizal’s soul and this enabled them to draw down the hidden Torah. An example of this would be the Ramchal, as he wrote in his Igros (#15, 17). Another is found in the tradition passed down by the students of the Vilna Gaon, that their master was an aspect of the soul of Moshiach ben Yosef, which invested him with the ability to draw down the Torah’s secrets. (See Toldos Yitzchak, Part III, p. 497 and onward; See Sefer Kol HaTor as well.) The Baal HaSulam also spoke of himself in this manner (Pri Chochom, Part II, p. 95-96, 121-122; Yad Binyamin, p. 205). We will explain further on that each truly fresh revelation of hidden Torah must come into the world in the full structure of a partzuf, which comprises ten sefiros. It has to include the Leahaspect, which is of the weekdays; and the Leah-aspect of chatzos at nigh; and the Rachel-aspect of the weekdays; and the Rachel-aspect of the Mussaf of Shabbos; and the Rachel-aspect of Minchah of Shabbos; and the aspects of Leah v’Rachel within Leah; and Leah v’Rachel within Rachel. Similarly, every revelation of Moshe has to include the dual-redeemers that make up the aspect of Moshe: Moshiach ben Yosef and Moshiach ben Dovid. While it is true that the main revelation is only called Moshe, nevertheless there are other elements that also have to be expressed. The same is true when it comes to the drawing down of the innermost secrets of Torah, i.e. the razin d’razin of chassidus. Its main revelation was via the Baal Shem Tov, for he was like Moshe that includes the aspects of two redeemers. But he was a composite of different elements, and so each of the tzaddikim that followed him contributed something to completing the fullness of the structure of that partzuf. (Just as the Rashash said that he was the final revelation of the Kabbalah of the Arizal himself.)
19 18

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The Inside of the Kesser It is now necessary to explain the crucial different between the two revelations of chassidus, that of the Baal Shem Tov and that of Rebbe Nachman of Breslov. What did Rebbe Nachman come to add to the revelation that had been accomplished by his great-grandfather, the “light of the seven days?” The Baal Shem Tov revealed the chayah-element of the Torah’s hidden wisdom, and Rebbe Nachman added the Kesser [yechidah] aspect. The main revelation of chassidus was certainly the Baal Shem Tov; it is only by way of the Torah that he revealed that it is possible to access the revelation at the level of Kesser and Arich Anpin that came down later. This is because the inner aspect of Chochmah [chayah] is rooted in the inner aspect of Atik [Kesser]; without the preface of Chochmah, the revelation of Kesser remains external [Arich Anpin] and cannot be understood properly. What this means practically is that until Rebbe Nachman of Breslov shared his Torah with the world, the inner nature of the Baal Shem Tov’s teachings was not fully revealed. The Baal Shem Tov’s teachings were always rooted in the inner aspect of Kesser [Atik], but it could not be fully accessed until the external aspect of Kesser [Arich Anpin] was revealed by way of Rebbe Nachman’s teachings. The innermost truth of the Baal Shem Tov’s teachings reaches all the way to Reisha d’lo Isyadah, but there was a final element that needed to be revealed [Rebbe Nachman’s teachings] to make them accessible. When both of their teachings are joined together, the inner aspect of Chochmah, and the inner and outer aspects of Kesser are all revealed. This is then the full level of yechidah-Torah, which is the Torah of Moshiach and the ultimate future, the Torah of Atika Sesima’ah. The Baal Shem Tov’s teachings have the nature of Chochmah and Moshiach ben Yosef, and Rebbe Nachman’s teachings have the nature of Kesser and Moshiach ben Dovid. When they are joined together, they form the full aspect of Moshiach: ‫ דויד‬written in full, with the added yud representing the light of Chochmah and Yosef—the yud of the inner aspect of Atik.

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Chayah, Yechidah and the Redemption The relationship of chayah and yechidah to the redemption is expressed within the words of Boaz in Megillas Rus: “If he will redeem you, good [‫ ;]טוב‬and if not, I [‫ ]אנכי‬will redeem.” The word “good” represents the light of chayah, because good is the droplet of Chessed and a particle of light.21 The word ‫ ,אנכי‬on the other hand, represents the light of Kesser [the Divine “I”]. What Boaz was hinting at was that if the redemption does not come by way of Chochmah, then it will come by way of Kesser. But even if it comes by way of Kesser, it will have to be prefaced by Chochmah in any case. The deeper works explain that Boaz represents Yesod d’Abba [‫“ = בו עז‬in him is strength,” which is the quality of Yesod and the tzaddik, within Chochmah], and this aspect must rise to Kesser via the revelation of Chochmah. We see this dependence upon Chochmah through Boaz’s own words—he prefers that the redemption comes by way of “good,” which is chayah. Afterward, even when it comes by way of Kesser, it will not be via the outer aspect of Kesser [Arich Anpin], but by the inner aspect of Kesser, which is Atik. [Note: Yesod d’Abba alludes to a taste of the bliss of the next world alluded to by Arich Anpin and Atik. We will only truly grasp these levels when we clarify all the sparks by Chochmah, focusing on holy thoughts until we manage to actualize them.] Arich Anpin is the Binah-aspect within Kesser, and Atik is the Chochmah-aspect within Kesser. While it is true that the uppermost level is yechidah, nevertheless the main level is chayah; when chayah is complete, yechidah comes as a matter of course. “You know that the main aspect of the mochin is Chochmah, as we say, ‘You made everything with wisdom.’ The mochin of Kesser together with all five levels of yechidah [nefesh-ruach-neshamah-chayah-yechidah] are drawn down easily once there has been an experience of mochin d’gadlus of chayah and its five soul-aspects. The main kavanah is [at the point of drawing down the] mochin of Chochmah [chayah]; once that is accomplished, the mochin of Kesser descend as a matter of course and barely require
21

See Toldos Yitchak, Part III 26

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any particular kavanah.”22 [As Rav Nosson of Breslov explains, since our actions and attitudes are determined by our thoughts, the level of chayah, if we purify our thoughts, we will purify our entire selves and merit spiritual completion.] The Rashash also teaches that the main work is in Chochmah; the greater part of the beirur and rectification is accomplished there.23 The Bris Menuchah likewise states that the main work is within the “point of the letter tes” [which is the number nine, meaning the ninth sefirah when counting from below, which is Chochmah] and not the “point of the yud,” which is the Kesser. For this reason, on Shabbos the main avodah [of kavanos] is until the Kedushah of Kesser within the Mussaf prayer. It is then that the mochin of chayah [Chochmah] are completed and the main yichud of Ze’ir Anpin and Nukva takes place. After performing the proper avodah until that point, one merits to receive the mochin of Kesser during Minchah of Shabbos. The same dynamic takes place on Shavuos. One receives the light of Kesser on Shavuos as a matter of course after having prefaced it by all of the work of rectifying chayah throughout the days of the Omer. After all of the work of chayah [Chochmah], the light of Kesser is able to shine from the “inside out”—from it inner aspect, which is the inner aspect of Atik.24 The Rashash also explains that we focus on the night of Shavuos on drawing down two levels of Kesser; first is Mocha Sesima’ah and afterward Galgalta. On the surface, the writings of the Arizal indicate that it should be Arich Anpin in general, all at once, but the Rashash clarifies that first one works on the Chochmah aspect within Kesser [“Mocha Sesima’ah”—the hidden mind], and afterward one can reach the aspect of Galgalta [“Kesser within Kesser”], in its simple and complete aspect. This is why there is such a difference between the kavanos of Shavuos at night and those of Shavuos during the day. [Note: at night we force ourselves to stay up and recite the Tikkun Leil Shavuos with simplicity. Rav Nosson of Breslov explains that saying the beginning and end of
22 23

Ahavas Hashem, p. 115a Rechovos HaNahar, p. 9c 24 See Maamarei HaAdmor HaEmtza’i l’Shavuos 27

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each sefer alludes to an important truth in how to overcome the barriers to our spiritual goals: we need to start again. If we keep starting and doing all we can, Hashem will consider this completion and we will eventually reach our goals. The Arizal told Rav Chaim Vital that one who stays up all night will not suffer harm the entire year. This clearly means that he will not waste an instant, as the Ben Ish Chai points out. One who does this will be filled with awesome vitality, drawing down various levels of Kesser, deep bitul to Hashem throughout the prayers and even at the meal during the day, which is the highest meal of the year. ] At night, we are focused on drawing down the mochin of the “back side” of the partzuf of yechidah, but during the day, the avodah is focused on the inner aspect of Kesser in three distinct parts. First, during the silent Shemonah Esrei of Mussaf, we draw down the nefesh-ruach-neshamah aspects of yechidah. Afterward, in the repetition of Shemonah Esrei, we focus on chayah within yechidah. During the Kedushah of Kesser in Mussaf, we focus on the yechidah within yechidah level. The essential lesson we derive from this is that it is by way of the preface of focusing on the lower three aspects of Kesser during the silent Shemonah Esrei, and the chayah aspect during the repetition, that it is possible to merit the yechidah d’yechidah level during Kesser of Mussaf. This is the completion of yechidah and Kesser, and it reaches all the way up to the inner aspect of Atik, which is Reisha d’lo Isyadah.

Translated and Adapted by Rav Micha Golshevsky.

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