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AIRBUS TECHNICAL DIGEST
NUMBER 23 OCTOBER 1998
TRAINING PHILOSOPHY FOR PROTECTED AIRCRAFT IN EMERGENCY SITUATIONS
CAPTAIN ETIENNE TARNOWSKI
AVOIDING ELEVATOR VIBRATION - A319, A320, A321
CUSTOMER SERVICES CONFERENCES
COMMON, RELIABLE AND PUNCTUAL...
THE PATH TO LOWER SPARES COSTS
OLYMPIOS PANAYIOTOU AND MARTIN WOODS
2 2 10 12 12 13 13 19 19 24 24 31 31 32 32
COMBINING ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION AND WINDSHIELD RAIN PROTECTION ON AIRBUS AIRCRAFT
SERVICE BULLETIN REPORTING
TECHNICAL PUBLICATIONS WHICH REFLECT THE CONFIGURATION OF YOUR AIRCRAFT
ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION - PART II
RESIDENT CUSTOMER SUPPORT REPRESENTATION
The articles herein may be reprinted without permission except where copyright source is indicated, but with acknowledgement to Airbus Industrie. Articles which may be subject to ongoing review must have their accuracy verified prior to reprint. The statements made herein do not constitute an offer. They are based on the assumptions shown and are expressed in good faith. Where the supporting grounds for these statements are not shown, the Company will be © AIRBUS INDUSTRIE 1998 pleased to explain the basis thereof. Publisher: Airbus Industrie Customer Services, 1 rond-point Maurice Bellonte, 31707 Blagnac Cedex, France Editor: Denis Dempster, Product Marketing Telephone +33 (0)5 61 93 39 29, Telex AIRBU 530526F, Telefax +33 (0)5 61 93 27 67 Graphic design: Agnès Lacombe, Customer Services Marketing Photo-engraving: Passion Graphic, 60 boulevard Déodat de Séverac, 31027 Toulouse Cedex, France Printer: Escourbiac, 5 avenue Marcel Dassault, 31502 Toulouse Cedex, France This issue of FAST has been printed on paper produced without using chlorine, to reduce waste and help to conserve natural resources. 'Every little helps'.
FAST may be read on Internet http://www.airbus.com
FAST / NUMBER 23 1
The Flight Safety Foundation (FSF) has sponsored a large programme regarding “how to train for CFIT escape manoeuvres”. there is hardly any thrust increase in the first 3 to 4 seconds. with an easy. He is the one ultimately responsible for the safety of the flight. due to the ever-increasing number of airliners in service. the fly-by-wire control laws include protections that have been provided as an assistance to the pilot in emergency situations. and it is this factor which may influence public opinion. The passenger and cargo demands have increased enormously. This statement applies to the protections that are implemented on essential systems of the aircraft. leading to a far larger number of aircraft in service. Airbus Industrie has designed a fly-by-wire aircraft family. if the main goal of training is to make flying more instinctive. but with no intuition.). he normally has to react within seconds to save the aircraft. more natural. according to built-in logic.. to compensate for those weaknesses. on a high by-pass ratio engine. seems to be very sluggish to a pilot who needs full Take-off and Go Around (TOGA) thrust out of idle. the civil aviation industry has to fight untiringly against the main causes of accidents which occur mostly in approach phases: controlled flight into terrain. As a consequence. ince 1985. in order to recover from a dangerous situation. and to a lesser extent. These systems are merely operators which work repetitively. accidents do not seem to be much less frequent. In such circumstances the pilot does not normally have any relevant past experience. at take-off or landing when required (rejected take-off or landing a heavy aircraft on a short runway. because the braking system is protected by the antiskid system which releases the brake pressure whenever a skidding condition is detected. while minimising the risks of over-controlling or over-stressing the aircraft. Dangerous unexpected situations are often linked to non-linear. by no means does it limit the authority of the pilot. These systems have been designed to be a COMPLEMENT for the pilots. Furthermore. to give him a spontaneously correct response.. the design of the main aircraft systems must aim at giving full authority to the pilot to consistently achieve the maximum possible aircraft performance in such extreme circumstances. The braking system with anti-skid allows the pilot to get the best braking performance with an instinctive action on the pedals. after a thorough analysis of pilots’ strengths and weaknesses. without changing the nature of the tasks themselves. windshear. accurately and consistently. THE PROTECTION PHILOSOPHY Most late-technology aircraft carry the most up-to-date systems to assist the pilots in achieving their tasks. As shown in the graph (Figure 1). Crews are being trained to face emergency situations such as evasive manoeuvres to avoid Controlled Flight Into Terrain (CFIT). S envelope. Airbus Industrie The civil aviation environment has evolved considerably in the past decade. no discernment. the media and the expectations of the public. no decision capacity. Therefore. Protection in the brakes A pilot may apply full pedals down.TRAINING PHILOSOPHY FOR PROTECTED AIRCRAFT IN EMERGENCY SITUATIONS by Captain Etienne Tarnowski Vice President Engineering Operations. Then the pilots understand the process and become naturally part of it and will apply the associated procedures instinctively and naturally. This design philosophy has been applied homogeneously throughout the essential systems of the Airbus fly-bywire aircraft. basically they have been added wherever they could do better than man. discontinuous phenomena that appear at the border of the flight FAST / NUMBER 23 FAST / NUMBER 23 Protection in the engines The engine acceleration characteristics. which are: l Explain the protection philosophy l Explain and demonstrate the achievable performance l Provide alertness training for pilots by flying realistic scenarios in full flight simulators (FFS). The protections built in the flyby-wire system is one of them. in terms of safety. and Airbus Industrie has released a training manual on this issue to Airbus operators. then the thrust increases very rapidly to its maximum.This article aims to inform the aviation community on the safety benefits of those protections. Although the accident rates have dropped considerably. This character- Figure 1 TYPICAL ENGINE ACCELERATION RESPONSE Maximum thrust (%) 100 50 0 1 2 3 4 5 Time (sec) 6 7 8 2 3 . Also flight safety criteria have become more and more stringent. instinctive and immediate procedure. the pilots have to be taught the why’s of those systems. However pilots need an understanding of those systems to operate them properly. When a pilot faces an unexpected event. and on the ways they are implemented in the training philosophy. have set even greater pressure on the civil aviation industry. Consequently.
For the pilot. the fly-by-wire pitch normal law will keep the aircraft roughly in level flight and auto-trimmed and when VLS (minimum normal speed) is reached. or above VLS. This is where the angle of attack protection starts: l If there is still no action from the pilot. on both types of configuration (protected and not protected). till he reaches full back stick where he orders α Max (Figure 2). in particular in the low pressure assembly because of the size of the fan and turbine discs. a low energy aural warning is triggered calling “SPEED . and the aural warning comes typically below VLS.SPEED”. which is the AOA where engine thrust increases to TOGA even with autothrust selected off. The aircraft’s response will therefore be very tightly linked to whether the aircraft is protected or not: § If the aircraft is protected the pilot may apply full back stick immediately whenever an emergency is detected. the pilot should take an action to prevent the speed from dropping further. l a demonstration of the aircraft/engine behaviour and of the resulting performance. The speed brakes. so as to be able to always fly ahead of the aircraft. consistently and repetitively. this response depends significantly on the pilot’s flying technique. This will make pilots fully aware of the real capabilities of the aircraft. They do not require exceptional skills or flying techniques. l Should the aircraft angle of attack reach the threshold of Alpha Floor the ATHR sets TOGA thrust automatically. it allows the pilot to rapidly trade speed for altitude in minimum distance.) what matters to the pilot is the overall performance he is able to get from the aircraft (airframe & engines) during a recovery manoeuvre. which are similar for all these types of aircraft.istic is common to all turbofan engines with high by-pass ratio. l speed brake auto-retraction giving reduced drag. l If. This requires a lot of skill and a lot of concentration. the training sessions must include: l an explanation and a description of the characteristics of the altitude versus distance profile. In order for the pilot to really feel those characteristics. which is similar on all FADEC controlled high by-pass ratio engines. with a unique. with thrust at idle in level flight. or subject to heavy stress when facing emergency situation. all engine manufacturers have programmed an engine acceleration schedule and a “bleed bias” system in the Full Authority Digital Engine Control (FADEC). retract automatically. (* see below . which allows the pilot to apply full back stick immediately. while minimising the risks of over-controlling or over-stressing the aircraft. FAST / NUMBER 23 Figure 2 HIGH ANGLE OF ATTACK PROTECTION CL Airspeed scale 140 VLS The flying technique is simple and most instinctive. and thus will comfort their confidence in the recommended escape procedure. He must always have in mind the capability of the aircraft. The resulting procedures are shown in the table on the right. because it is the best for the escape! This is exactly the goal achieved by the flyby-wire protections. by pushing thrust levers full forward instinctively and rapidly. the overall performance is severely penalised. As a consequence. so as not to get into the stall. instinctive and immediate action on the sidestick. How is this achieved? By pulling the side-stick fully aft the pilot gets: l maximum angle of attack giving maximum lift. l Should the aircraft energy drop below a certain threshold.angle-of-attack where maximum thrust is automatically applied by the autothrust system). The auto-trim stops there because there is no valid reason to fly at such a low speed for a lengthy period of time. while minimising the risks of engine stall and without limiting whatsoever the authority of the pilot. and fly at the stick shaker angle of attack. not too aggressively. the aircraft will sink to maintain the α Prot and associated speed. which are far more difficult to achieve when the pilot is under pressure. if extended. How does this work? The high Angle of Attack (AOA) protection is an aerodynamic protection that prevents the aircraft reaching an AOA at which is stalls. they are significantly penalised by the excessive difficulty to properly achieve the manoeuvre. (Non protected aircraft provide warning of the arrival of a stall and leave the pilot to deal with it as best he can). The flight trajectories achieved on all non protected aircraft also have similar characteristics. since ALL engine manufacturers have implemented an anti-surge protection. which is the maximum attainable stick-free AOA. This profile is essentially a function of two paramount parameters: l The engine thrust spool-up characteristic. three energy features enhance that function since engine thrust is needed to maintain the flight path: l When Autothrust (ATHR) is in SPEED mode. in other words to reach. This protection allows the pilot to get the best possible thrust increase rate. they are a function of aircraft dynamics and engine response. l The aircraft’s response to the pilot’s inputs on the side-stick or on the yoke. the stick shaker angle of attack and try to stay there. The optimum escape procedures on non-protected aircraft are most difficult to achieve! The pilot has to try to achieve a pitch rate of 3°/sec. in order to protect the engines against stall. On a longer-term basis. on how aggressively he acts. in a very stressful situation. l Alpha max. and to stabilise the stick 5 Vα Prot Vα Floor 120 α Prot VLS α Max Vα Max α Floor α Stall 4 . This is a major change in the aircraft behaviour. AOA is also known as alpha (α): There are three thresholds incorporated in the protection: l Alpha Prot(ection). the escape procedures on protected aircraft are straight-forward. instinctive and natural. maintain speed at. which is the maximum attainable AOA with the side stick held fully back. Today. by specific manoeuvres on the Full Flight Simulator. due to the sink rate the pilot then pulls the side-stick back. however. This is the only way for him to readily react to any emergency warning. windshear. he directly orders a higher angle of attack. Due to this protection function. Suppose that an aircraft decelerates.. they depend upon the thrust-to-weight ratios. If the pilot takes no action. and then to climb at maximum AOA properly stabilised. High by-pass ratio implies: l High inertia. Altitude versus distance profile during a recovery The flight trajectories achieved on all protected aircraft have the same characteristics since. l alpha floor* function giving maximum TOGA thrust. In addition to the aerodynamic protection. acceleration and flight path angle. § If the aircraft is not protected the pilot has to act on the yoke cautiously. ESCAPE PROCEDURES COMPARISON Non protected aircraft Airbus protected aircraft Apply TOGA thrust Autopilot disconnect Rotate with pitch rate 3°/sec Pitch initially 20° up Respect stick shaker Retract speed brakes Maintain wings level Apply TOGA thrust Pull full back stick Check speed brakes retracted Maintain wings level ACHIEVABLE PERFORMANCE In case of an emergency on approach (CFIT. stick free. The aircraft energy is a function of speed. in order to FAST / NUMBER 23 Fly-by-wire protection in the flight controls Fly-by-wire control systems in Airbus fly-by-wire aircraft protect the aircraft against a stall. it will adjust the thrust to the maximum possible. l Alpha floor. once stabilised. The observed result is invariably AOA oscillations around the stick shaker setting. the aircraft will continue to decelerate till it reaches Alpha Prot. with usually an initial significant overshoot.. This protection allows the pilot to get the maximum available performance of the aircraft consistently and repetitively. on a short-term basis. the overall performance of the aircraft is materialised with the altitude versus distance profile the aircraft is able to fly in a recovery manoeuvre. but not over-shoot. l Only a fraction of the airflow gets into the combustion chamber to produce energy in the combustion process.
A typical escape manoeuvre. will be flown in order to outline the resulting performance. are actually enough to train the manoeuvre itself. -1500 ft/mn) will be flown. the pilot’s reaction must be quick and efficient. and resulting aircraft/engine behaviour. out of a high vertical speed approach (approx. Since the average time between a Ground Proximity Warning System (GPWS) pull-up warning to impact is about 15 seconds. and provide an awareness of the aircraft’s performance.Speed” aural message. § On a protected aircraft. as described in the previous paragraph.. a lot of time is required to try to make this manoeuvre “natural” for the pilot and a lot of men7 6 FAST / NUMBER 23 . -16 Training the escape manoeuvre A GPWS alert comes up with about 15 seconds before potential impact. Altitude loss Escape manoeuvre Initiation altitude Fly full back stick Figure 4 ANALYTICAL DEMONSTRATION OF THE PROTECTIONS Maintains α prot Maintains α prot with stick neutral with stick neutral VVα floor α Floor Maintains α max Maintains α max with stick fully back with stick full aft The deductive step Two exercises will demonstrate the capabilities of the aircraft in recovery manoeuvres. minus the time which it takes the aircraft to stop descending and climb back to the altitude at which the pull-up signal was given. is instinctive and does not require exceptional flying skills. Thus. named the Bucket time). indeed.Figure 3 CFIT ESCAPE TRAJECTORIES . The demonstrations “in clear air”. and the reaction time is more than halved. speed decreases: Alpha Floor is reached. § On a non protected aircraft. l Pulling full back side-stick : the Alpha Prot speed is immediately traded into additional rate of climb till Alpha Max speed is reached. out of a high vertical speed approach (approx. Figure 6 TYPICAL ESCAPE MANOEUVRE . TOGA is automatically set by ATHR. l Go around from high vertical speed (V/S) approach (Figure 5). l Escape manoeuvre (Figure 6).1500 ft/min. in flaps extended configuration (e. the procedure is straight-forward.ALTITUDE LOSS Landing configuration VAPP V/S -1500 ft/min. Figure 3 outlines the flight trajectories in both cases. and parameters essential to the pilots will materialise. the safety margin on a protected aircraft is doubled. the aircraft climbs at Alpha Prot speed. the procedure and the aircraft behaviour (manoeuvrability. and Alpha Max maintained. he must be able to achieve the escape manoeuvre easily and naturally. This will show the crew a typical altitude loss in such a manoeuvre. deFAST / NUMBER 23 Stick fully back Stick fully aft pending on the terrain configuration. no training is required to achieve the escape manoeuvre. The flying technique is not easy to acquire. as well as the effect of the engine spool-up time. Figure 5 TYPICAL GO-AROUND FROM HIGH VERTICAL SPEED APPROACH . l Train for the escape manoeuvre. with ATHR off.PERFORMANCE Landing configuration Landing configuration VAPP`V/S --1500ft/mn VAPP V/S 1500 ft/min. the auto-trim stops. And. Therefore. (SRS is the flight director pitch law used in Go Around) Note: The difference in altitude loss between these two procedures is approximately 50ft. level flight. AOA stability. it is very dependent upon the situation! Therefore. a thorough training is required in order to reach a certain level of flying skill. MLW Aft CG for protected aircraft Altitude (ft) ALT init 80 125 500 1000 1500 2000 Distance (ft) 2500 In-flight demonstration This demonstration is achieved in two steps: l An analytical step which demonstrates successive phases of the protection. The aircraft sinks down at Alpha Prot speed. to keep level flight the stick feels “heavy”. l Reaching Alpha Prot speed: Note the significant change in aircraft behaviour. if stick is free.PROTECTED VERSUS NON-PROTECTED AIRCRAFT Landing configuration V/S init . Furthermore. 160 160 VLS Vα prot 160 160 ALERTNESS TRAINING 140 120 140 120 140 120 140 Vα max Stick back for level flight 120 The training for escape from emergency situations such as windshear and CFIT has actually two aspects: l Train the pilot to be alert to the elements which may create an emergency situation. stick free: l Reaching VLS minus 5 knots approximately: Check “Speed . A typical go around with Auto Pilot engaged. The influence of the aircraft speed at go around initiation will be outlined . The analytical step (Figure 4) Slowly decelerate (approximately 0.. l A deductive step where a typical recovery manoeuvre shows the flight trajectories to the pilots.g CONF3).5 knot/sec. Protected 7 sec Duck under Non-protected 12 sec 15 sec Altitude loss Go around initiation altitude Fly SRS shaker / stall warning AOA. it systematically leads to the best achievable aircraft performance.. (The safety margin is 15 seconds.). -1500 ft/mn) final approach speed (VAPP). But they are also penalised by the procedure itself that limits necessarily the initial manoeuvrability and the pitch target so as to try to avoid the stall. l Acting on the side-stick to maintain level flight.).
in landing configuration. On a protected aircraft the training can therefore be fully devoted to pilot alertness. many aspects have to be reviewed: l proper departure/arrival procedures.ANY AREA . the greater are the chances of success! Thus. On a protected aircraft.TURBULENT WEATHER . 8 In order to train the pilot alertness. which is pilot alertness.MOUNTAINOUS AREA . since all the pilot’s skill and mental capacity are available for that purpose. l proper and concise take-off and approach briefings.GPWS MODE 2 / MODE 4 Figure 10 INITIAL CLIMB AFTER TAKE-OFF (OR GO-AROUND) . and the pilot has to take the right action at the right moment. at a selected point ahead of the FAST / NUMBER 23 aircraft’s instantaneous position along its predicted trajectory. all efforts have to converge. in an emergency situation.MOUNTAINOUS AREA . and it is most clear that the training to handle emergency situations on protected aircraft is a rational one. v FAST / NUMBER 23 9 . altimeter setting.Mountainous area (Figure 10). Note: The same principle applies for windshear scenarios. the pilots’ reaction must be automatic and immediate. Pull up Terrain Aircraft is beyond the Final Approach Fix (FAF)at high vertical speed (= -1500 ft/mn) to capture glide slope from above. because the protection of fly-by-wire allows concentration on the most important aspect of the accident prevention. l proper review of major obstacles and safety altitudes. Stabilised approach speed (VAPP). where a lot of the pilot’s mental energy is required for the achievement of the manoeuvre itself. from aircraft manufacturers to airline management. still in clean configuration with a “high” speed (say 250 knots). l Non precision approach / Mountainous area / Turbulent (gusty) weather (Figure 8). CONCLUSION The effort to improve flight safety must be a co-ordinated one. to ensure that they achieve the safest and most efficient manoeuvre. cloudless weather for GPWS warning). Pull up Too low terrain tal effort is required from the pilot to be able to achieve this manoeuvre efficiently! Having an alert state of mind This should be the core of the training: Get pilots to be aware of the situation. Training is obviously one of these essential efforts. This is not the case on a non protected aircraft. This is also part of the training for pilot’s alertness. Four examples of realistic scenarios are proposed hereunder. l Intermediate approach / Mountainous area / Radar vector (Figure 7). with little room for argument (unless in clear. The earlier an escape manoeuvre is initiated. Pull up -3° gl ide sl ope Figure 8 NON-PRESICION APPROACH . However. Get pilots to be alert. the pilot is the last link in the chain. so as to save lives. valuable training time is not necessary and is not lost in teaching and learning how to fly the escape manoeuvre itself. l radio communication phraseology.GPWS MODE1 “SINK RATE” Sink rate Below Minimum Safe Altitude (MSA) down to Minimum Vectoring Altitude (MVA): Aircraft at end of descent.ATC BRINGS AIRCRAFT HIGH ABOVE GLIDE SLOPE . this statement is obviously true on any aircraft type. Therefore.Figure 7 INTERMEDIATE APPROACH . l ILS approach / Any area / ATC brings the aircraft high above the glide slope (Figure 9). However. spread throughout the training courses. to assist pilots in their decision-making processes. The pilot has to take the right decision. including Air Traffic Control and other agencies. in case of emergency.MOUNTAINOUS AREA . this facility shall be used in an environment where it will create an alert realistically. the pilot’s skill and mental capacity have to be concentrated on consciousness and awareness of the situation. Last but not least. task sharing.RADAR VECTORING .GPWS MODE 2 CLOSURE RATE Figure 9 PRECISION (ILS) APPROACH . It will be achieved through several realistic scenarios flown in the simulators. l Initial climb after take-off (or go around) . For that purpose the simulator must have the capability to create an “electronic mountain” from the instructor panel. these will create a surprise for the pilots without degrading the crew confidence in the GPWS warning.GPWS MODE 4 / MODE 2 Radar vectoring of the aircraft during configuration clean up and acceleration to initial climb speed Terrain Pull up Aircraft on final approach. l proper appreciation of lateral and vertical situation of the aircraft. in an emergency.
Added to potential aerodynamic excitation. TO REDUCE BACKLASH Several cases of excessive play within the spherical bearings of the elevator servo control. developed by Airbus Industrie. Materiel Support Center Tel: +49 (40) 50 76 0 . This condition has now been eliminated thanks to higher performance NMB bearings. This article describes how to avoid elevator vibration through the incorporation of a modification on the spherical bearing of the elevator servo control and a new elevator setting. and each possible cause is associated with corresponding trouble shooting procedures. 98D27309006000 / Previous Elevator Rigging Tool. FAST / NUMBER 23 10 FAST / NUMBER 23 11 . enables the new neutral position to be determined. measured at the elevator trailing edge has been reduced from 10mm to 7mm. these modifications will: q improve the fleet reliability due to the new elevator servo spherical bearings and revised elevator rigging. Therefore the Aircraft Maintenance Manual (AMM) procedure now describes how to set the elevators to the 0. q reduce maintenance costs. two concomitant conditions causing the LCO were discovered: servo control bearing backlash and low actuator load.5 degree (aircraft) nose up. This modification incorporates an additive in the existing liner. Further to the flight test campaign. The TSM also provides a recording sheet to help operators establish the cause of vibration. please contact AIRBUS INDUSTRIE. Airbus Industrie F ollowing reports of in-flight vibrations on the A320 Family. “In-flight airframe vibration” • AMM Task 27-34-00-200-001 “Check of the elevator servo controls and hinge bearings for too much play. Also the maximum acceptable value for backlash. Customer Services. Therefore as a preventive measure. a new elevator rigging tool. were discovered during inspections following reports of in flight airframe vibrations.Sonia Bouchardie 1. q improve passenger and crew comfort by removing the causes of vibration. SOLUTIONS AVOIDING ELEVATOR VIBRATION A319. It is highly recommended that this new tool be used. and chromium and super finishing of the inner ball to reduce the wear rate and friction coefficient. an intensive flight test campaign was launched by Airbus Industrie to determine the different sources of elevator vibrations. v REFERENCES • TSM Task 05-50-00. and condition” • Video Tape “A320 Family elevator rigging” The Part Numbers are: New Elevator Rigging Tool. the incorporation of the Service Bulletins are highly recommended by Airbus Industrie. The effectiveness of these modifications has been clearly demonstrated through the positive feedback from the Operators. introduced on the elevator servo-controls through the LUCAS Service Bulletin 3107527-17 and Airbus Service Bulletin A320-27-1111. even during flight in turbulent conditions. TO INCREASE HINGE MOMENT The Airbus Service Bulletin A320-27-1114 describes the resetting of the elevator neutral position to 0. This modification has been developed to fit easily into the maintenance program.Fax: +49 (40) 50 31 68 For further information or to receive a copy of the video tape please contact: Airbus Industrie Customer Services AI/SE-E52 . nor is there any penalty in fuel consumption. as it allows more accurate rigging through a simplified procedure. as described in the AMM. A321 Two solutions were developed to eliminate these two causes: reduce backlash and increase hinge moment. rond-point Maurice Bellonte . which accounts for more than 70% of all vibrations. 98D27309002000 To order the new Elevator Rigging Tool. The main source is the elevator system. They are described in the Trouble Shooting Manual (TSM) Chapter 05-50-00.31707 BLAGNAC Cedex FRANCE Tel: +33 (0) 5 61 93 22 33 Fax: +33 (0) 5 61 93 44 25 Elevator rigging tool (developed by Airbus Industrie) by Sonia Bouchardie.5 degree using the original tool or the new tool. A320. due to premature wear of the Teflon liners. the elevators can also be set using the previous tool which was developed originally to set the elevators to a 0 degree position.Flight Control Systems . Nevertheless. Accomplishment of this modification ensures that the elevators are aerodynamically loaded in an appropriate manner in order to eliminate vibration. Engineer Flight Control Systems. To perform the revised elevator rigging. ADVANTAGES As a preventive measure. it was revealed that the phenomenon was in fact a Limit Cycle Oscillation (LCO) which is a sustained vibration at a fixed frequency with limited amplitude and having no impact on flight safety. Those changes have no effect on aircraft performance and there is no change in the handling characteristics of the aircraft. CONCLUSION The extensive work performed by the Airframe Vibration Task Force led to conclusions for eliminating airframe vibration which have since been proven in service.
Materiel Support Centre Airbus Industrie A300/A310/A300-300 TECHNICAL SYMPOSIUM 30 NOVEMBER . but also in the savings which can be made through common spare parts. LTU.. Programme Manager for Long Range Aircraft. Cathay Pacific took two awards on their A340 fleet. and non-spectacular. Separate sessions are also planned for fly-by-wire aircraft. A special recognition was also give to Philipines Airlines for the simultaneous entry into service of three Airbus types (A320. chief pilots. General Manager Engineering • Arnelou BADIOLA. Team Leader A330 • Mike KINSELLA. operations engineers. yield considerable cost savings which this article examines with respect to aircraft spare parts. suppliers and Airbus Industrie staff to discuss technical subjects of common interest and share in-service experience. lacklustre. John GROTHER (left) and Gérard MISRAI (right): • Helmut FEIGL. and Airbus Industrie Training. All these factors. the words common. training pilots. The awards winners (left to right) and their hosts.5 DECEMBER 1998 IN BANGKOK Providing an opportunity for the operators. More reliable equipment naturally means that less spare parts are required.11 12 FAST / NUMBER 23 FAST / NUMBER 23 13 . The punctuality in the repair of spare parts will determine how many spares are required to ensure the operation of the aircraft while a part is away for repair. Looking ahead. Deputy VP Engineering and Technical Support. The aircraft industry is no exception to this. Documentation Procedures. In the aircraft manufacturing business. Operations and environment and new technologies are part of the programme. LTU. conventional aircraft and performance issues. PHILIPINES AIRLINES. Flight Operations and Flight Test staff to share their experience. winning both the dispatch reliability and highest daily utilization awards. In accordance with tradition the event was preceeded by a social evening at which awards were given to some operators in recognition of exceptional operation of their aircraft. pages 7 . In everyday life. AER LINGUS. 40 Vendors. reliable and punctual often conjure up an image of something dull. In the commercial or engineering world these terms can mean the difference between profit and loss or success and failure. when optimised. CATHAY PACIFIC. Airbus Industrie Flight Operations Support has organised a Performance and Operations Conference. Head of Engineering & Planning • Chris GIBBS. This year will be the 10th.. a milestone! An excellent opportunity for Airbus Operators.A330 and A340) last year. the benefits of being common are apparent not only through flight deck commonality (1) with cross crew qualification (CCQ) and common system architecture and maintenance philosophy. On the A330 fleet the honours went to LTU for utilization and Aer Lingus for dispatch reliability. Technical Liaison Manager • Michael BOCK. Airbus Industrie and Partners attended the third A330/A340 Technical Symposium which took place 11-15 May in Kuala Lumpur. Flight Operations directors and managers.14 February 1993. (1) FAST no.A330/A340 TECHNICAL SYMPOSIUM 11 .15 MAY 1998 IN KUALA LUMPUR Three hundred representatives from 33 Airlines. Senior Airframe & System Engineer Common. reliable and punctualÉ by Olympios Panayiotou Senior Marketing Analyst the path to lower spares costs and Martin Woods Provisioning Manager THE 10TH PERFORMANCE AND OPERATIONS CONFERENCE 28 SEPTEMBER . and John Grother. The symposium was hosted by Gerard Misrai.2 OCTOBER 1998 IN SAN FRANCISCO Every two years since 1980. During the four day event all major technical items affecting the A330/A340 in service fleet were reviewed with the operators as well as some areas of more general interest.
7% by part number count day. e. an effort to concentrate on the commonality of a few spare parts can result in large cost savings. NON COMMON TYPE A320 investment Additional investment Commonality dividend Investment (US$m) 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 10 A320 + 1 A319 combined 10 A320 + 1 non common type +$2. spares costs are an important part (figure 1). as shown in figure 3. Therefore.27m. the commonality dividend expressed as a percentage FAST / NUMBER 23 Figure 4 COMPARISON OF ADDITIONAL INVESTMENT FOR A319 VS. rolling off the production lines toFAST / NUMBER 23 Figure 3 CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT AND INTEGRATION Operating expenses Insurance 2% Operational fees 14% Flight Crew 16% Labour 5% Fuel 14% Airframe consumed spares 4% Engine consumed spares 5% Airframe price 31% Airframe spares float 5% Engine spares float 4% 1988 A320 introduction 1994 A321 introduction A320 / A321 common standard 1996 A319 introduction A319 / A320 / A321 common standard Acquisition cost (depreciation & finance) Figure 2 SPARES INVESTMENT by value 90. compared to a cost of $2.2% 2. When considering spares commonality it is useful to first consider the initial investment required at entry-intoservice of a new aircraft.35m of adding a non-common type. q A300-A310.27m $11. share the highest commonality of spare parts.4% 0. If an airline chooses to fit the same equipment across its fleet. We will examine the achievable savings through commonality by comparing the addition of A319s and a noncommon type to an existing fleet of 10 A320s. The impact of commonality is clear. This implies considerable savings when adding say an A319 or A321 to an existing fleet of A320s in order to provide flexibility. wheels and brakes.5% of total acquisition costs. which enables them to select with a certain degree of confidence the optimum spares holding that they will need for their aircraft operation (see FAST no.63m and the cost of adding an A319 to the A320 fleet is $0. As the number of added A319 aircraft increases.Figure 1 OPERATING EXPENSES AND ACQUISITION COSTS COMMONALITY Looking at a typical airline’s Direct Operating Costs (DOC) which may vary depending on individual airlines and regions.e. the greatest commonality exists within family groups.2% Tools and GSE 31. up to 95% investment commonality can be achieved within an Airbus family. a common set of spares will bring cost savings. over 90% of the spares investment by value. These parts are rotable spares and repairable spares which are considered re-usable over the lifetime of the aircraft.5% of the cost of the spares for the additional aircraft.1% 24. navigation equipment or communication equipment. consists of vendor Line Replaceable Units (LRU).6% 3.63m $11. Airbus Industrie provides spares recommendations for operators. which this article will highlight. q A319-A320-A321 and q A330-A340 Commonality between the A320 family and A330/A340 family is concentrated in the cockpit and systems. The commonality dividend is therefore 88. The evolution of Airbus aircraft commonality means that aircraft in the same family.g.3% 4.7% Vendor line replaceable units (LRUs) Vendor breakdown parts (LMPs) Standard hardware Cockpit pushbuttons 37. The commonality dividend i. Given the distribution of the investment. Typically.63m 14 15 . the top fifty spare LRUs. compared to adding one non-A320 family aircraft. the savings made specifically through the effect of commonality can be seen in figure 4. consumed airframe spares represent 29% of direct maintenance costs (airframe. The cost of the fleet of 10 A320s is $11. This illustrates the effect of adding the first A319 to a 10 strong A320 fleet with the full benefits of commonality. pages 2529) . The overall investment for 11 aircraft in a combined Airbus fleet is 85% that of the investment required for the non-common fleets. Commonality therefore enables economies of scale to be realised as the fleet grows.35m +$0. In the case of the A320 family this is due to the introduction of common standards along with the introduction of the A321 and A319. Of approximately 500 LRUs recommended. the top hundred for 80% and the top two hundred for 95%.5% 1. 21 May 1997. The Airbus idea of family planning involves maximum parts commonality and system maintenance commonality. The major share (figure 2).3% 4. account for approximately 70% of that investment. whilst airframe spares acquisition account for 12. Naturally. and engine consumed parts and labour). in terms of recommended investment.
0 0. q Generally the reliability (MTBUR) of the individual LRUs has remained fairly constant. q Individual LRU prices have increased The savings attained as a result of combining these factors must be calculated by considering the Automated Flight System as one system. A319 and a non-common aircraft of similar size. the additional spares investment would be constant at a minimal level. Figure 8 DISTRIBUTON OF AN A320 INITIAL PROVISIONING RECOMMENDATION BY ATA CHAPTER Investment (US$m) 1. by adding a 51st A319.2 0 11 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 38 49 52 53 55 56 57 ATA chapters RELIABILITY Along with the initial provisioning and “in service” savings achievable through commonality there are the spares savings that Airbus Industrie has sought to make through continuous improvement and integration of aircraft systems. the AFS computers in a typical non ‘fly-bywire’ generation aircraft consists of the Flight Control Computer (FCC). the number of units required to fulfill the Automated Flight System function has been reduced simplifying maintenance and spares holding costs.2 1. their cost to the customer. Applying this formula the impact of FBW integration is readily apparent. In this article we have considered only the single aisle family using data for the A320. This we Figure 9 EVOLUTION AND INTEGRATION OF AFS COMPUTERS Non fly-by-wire generation aircraft FAC FCC TCC FMC A320 FAC FMGC A330/340 FMGEC 2 1 have done by using the following calculation where Nu = number of units (see formula below).8 0. Of the ATA chapters.6 0. With the introduction of the A330/A340 the functions of these LRUs were further integrated into one unit. It is therefore an appropriate area to focus upon: within this ATA chapter a significant improvement has taken place in integrating the computers performing the Automated Flight System (AFS) function.Figure 5 COMMONALITY SAVINGS: ADDING A319S TO A FLEET OF 10 A320S Investment saved (US$m) 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 10+10 10+15 10+20 10+25 10+30 10+35 10+40 10+45 10+50 10+1 10+2 10+3 10+4 10+5 10+6 10+7 10+8 10+9 Percentage investment saved 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Fleet Figure 6 COMPARISON OF SPARES INVESTMENT Spares investment (US$m) 45 Initial 40 A320 build up 35 to 10 a/c fleet 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 5 10 15 Non common fleet A320 only Combined A320/A319 decreases due to averaging effects (Figure 5). It is therefore necessary to calculate the reliability of the system as a whole. TCC and FMC were integrated into a single LRU. chapter 22 “Auto Flight” generates the highest spares investment for an Airbus aircraft representing 14% of the total investment (Figure 8). of course.. Figure 6 illustrates not only these points but also that the investment required for a ‘combined’ fleet differs little from the investment required for a fleet consisting of only A320s. In other words. the FMGC and the FAC. The impact on reliability and spares provisioning cost of this leap from non-FBW to FBW aircraft will be examined. The commonality dividend and the averaging effects are evident when we consider the total investment rather than just the savings themselves. There have been certain trends which have been evident in the development of FBW technology: q As can be seen in Figure 9. ATA chapter 22 consists of only five LRU part numbers reflecting the continuous integration of functions into single boxes. the Flight Augmentation Computer (FAC)..MTBUR) of the LRUs and.4 1. Looking at the Figure 9. the Thrust Control Computer (TCC) and Flight Management Computer (FMC) or equivalent. The reason for this is that the fleets are so large that the individual fleet commonalities and economies of scale have been maximised and the spares investment curve has flattened out.. For the A320. since a spare is required as soon as a part is taken off the aircraft to be tested or repaired regardless of whether the system remains functional. As we have already seen LRUs are the most expensive materiel category within an initial provisioning recommendation. the Flight Management Guidance and Envelope Computer (FMGEC). the Flight Management Guidance Computer (FMGC) leaving the A320 with two LRUs performing the AFS FAST / NUMBER 23 The commonality dividend 20 25 30 Fleet development 35 40 45 50 Figure 7 COMMONALITY SAVINGS: ADDING A330-300S TO A FLEET OF 10 A340S Investment saved (US$m) 10 8 6 30% 4 20% 2 0 10+10 10+15 10+20 10+25 10+30 10+35 10+40 10+45 10+50 10+1 10+2 10+3 10+4 10+5 10+6 10+7 10+8 10+9 10% 0% Fleet Percentage investment saved 60% 50% 40% function. 1 ∑ (Nu A/MTBUR A + Nu B/MTBUR B + Nu C/MTBUR C.4 0. the first full ‘fly-by-wire’ (FBW) aircraft the functions of the FCC. Although the individual LRU MTBURs have remained relatively steady. To examine the impact that systems integration has had upon spares provisioning it is necessary to consider the reliability (mean time between unscheduled removals . FAST / NUMBER 23 17 16 . For the A320.) * * For spares provisioning purposes the AFS components above are considered as a series of failure probabilities. Similar commonality savings are evident with the A321 and the long-range A340/A330 family as can be seen in the similarity between Figures 6 and 7.
The investment required for the AFS equipment for ten A340 or A320 being roughly half of that required for ten non FBW type aircraft. more cost effective than the pre-FBW aircraft and as fleet size increases this effect becomes more pronounced. The repair processing time Airbus Industrie has taken the initiative with its proprietary parts repair turnaround time. originally used on Airbus aircraft in addition to the basic windshield wiper system. The transit time The transit time is dependent on the CONCLUSION Airbus Industrie is able to demonstrate that its aircraft families share large commonality in aircraft spares. when the spare part returns. v indshield rain protection provides the flight crew with a clear vision through the aircraft windshield when rain is encountered. Cost/AFS MTBUR. and the A340 seven times. Further. q The speed and efficiency of the freight forwarder and Customs authorities in importing/exporting and transporting the spare part will have an impact on the transit time. Airbus Industrie now guarantees a maximum of 15 calendar days repair time for its proprietary parts. The “ Rainboe ” rain repellent fluid. This is backed up by a forward exchange at no additional cost should the repair time exceed this guarantee. the A320 and A340. Airbus Industrie has been working closely with several major forwarders and logistics service suppliers to develop an off-theshelf transit management programme. Airbus Industrie is glad to be called common. So. The AFS fitted to the A320 is four times. Airbus Industrie has been actively working on alternative solutions and is now in a position to provide the operators with a choice of environmentally friendly rain repellent fluid or windshield hydrophobic coating. The cost effectiveness of the integration of the AFS can be measured by dividing the recommended spares investment figures by the AFS reliability i. The advances made in component integration offsets the increase in price of the individual LRUs (Figure 10). This combines maximum windshield rain protection with safe guards for the environment. Ice and Rain Protection Customer Services Engineering Airbus Industrie COMBINING ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION AND WINDSHIELD RAIN PROTECTION ON AIRBUS AIRCRAFT Figure 11 AFS COST EFFECTIVENESS COMPARISON Relative Spares investment / AFS MTBUR Index value 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Non FBW a/c A320 A340 (10 aircraft fleet) However with eleven years of technological improvements the Auto Flight system MTBUR has increased quite dramatically from the non-FBW aircraft to the latest technology FBW aircraft. reliable and punctual. which share high commonality and reliability within the family groups. This will offer customers a choice of forwarder service with defined performance levels and terms. PUNCTUALITY The turnaround time for rotable and repairable spares is a combination of the transit time and the repair processing time. two following factors: q The administrative efficiency of an airline in realising that a spare has been removed. the fly-by-wire technology has lent itself to improving commonality by integrating the Automated Flight System Computers into a reduced number of LRUs. This significantly reduces the level of inventory which needs to be stored to cover those “just-in-case” situations and moves away from the current industry ‘standard’ of guaranteeing average repair times. has been phased out as part of the worldwide effort to protect the Ozone layer. W 18 FAST / NUMBER 23 FAST / NUMBER 23 19 . The operator in this case is then only invoiced for the repair charges and not the exchange fee. The results can be seen in the Figure 11. enabling operators to reduce their operating costs.e.Figure 10 AFS MTBUR COMPARED TO INDIVIDUAL LRU MTBUR Relative MTBUR value 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 Non FBW a/c FCC FAC TCC FMC A320 FAC FMGC A340 FMGEC LRU MTBUR 100 190 AFS MTBUR 364 by François Poveda Engineer Fire. This has been achieved through aircraft design with maintenance in mind. placing it back on the shelf. shipping the spare part out and then. The savings for a recommended spares investment in dollar terms as a result of the integration of AFS functions are considerable. when it comes to aircraft spare parts.
depending on the level of the precipitation (Figure 2).Issued in July 1997 (1) SB issued in January 1996 (2) SB will be issued by end of 1998 (3) SB issued in July 1998 20 FAST / NUMBER 23 FAST / NUMBER 23 21 . import and export since 1st January 1996. An optional intermittent function is also available. The fluid can be sprayed independently on the Captain’s side and on the First Officer’s side.RAINBOE RAIN REPELLENT FLUID PHASE OUT The ‘Rainboe’ rain repellent fluid originally used on Airbus aircraft and on all other jetliners equipped with a similar system contains CFC 113. combined with the effect of the air flow caused by aircraft movement. S S From hot air manifold Motor converter RAIN RPLNT WIPER OFF Figure 2 WINDSHIELD RAIN PROTECTION COCKPIT CONTROLS SLOW FAST Applicable Service Bulletins and Modifications references ‘RAINBOE’ RAIN REPELLENT FLUID DEACTIVATION A300 A300-600 A310 MOD 11480 11480 11480 SB A300-30-0044 A300-30-6023 A310-30-2029 (1) (1) (1) A319/A320/A321 A330 25419 44482 A320-30-1032 A330-30-3015 (1) (1) A340 44482 A340-30-4020 (1) RAIN RPLNT WIPER OFF SLOW WIPER OFF SLOW RAIN RPLNT CFC FREE (LBFS) RAIN REPELLENT FLUID INSTALLATION A300 A300-600 A310 A319/A320/A321 A330 MOD 11974 11974 11974 26963 45897 SB A300-30-0046 A300-30-6025 A310-30-2032 A320-30-1037 A330-30-3019 (2) (2) (2) (3) (3) A340 45897 A340-30-4022 (3) FAST FAST PPG ‘SURFACE SEAL’ COATING INSTALLATION AIRBUS Service Information Letter 30-024 .Figure 1 WINDSHIELD WIPER SYSTEM Wiper blade . Figure 3 RAIN REPELLENT SYSTEM SCHEMATIC Rain repellent fluid can assembly Gauge assembly Rain repellent blowout reservoir Spray nozzles Test check valve Purge check valves Solenoid valves Wiper arm . prevents water droplets from adhering to the windshield outer surface. Airbus Industrie has nevertheless taken the option to leave the rain repellent system installed on the aircraft (electrically deactivated) whilst actively working with chemical manufacturers on the development of a new rain repellent fluid free of CFC. It temporarily modifies the surface tension on the windshield and. . Service Bulletins for all aircraft types were issued in January 1996 in order to allow ‘Rainboe’ fluid bottle removal and system deactivation on aircraft in service (refer to Table below for the applicable Service Bulletins and Modifications references). The wipers can be operated independently and at low or high speed. This system allows spraying of a fluid onto the windshield outer surface when heavy rain is encountered (see Figure 3 on the following page). All Airbus aircraft are certified for operation without further windshield rain protection system. Since this date and in order to comply with the international agreements for the protection of the Ozone layer (Vienna Convention and Montreal Protocol).WINDSHIELD WIPERS THE BASIC RAIN PROTECTION SYSTEM The basic windshield rain protection system on Airbus aircraft consists of two electrically operated windshield wipers.RAIN REPELLENT AN ADDITIONAL FORM OF RAIN PROTECTION All Airbus aircraft are also equipped with a so-called rain repellent system. It is officially listed as an Ozone depleting substance by the Montreal Protocol which bans its production. one on the Captain’s side and one on the First Officer’s side (Figure 1). This substance is a type of freon (Chlorofluorocarbon). the ‘Rainboe’ fluid bottle is no longer installed on delivered aircraft.
AN ALTERNATIVE For those operators wishing to leave the rain repellent system deactivated. The rain repellent fluid bottle is supplied by Le Bozec Filtration and Systems (LBFS). Airbus Industrie is closely monitoring the development of other windshield hydrophobic coatings. Airbus Industrie has also formally approved the use of the PPG Industries “Surface Seal” windshield hydrophobic coating on all Airbus aircraft types The coating. as well as recommendations for application and servicing. operational and maintenance procedures.NEW RAIN REPELLENT FLUID FREE OF CFC A new rain repellent fluid has been successfully developed. Maintenance Planning document. depending on local weather conditions. The treatment has a limited service Figure 4 CFC-FREE RAIN REPELLENT FLUID . WINDSHIELD HYDROPHOBIC COATINGS . Refer to the Table on the preceding page for the applicable Service Bulletins and Mod references. issued in July 1997. No rain repellent EFFECT OF RAIN REPELLENT OR HYDROPHOBIC COATING ON WATER DROPLET / WINDSHIELD CONTACT ANGLE BEFORE APPLICATION AFTER APPLICATION Rain repellent fluid applied After 15 seconds After 2 minutes CONCLUSION The commitments of Airbus Industrie on the subject of windshield rain protection were twofold: q To comply with the requirements of the Montreal Protocol on Ozone depleting substances. which will also be incorporated in the SIL and in the aircraft documentation if their performance is found to be satisfactory on Airbus aircraft. The fluid bottle can be installed on the aircraft with only minor modification of the existing rain repellent system. paint). q A windshield hydrophobic coating. The coating does not contain CFC and is therefore not subjected to the requirements of the Montreal protocol. Airbus Industrie is now preparing the introduction of the new fluid in production. which can be used without restriction on all types of windshields available on Airbus aircraft. in addition to the basic wiper system. Airbus Service Information Letter 30-024. provides procurement and material information related to the coating. The needs of Airbus operators regarding windshield rain protection vary a lot. consists of a treatment applied on the windshield outer surface in a liquid form. It dries out to provide rain repellent characteristics similar to those of the fluid. Laboratory testing has confirmed its compliance with the existing toxicity requirements and its compatibility with the surrounding materials on Airbus aircraft (windshield. The excellent rain repellent characteristics of the fluid and its endurance have been demonstrated by extensive bench testing and flight testing (Figure 4). Consumable Materials List and Tool and Equipment Manual in accordance with the normal revision planning set for each document and aircraft type. q To provide Airbus operators with an alternative form of windshield rain protection. Airbus Industrie strongly believes that the choice of fluid or coating now available provides the best response to these different needs.ENDURANCE TESTING HEAVY RAIN Figure 5 CFC-FREE RAIN REPELLENT FLUID BOTTLE REPLACEMENT life and needs to be reapplied on a regular basis. Service Bulletins allow reactivation of the rain repellent system and installation of the fluid bottle on aircraft in service (Figure 5). v After 10 minutes Before After 22 FAST / NUMBER 23 FAST / NUMBER 23 23 . The product complies with all the existing regulations for the protection of the environment. structure. These commitments are today achieved with the removal of the ‘Rainboe’ fluid from the Airbus aircraft and with the availability of two alternative forms of windshield rain protection for use on all Airbus aircraft types: q A new rain repellent fluid. The content of this SIL is being incorporated in the Aircraft Maintenance Manual. habits.
letter or other document from the Operator. since the Operators are the sole source of such information. Group Manager Configuration Control Technical Data and Documentation Customer Services Airbus Industrie S ERVICE BULLETIN REPORTING Technical Publications which reflect the configuration of your aircraft 1st step: SB selection Upon receipt of an Airbus Industrie SB. However. Once the SB has been selected. i. SERVICE BULLETIN REPORTING During aircraft final assembly. the aircraft is regularly inspected. in addition. the records are updated and a target date for the updating of the manuals is supplied to the Operator.e. The original information i. for each piece of equipment installed in the aircraft the relevant data is directly incorporated into the Technical Publications. PRE and POST service bulletin configuration. 24 FAST / NUMBER 23 FAST / NUMBER 23 25 . Technical Publications which accurately reflect the state of the aircraft can significantly ease the sale or transfer. the Operator decides whether the change is to be accepted and implemented on the fleet. as the source of the data is controlled by Airbus Industrie production system.A irbus Industrie endeavours to supply all Airbus Operators with Technical Publications that accurately reflect the configuration of their aircraft. Airbus Industrie also accepts a simple fax. The last page of each SB (Figure 1) can be used to inform Airbus Industrie of this decision: SB selected for embodiment or SB rejected. To enable this to happen. The Technical Publications should evolve with the aircraft. Once the aircraft has been in service. q Trouble Shooting Manual (TSM).e. the Airbus Industrie internal process is smooth. Note: All affected non-customised manuals are systematically revised with SB data after SB release (no Operator input is required). remains valid but. In this case. These changes can only be reflected in the customised manuals as and when Airbus Industrie is informed of them. Operators should systematically report SB selection and accomplishment to Airbus Industrie. Figure 1 SB ACCEPTANCE/REJECTION SHEET by Claire Harel. When Airbus Industrie has been informed of the Operator’s decision. the POST SB data is included and dual configuration is shown. q Aircraft Wiring List (AWL) q Illustrated Parts Catalog (IPC). data is incorporated in the affected customised maintenance manuals: q Aircraft Maintenance Manual (AMM). In the event an aircraft is sold or transferred from one operator to another. and implemented on the aircraft in a timely manner. repaired and upgraded by the incorporation of SBs. q Aircraft Schematic Manual (ASM). q Aircraft Wiring Manual (AWM). PRE SB data. in order to do this the Operators must supply Airbus Industrie with the relevant data on Service Bulletins (SB) selected for. reflecting the changes that the aircraft undergoes throughout its service life.
any relevant Operations Engineering Bulletin (OEB) can be removed.1B of the IPC 2422-34-1 for aircraft 0401 to 0405. all that is required of the Operator is to notify Airbus Industrie. Figure 4 TEMPORARY REVISION 26 FAST / NUMBER 23 FAST / NUMBER 23 27 . The operational manuals are configured on an aircraft-by-aircraft basis and every SB accomplishment is reflected. a Temporary Revision (TR) (Figure 4) can be issued when the new pages of the manual are needed on an urgent basis. AWL and IPC. When aircraft are retrofitted. For each aircraft the SB accomplishment is recorded and a target date for the updating of the manuals is supplied to the Operator. the PRE SB data is removed from the customised maintenance manuals: AMM. Figure 3 shows a completed card. The pre-printed card that is supplied together with the kit can be used to inform Airbus Industrie of SB accomplishment. the Operator’s maintenance personnel can consult the PRE SB data while POST SB data is also available (highlighted). Figure 3 SB ACCOMPLISHMENT CARD 2B . AWM. ASM. letter or other document from the Operator is accepted. q Quick Reference Handbook (QRH). TSM. the operational manuals are revised: q Flight Crew Operating Manual (FCOM).PRE SB SOLUTION ON AFFECTED AMM PRE & POST SB SOLUTION Figure 2A shows the PRE solution and also the PRE and POST SB solution in the AMM with the addition of subtask 26-21-00-860-057-A (highlighted) in the close-up paragraph. 2nd step: SB accomplishment As soon as an SB is installed on a given aircraft.Figure 2 2A . Pending retrofit on the aircraft. only the PRE SB data is reflected. the PRE SB subtask 26-21-00-860-057 applies. As long as aircraft 0401 to 0405 are PRE SB A340-24-4015. both PRE and POST SB configurations are valid and will be reflected in the manuals. PRE & POST SB SOLUTION In addition and upon specific request. Here also a simple fax. Note: If the SB is rejected. When affected. When the SB is reported as having been accomplished on the whole fleet. In addition.PRE SB SOLUTION ON AFFECTED IPC Figure 2B shows the introduction of new part number 5908974-17 (highlighted) in Figure 1 . As long as one aircraft remains to be retrofitted. q Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM) q Master Minimum Equipment List (MMEL). the maintenance personnel can then find the POST SB subtask 26-21-00-860057-A.
Regular reporting of SBs that have been selected by the Operators for embodiment is the first and basic stage and should always be completed by reports of their accomplishment. Figure 6 INTRODUCTION TO A SERVICE BULLETIN LIST POST SB SOLUTION 5B . The volume of the manuals is also significantly reduced after fleet-wide SB reporting. FAST / NUMBER 23 Figure 6 shows the introduction page of a typical SB list.PRE & POST SB SOLUTION ON AFFECTED IPC Figure 5B highlights the part number 5908974-16 and associated information to be deleted from the IPC figure when SB A340-24-4015 has been installed on aircraft 0401 to 0405.PRE & POST SB SOLUTION ON AFFECTED AMM Figure 5A highlights the subtask 26-21-00-860-057 to be deleted from the AMM when SB A340-24-4015 has been installed on aircraft 0401-0405. This also results in more user-friendly manuals and can help avoid any confusion when ordering spares and carrying out maintenance tasks.31707 Blagnac Cedex France Fax: +33 (0)5 61 93 28 06 28 29 . FAST / NUMBER 23 w These two steps of the reporting process are absolutely vital if the Technical Publications are to be correctly updated. including the Operator’s Engineering Order (EO). as obsolete PRE SB data is removed from the manuals leaving the relevant POST SB information. The left column gives the SB incorporation code: ‘S’ means split (or dual) configuration (PRE and POST) while ‘C’ indicates the complete (final) configuration (POST). rond-point Maurice Bellonte . POST SB SOLUTION This process ensures that the manuals accurately reflect the technical status of the fleet with respect to SB application. All reports should be sent to Airbus Industrie Customer Services Directorate Technical Data and Documentation AI/SE-D32 1. On the Operator’s request. An overall view of SB application/ incorporation is available in the SB list of each maintenance manual. it is possible to show the Operator’s internal EO number that is associated with the SB.Figure 5 5A .
v Lieutenan tS the World tainforth having w on Speed Re co in a Supe rmarine S rd in 1931 6-B. Line Replaceable Units (LRU)s. Each Operator is requested to provide Airbus Industrie with the configuration of their aircraft after cross checking against the real aircraft status. FAST / NUMBER 23 31 30 FAST / NUMBER 23 . having a stiff upper lip probably made the elements easier to bear. Environmental protection actually meant Protection from the Environment. The service Airbus Industrie offers its clients would then be improved by a more direct source of information and shorter lead-time for incorporation of the relevant information into the Technical Publications. letter or other document from the Operator is also accepted. They reflect the current SB embodiment status based on the data received from the Operators. Then Airbus Industrie will update their database. a flig y 191 ar ng for epari n in Febru pr ngers Caudro Passe s in a el Bruss to SERVICE BULLETIN CONFIGURATION REVIEW An SB configuration review has been launched and sent to all Airbus Industrie Operators with specific emphasis on the SBs which are classified as mandatory (linked to an Airworthiness Directive). Two SB status lists were sent to all Airbus Industrie Operators: q The first list containing all SBs which are effective for the Operator’s fleet. the technical level and content of all maintenance and operational documentation should reflect the technical status of the Operators’ fleets. CONCLUSION Methods of SB reporting will improve as time goes on. On-line access to the Technical Publications database will become available with SPOC (Single Point of Contact). Please remember that the data you expect from Airbus Industrie can only be as good as the configuration information provided by you. they also include SB status reported from previous Operators. Figure 7 shows one status list. Monsie ur Deperd Parmelin pr e ussin o ver the paring to fly h Alps in is 1914. This exercise enables the Operators to review their SB data and to make sure that proper information is supplied to Airbus Industrie. and rain dispersion was provided by a quick wipe of the pilot’s hand. Another reporting process using bar codes could also be introduced. This system of recording could not only trace the repair of any specific piece of equipment but it could also make it possible to easily and safely monitor the changes carried out on each aircraft. It should also be noted that a simple fax. This lists are available in printed form and on diskette. and Airbus Industrie proprietary parts.Figure 7 SB STATUS LIST ris m Pa ht fro 9. As previously mentioned the SB acceptance/rejection sheets and accomplishment cards can be used for this reporting. flight in h for paring ady pre avilland AL te de H Moth. for the passengers as well as the pilot. er priva In the early days of civil aviation. In the case of leased or second-hand aircraft. Windshields were carefully profiled to give the maximum protection. A project is under evaluation to record bar codes on the SB kits. This could also lead to individual aircraft ‘identity cards’. All that was needed was a good scarf and/or hat. q The second list containing only mandatory SBs. As a result. and a pair of goggles. Continuous updating will also be performed from the regular reports which should be received from each Operator. and reduce the Operators’ workload. Mind you.
Resident Customer Representation Administration Director Telephone: +33 (0) 5 61 93 38 79 / Telefax:+33 (0) 5 61 93 49 64 LOCATION ABU DHABI AMMAN ATHENS BANGKOK BEIJING BEIRUT BERLIN BOGOTA BOMBAY (MUMBAI) BRUSSELS BUENOS AIRES CAIRO CARACAS CHENGDU CHICAGO COLOMBO DAKAR DAKHA DELHI DERBY DETROIT DUBAI DUBLIN DULUTH DUSSELDORF FRANKFURT GUANGZHOU GUAYAQUIL HANGHZOU HANOI HO CHI MINH CITY HONG KONG ISTANBUL JAKARTA JOHANNESBURG KARACHI KINGSTON KUALA LUMPUR KUWAIT LARNACA LISBON LONDON (LHR) LUTON MACAO MADRID MALE MANCHESTER MANILA COUNTRY United Arab Emirates Jordan Greece Thailand Peoples Republic of China Lebanon Germany Columbia India Belgium Argentina Egypt Venezuela Peoples Republic of China USA (Illinois) Sri Lanka Senegal Bangladesh India England USA (Michigan) United Arab Emirates Ireland USA (Minnesota) Germany Germany Peoples Republic of China Ecuador Peoples Republic of China Vietnam Vietnam Peoples Republic of China Turkey Indonesia South Africa Pakistan Jamaica Malaysia Kuwait Cyprus Portugal England England Macao Spain Maldives England Philippines TELEPHONE 971 (2) 706 7702 962 (6) 445 1284 30 (1)981 8581 66 (2) 531 0076 86 (10) 6457 2688 961 (1) 601 300 49 (30) 887 55 245 57 (1) 414 8095/96 91 (22) 618 3273 91 (22) 611 7147 32 2723 4824/25/26 54 (1) 480 9408 20 (2) 418 3687 58 315 52 210 86 (28) 570 3851 1 (773) 601 4602 94 73 2197 / 2199 221 8201 615 880 (2) 896129 91 (11) 565 2033 44 1332 852 898 1 (734) 247 5090 971 (4) 2085 630/31/32 353 (1) 705 2294 1 (218) 733 5077 49 (211) 9418 687 49 (69) 696 3947 86 (20) 8612 8813 593 (9) 744 734 86 (571) 514 5876 84 (48) 731 613 84 (8) 84 57 602 852 2747 8449 90 (212) 574 0907 62 (21) 550 1993 27 (11) 978 3193 92 (21) 457 0604 1 (876) 924 8057 60 (3) 746 7352 965 474 2193 357 (4) 643 181 351 (1) 840 7032 44 (181) 751 5431 44 (1582) 39 8706 853 898 4023 34 (1) 329 1447 960 317 042 44 (161) 489 3155 63 (2) 831 5444 TELEFAX 971 (2) 757 097 962 (6) 445 1195 30 (1) 983 2479 66 (2) 531 1940 86 (10) 6457 0503 961 (1) 601 200 49 (30) 887 55 248 57 (1) 414 8094 91 (22) 611 3691 91 (22) 611 7122 32 2723 4823 54 (1) 480 9408 20 (2) 418 3707 58 315 52 210 86 (28) 521 6511 1 (773) 601 2406 94 (1) 253 893 221 8201 148 880 (2) 896130 91 (11) 565 2541 44 1332 852 967 1 (734) 247 5087 971 (4) 244806 353 (1) 705 3803 1 (218) 733 5082 49 (211) 9418 035 49 (69) 696 4699 86 (20) 8612 8809 593 (4) 290 432 86 (571) 514 5916 84 (48) 731 612 84 (8) 84 46 419 852 2352 5957 90 (212) 573 5521 62 (21) 550 1943 27 (11) 978 3190 92 (21) 457 0604 1 (876) 924 8154 60 (3) 746 2230 965 434 2567 357 (4) 643 185 351 (1) 847 4444 44 (181) 751 2844 44 (1582) 70 6173 853 898 4024 34 (1) 329 0708 960 318 823 44 (161) 489 3240 63 (2) 831 0834 32 FAST / NUMBER 23 . Director Customer Services Telephone: +86 .10.703.10.RESIDENT CUSTOMER SUPPORT REPRESENTATION USA / CANADA Thierry van der Heyden. 6456 76942 /3 /4 REST OF THE WORLD Mohamed El-Boraï. Vice President Customer Support Services Division Telephone: +33 (0) 5 61 93 35 04 / Telefax:+33 (0) 5 61 93 41 01 GENERAL ADMINISTRATION Jean-Paul Gayral.703. Vice President Customer Services Telephone: +1 . 6456 7720 / Telefax: +86 . 834 3464 CHINA Emmanuel Peraud. 834 3484 / Telefax:+1 .
LOCATION MAURITIUS MEDELIN MEMPHIS MEXICO CITY MELBOURNE MIAMI MINNEAPOLIS MONTREAL MOSCOW MUSCAT NAIROBI NANJING NEW YORK NUREMBERG PARIS (CDG) PARIS (ORY) PHOENIX PITTSBURG PUSAN ROME SAN’A SAN FRANCISCO SAN JOSE SAN SALVADOR SAO PAULO SEOUL SHANGHAI SHANNON SHENYANG SHENZHEN SINGAPORE TAIPEI TASHKENT TEHRAN TOKYO (HND) TORONTO TULSA TUNIS ULAN BATOR VANCOUVER VIENNA WINNIPEG XIAN YAKUTSK YEREVAN ZAGREB ZURICH COUNTRY Mauritius Columbia USA (Tennessee) Mexico Australia USA (Florida) USA (Minnesota) Canada Russia Oman Kenya Peoples Republic of USA (New York) Germany France France USA (Arizona) USA (Pennsylvania) South Korea Italy Yemen USA (California) Costa Rica El Salvador Brasil South Korea Peoples Republic of Ireland Peoples Republic of Peoples Republic of Singapore Taiwan Uzbekistan Iran Japan China China China China Canada USA (Oklahoma) Tunisia Mongolia Canada Austria Canada Peoples Republic of China Russia Armenia Croatia Switzerland TELEPHONE 230 637 8542 57 (4) 5361027 1 (901) 224 4842 52 (5) 784 3874 61 (3) 9338 2038 1 (305) 871 1441 1 (612) 726 0431 1 (514) 422 6320 7 (095) 753 8061 968 521 286 254 (2) 822 763 86 (25) 248 1030/32 1 (718) 656 0700 49 (911) 365 68219 33 (0)1 48 62 08 82 / 87 33 (0)1 49 78 02 88 1 (602) 693 7445 1 (412) 472 6420 82 (51) 971 6977 39 (6) 6501 0564 967 (1) 344 439 1 (650) 6344375/76/79 506 (4) 417 223 503 339 9335 55 (11) 644 54 364 82 (2) 665 4417 86 (21) 6268 4122 353 (1) 705 2084 86 (24) 8939 2699 86 755 777 0690 65 (5) 455 027 886 (2) 25 450 424 886 (3) 38 34 410 7 (37) 1254 8552 98 (21) 603 5647 81 (3) 5756 5081 81 (3) 5756 8770 1 (905) 677 8874 1 (918) 292 3227 216 (1) 750 639 976 (1) 379 930 1 (604) 231 6965 43 (1) 7007 3688 1 (204) 985 5908 86 (29) 870 7651 7 4112 420 165 3742 593 415 385 (1) 456 2536 41 (1) 812 7727 TELEFAX 230 637 3882 57 (4) 5361024 1 (901) 224 5018 52 (5) 785 5195 61 (3) 9338 0281 1 (305) 871 2322 1 (612) 726 0414 1 (514) 422 6310 7 (095) 753 8006 968 521 286 254 (2) 822 763 86 (25) 248 1031 1 (718) 656 8635 49 (911) 365 68218 33 (0)1 48 62 08 99 33 (0)1 49 78 01 85 1 (602) 693 7444 1 (412) 472 1052 82 (51) 971 4106 39 (6) 652 9077 967 (1) 344 439 1 (650) 6344378 506 (4) 412 228 503 339 9323 55 (11) 644 54 363 82 (2) 664 3219 86 (21) 6268 6671 353 (1) 705 2085 86 (24) 2272 5177 86 755 777 0689 65 (5) 425 380 886 (2) 25 450 438 886 (3) 38 34 718 7 (37) 12 407 049 98 (21) 603 5647 81 (3) 5756 5084 81 (3) 5756 8772 1 (905) 677 1090 1 (918) 292 2581 216 (1) 750 855 976 (1) 379 930 1 (604) 231 6917 43 (1) 7007 3235 1 (204) 837 2489 86 (29) 870 7255 7 4112 420 165 3742 151 393 385 (1) 456 2537 41 (1) 810 2383 FAST / NUMBER 23 33 .
they can be relied upon to understand your country’s culture. you can be sure our Resident Customer Support Managers are all ears. Dedicated to meet your requirements. ensuring they’ve a close relationship based on mutual trust. Airbus Customer Services. Many have an airline background. which means they’re at home with your operation and aircraft. In fact. whatever you require. With over 25 nationalities represented. WE LISTEN.WE’VE A REVOLUTIONARY METHOD OF UNDERSTANDING YOUR AIRLINE’S REQUIREMENTS. Airbus Resident Customer Support Managers are based at their operator’s premises.a i rb u s. ht t p://w w w.c o m AIRBUS S E T T I N G T H E STA N DA R D S .
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