1.0 Introduction: Today, each individual must take responsibility for his or her career.
Organizations now focus on matching the career needs of employees with the requirements of the organization. The organization‘s development is to build employee self-reliance and to help employees maintain their marketability through their learning. While many organizations still invest in their employees, they don‘t offer career security and they can‘t meet the needs of everyone in a diverse workforce. 1.1 Origin of the report: We are a group of students in BBA program. In this program, one of the important parts of this course is to prepare a term paper on the assigned topic related to the course. In BBA program ―Human Resource Management‖ is a course to get familiar with the concept of managing human resources of a firm. We have prepared our report paper based on our course teacher‘s assigned topic. 1.2 Literature Review: Research carried out by Thursfield and Holden (2004) briefly explored the policy of workforce development. They draw on evidence from NIACE (1997), Matlay (1999) and Gibb (2002) which highlight: ―significant inequalities in access to learning and development at work‖ (Thursfield and Holden, 2004, p292). Building on this, the authors argue that government initiatives designed to remedy the problem of low skilled workers, are underpinned by an essentially ‗voluntarist approach‘ and have tended to focus mainly on ‗supply-side‘ policies. Ford (2005) affirms that the increase in adults 50+ in the UK, and much of the developed world, is providing challenges to policy-makers for which there are no known precedents. Arguing that current policy is essentially ‗piecemeal‘ and reactive in nature, Ford points to the need for a national strategy to encourage new forms of career development interventions specifically aimed at older adults that would include specific career development interventions. 1.3 Objectives of the Study: Objectives of the study are given below: a) Gaining knowledge about Career Planning b) Managing the process of career planning 1.4 Methodology of the Study: The report has been done on the basis of secondary research analysis. The major part of the report has been gained from some books, newspaper as well as websites.
1.5 Limitations: While conducting the study, we were confronted with some limitations. There was a little scope for research on this key subject as all the data was secondary and no way to collect primary data was available. To delimit these limitations a variety of sources have been covered. Also there is a question about accuracy. The researcher team tried to follow the trend where it needs to perform. 2.0 Definition of Career: Career is pattern of work-related experiences that span the course of a person‘s life. It reflects any work, paid or unpaid. A broad definition will be helpful in today‘s work environment where employees and organizations have diverse needs. Organizational career planning refers to developing career ladders, tracking careers, providing opportunities for development. Individual career development means helping employees identify their goals and steps to achieve them. Career development looks at the long-term career effectiveness and success of organizational personnel. Employee training and development focuses on performance in the immediate or intermediate time frames. 2.1 Career development: Career development is an ongoing process where employees: Explore their interests and abilities Strategically plan their career goals, and Create their future work success by designing learning and action plans to help them achieve their goals. Career development involves being aware of one's personal goals and values as well as work goals. It involves continuously learning and applying new knowledge, taking advantage of opportunities, and taking risks in order to help the organization be productive and effective achieving one's career and personal goals. A career development plan is future-focused and details what an employee would like to learn and contribute. A word of caution here, career development plans are not created in a vacuum. It is essential for employees to take into account departmental and organizational needs, objectives and goals when creating their career plans. Personal and professional growths are important factors for keeping one‘s career moving in a direction with which he/she is satisfied. Prior to setting up a meeting to discuss a plan with manager or supervisor, employee will want to engage in selfassessment so that he/she will be able to clearly define and articulate his/her goals and developmental needs. 2.2 Value for the Organization Ensures needed talent will be available. Improves the organization's ability to attract and retain talented employees. Ensures that minorities and women get opportunities for growth and development and reduces employee frustration. Enhances cultural diversity and promotes organizational goodwill. 2|Page
2.3 Mentoring: Mentoring is the process of using specially selected and trained individuals to provide guidance and advice which will help to develop the careers of the 'protégés' allocated to them. Mentoring is aimed at complementing learning on the job, which must always be the best way of acquiring the particular skills and knowledge the job holder needs. Mentoring also complements formal training by providing those who benefit from it with individual guidance from experienced managers who are wise in the ways of the organization. Mentors are typically senior level employees who provide for the person or persons allocated to them: Advice in drawing up self-development programs or learning contracts; general help with learning program Guide on how to acquire the necessary knowledge and skills to do a new job Advice on dealing with any administrative, technical or people problems individuals meet
2.4 Considerations for organizations: Coaching between employees who do not have a reporting relationship Ways to effectively implement cross-gender mentoring
2.5 Career Development Process-A Simple Approach: This Career Development Guide provides employees and their management with a reference document that offers a general "road map" for continuing career and professional development. It provides an understanding of the behavioral and technical competencies that are required to effectively perform tasks in their occupations, and to use for career planning. It presents a reference document on learning and other developmental opportunities which may be used in preparation of Employee Development Plans - a component of the Employee Work Profile.
Figure 1: Career Development Process
2.5.1 Assess "Who am I?" If anyone has been thinking about his/her career path may wonder: ―Where do I start?‖ Typically, this process starts with self-assessment. Understanding who he/she really is critical to effective career planning. Breaking this down can be helpful:
Skills—what skills do I have? And which do I really enjoy using? Just because good at something doesn‘t necessarily mean he /she likes doing it. Interests—what excites me? What interests me enough that I don‘t realize the passage of time while I am engaged in it? Values—what things do I believe in? What motivates me to work? Personality—who am I? What are my personal preferences?
Knowing the answers to these questions and having a deep understanding of who we are helps us in our career planning. We can use this information to evaluate possible careers or career changes, look for opportunities, and find greater satisfaction in other areas of our lives as well. 2.5.2 Explore Once someone has done some self-assessment, he/she can move to researching and exploring the world of work. This exploration may include informational interviews, online and library research, volunteering, or other activities that allow him/her to learn about various occupations.
2.5.3 Set goals
From self-assessment and exploration one should have a clearer idea of what he/she is looking for. Now is the time to set some goals. This includes identifying specific action steps that will move forward. 2.5.4 Act Sometimes people get stuck looking for the ―perfect‖ action step. Remember that any step forward is an accomplishment. Because this process is a cycle, after taking action one should re-assess how his/her plan is going. He/she may need to alter goal a bit. Perhaps stumble across a different occupational path that appears to be a better fit for one. One should use this information to ensure the path is taking him/her where he/she really wants to go.
3.0 Career Development Cycle:
Figure 2.0: Career Development Cycle
3.1 Description of Career Development Cycle 3.1.1 Experience Getting experience can involve anything from taking a class that interests one to joining a club or organization on or off campus. Experiencing something will allow anyone to distinguish between their likes and dislikes. Further, this will help them discover where their strengths and/or weaknesses lie. 3.1.2 Reflection Reflection is a great way to understand your experiences more fully. Whether using a career log, journal writing, or talking with a career counselor this practice can help to organize one‘s thoughts and create career goals. 3.1.3 Career Concept The career one thinks he/she want to pursue after graduation. For example, ―after reflecting on my last two internships, I think I really want to be a pediatrician‖.
3.1.4 Information Gathering It means doing occupational research through online resources, meeting with alumni to talk about their career experiences, reading books. 3.2 Traditional Career Stages:
Figure 3.0: Traditional Career Stages
It includes school and early work experiences, such as internships. It involves: a. trying out different fields b. discovering likes and dislikes c. forming attitudes toward work and social relationship patterns
a. search for work b. getting first job c. getting evidence of ―success‖ or ―failure‖
3.2.3 Mid-Career In this stage, it is challenging to remain productive at work. Employee may: a. continue to grow b. plateau (stay competent but not ambitious) c. deteriorate
3.2.4 Late career Successful ―elder states persons‖ can enjoy being respected for their judgment. Good resource for teaching others. Those who have declined may experience job insecurity. Plateauing is expected; life off the job increases in importance.
3.2.5 Decline (Late Stage) It may be most difficult for those who were most successful at earlier stages. Today‘s longer life spans and legal protections for older workers open the possibility for continued work contributions, either paid or volunteer. 4.0 Theories on Career Development Good career choice outcomes provide positive self-concept and opportunity to do work we think is important. 4.1 Holland’s Theory: John Holland‘s Theory of Career Choice (RIASEC) maintains that in choosing a career, people prefer jobs where they can be around others who are like them. Behavior is determined by an interaction between personality and environment. Holland‘s theory is centered on the notion that most people fit into one of six personality types: • Realistic - practical, physical, hands-on, tool-oriented • Investigative - analytical, intellectual, scientific, explorative • Artistic - creative, original, independent, chaotic • Social - cooperative, supporting, helping, healing/nurturing • Enterprising - competitive environments, leadership, persuading • Conventional - detail-oriented, organizing, clerical 4.1.1 Six Holland Types Realistic- work with hands, machines, tools, active, practical, adventurous High traits - practical, masculine, stable Low traits - sensitive, feminine, stable Occupations - construction, farming, architecture, truck driving, mail carrier Investigative - thought, analytical approaches, explore, knowledge, ideas, not social High traits – scholarly, intellectual, critical Low traits – powerful, ambitious, adventurous Occupations – biologist, chemist, dentist, veterinarian, programmer Artistic – literary, musical, artistic activities, emotional, creative, open High traits – expressive, creative, spontaneous Low traits – orderly, efficient, conventional, social, masculine Occupations – artist, musician, poet, interior designer, writer 7|Page
Social – train, inform, educate, help, supportive, avoid technical skills, empathy, relationships High traits – cooperative, friendly, humanistic Low traits – ambitious, creative, strong Occupations – social work, counseling, police officer, LPN
Enterprising – verbally skilled, persuasive, direct, leader, dominant High traits – ambitious, adventurous, energetic Low traits – intellectual, creative, feminine Occupations – lawyer, business executive, politician, TV producer Conventional – rules and routines, provide order or direct structure, great selfcontrol, respect power and status, punctual, orderly High traits – stable, efficient, dependable, controlled Low traits – intellectual, adventurous, creative Occupations – bank teller, clerk typist, and cashier and data entry
Figure 4.0: Holland Graph
Over 450 research studies, Holland Types appear to be stable over time and across gender and racial lines.
4.2 The Schein Anchors theory: Personal value clusters determine what is important to individuals. technical-functional competence managerial competence security-stability creativity Success of person-job match determines individual‘s fit with the job. 4.3 Jung and the Myers-Briggs Typologies: Four personality dimensions: Extraversion-Introversion Sensing-Intuitive Thinking-Feeling Judging-Perceiving
5.0 Purpose of career development: Enhance each employee's current performance Enable individuals to take advantage of future job opportunities Fulfill their employer's goals for a dynamic and effective workforce. We live in uncertain times. Factors outside of the employee and employer's control may affect the outcome of career actions. But one thing is true - the best career development move is to perform well in one's current position. Consistent, high quality performance along with thoughtful career planning will help ensure continued success on the job. 6.0 Enhancing career: The individual holds primary responsibility for his/her career. Suggestions on how to do that are:
Figure 5.0: Enhancing Career
7.0 Conclusion The review has positively recognized that the impact of career development intermediations are ‗context‘ dependent, and that there is a collaboration between context and learning issues influencing employees‘ motivation for learning at, or for work. The conclusions that can be drawn from the evaluation are imperfect due, at least in part, to the nature of accessible research. In specific, research was inadequate in terms of: • • Assessing the outcomes of employee development patterns and processes designed to inform and inspire individuals in learning and personal advance; Career coaching within the workforce for individuals at level 2 or below; and
• Differentiation in the research literature between employee and employer
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