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Rate of reaction = Changes in amount of reactant/product Decrease in amount of reactant Time taken Increase in amount of product Suitable measurable

ZnCl2(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l) Volume of gas CO2/cm3 Mass of ZnCl2 / g

Time/s Average rate of reaction = Change in selected quantity Time taken Average rate of reaction in first 50 seconds = Volume at 50 seconds Time taken = 30/50 =0.6 cm3 s-1 The average rate of reaction between 50 and 90 seconds = V at 50 s V at 90 s Time taken = (40-30)/(90-50) = 0.25 cm3 s-1 Volume of gas/ cm3

Time/s

Time/s

Time/s Instantaneous Rate Of Reaction = the gradient of the graph at any given time. solution

MEASURING RATE OF REACTION Volume of gas/ cm3

45 40 30 ( 45 20 ) 20 ( 90 25 ) 18 Time/ s 25 50 90 The rate of reaction at 50 second = the gradient of tangent to the curve at the given time = y cm3 xs = 45 - 20 90 - 25 = 0.0345 cm3 s-1

( 45 20 )

- Plot a graph - Draw a tangent - Find the gradient

Time/ s 25 50 90

The average rate of reaction = 40 90 for the whole reaction = 0.444 cm3 s-1

High Rat e of reaction -Fast reaction, short time Low Rate of reaction -Slower reaction, long time

Gradient at t1 steeper > Gradient at t2 Rate of reaction t1 >Rate of reaction t2

Gradient in reaction I steeper > Gradient in reaction II Rate of reaction I >Rate of reaction II

CATALYST When positive catalyst are used. rate of reaction

EFFECT OF THE SIZE OF REACTANT ON RATE OF REACTION CO2 Gas hydrochloric acid CO2 gas Aim : To investigate the effect of the size of reactant on the rate of reaction Problem statement : How does the size of calcium carbonate chips affect the rate of its reaction with dilute hydrochloric acid? Hypothesis : The rate of reaction between calsium carbonate and hydrochloric acid is increases when smaller size calcium carbonate used

Experiment II (large chip)

Time/s Experiment I: 20 cm3 of 0.5 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid + excess of CaCO3 SMALL CHIPS Experiment II: 20 cm3 of 0.5 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid + excess of CaCO3 LARGE CHIPS Equation: 2CaCO3 + 2HCl Manipulated variable : The size of calcium carbonate Responding variable : The rate of reaction Fixed variables : Volume and concentration of HCl Observable Change: Volume of gas CO2 in every 30 s The number of mole of HCl in both experiments: = MV/1000 = 22 x 0.5)/1000 =0.01 mol The rate of reaction of the small calcium carbonate chips is higher compared than large calcium carbonate chip The maximum volume of carbon dioxide gas collected for both experiments are equal because the no. of mole of hydrochloric acid are the same The rate of reaction in experiment II is higher than experiment I because the gradient of the graph II is greater than graph I throughout the reaction.

CONCENTRATION

Volume of carbon dioxide/ cm3

Eye

Experiment I: 50 cm3 of 0.2 mol dm-3 sodium thiosulphate solution + 5 cm3 of 0.5 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid Experiment is repeated four times using 0.2 mol dm-3 sodium thiosulphate solution diluted with different volume of distilled water Equation: Na2S2O3 + 2HCl

Exp I (high concentration)

Sodium thiosulphate solution + Hydrochloric acid X mark Observable Change: Yellow precipitate formed.

Exp II (Low concentration)

2NaCl + S + SO2 + H2O 50 0.0 5.0 0.2 20 0.05 40 10 5.0 0.16 23 0.043 30 20 5.0 0.12 32 0.031 20 30 5.0 0.08 46 0.022 10 40 5.0 0.04 95 0.011 The rate of reaction in exp I is higher than exp II Exp I has higher concentration than Exp II Gradient I is steeper than graph II The maximum volume of carbon dioxide gas collected for both experiments are equal no. of mole of hydrochloric acid are the same

Experiment Aim : To investigate the effect concentration of sodium thiosulphate on the rate of reaction Problem statement : How does concentration of sodium thiosulphate affect on the rate of reaction Hypothesis : When concentration of sodium thiosulphate increase, rate of reaction will increase. Manipulated variable : concentration of sodium thiosulphate Responding variable : The rate of reaction Fixed variables : Volume and concentration of HCl Concentration of Na2S2O3 (mol dm-3) Volume of 0.2 moldm-3 Na2S2O3 , V1 cm3 Volume of distilled water added/cm3 Volume of 1.0 mol HCl acid added/cm3 Concentration of Na2S2O3/moldm-3 Time taken/s 1/time , s-1 Concentration of Na2S2O3 (mol dm-3) Concentration is inversely proportional to time. When the concentration of Na2S2O3 increases, a shorter time is needed for marked across to disappear.

Concentration is directly proportional to 1/time. [ 1/time shows the rate of reaction ] When the concentration of Na2S2O3 increases, the rate of reaction is increase Experiment 1: 2.0 g Magnesium + 50 cm3 of 2.0 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid Experiment II 2.0 g Magnesium + 50 cm3 of 1.0 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid

S2O3 Time /s

2-

2H+

1/time (s-1)

Na2S2O3 + 2HCl

Ionic Equation: S2O3 2- + 2H+ S + SO2 + H2O TEMPERATURE Eye

CONCENTRATION Eye Observable changes: Time required for mark X disappear from view.

Experiment 1: 2.0 g Magnesium + 50 cm3 of 1.0 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid at 25 oC Experiment II 2.0 g Magnesium + 50 cm3 of 1.0 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid at 60 oC

Sodium thiosulphate solution + Hydrochloric acid X mark Paper sheet Concentration of Na2S2O3 (mol dm-3) Experiment

Sodium thiosulphate solution + Hydrochloric acid X mark Paper sheet 4 60 20 30 5.0 0.08 46 0.022 Time /s Temperature Na2S2O3 (mol dm-3) When temperature increase, Shorter time is needed for mark X disappear.

Volume of H2 / cm3 Exp II (60 oC) Exp I (25 oC)

Experiment is repeated four times using 0.2 mol dm-3 sodium thiosulphate solution diluted with different volume of distilled water 1 30 50 0.0 5.0 0.2 20 0.05 2 40 40 10 5.0 0.16 23 0.043 3 50 30 20 5.0 0.12 32 0.031

Temperature/oC When the concentration increase, Shorter time is needed for mark X disappear. Volume of 0.2 moldm-3 Na2S2O3 , Volume of distilled water added/cm3 Volume of 1.0 mol HCl acid added/cm3 Concentration of Na2S2O3/moldm-3 Time taken/s Time /s Concentration of Na2S2O3 (mol dm-3) 1/time , s-1

Time /s lower gradient :. Lower rate Steeper gradient :. Higher rate Volume of H2 / cm3 Exp I (high concentration)

Exp II (low concentration)

Time /s Experiment 1: 2.0 g Magnesium + 50 cm3 of 1.0 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid Experiment II 2.0 g Magnesium + 50 cm3 of 1.0 mol dm-3 sulphuric acid

1/time (s-1)

Decomposition 2 H2O + O2 AMOUNT OF CATALYST

Observable changes: The presence of oxygen gas, tested with glowing wooden splinter

Problem statement : How does the presence of catalyst affect the rate of composition of hydrogen peroxide solution? Hypothesis : Presence of catalyst increase the rate of decomposition of hydrogen peroxide

Problem statement : How does the amount of catalyst affect the rate of composition of hydrogen peroxide solution? Hypothesis : When amount of catalyst used increase, the rate of decomposition of hydrogen peroxide increase Manipulated variable : Mass of catalyst Responding variable : The rate of reaction Fixed variables : temperature, volume and concentration of hydrogen peroxide

Properties of catalyst Need a small amount Specific in action Chemically unchanged Does not affect amount product Increase rate of reaction

Observable changes: Volume of gas carbon dioxide in every 30 s is recorded

Experiment 1: Decomposition of 50 cm3 of 1.0 mol dm-3 Hydrogen Peroxide Experiment II Decomposition of 50 cm3 of 1.0 mol dm-3 Hydrogen Peroxide + 1.0 g manganese (IV) oxide Volume of O2 / cm3 Exp II (with catalyst)

Manipulated variable : Presence of catalyst Responding variable : The rate of reaction Fixed variables : temperature, volume and concentration of hydrogen peroxide

Experiment 1: Decomposition of 50 cm3 of 1.0 mol dm-3 Hydrogen Peroxide + 0.5 g manganese (IV) oxide Experiment II Decomposition of 50 cm3 of 1.0 mol dm-3 Hydrogen Peroxide + 1.0 g manganese (IV) oxide

Exp I (without catalyst)

Manganese(IV) oxide act as catalyst to increase rate of reaction Total volume for both exp I and II same Because the molarity and volume of hydrogen peroxide in both reaction are same

Time /s Lower gradient :. Lower rate Steeper gradient :. Higher rate

When amount Manganese(IV) oxide increase , rate of reaction increase Total volume for both exp I and II same Because the molarity and volume of hydrogen peroxide in both reaction are same Quantity of catalyst does not affect the total volume of produced

The Collision Theory Energy Energy Molecule ust collide Right orientation of collision Achieved a minimun amoun of energy (Ea) reactants The collisions that lead to a chemical reaction are known as effective collisions Reactant Progress of reaction
Ea

Endothermic reaction

Ea
Exothermic reaction Ea Product products Reactant Progress of reaction Ea

Explanation using Collision Theory

SIZE

CONCENTRATION The higher the concentration of reactants, the higher is the number of particles in a unit volume.

TEMPERATUR TEMPERATURE The higher the temperature, the higher is the kinetic energy of reacting particles. The reacting particles move faster.

CATALYST Catalyst provides an alternative path of reaction which needs lower activation energy (Ea)

Energy Profile Diagram And Activation Energy, Ea: Ea The minimum energy the reactant Ea The lower activation energy in the presence of a catalyst.

The smaller the size of reactant, the larger is the total surface area exposed to collision

Haber Process (NH3) Iron, Fe Uses of Catalyst in Industrial Ostwald process (HNO3) Platinum, Pt Contact process (H2SO4) Vanadium (V) oxide, V2O5

The frequency of collision between particles increases. The frequency of effective collision between particles increases The rate of reaction increases.

Cooking of solid food in smaller size The total surface area on a smaller cut pieces of food is larger The food can absorbed more heat. The time taken for the food to be cooked is shorter me

Cooking in a pressure cooker The high pressure in pressure cooker increases the boiling point of water to a temperature above 100 C. The kinetic energy of the particles in the food is higher higher. Time taken for the food to be cooked is decrease Thus the food cooked faster at a higher temperature in a pressure cooker.

Storage of food in a refrigerator When the food kept in refrigerator, the food lasts longer t The low temperature in the refrigerator slows down the activity of the bacteria. The bacteria produce less toxin , the rate of decomposition of food becomes lower

FACTOR Size

EXPLANATION Volume of H2/ cm3

DIAGRAM

Exp I: 2 g of Zinc chip + 50 cm3 1.0 mol dm-3 HCl Exp II : 2 g of Zinc powder + 50 cm3 1.0 mol dm-3 HCl

Size of zinc in exp. II is smaller than exp I. Total surface area exposed to collision in exp. II is larger than exp. I The frequency of collision between zinc and hydrogen ion in exp II is higher Frequency of effective collision between zinc and hydrogen ion in exp II is higher Rate of reaction in exp. II is higher

Exp II

Exp I

Time/s Concentration Concentration of hydrochloric acid in exp. II is higher than exp I The number particles per unit volume in exp. II is higher than exp. I The frequency of collision between zinc and hydrogen ion in exp II is higher Frequency of effective collision between zinc and hydrogen ion in exp II is higher Rate of reaction in exp. II is higher Volume of H2 / cm3 Exp II

Exp I: 2 g of Zinc powder + 50 cm3 0.5 mol dm-3 HCl Exp II : 2 g of Zinc powder + 50 cm3 1.0 mol dm-3 HCl

Exp II

Time /s

Concentration

Exp I: 2 g of Zinc powder + 50 cm3 1.0 mol dm-3 CH3COOH Exp II : 2 g of Zinc powder + 50 cm3 1.0 mol dm-3 HCl Exp III : 2 g of Zinc powder + 50 cm3 1.0 mol dm-3 H2SO4

Experiment I and II Exp I use ethanoic acid (weak acid) and exp II use hydrochloric acid (strong acid) The number of hydrogen ions per unit volume in exp. II is higher than exp. I The frequency of collision between zinc and hydrogen ion in exp II is higher Frequency of effective collision between zinc and hydrogen ion in exp II is higher Rate of reaction in exp. II is higher

Volume of H2 / cm3

Exp III Exp II Exp I Time /s

Experiment II and III Exp III use sulphuric acid (diprotic acid) and exp II use hydrochloric acid (monoprotic acid) The number of hydrogen ions per unit volume in exp. III is higher than exp. II The frequency of collision between zinc and hydrogen ion in exp II is higher Frequency of effective collision between zinc and hydrogen ion in exp II is higher Rate of reaction in exp. II is higher

Temperature Exp I: 2 g of Zinc chip + 50 cm3 1.0 mol dm-3 HCl at 25 oC Exp II : 2 g of Zinc powder + 50 cm3 1.0 mol dm-3 HCl at 40 oC Temperature of exp. II is higher than exp I. The kinetic energy of reactant in exp II is higher than I The frequency of collision between zinc and hydrogen ion in exp II is higher Frequency of effective collision between zinc and hydrogen ion in exp II is higher Rate of reaction in exp. II is higher

Volume of carbon dioxide/ cm3

Exp II

Exp I

Time/s Catalyst Exp I: 2 g of Zinc powder + 50 cm3 0.5 mol dm-3 HCl Exp II : 2 g of Zinc powder + 50 cm3 1.0 mol dm-3 HCl and 2cm3 of copper (II) sulphate Exp II use copper (II) sulphate act as catalyst Catalyst provides an alternative path of reaction which needs lo lower activation energy (Ea) The frequency of collision between zinc and hydrogen ion in exp II is higher Frequency of effective collision between zinc and hydrogen ion in exp II is higher Rate of reaction in exp. II is higher Volume of H2 / cm3 Exp II (with catalyst)

Exp I

Time /s