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  +,1 D& / /0

 C & +  5 EF / /0


x
(10 = a )- / 5 EF G8,H +95 .
 4+5 
.7L?   
"!!
7- / /0
.
 6 $ &E !
/ /0

u' ( x )

 
 2 & 
/ /0
u (x )

+,- . 
 / /0
+,- .

 +,1 23
4+5
+,- . !

 / /0
. a !: . 
 6 $ +5

!!" .  7 6 $ +5


/ +<=  4
 ?>   


89
 

89
4+5
.@A3 

x ln u ( x )

 & "$

AS  5

+,1 D&





= 0&
0 OL
F AFP

+,- . 
 
+,- . !

 
+<
$ 7 


 
89
a
!: . 
 
.+95

. 
 
.a
!: .!

 

10:$ $
01/ 11











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I I

Fonction logarithme nprien


I
1
]0 , +[ 1 6 $
 2 E,8 ]0 , +[ 1 6 $
A x

x

. 1 =4 5- F 
2 
E,8

Definition

. 1 =4 5- =] 0 , +[ 1 6 $ x

 
 2" = 
+,- .
 
x
. ln :O +D 7 O +

. ]0 , +[ 1 = ln
> +5
$1 
ln 1 = 0 
1
x ]0 , +[ , ( ln x ) = :- ] 0 , +[ 1 6 $ 8V
DS ln
 
x
. a ,b ]0 , +[ ,a < b ln a < ln b : . ]0 , +[ 1 6 $ 5HS
O ln
 

. ln x < 0 0 < x < 1

. a ,b ]0 , +[ , ln a = ln b a = b 
ln x > 0 x > 1
ln x = 0 x = 1 

:
>  +5
$1 F 
. h : x ln ln x

g:x

( x 1 ) ln x

f :x

x
ln x

:
 5 =4 EF 

x +1
ln 2
=0
x +1

ln ( x 1 ) ln ( 3 x + 1 ) = 0
x 1
ln 2
0
x +1

ln 2 x = ln x 2 + 1

:
& + =4 EF 
ln ( x 1 ) < ln ( 2 x 1 )

ln ( 3 x + 2 ) < 0

ln ( ab ) = ln a + ln b :- ]0 , +[ 1 / b a E0

/,

. k ZF x > 0 ,u ( x ) = kx x > 0 , F ( x ) = ln ( kx ) : XY


:- ] 0 , +[ 1 E$ 8V
DS F x > 0 , F ( x ) = ln u ( x ) : -

x > 0 , F ( x ) = ln (u ( x ) ) u ( x ) =

1
x

. ln k = c x = 1 E / c / F ( x ) = ln x + c
. ln ( kx ) = ln x + ln k G-
. ln ( ab ) = ln a + ln b :\4 k = b x = a :-5[
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i =n
.5HS
,
88F $ an ... a 2 a1 ZF ln ai
i =1

i =n
= ln ( a i ) : X+D /,
i =1

:- / r E0 ]0 , +[ 1 / b a E0


a
ln = ln a ln b -(2
b
1
ln a = ln a -(4
2

1
ln = ln a -(1
a

( )

ln a r = r ln a -(3

/,

1
1
1

. ln = ln a G- a > 0 ,0 = ln 1 = ln a = ln a + ln :- -(1


a
a

a
1
1
a

. + / b a E0 ln = ln a = ln a + ln = ln a ln b :- -(2


b
b
b

n
ln a = n ln a :6 $ EA& a1 = a 2 = .... = an = a : r = n -(3
1
= ln a n = n ln a n = r ln a : r = n 
an
p
a > 0 , ln a r = r ln a a > ,q ln a r = ln a qr = ln a p = p ln a : r = 
q
a > 0 , ln a r = ln

ln x 2 = 2 ln x

ln = ln x ln y ln ( xy ) = ln x + ln y :\4 xy > 0  
y
. ln n x = ln x :- / n E0 ] 0 , +[ 1 / x E0 
1
n

. A = ln 2 2 + ln 2 + 2 :5 bD 
B = ln

2 1

ln ( x + 3 ) 2 :
&+ .c

2009

+ ln

2 +1

2009

ln ( x + 3 ) = 2 :
5 =4 EF 

-(II
. ]0 , +[ 1 = ln
> +5
$1
 - . -(1

lim

x +

ln x
=0
x

lim ln x =

x 0 +

. lim ln x = lim ln
x 0 +

x 0 +

1
x

lim ln x = +

x +

= lim ln x = : -

03/ 11

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ln 
0
 1 0 -(2

1
x > 0 , ( ln ) ( x ) = > 0 : - ] 0 , +[ 1 6 $ 8V
DS ln

x

x
( ln ) ( x )

+
+
0

ln x

ln 
0
5 6 7
.+
 9
-(3
. ln
 6-&- $ 8 d & "lim+ ln x = :- 
x 0

ln x
= 0 lim ln x = + 
x + x
x +
e 0
-(4
]0 , +[ 1 6 $ 5HS
O
A ln
 

+ 1D E24" & G1 1  $+4 E,8 ln 6-&- lim

. ln ( ]0 , +[ ) = lim ln x , lim ln x = ] , +[ :
x +
x 0

. e +&D G O + ]0 , +[ 1= 4 F VF E,8 ln x = 1


5\ 4 1 ] , +[  D 
. e 2.718 e ln e = 1 : -
. x > 0 , k , ln x = k x = e k x > 0 , k , ln ( e k ) = k 
x > 0 , k , ln x k x e k 
ln 
0
5 6  -(5
. y = x 1 : = 1 7A4
= H8-= 4 ln
 6-&- 
5 
+

1
e

. y = x : = e 7A4
= H8-= 4 ln
 6-&- 
5 
y

y =

1
x
e
y=lnx

y = x 1

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f ( x ) = x ln x :=  D
4+5
5 
f /0

01/+

. D f  &-$ 7- dF .c D f F -(1


f
 +f -(2
. f
 6-&-
g7V +L -(3
.C-  5 . 5 =4 f
 6-&- h9 -(4

-(III
lim

ln ( 1 + x )

x 0

=1

lim

x 1

ln x
=0
x + x n

n , lim

ln x
=1
x 1

n , lim+ x n ln x = 0

lim x ln x = 0

x 0 +

x 0

1
ln
ln t
x
1
. lim+ x ln x = lim+ x ln = lim+ = tlim
+ t
1
x 0
x 0
x 0
x
x
ln x
. lim
= ln ( 1 ) = 1
x 1 x 1
ln ( 1 + x )
. lim
= ln ( 1 ) = 1
x 0
x
1
1
. n , lim+ x n ln x = lim+ x n ln x n = lim+ t ln t = 0
x 0
n x 0
n t 0
ln x n 1
ln x 1
ln t
. n , xlim
=
= lim
=0
lim

n
n
+ x
n x + x n t + t

/,






. xlim
+
+

. xlim
+
+

( ln x )

:
 7- dF
3

( ln x )
x

2
3

lim+ x ( ln x )

x 0

lim+ x 3 ln x

x 0

lim+ 2 + ln x
x 0 x

x +1

lim x ln
x +

lim x ln 1 +
x

x +

lim x ( ln x )

x +

02/+

n +1
. u n = ln
:=  D
4+5( u n )n 1
5 
+,5
n
. (u n )n 1
D i-! u n +1 u n dF -
. u 2 u 1 dF - -(1
s n = u 1 + u 2 + u 3 + ... + u n : XY -(2

. nlim s n i-! .c n
D s n dF
+

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La drive logarithmique dune fonction .

-(IV
@
. I 1 6 $ 5-  I 1 6 $ 8V
DS
 u /0
\4 I 6 $ 5-  u  D . I 6 $
A
 u I 1 6 $ 8V
DS u :-
. I 1 6 $ P jL-D kL& u
. f ( x ) = ln ( u ( x ) ) : XY
:\4 I 1 6 $ 5HS
, u l

u ( I ) ]0 , +[ I 6 $ 8V
DS u  D . x I , f ( x ) = ln u ( x ) :-
x I , f ( x ) = ln (u ( x ) ) u ( x ) =

u(x )
:- ] 0 , +[ 1 6 $ 8V
DS ln
u (x )

:\4 I 1 6 $ 5HS


,! u l

u ( I ) ]0 , +[ I 6 $ 8V
DS u  D . x I , f ( x ) = ln ( u ( x ) ) :-
x I , f ( x ) = ln ( u ( x ) ) u ( x ) =

u(x )
:- ] 0 , +[ 1 6 $ 8V
DS ln
u (x )

x ln u ( x )
\ 4 I 1 6 $ 5-  I 1 6 $ 8V
DS
 u l

.x

u(x )
:
 = I 6 $
89 7 I 6 $ 8V
DS
u (x )

:
= & 4 I 1 / x E0 f ( x ) F
. I = ] , +[ f ( x ) = ln ( x 2 + x + 1 ) -(1
. I = ]e , +[
f ( x ) = ln 1 ln x
-(2

. I 1 6 $ 5-  I 1 6 $ 8V


DS
 u /0
I 1 6 $ u

 
 89 6 x

u(x )
:

u (x )

. I 1 6 $ 5-  I 1 6 $ 8V


DS
 u /0

(c ) ZF

x ln u ( x ) + c : = I 1 6 $ x

1
(c ) x ln 2 x + 1 + c := 
2

u(x )
:
 
 2"
u (x )

1
1

, 2 1 6 $ x 2 x + 1
 
 2" 


. (c ) x ln cos x + c =  , 1 6 $ x tan x
 
 2" 
2 2

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03/+
2

x
:=  D ]2 , +[ 1 6 $
4+5 f
5 
+,5
4 x
b
c
x ]2 , +[ , f ( x ) = a +
+
:Z&D c b a
88& $" F -(1
2 x 2 +x
. ]2 , +[ 1 6 $ f
 
 2"  i-! -(2

.f (x ) =

04/+
:
= & 4 I 1 6 $ f
 
 2"  F
. I = ] , +[
I = ]0 ,1 [

x3
x4 +1
1
f (x ) =
x ln x
f (x ) =

-(1
-(2

05/+
. f ( x ) = x + ln ( ln x ) : =  D
4+5 x =88& +f 
5 
f /0
. D f = ]1 , +[  f
> +5 OF l,c -(1
. f
 +f i-! .c f ( x ) dF -(2
. f
 6-&-
g7V +L -(3
.C-  5 . 5 =4 f
 6-&- h9 -(4
06/+
:=  D /4+5 x =88& +f  f u /5 / +,5
. f ( x ) = ln ( x 2 2 x + 3 ) u ( x ) = x 2 2 x + 3
D f = ] , +[ : i-! x ,u ( x ) > 0 : /D --(1

. u ( 1 2 ) u ( 1 + 2 ) : dF -

. xlim f ( x ) xlim
f ( x ) : /7- dF -(2
+

. f
 +f .c f ( x) dF -(3
. f
 6-&- Ec " &x = 1 "
5 .8 /D -(4
2 3

ln 1 + 2
ln ( x )
f(x)
x x
. x * ,
:
  l,c --(5
=2
+
x
x
x
. f
 6-&- /g7V /$+L -
. 7- E= cF F .c H5= H8 E,8 f
 6-&- /D --(6
..C-  5 . 5 =4 f
 6-&- .! -
. I = [1 , +[ 1 6 $ f
 AS g /0 -(7

.q& . J 1 & I 1 / ED8 g


 /D -
. J / x E0 x
D g 1 ( x ) +,5 F -
( ln 3 1.1 ln 2 0.7 : r< )

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.

Fonction logarithme de base a :( a 1 a > 0 )


-(V
a

-(1
1 5  L3  5HS , 88F $ a /0
]0 , +[ 6 $
4+5 Log a O +D 7 O + =
5 = 
a !: .
 
ln x
:=  D
ln a

Log a ( x ) =

-(2

Log a (e ) =

1
ln a

Log a ( a ) = 1

Log a ( 1 ) = 0

. ln = Log e G- x > 0 , Log e ( x ) =

ln x
= ln x
ln e

:- / r E0 ]0 , +[ 1 / y x E0


1
Log a = Log a x -(2
x

( )

Log a x r = rLog a x -(4

Log a ( xy ) = Log a ( x ) + Log a ( y

) -(1

x
Log a = Log a ( x ) Log a ( y
y

) -(3

:=   bD

B = Log 1
3

( 3)

1
A = Log 2
5

+ Log 2 ( 10 )

ln x
x > 0 , ( Log a ) ( x ) =
ln a

 

a ACK
PA@ @X @P X -(3

= x ln a : - ] 0 , +[ 1 6 $ 8V


DS Log a


: / /1 i- G-


a > 1
F
x

( Log a ) ( x )
Log a ( x )

+
+

0 < a < 1
F
x

( Log a ) ( x )
Log a ( x )

+
1

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Log a
0 < a < 1
F

ZA @ -(4
@Y@ jJ
a > 1
F

y = Log 2 ( x )

1
1

y = Log 1 ( x )
2

-(VI
Fonction logarithme dcimal

Log 10 $ log O +D 7 O + 10 !: . = 


 +95 .
 

. x ]0 , +[ , log ( x ) =

r , log 10

)=r

log ( 10 ) = 1
M 0.43294481...

ln x
:-
ln 10

log ( 1 ) = 0

ZF log x = M ln x :-

. A = log ( 250000 ) + log 250 + log ( 125 ) : bD


07/+
x + ln x
,x >0

. f ( x ) = x ln x
:=  D
4+5 x =88& +f 
5 
f /0
f (0 ) = 1

.!-
1- xlim f ( x ) dF .c D f = [0 , +[ /D --(1
+

./ 6 $ +LA= 4
A f
 /D -
.!-
1- .c / 6 $ +LA= 4 f
 8 
DS - -(2
. x ]0 , +[ , f ( x ) =

2 ( 1 ln x )

( x ln x )

: /D -

. f
 +f b$ -
1

. ,1 1 6= - 7A4


H8 =4 E24" & XH8 (C f ) /D - -(4
2
.( ln 2 0.7 ,e 2.7 r<  )..C-  5 . 5 =4 (C f ) .! -
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/+

h( x) = 2 x x 2 + ln x :
 J ]0, +[ PQ <  h      - I

. lim h( x) lim h( x) 3&H ,I .1


x +

x 0
x 0

. ]0, +[ PQ : h 3&J ] 0, +[ 3 x +F h '( x) ,I . .2

. ]0, +[ *PQ h( x) O ? @ h(1) ,I .


ln x

<
&  H&D: ( C ) 3F& f ( x ) = x 1
:
 J ]0, +[ PQ <  f      II
 
x
. ( O, i , j )   M 
.*&  &?  Z: [Q lim f ( x ) ,I . . 1
x 0
x 0

. *&  &?  Z: [Q ( ln x = 2 ln x ) \ lim ( f ( x ) ( x 1) ) lim f ( x ) ,I .


x +
x +
h ( x)
3&J . . 2
. f  ^& : _K' . . ]0, +[ *3 x +F f ' ( x ) =
2x x
y = x 1 `  C ( D ) M&9I ( C ) P  
I K' . . 3
 
. ( O, i , j ) M  ( <
C ) P   ( D ) M&9I a- .
h( x) = 2 x x 2 + ln x : * - ]0, +[ 89 1 h

-I

lim h( x) = lim ln x = lim 2 x x 2 = 2  - . 1


x 0
x 0

x 0
x 0

x 0
x0

2
ln x
2 ln x

= 0 lim
= 0  - h( x) = x 2 x +

*
x
+
x
x
x
x

lim h( x) = + 
x +
1
: ]0, +[ . x #? 
. 2
h '( x) = (2 x) ' x + 2 x x '+ ( ln x ) ' = 3 x+
x
]0, +[ 89
(h  
h '( x) 0 0 3 x 0

lim 2 x = + lim

x +

x +

( )

h(1) = 2 2 + ln(1) = 0 .

h( x) 0 h( x) h(1) x 1 : x ]0,1]

h( x) 0 h( x) h(1) x 1 : x [1, +[
1
ln x
1
= + lim ln x = lim
lim
= lim ( ln x )
= . . 1 ( II
x 0
x 0
x 0
x0
x
x
x

x 0
x0
x 0
x0
lim f ( x ) = + lim x 1 = 1
x 0
x 0

x 0
x 0

. x = 0   =* #C ( C ) :
ln x
ln x
= lim 2
= 0 
.
lim f ( x) = + lim x 1 = + lim
x +
x +
x +
x x+
x
ln x
. y = x 1  #D #C ( C ) 8 lim ( f ( x ) ( x 1) ) = lim
=0
x +
x +
x
'
'
( ln x ) x ( ln x ) x : 
]0, +[ / . x #? . . 2
2 x x 2 + ln x = h( x)
f '( x) = 1
=
2
2x x
x
2x x

( )

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]0, +[

h( x) E * f ' ( x ) E  2 x x 0  -

x
f '( x)

1
0

f ( x ) +

/ . x #? f ' ( x ) =


.

4 ( C ) 8

ln x
= 0 
. . 3
x

K ( C ) 8

( D ) M,

( D ) M,

A
. ( D ) M, ( C ) 8 A (1, 0 )
: ( C ) .
y

(C)

-1

-1

(D)

ln x E J?9 * f ( x ) ( x 1) E

:* C, N4
( D ) ( C )

2x x

f
1H
F

. ]0, +[ / . x #? f ( x ) ( x 1) =

x
f ( x ) ( x 1)

h ( x)

1A

-2

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