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# Prepared by K.L.

Vasundhara

COMPLEX ANALYSIS

z=x+iy is a complex variable, where x and y are real variables.

Functions of a complex variable:

w=u(x, y) + iv (x,y) is a function of the complex variable z=x+iy.
i.e., w = f(z) = u(x,y) + iv (x,y)

Where u(x,y) is the real part and v(x,y) is the imaginary part of the complex
function f(z). In general we can write f (z) = u+iv.

Example: x
2
-y
2
+ 2ixy = u(x,y) + iv (x,y) is a function of a complex variable z.

For, f(z) = x
2
-y
2
+ 2ixy
z
2
= (x+iy) (x+iy)
= x
2
-y
2
+ 2ixy
Therefore f(z) = z
2

Limit of a Function:

Let f(z) be a function defined in a set S and let z
0
be a limit point of S. Then A
is said to be the limit of f(z) at z
0
if for any > 0 e there exists > 0 such that
f(z) - A < o
for all z in S other than z
0
with
0
z - z < .

It is denoted by
0
Lt f(z) = A. z - z <

z z
0

Continuity of a Function:
Let f(z) be a function defined in S and let z
0
be a limit point. If the limit
of f(z) at z
0
exists and if it is finite and is equal to f(z
0
).

0
z z
0
Lim f(z) = ( ) f z

Then f(z) is said to be continuous at z
0
.

Derivative of a complex function:

A function f(z) is said to be differentiable at a point z=z
0
if the
0 0
( ) ( )
0
f z z f z
Lim
z
z
+ A
A
A
exists.
It is denoted by
1
0
( ) f z

i.e.,
1 0 0
0
( ) ( )
( )
0
f z z f z
f z Lim
z
z
+ A
=
A
A

We can say a function f(z) is said to be differentiable at a fixed point z if the
limit

0 0
( ) ( )
0
f z z f z
Lim
z
z
+ A
A
A
exists.

Analytic Function:

A function defined at a point z
0
is said to be analytic at z
0
, if it has a derivative
at z
0
and at every point in some neighborhood of z
0
.
It is said to be analytic in a region R, if it is analytic at every point of R.

The necessary condition for f(z) to be analytic:
Cauchy Riemann Equations
The necessary conditions for a complex function f(z) = u(x,y) + iv(x,y) to be
analytic are i.e.,
x y x y
u v v u
and
x y x y
u v and v u
c c c c
= =
c c c c
= =

Sufficient Condition for f(z) to be analytic

The function f(z) = u(x,y) + iv(x,y) to be analytic in a domain D if

(i) u(x,y) and v(x,y) are differentiable u
x
,u
y
, v
x
and v
y
are all
continuous in D.

(ii) The partial derivatives u
x
, u
y
, v
x
and v
y
are all continuous in D.

Polar Form of Cauchy Riemann Equations:

1
1
u v
r r
v u
r r
u
u
c c
=
c c
c c
=
c c

Example 1. Show that the function f(z) = |z|
2
is differentiable only at origin.

Sol. Given f(z) = |z|
2
(1)
Since z=x+iy , we have

|z|
2
= x
2
+ y
2
..(2)

Substituting (2) in (1), we get

f(z) = x
2
+ y
2

u+iv = x
2
+ y
2
( Since f(z) = u+iv )

i.e., u = x
2
+ y
2
v = 0

2 0
2 0
u v
x
x x
u v
y
y y
c c
= =
c c
c c
= =
c c

If f(z) is differentiable, then

u v
x y
c c
=
c c

2x = 0 It implies x = 0

u v
y x
c c
=
c c

2y = 0 It implies y = 0

Therefore, C R equations are satisfied only when x = 0, y = 0.

Hence the given function f(z) is differentiable only at the origin (0,0)

Example 2. Test whether the function is Analytical or not.
f(z) = e
x
(cos y + i sin y).

Sol: Given f(z) = f(z) = e
x
(cos y + i sin y)
= e
x
cos y + i e
x
sin y
Where u = e
x
cos y v = e
x
sin y

x x
e cos y e sin y
u v
and
x x
c c
= =
c c

x x
e sin y e cos y
u v
and
y y
c c
= =
c c

Here x y x y
u v and v u = =

i.e., f(z) satisfies C R equations.
Hence the given function is analytic.

Properties of Analytic Functions:

Property 1: Both the real part and imaginary parts of any analytic function
satisfies Laplaces equation.

Harmonic function: Any function which has continuous second order
partial derivatives and which satisfies Laplaces equation is called Harmonic
function.

Property 2: If w = u + iv is an analytic function, then the curves of the family
u(x,y) = c
1
cut orthogonally the curves of the family v(x,y) = c
2

Where c
1
, c
2
are constants.