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Vasundhara

COMPLEX ANALYSIS

z=x+iy is a complex variable, where x and y are real variables.

Functions of a complex variable:

w=u(x, y) + iv (x,y) is a function of the complex variable z=x+iy.

i.e., w = f(z) = u(x,y) + iv (x,y)

Where u(x,y) is the real part and v(x,y) is the imaginary part of the complex

function f(z). In general we can write f (z) = u+iv.

Example: x

2

-y

2

+ 2ixy = u(x,y) + iv (x,y) is a function of a complex variable z.

For, f(z) = x

2

-y

2

+ 2ixy

z

2

= (x+iy) (x+iy)

= x

2

-y

2

+ 2ixy

Therefore f(z) = z

2

Limit of a Function:

Let f(z) be a function defined in a set S and let z

0

be a limit point of S. Then A

is said to be the limit of f(z) at z

0

if for any > 0 e there exists > 0 such that

f(z) - A < o

for all z in S other than z

0

with

0

z - z < .

It is denoted by

0

Lt f(z) = A. z - z <

z z

0

Continuity of a Function:

Let f(z) be a function defined in S and let z

0

be a limit point. If the limit

of f(z) at z

0

exists and if it is finite and is equal to f(z

0

).

0

z z

0

Lim f(z) = ( ) f z

Then f(z) is said to be continuous at z

0

.

Derivative of a complex function:

A function f(z) is said to be differentiable at a point z=z

0

if the

0 0

( ) ( )

0

f z z f z

Lim

z

z

+ A

A

A

exists.

It is denoted by

1

0

( ) f z

i.e.,

1 0 0

0

( ) ( )

( )

0

f z z f z

f z Lim

z

z

+ A

=

A

A

We can say a function f(z) is said to be differentiable at a fixed point z if the

limit

0 0

( ) ( )

0

f z z f z

Lim

z

z

+ A

A

A

exists.

Analytic Function:

A function defined at a point z

0

is said to be analytic at z

0

, if it has a derivative

at z

0

and at every point in some neighborhood of z

0

.

It is said to be analytic in a region R, if it is analytic at every point of R.

The necessary condition for f(z) to be analytic:

Cauchy Riemann Equations

The necessary conditions for a complex function f(z) = u(x,y) + iv(x,y) to be

analytic are i.e.,

x y x y

u v v u

and

x y x y

u v and v u

c c c c

= =

c c c c

= =

Sufficient Condition for f(z) to be analytic

The function f(z) = u(x,y) + iv(x,y) to be analytic in a domain D if

(i) u(x,y) and v(x,y) are differentiable u

x

,u

y

, v

x

and v

y

are all

continuous in D.

(ii) The partial derivatives u

x

, u

y

, v

x

and v

y

are all continuous in D.

Polar Form of Cauchy Riemann Equations:

1

1

u v

r r

v u

r r

u

u

c c

=

c c

c c

=

c c

Example 1. Show that the function f(z) = |z|

2

is differentiable only at origin.

Sol. Given f(z) = |z|

2

(1)

Since z=x+iy , we have

|z|

2

= x

2

+ y

2

..(2)

Substituting (2) in (1), we get

f(z) = x

2

+ y

2

u+iv = x

2

+ y

2

( Since f(z) = u+iv )

i.e., u = x

2

+ y

2

v = 0

2 0

2 0

u v

x

x x

u v

y

y y

c c

= =

c c

c c

= =

c c

If f(z) is differentiable, then

u v

x y

c c

=

c c

2x = 0 It implies x = 0

u v

y x

c c

=

c c

2y = 0 It implies y = 0

Therefore, C R equations are satisfied only when x = 0, y = 0.

Hence the given function f(z) is differentiable only at the origin (0,0)

Example 2. Test whether the function is Analytical or not.

f(z) = e

x

(cos y + i sin y).

Sol: Given f(z) = f(z) = e

x

(cos y + i sin y)

= e

x

cos y + i e

x

sin y

Where u = e

x

cos y v = e

x

sin y

x x

e cos y e sin y

u v

and

x x

c c

= =

c c

x x

e sin y e cos y

u v

and

y y

c c

= =

c c

Here x y x y

u v and v u = =

i.e., f(z) satisfies C R equations.

Hence the given function is analytic.

Properties of Analytic Functions:

Property 1: Both the real part and imaginary parts of any analytic function

satisfies Laplaces equation.

Harmonic function: Any function which has continuous second order

partial derivatives and which satisfies Laplaces equation is called Harmonic

function.

Property 2: If w = u + iv is an analytic function, then the curves of the family

u(x,y) = c

1

cut orthogonally the curves of the family v(x,y) = c

2

Where c

1

, c

2

are constants.

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