It is a very simple matter to write a big book; to
gather a lot of information, then sit down and throw
it all together at random! But it is one of the hardest
jobs in the world to take a big book and condense it
down to a few pages, to cut out all unnecessary words,
yet keep all the important facts. That is just what we
have done with these instructions.
Many people have the idea that the larger the book
the more information they are getting for their money,
when just the opposite is generally true. The average
book is about 80 per cent hooey; simply because it is
easier to write and the author knows that a big book
will sell more copies.
No doubt you have some of these; they give you a
few facts-then add a lot of hooey for filler; then a few
more facts-and a lot more hooey. In order to get the
few facts you have to wade through so much hooey, so
many unnecessary big words, technical terms, scientif
ic theory and chemical phenomena which you cannot
understand, nor would it be of any practical value if
you did, that you finally gave up in disgust and de
spair-and threw it upon the shelf for the mice to
chew on! Isn't that a fact? Isn't that just what has
happened with all the big books you have bought in'
It took us about two months to write some 200 pages
on "Beryllium-and the rarer minerals," but it took us
several more months of extra time and the re-writing
of hundreds of pages to condense it down to the few
pages as you find it. In this we deal with commercial
minerals from the standpoint of the prospector; the
prospector is interested in only five things: What to
look for-its commercial value-where to look-how to
find it-its identification. All these things are covered
in these instructions-no more-no less!
Practically all books written on mineralogy in the
past have been from the standpoint of the mineralo
gist and the mineral specimen collector who are inter
ested only in pure minerals, as specimens, and not for
the value of the elements which they contain: pure
specimens can generally be identified fairly accurately
by their physical properties, such as color, hardness,
etc. (Such as the gem stones later on).
But the prospector looking for commercial minerals
is not interested merely in pretty rocks; he is interested
only in the value of the elements which they contain.
Commercial minerals seldom occur in the pure state,
and thus the names of the rocks or ores and their phy
sical properties are of value merely in learning that a
certain mineral exists, but not as a means of its iden
The only way to find out what a metallic mineral
contains is to test it out by chemical or other means.
There may be 15 or more rocks which may contain a
certain element, as with beryllium, but one Simple test
will find the element in all of them. So, by our system,
instead of trying to learn how to identify all the dif
ferent rocks by their physical properties,. which cannot
be done. we just make our simple test for the element
itself-and we automatically cover all the minerals
containing that element.
"The Wonder Metal Which Performs Miracles"
Beryllium may be taken as one of the best examples
to show how that many of the rarer elements which
were considered but laboratory curiosities only a few
short years ago are now the commonplace important
minerals today; and how that many of the other ele
ments considered rare today will be the common im
portant minerals of tomorrow and why prospectors of
today should learn something about them.
Only a few short years ago, in fact even as recent as
1942, beryllium was considered more or less a rare ele
ment; the production of the pure metal was so costly
it had but a few industrial uses; Beryl was the only
mineral used in its production; books on mineralogy
scarcely mentioned it; there was no simple test for its
. identification and prospectors did not bother to learn
anything about it.
With the outbreak of World War Two, beryllium sky
rocketed from a minor rare element to one of major im
portance. Today it is one of the most important, most
valuable and the most sought after in science and in
dustry, with the brightest future for expansion of all
the alloy metals.
As little as 2 per cent beryllium makes copper hard
as steel. It hardens and strengthens aluminum and
magnesium. Its alloys make non-magnetic instru
ments, non-sparking t o o l s ~ super stainless-steels, high
speed bearings and propellers for airplanes, and does
so many remarkable things that it has been rightly
and justly called "The Miracle Metal."
It is one of the necessary elements in the Atomic
Bomb as well as other war uses. Its future peacetime
as well as war uses are unlimited: alloyed with alum
inum or magnesium it will build the stronger and
lighter airplanes, automobiles, and the thousands of
other articles which make up our modern progressive
world. Mountains of beryllium ores will be needed!
These instructions will show you how to find them.
Value: The price of berryllium ore is based upon the
"unit," which is 200 pounds of ore containing 10 per
cent of beryllium oxide (BeO). The pre-war price up to
May 1942 was $3 per unit or $30 per ton for ore contain
ing 10 per cent BeO. Present price $40 per unit or $400
per ton for ore containing 10 per cent BeO, plus $40 for
each extra 1 per cent, thus an ore containing 14 per
cent BeO would be worth $560 per ton. These prices are
f.o.b. mines, in which case the buyer pays the freight.
Now for the first time in any book you can learn all
about beryllium: Its 18 known important minerals,
what they are, what they look like, where to prospect,
how and where to find them. Now for the first time an
easy Simple, quick and accurate test for their identific
ation. Our "Five Minute Beryllium Test" will show you
how to identify beryllium, if present, in any mineral in
5 minutes time; make 25 tests for less than 10c. Only a
few pieces of inexpensive equipment required. On
ly three mild chemicals needed, new discovery, no po
tassium cyanide or other rank poisons used. Anyone
can do it!
THE ELEMENT: Symbol Be. Name from Latin word
Beryl. (Also called Glucenium, symbol GL). Atomic
number 4. Atomic weight 9.02. Specific gravity 1.85;
weights 114.9 pounds per cubic foot. Melting point 1350
degrees Centigrade (2333 degrees F). The Il!etal.is sil
ver-white in color; much resembles magneslUm In ap
pearance, but is hard enough to scratch glass. It is nev
er found in the metallic state in nature. It is prepared
by electrolysis from the oxide found in certain ores.
Was used by the Egyptians in ancient times to harden
copper, then the secret was lost for thousands of years.
The oxide was discovered in the mineral beryl by Vau
quelin in 1790; the metal by Wohler in 1828. But its
actual use not until about 1928 some 100 years later.
However, its real industrial uses in large quantities
not until. 1942 after the outbreak of World War Two.
Value pure metal $23 per pound.
Characteristics and Uses
ALLOY: It readily alloys with all the common metals
such as copper, nickel, iron, aluminum and magnes
ium. Its greatest use at present is as an alloy to harden
and strengthen copper and nickel. As little as 2 per
cent beryllium makes copper as hard as structural
steel and increases its tensile strength from 33,000 to
over 185,000 pounds per square inch, and even more re
markable is its resistance to vibration; where plate
springs of the common metals usually crystallize and
break at around 400,000 bends, beryllium-copper will
withstand over 10,000,000 bends without fracturing!
Three per cent beryllium added to nickel makes one of
the hardest and toughest metals with a tensile strength
of over 300,000 pounds per square inch! Beryllium
bronze is one of the best alloys ever discovered for
making high speed bearings,. such as used in high
speed airplane engines, propeller shafts, etc.
NON-CORROSIVE: A very little beryllium added to
silver or other metals prevents tarnish and is practic
ally non-corrosive; much used in making special kinds
of stainless-steels, such as for optical, dental and
NON-SPARKING: As little as 3 per cent beryllium
added to copper produces tools equal in hardness and
strength to tool steel, yet retains its non-sparking
qualities; much used in gas, munition and other plants
where a single spark may cause loss of hundreds of
lives and millions of dollars in damage.
LIGHTNESS: It is the second lightest in weight of
all the metals in general structural use, having a spec
ific gravity of 1.85. It is one-third lighter than alumin
um with specific gravity of 2.70, and only slightly
heavier than magnesium with a specific gravity of 1.74.
No doubt its greatest use in the future will be as an
alloy with these elements.
Prospecting for Beryllium
FORMATION: While some beryllium minerals may
exist most anywhere or in any kind of rock, the most
likely formation is in Pegmatite, or in schist or gneiss
usually associated with the same. Pegmatite is a very
common formation, there being thousands of pegmatite
dikes scattered all over most of the United States.
These contain the greatest variety of valuable minerals
of all formations. In addition to the 18 beryllium min
erals, there are some 48 or more valuable minerals
which may be found in pegmatite, yet they are per
haps the least understood and least prospected, and
thus the most fertile field for the prospector who
knows his business. The 48 most important associate
minerals will be taken up in Part Two of these instruc
tions. But first let us understand something about peg·
matite itself; what it is, how to identify it, where to
WHAT IS PEGMATITE? Book on geology tell us "It
is very coarsely crystalline granite occuring in veins or
dikes cutting ordinary granite." This, however, is very
vague and indefinite; so let us say for our purposes
simply "Veins or dikes containing coarse quartz, feld
spar and mica," in,other words, wherever you find these
you start looking for the 18 beryllium and the other
48 or more associate minerals.
GEOLOGY: Pegmatite is Simply large or small
cracks in igneous or molten rocks, such as granite,
which have been filled with minerals forced up from
below in a molten state by heat and pressure, much
on the order of small elongated volcanoes which barely
reach the surface. This molten mass also contained
much water, with the following results:
First: As the surface cooled much the quickest it
forced the water to the uncooled portion below, and the
minerals followed the water; thus the surface may look
just like common "bull-quartz" showing little or no
mineralization, and so, generally, you must dig to find
the values in pegmatite; however, the values are usual
ly found fairly near the surface.
Second: The pressure being greater in the center
squeezed or forced the water, carrying the minerals to
one side or the other (or in some cases to both sides),
and thus,. this is the most logical place to dig, rather
than in the center.
Third: The outer lower portion, cooling slowly,
caused or allowed the various minerals to separate out
and collect in large or small individual masses; thus
we find quartz in large and small boulders, feldspar in
large or small individual masses, mica in large or
small books,. columbite or tantalite in large or small
nodules, beryl or other minerals in large or small cry
stals or masses, and so on.
Fourth: Due to the above we will generally find
one wall more or less a solid sheet or block of quartz
then the mineralized vein or zone, then the outer wall;
usually of some other material; many times this is
schist or gneiss, and this being softer and more porous
!he water carrying the minerals seeped or was forced
mto the same, and thus are sometimes also mineralized
and so should be prospected.
NOTE: The following 15 commercial minerals all
quickly and accurately identified by our "5 Minute
1. BERYL: Beryllium·aluminum-silica. Beryllium
oxide 14 per cent if pure. Specific gravity near 2.5.
Hardness 7.5 to 8; hard but brittle. Colors: emerald
green, pale-green, rose, red, brown, yellow, white.
Transparent (emerald) translucent to opaque with vit
reous to resinous luster. Crystal form: usually hexag
onal: but may be massive or in granular particles
scattered through roeIL Occurs: usually in pegmatite,
especially the part containing quartz, feldspar and
mica; also in gneiss, schist or slates. Associate miner
als: quartz, feldspar, mica, schist, gneiss, slates; and
the other beryllium and 48 associate pegmatite miner
als. Why overlooked: May be in large crystals of 30
tons or more in which case it is apt to look like mas
sive quartz; no doubt much so called "bull quartz" is
beryl or other beryllium minerals. Do not guess-make
a test! Also watch for gem stones.
2. PHENACITE: Beryllium-silica. (Characteristic by
absence of alumium). Contains when pure 45.5 per
cent beryllium oxide (highest percentage found to
date). Colors: white rose, wine-red, yellow, brown,
colorless. Transparent to translucent to opaque, with
vitreous luster. Specific gravity 3. Hardness 7.5 to 8.
Crystal form: Rhombohedral or platy. Occurs: in large
or small particles in feldspar or other associate min
erals (See 14. Beryllium-spar). Why overlooked: chief
ly for lack of a simple beryllium test; may look just
like common quartz or other rock.
3. BERTRANDITE: Beryllium-silica (much the
same as phenacite except softer). May contain up to
42.1 per cent beryllium oxide. Specific gravity 2.5.
Hardness 6.5 to 7. Colors: white, yellow or colorless,
with vitreous to pearly luster. Transparent to trans·
lucent; if yellow may be opaque. Occurs: may be in
large crystals in pegmatite or small crystals scattered
through same. Looks like quartz.
4. CHRYSOBERYL: Beryllium-aluminum (charac·
terized by absence of silica). Beryllium oxide 20 per
cent. Specific gra'lity 3.5. Hardness 8.5. (Hardest of all
beryllium minerals). Color: yellow, (see 17. Golden
Beryl); also various shades of green,. with vitreous to
resinous luster. Transparent to opaque. Occurs: in
large or small orthorhombic crystals, or in small par
ticles in pegmatite minerals. Looks like colored quartz.
Note. watch for Golden Beryl and other gem stones.
5. BERYLLONITE: Beryllium-sodium-phosphorous.
Beryllium oxide 20 per cent. Specific gravity 3. Hard
ness 5.5 to 6. Crystal form: orthorhombic to platy.
Colors: white, colorless or pale-yellow. Transparent to
translucent to opaque, with brilliant vitreous luster.
Occurs: may be in large masses resembling quartz; or
in plates resembling white or yellow feldspar; or in
small particles scattered through the same; or in
gneiss, schist, or other associate minerals.
6. EUCLASE: Beryllium-aluminum-silicate. 18 per
cent BeO, Specific gravity 3. Hardness 7.5. Colors: pale
green, pale-blue, white, colorless; vitreous to resinous
luster. Occurs: in pegmatite, or more common in chlor
ite schist. Looks like quartz.
7. HAMBERGITE. Beryllium-boron. 45 per cent
BeO. Specific gravity 3. Hardness 7.5. Colors: White,
pale-green, yellow; vitreous to resinous luster. Occurs
in pegmatite or elsewhere. May be mistaken for quartz
or common rock.
8. LEUCOPHANITE. Beryllium-flourine-calcium
silica. 14 per cent BeO. Specific gravity 3. Hardness 4.
Colors: white, yellow, pale-green,. vitreous luster; trans
parent to opaque. Occurs: in pegmatite or fluorspar,
for which it may be mistaken.
9. EPIDIDYMITE: Beryllium-sodium-silica. 14 per
cent BeO. Specific gravity 2.5. Hardness 6. Colors:
white or colorless; transparent to opaque; vitreous to
pearly luster_ Occurs: in pegmatite or elsewhere_ Looks
like quartz or white feldspar.
10. HELVITE: Beryllium-iron-manganese-sulphur
silicate. Beryllium oxide 14 per cent if pure; the pure
crystals more likely to carry near 14 per cent than is
beryl. Specific gravity 3 for pure crystals; if in iron
much heavier. Hardness 6 to 6.5. Crystal form: isomet
ric, tetragonal (resembles garnet). Colors: white, yel
low, green, brown, red. Transparent to opaque, with
vitreous to resinous luster. Occurs at Iron Mountain,
N. M. Is found in small crystals in streaks or masses
in magnetic iron. Likely mistaken for garnet.
NOTE: The large deposit of helvite discovered at
Iron Mountain, N. M., which it is said the government
spent $50,000 in developing, may better show the future
possibilities of milling low-grade beryllium ores. The
Bureau of Mines now indicate laboratory-tests show
promise of concentrating low-grade ores by froth flota
tion. May be future source.
11. DANALITE: Beryllium-iron-manganese-sulphur
and zinc. (Same as helvite except zinc). 14 per cent
BeO. Specific gravity 3.5. Hardness 5.5 to 6. Crystal
form, colors and occurrence, same as helvite. Likely
mistaken for garnet.
12. TRIMERITE: Beryllium-iron-manganese-cal
cium-silica. (No zinc or sulphur). 16 per cent BeO. Spe
cific gravity 3.5. Hardness 6 to 7. Colors: salmon-pink,
brown, gray, white, transparent to opaque; vitreous lus
ter. Crystal form, hexagonal. Occurs: same as helvite;
likely mistaken for garnet.
13. HERDERITE: Beryllium-flourine-calcium-phos_
phorous. 15 per cent BeO. Specific gravity 3. Hardness
5. Crystal form monoclinic. Colors: white, pale-green,
yellow. Transparent to opaque, with vitreous to resin
ous luster. Occurs: in crystal or granular masses, usual
ly in or near fluorspar, for which it is likely to be mis
taken. May be in pegmatite.
14. BERYLLIUM-SPAR: There is one record where
common feldspar has been mined and sold containing
12 per cent BeO. No doubt this is just common feldspar
impregnated with small crystals of phenacite or other
beryllium minerals. So watch feldspar for beryllium.
May be future source of beryllium.
15. GADOLINITE: Beryllium-iron-silica and the
Rare-Earth element Yttrium. Beryllium oxide 10 per
cent. Yttrium oxide 51.8 per cent. An ore of this quali
ty may be worth $1,000 or more per ton, chiefly for the
yttrium. Colors: black,. greenish-black, or may have a
brownish cast by reflected light. May be transparent
to translucent on thin edges. Crystal form: sometimes
coarse monoclinic prisms, but usually as an amorphous
glassy mass resembling obsidian. Cleavage, none. Frac
ture, conchoidal. Hardness 6.5 to 7. SpecifiC gravity 4
to 4.5. Occurs: may be in small crystals in rock; or in
large or small rounded nodules; or may be massive in
veins or depOSits. Associate minerals: Columbite, tanta
lite, cassiterite,. ilmenite, fluorspar, tungsten or in other
pegmatite minerals. Look for: in pegmatite, slates,
gneisses schists, or in any volcanic formation such as
granite, etc. Characteristics: Very much resembles com
mon obsidian or volcanic glass for which it is almost
sure to be mistaken. Identified: by its physical prop
erties above,_ and the beryllium test.
NOTE: Gadolinite is one of the chief ores of yttri
um, and so is generally considered as a yttrium rather
than as a beryllium mineral; however it is listed here
under beryllium minerals for the following reasons:
First, yttrium is one of the most valuable of the Rare
Earth Elements. Second, there is no simple test for
yttrium. Third, we do have a simple test for beryllium.
Fourth, gadolinite is the only black mineral resembling
obsidian known at present which carries berryllium. Re
sults: If you find a black mineral resembling obsidian
which gives a beryllium reaction with our "5 Minute
Beryllium Test," then, as far as is known at present,
it is almost sure to be gadolinite; and thus we indirect
ly but automatically identify yttrium. While gadolinite
is somewhat heavier than common obsidian, the dif
ference in weight is too slight to depend upon. Do not
guess-make a test:
A TIP: In recent months, several large companies
all at once got awfully interested in obsidian; it must
be of a certain kind: "Pure glass, black or brown, and
translucent on thin edges." Within 30 days we received
over 30 letters from our students from Maine to Cali
fornia asking about it. Now maybe they do want ob
sidian; if so this tip may help you find it. However, it
sounds suspicious! Why should this news travel so fast
from Maine to California unless someone made extra
effort to see that it did so,. and why this extra effort
unless it was something pretty valuable? Why should
this particular kind of "obsidian" so closely fit Gado
We wonder could they be playing the old mining
game which made the early day milling and smelting
companies rich; by buying an ore for one thing then
making twice as much off of something else more valu
able which the mine owners knew nothing about-if
they are buying "obsidian" and getting Gadolinite.
Maybe not; however, if you happen to find any be sure
and test it for beryllium before selling it for obsidian;
if beryllium present, have assayed for yttrium.
BERYLLJ UM GEM STONES
VEST POCKET FORTUNES! Some transparent beryl
lium minerals are the most valuable of all gem stones.
The most important of these being Emerald, Golden
Beryl and Alexandrite; any of these so small you may
put it in your vest pocket may be worth from $500 up
to $10,000 or more! So in looking for or mining the
commercial minerals, one should keep in mind the gem
stones; what they are, where to look for them in the
mineral deposit, and how to identify them.
16. EMERALD: This is the world's most valuable
precious gem; a perfect emerald may be worth many
times that of a diamond of the same size. Emerald is
simply transparent beryl containing small traces of
chromium which gives it its beautiful green color. Phy
sical properties same as beryl.
TESTING: Emerald will scratch glass; this merely
distinguishes it from green fluorspar or calcite which
are commonly found in pegmatite, and no doubt ac
counts for overlooking many emeralds; mistaken for one
of these. However, there are green stones commonly
found in pegmatite which will scratch glass, such as
tourmaline, etc. But if you find such a stone-have it
examined by a gem expert!
17. GOLDEN BERYL: This is simply transparent
chrysoberyl of a yellow or golden color and ranks next
to the emerald in value. (See 4. Chrysoberyl). Look
for same as emerald.
18. ALEXANDRITE: Another beryl gem ranking in
value with Golden Beryl. Same physical properties as
beryl. Its chief characteristics being: Has a gray-green
color by day or natural light, but appears "Columbine
red" by artificial or lamp light. Look for same as em
erald. Identify as above.
"OVERLOOKED FORTUNES"! It is possible that
most every ton of beryl now being sold contains gem
material worth many times the price of a ton of beryl;
overlooked simply because few people know what to
look for or how. While it is possible to find clear trans
parent gems, they are more likely to appear at first
sight just like common green beryl, or even a blackish
opaque pebble in which the emerald or other gem may
PROSPECTING: You do not prospect for gem stones
-you prospect for beryllium minerals, especially beryl
or chrysoberyl; if found-you then start looking for
WHERE TO LOOK: 1. In the same deposit with
beryl or any of the 14 other commercial beryllium min
erals. 2. In geodes or brown clay-filled cavities in
feldspar, quartz or wall rock. 3. As druses or clusters
in cavities. 4. Some of the finest emeralds and alex
andrite are recovered from typical black or greenish
mica schist which is many times found in pegmatite
or wall rock. 5. The greatest quantity of all is ob
tained by washing stream beds or soil from the decom
position of pegmatite or other beryllium carrying rocks.
IDENTIFYING: All beryllium gem stones will give
a blue color by our "5 minute beryllium test".
The Newe,r and Rarer Minerals
INDEX - METALLIC MINERALS
18. Native Bismuth
INDEX - MISCELLANEOUS MINERALS
41. Amblygonite 46. Monazite
42. Triphylite 47. Feldspar
43. Dumortierite 48. Mica
All the above may be found in pegmatite associated
with the 18 beryllium minerals; however, in classifying
them as pegmatite minerals we should understand the
First: Some of these are considered strictly pegma·
tite minerals; this, however, does not mean that they
are never found in any other formation, or that you are
sure to find them every time you find pegmatite; it
simply means that pegmatite is generally the most
Second: Others of these are not generally consider
ed as pegmatite minerals whatever, but as they do
quite often occur in pegmatite they are included as a
"tip" what to watch out for and to become acquainted
Third: Also remember, we do not include all min
erals which may occur in pegmatite: we cover only
those for which we have a simple test,. or which can be
identified by their physical properties, as explained in
the following pages.
THE NEWER AND RARER MINERALS
This is the age of the Alloy Metals. Many of the most
valuable of these are the newer and rarer minerals
which are generally less known, and which the average
prospector is walking over in the hills today and the
small mine owner is throwing upon the waste dump
unrecognized. Many of these are far more valuable
than the old standbys.
For example: Cassiterite may be worth $1000 per
ton; columbite $2500 per ton; tantalum ores $3000 per
ton; tungsten ores $2 per pound; and so on. Your
chances of finding some of these or other rare minerals
are just as good as finding a $100 a ton gold or silver
ore, if you know where to look and how to identify
th. when found.
As stated in "Prospecting for Beryllium"; generally
speaking beryllium is considered a pegmatite mineral:
in addition to the 18 beryllium minerals covered in
these instructions, there are some 48 or more other
valuable minerals which may also be found in peg
matite. This includes practically all of the newer and
rarer minerals as well as many of the better known,
and thus pegmatite is one of the most fertile fields of
all formations for the prospector today who knows
what these minerals are, where to look and how to
However, strange as it may seem, we seldom find a
prospector who knows what pegmatite is or how to
identify it, nor would he know where to dig to find the
values. What applies to the 18 beryllium minerals also
applies to the 48 other minerals.
While most of these elements and their identification
are covered by simple tests in our "Quick Qualitative
Analysis",. the 48 minerals will be taken up in the
following pages: what they are, what they look like,
their importance, their economic value, why generally
overlooked and how to find them; and thus, with the
18 beryllium minerals, we will have the 66 associate
minerals all under one cover for future reference in
prospecting pegmatite. However, in taking up these 48
minerals we should understand the- following:
Remember the physical properties, color, specifiC
gravity,_ etc., are for pure crystals or minerals in a fair
ly pure state. Commercial metallic minerals are seldom
found in a pure state and thus the physical properties
may vary greatly from those given: they are intended
merely to give an idea of what a certain mineral might
look like. The only way to find out what a metallic
mineral contains is to test it out by chemicals or other
means. The quick and accurate tests for all the follow·
ing metallic minerals are covered in our "Quick Quali·
tative Analysis"; the test numbers for identification
will be given under the elements.
THE RARER METALLIC MINERALS
The Elements and Their Ores
NOTE: The identification of the 38 following miner
als are all covered in our "Quick Qualitative Analysis"
by the Test Numbers as given under the elements_
THE ELEMENT: Silver-white metal. Never occurs in
metallic state in nature_ Specific gravity 16_6; weighs
1,080 pounds per cubic foot_ Melting point 2859 degrees
centigrade. Not soluble in any acids, even aqua regia_
Non-corrosive. Many uses. Made in fine wire to bind
broken bones, severed nerves, etc.; in thin plates re
places skull-bones destroyed in accidents, etc. All ores
always contain some columbium. Value: ores $3_00 per
pound for contained tantalum. Identification: All or.es
by Test 13.
1. TANTALITE: Tantalum-columbium-iron-man
ganese. 86.1 per cent tantalum oxide if pure. Specific
gravity 6.5 to 7.5_ Hardness 6. Color: black. Occurs: in
nodules, masses or in small grains in rock; or in placer
form. Looks like iron.
2. MICROLITE: Tantalum-columbium-iron. Tanta
lum per cent variable but usually high. Specific gravity
5.5. Hardness 5.5. Colors: pale-yellow to brown. Occurs:
in yellow or brown streaks or small particles scattered
through lepidolite or spodumene or other associate
pegmatite rocks. Looks much like iron-stain for which
it may be mistaken.
3. MANGO-TANTALITE: Tantalum - columbium
manganese. Per cent tantalum variable. Specific gravi
ty 6 to 7.3. Hardness 5. Colors: reddish, dark brown.
Occurs in pegmatite; also manganese ores. Likely mis
taken for red granite.
THE ELEMENT: A dull-gray metal. Never occurs in
the metallic state in nature. Specific gravity 8.4;
weighs 542 pounds per cubic foot. Melting point 1950
degrees C. Discovered in 1864 but used only in recent
years for making special steels. Its ores up to $2.50 per
pound. Identification: All ores by Test 13.
4. COLUMBITE: Columbium- tantalum-iron-manga
nese. 82.7 per cent columbium if pure; usually less.
Specific gravity 5.3 to 7. Hardness 5 to 6. Colors: black,
may be brownish-black. Occurs as nodules or grains
in pegmatite, or in placer on or below such deposits.
Looks just like common iron.
5. SAMARSKITE: Columbium-tantalum-uranium,
and rare earth elements cerium and yttrum. Uranium
per cent variable. Yttrium oxide 6 to 15 per cent. Ceri
um oxide 2 to 6 per cent. Columbium and tantalum
oxides combined about 56 per cent. SpecifiC gravity 5.5
to 6. Hardness 5 to 6. Colors: velvet-black. Occurs:
massive or in flat imbedded plates in rock. May be
worth 75c per pound. Likely mistaken for iron.
6. PYROCHLORE: Columbium-tantalum·iron-titan
ium. Per cent of columbium variable. Specific gravity
4.5. Hardness 5 to 5.5. Colors: brown to brownish-black,
with resinous luster.
7. EUXENITE: Columbium-tantalum-titanium-ura
nium. Per cent of Columbium variable. Specific gravi
ty 5. Hardness 6.5. Colors: Brownish-black to black.
Looks like iron.
8. POLYCRASE: Columbium·tantalum-iron-urani
um. Variable percentages of each. Specific gravity 5.
Hardness 6. Colors: brownish-black to black. Occurs:
usually as nodules or as grains in pegmatite. Likely
mistaken for common rock.
9. WOHLERITE: Columbium-tantalum-calcium-sili
ca. Per cent variable. Specific gravity 5.5. Hardness 5.5.
Color: brown or light-yellow; vitreous luster. Looks like
THE ELEMENT: Lustrous white metal. Never found in
metallIc state in nature. Specific gravity 4.5; weighs
280 pounds per cubic foot. Melting point 1800 degrees
C. The oxide discovered in 1791; pure metal in 1910;
much used in making paint, welding rods,. etc. Value
pure metal $5 a pound. Identify: all ores by test 13.
10. RUTILE: Main are at present, Titanium oxide
60 per cent: Specific gravity 4. Hardness 6 to 6.5. Colors:
brown, red, yellowish, black. May be mistaken for rock
11. ILMENITE: Titanium iron. Titanium oxide 31.6
per cent. Specific gravity 4.5 to 5. Hardness 5 to 6.
Lolors: Black, or brownish-black. Occurs: usually in
platy crystals in quartz; common in pegmatite. Looks
like common iron.
12. OCTAHEDRITE: Titanium dioxide. Titanium
60 per cent. Specific gravity 4. Hardness 5.5 to 6. Colors:
yellow, red, brown, black. Occurs in pegmatite. Looks
13. TITANITE: Titanium-calcium-silicate. Titanium
oxide 40 per cent. Specific gravity 3.5. Hardness 5 to 5.5.
Colors: Gray, yellow, brown, black. Looks like com
14. BROOKITE: Titanium oxide. Per cent variable.
Specific gravity 4. Hardness 5.5 to 6. Colors: yellowish
red brown, black. Occurs: usually in cubical crystals
in pegmatite or elsewhere. Looks like rock; or if black,
THE ELEMENT: A soft tin· white malleable metal.
Never found in metallic state in nature. Specific grav
ity 7.2; weighs 455 pounds per cubic foot. Melting point
231 degrees C. Known from ancient times. Very little
produced in the U. S. up until about 1942. Now several
quite large deposits known. No doubt others will now
be found with our "2 minute Tin Test"; prospectors are
walking over it today calling it "iron"! Value: present
price for ores $1 per pound for contained tin; thus a 50
per cent are now worth about $1,000 per ton. Identifica
tion: All ores by our quick Test No.4.
15. CASSITERITE: Tin oxide. Main are. Tin oxide
78.6 per cent. May be found in lode or placer; both oc
cur in fairly large quantities in New Mexico and sev
eral other states. Specific gravity 7. Hardness 6 to 7.
Colors: black, brown, red, yellow, green, white. Occurs:
usually in granite, pegmatite rhyolite etc. Looks like
common iron if dark colored; light colors look just like
16. STANNITE (Tin Pyrites): Tin-copper-iron-su}
phur. Tin oxide 27.5 per cent. Specific gravity 4.5.
Hardness 4. Colors: steel-gray bronzy. Occurs: in peg
matite or with copper ores. Likely mistaken for copper.
17. CYLINDRITE: Tin-lead· antimony. Percentage
variable. Specific gravity 5.5. Hardness 2.5 to 3. Color:
gray-black. Somewhat resembles stibnite or galena
and mistaken for the same. Occurs: massive in veins
or particles in rock.
THE ELEMENT: A white brittle crystalline metal. May
be found in native state, but seldom. Specific gravity
9.78; weighs 612 pounds per cubic foot. Melting point
271 degrees C. (Can be melted in match flame). Much
used alloyed with tin or lead in low melting point com
pounds, such as for fuses, safety-plugs in boilers etc.
Also much in medicine etc. Value: pure metal around
$2.00 per pound; Ores depending on grade. Identifica
tion: all ores by Test 25.
18. NATIVE BISMUTH: Usually with some anti
mony sulphur, etc. Specific gravity 9.5 if pure, seldom
pure. Hardness 2 to 2.5. Colors: silver-white, but tar
nishes black. Occurs: usually granular as outer coating
on rocks, in veins with lead, silver, etc. Mistaken for
white or black iron.
19. BISMUTHINITE: Bismuth sulphide. Bismuth 81
per cent. Specific gravity 6.5. Hardness 2. Colors: lead·
gray to tin-white Nith yellow tarnish. Resembles white
iron when fresh broken. Occurs: usually massive or
20. BISMUTITE: Bismuth oxide. Bismuth 88 to 90
per cent. Specific gravity 6.5 to 7. Hardness 4 to 4.5.
Colors: white to greyish-yellow to green. Looks like
21. BISMITE: (Bismuth ochre). Bismuth trioxide
89 per cent. Specific gravity 4.5. Hardness very soft,
crumbly, likely mistaken for dirt or clay. Occurs as an
earthy yellow powder.
22. URANOSPHAERITE: Bismuth·Uranium. Bis
muth oxide 42; Uranium oxide 57.7 per cent. Specific
gravity 6.5. Hardness 2.5. Colors: orange-red to brick
red, looks like rock.
23. TETRADYMITE: Bismuth-Tellurium. Bismuth
59; Tellurium 36 per cent. SpeCific gravity 7.5. Hard
ness 1.5 to 2. Color: tin-white but tarnishes black; like
ly mistaken for iron. Identity: Bismuth by Test 25;
Tellurium by Test 3.
THE ELEMENT: A white, hard and heavy metal. Nev
er found in metallic state in nature. Specific gravity
18.68; weighs 1,167 pounds per cubic foot. Melting point
1850 degrees C. Discovered 1789; first metal 1881, but
little used until after 1900. It is source of Radium, also
the atomic bomb. Value of ores depends upon grade.
Identification: All ores by Test 17.
24. PITCHBLENDE (Urani.nite): Chief of Ra
dium. Composition variable, usually contams some
lead, copper, rare earth or. ?ther
of uranium variable. SpecIfIc gravIty 9 to 9.7 If pure,
seldom pure. Hardness 5.5. Color, black with pitch
like luster; when freshly broken somewhat resembles
fresh broken cold tar, otherwise looks just like black
iron for which it is likely to be mistaken. Occurs: in
or small nodules, or as black particles in rock or
as black masses in veins in rock.
25. TORBERNITE: Uranium-copper-phosphorous.
Uranium oxide 61.2 per cent. Specific gravity 3.5. Hard
ness 2 to 2.5. Colors: various shades of green; likely
mistaken for low-grade copper. Occurs: usually in
thin tabular or micaceous form.
26. URANOPHANE: Uranium-calcium-silica. Per
cent variable. Specific gravity 4. Hardness 2 to 2.5.
Color: yellow, with vitreous luster: likely mistaken for
common rock. Occurs: groups or radiating or fibrous
crystals or masses.
27. AUTUNITE (Lime Uranite): Uranium-calcium
silicate. Percentage variable. Specific gravity 3.5. Hard
ness 2 to 2.5. Colors: lemon to sulphur-yellOW; likely
mistaken for Common rock. Occurs: usually in tabular
28. GUMMITE: A silicate of uranium-lead-barium
calcium. Uranium trioxide 60 to 70 per cent. Specific
gravity 4. Hardness 2.5 to 4. Colors: yellow, orange,
red, brown, may be mistaken for common rock. Occurs:
platy or granular. Usually contains some pitchblende.
THE ELEMENT: Name from German, Wolfram, thus
its symbol W. It is a hard brittle gray-black metal.
Never found in metalic state in nature. Specific gravity
19.3; weighs 1,193 pounds per cubic foot. Melting point
3370 degrees C. (highest of all metals). Much used in
lamp filaments, steel making, etc. Tungsten Carbide
one of hardest compounds known. Value: ores or con
centrates 65 per cent tungsten trioxide up to $2.00 per
pound. Identify: all ores by Test 3.
29. WOLFRAMITE: Tungsten-iron-manganese
(iron in excess of manganese). Tungsten trioxide 76.5
per cent. Specific gravity 7 to 7.5. Hardness 5 to 5.5.
Colors: black, grayish to brownish-black; likely mis
taken for iron. Occurs: massive, granular or platy form,
or in needle-like crystals.
30. HUBNERITE: Tungsten-manganese-iron (man
ganese excess of iron). Tungsten trioxide 75 per cent.
Specific gravity 7 to 7.5. Hardness 5 to 5.5. Colors: us
ually blackish-brown but in rare cases blue-black.
Likely to be mistaken for iron. Occurs: same as wol
framite; hard to distinguish between, but unnecessary
as test will tell if tungsten is present.
31. FERBERITE: Tungstate of iron. (Sometimes
manganese). Tungsten trioxide 76.3 per cent. Specific
gravity 7 to 7.5. Hardness 4.5 to 5. Colors: black to
brownish-black. Occurs: usually fine granular. Likely
mistaken for black iron.
32. SCHEELITE: Calcium tungstate. Tungsten triox
ide 80 per cent. Specific gravity 6. Hardness 4.5 to 5.
Colors: white, yellow, brownish, reddish, sometimes
greenish. Most likely mistaken for barite in color,
weight and hardness; or may be mistaken for quartz
or calcite if particles in rock. Occurs: as platy crystals,
massive or granular.
33. STOLZITE: Tungstate of lead. Tungsten triox
ide 51 per cent; lead 45 per cent. Specific gravity 8.
Hardness 3. Colors: yellowish grey, brown, red. Likely
mistaken for just lead ore.
34. TUNGSTITE: (Tungsten Ochre): Tungsten triox
ide 79 per cent. Specific gravity 5.5. Hardness 2.5 or
less. Colors: bright-yellow to brownish-yellow. Occurs
in earthy compact masses resembling hard clay.
THE ELEMENT: A very hard silver-white metal.
Never found in metallic state in nature. Specific gravi
ty: 10.2; weighs 638 pounds per cubic foot. Melting
point 2620 degrees C. Discovered 1728, but actual use in
quantities not until 1918. Many uses, but most impor
tant to harden and toughen steel. Value: pure metal
around $2 per pound; ores depend on grade. Identifica
tion: all ores by Test 13.
35. MOLYBDENITE: Molybdenum sulphide. Molyb
denum 59 per cent; Sulphur 41 per cent. Specific grav
ity 4.7 to 4.8. Hardness 1 to 1.5. Color, lead-grey; mis
taken for graphite or some manganese. Occurs massive
or granular in rock.
36. MOLYBDITE: (Molybdic ochre): Molybdenum
oxide. Percent variable. Specific gravity 4.5. Hardness
1 to 2. Colors: bright or dull-yellow. Occurs: as pow
der or crust on rock or molybdenite. Mistaken for soft
iron, dirt or clay.
37. WULFENITE: Molybdenum lead. Molybdenum
trioxide 39 per cent; lead 56 per cent. SpeCific gravity
6.5 to 7. Hardness 2.5 to 3. Colors: waxy-yellow or
brown; pale green, red, gray. Occurs: usually waxy
38. POWELLITE: Calcium molybdate; usually some
tungsten. Molybdenum trioxide 82 per cent. Specific
gravity 4.5. Hardness 3.5. Color: greenish yellow.
NOTE: Molybdenum may be taken as a good ex
ample to show how rapidly the newer and rarer ele
ments have C9me into demand. A few years ago molyb
denum was a laboratory curiosity costing $100 a pound,
and only the highest grade ores could be used in its
production. In 1957, 30,000,000 pounds were used! Most
of this was produced from ores of 1 per cent at Climax,
Colo. In looking for any mineral prospectors should
forget their high-grade samples and learn to identify
the various elements as they occur in smaller quanti
ties mixed with a lot of rock; large depOSits of low
grade ores. Find any of the elements, even the rare
ones, in sufficient low grade quantities-and it may
become another Climax.
Miscellaneous Pegmatite Minerals
NOTE: The following 10 minerals are usually found
in a fairly pure state and all very characteristic in gen
eral appearance, and thus easily identified; especially
compared with a known sample,. which one should
have if possible.
LITHIUM-Li.: Lightest known metal. Specific grav
ity .56; weighs 33.3 pounds per cubic foot. Melting
point 186 degrees C. Metal little used, but compounds
much used in medicines, etc. The ores are much used
and in large quantities in making "Heat-proof" glass,
such as ovenware, etc., and thus are of more value for
that purpose. Prices and demands good.
39. LEPIDOLITE (Lithia Mica): Lithia 5 per cent if
pure, usually less. Specific gravity 3. Hardness 2.5 to 4.
Colors: lilac rose-red, lavender, white, gray, yellow. No
value as mica. Chiefly used in making glass.
40. SPODUMENE: Lithia 8.4 per cent if pure usual
ly less. Specific gravity near 3. Hardness 2.5 to 4. Co
lors: white, gray,. pink, lilac, green. Very easily identifi
ed-when coarsely crushed looks like broken bone.
41. AMBLYGONITE: Lithia 5 per cent if pure. Spe
cific ·gravity 3. Hardness 6. Colors: white, gray, green,
brown,. yellow, blue. Resembles beryl, feldspar or
quartz, but distinguished by aid of known specimen.
42. TRIPHYLITE: Lithia 9.5 per cent if pure. Speci
fic gravity 3.5. Harnesses 4.5 to 5. Colors: gray bluish,
greenish, brown. A source of lithium salts.
REFRACTORY: Following 3 minerals used for refrac
tory purposes: lining furnaces, spark plug, porcelains,
43. DUMORTIERITE: Silicate of aluminum. Specific
gravity near 3.5. Hardness 7. Colors: blue, lavender,
gray. Quite characteristic. Value from $40 to $100 or
more per ton.
44. SILLIMANITE: Aluminum silicate. Specific
gravity near 3. Hardness 6 to 7. Colors: gray, brown,
greenish, lavender. Value near same as dumortierite.
45. KYANITE (Cyanite): Aluminum silicate, Specif
ic gravity 3.5. Hardness 5 on broad side, may be 7 on
thin edge. Colors: blue, green, gray to almost white.
Occurs: usually flat bladed crystals; characteristic.
46. MONAZITE: Containing the rare-earth elements
cerium and thorium. Specific gravity 5. Hardness 5 to
5.5. Colors: brown, red, yellow. Very characteristic in
appearance if once seen. Value: depends upon grade.
47. FELDSPAR: A number of these; may be divided
up into two classes: Soda-spar and Potash-spar. Both
valuable, much used in making enamelware, etc. Other
uses. Much in demand. Value depends upon grade, etc.
48. MICA: Many varieties but white muscovite most
used; good clear sheets bring fancy prices. $5 to $15
or more per pound. Found in pegmatite. In fact mica
is the best indication to go by in looking for and iden
"FIVE MINUTE BERYLLIUM TEST"
In "Beryllium-How and Where to Find It," we cover
15 of the more important known commercial beryllium
minerals or ores, and three most valuable Gem Stones.
The gem stones, we will find, always have the same
uniform characteristic physical properties such as col
or, hardness, etc., wherever found and thus may be
fairly accurately identified by their physical proper
ties alone. But in studying 15 commercial minerals we
find none of them possess any uniform characteristic
physical properties by which they may be identified:
that is they may look just like common rock, quartz,
iron ore, garnet or obsidian.
The above being true you may ask: "Then how do I
know WHEN to test for beryllium?" The answer is
You do not know! That is the object and purpose of
our test!-to find out! If you already knew it was
beryllium mineral there would be no object or reason
for testing it!
Here is the idea: Remember beryllium is a very
valuable element; you are playing for big stakes and
thus can afford to go to a little extra trouble to find
it-at least five minutes. After your solution is pre
pared it takes but about 5 minutes per test and costs
less than % cent each. In other words, you are gamb
ling five minutes time and % cent against a possible
fortune! So you simply proceed as follows:
First: Save up your rocks( numbered-where found)
until you have a number on hand-then test the
works regardless of what they may look like! Besides
the 15 listed, you may find a whole mountain of a new
mineral unknown at present! Not impossible! In fact,
the large deposit of Helvite found at Iron Mountain,
N. M., on which it is said the government has spent
$50,000 in developing, may be just such a deposit. Pro
spectors walked over this for years calling it "garnet!"
Second: The Helvite at Iron Mountain is not found
in large pure chunks or crystals as usually the case
with beryl, but consists of small crystals of helvite in
streaks or clusters in iron, thus a milling proposition to
separate the helvite and iron which has been worked
by froth flotation. No doubt the bulk of beryllium of
the future will be so obtained; by milling large de
posits of low grade ores, as now done with Molybden
um at Climax, Colo. This possibility should be kept in
mind in prospecting for beryllium.
Third: Known specimens, like physical properties,
are of value--if properly used: they will give some
idea what a certain mineral "might" look like, but do
not depend upon them entirely; your "big hit" may be
something which looks entirely different; one of the
other ores of which you have no sample, or an entirely
new one now unknown. Do not guess-make a test.
Only a chemical test will tell!
This test may be made semi-quanti
tatIVe: The brIghter the blue the more beryllium pres
ent. By using the same amount of material and com
paring with one of known percentage, a fairly close es
timate of the percentage of the unknown may be ar
rived at. At least, poor, fair or good.
NOTE: The use of Quinalizarin for testing for beryl
lium is not new; but by the old system it would not
work on all beryllium minerals, and no way of dis
tinguishing between beryllium and magnesium. Our
perfected test will now work on all beryllium minerals,
and also may be used to identify either element.
1. QUINALIZARIN SOLULTION: This should be
freshly prepared within eight hours. When freshly and
properly prepared it will have a more or less pale
purple color, which is easily distinguished from the
blue of beryllium. The plainest reaction will be obtain
ed within the first three or four hours; after this time
the dye starts to precipitate out and the solution will
take on a bluish cast and thus hard to distinguish from
the blue of beryllium, or magnesium, especially if of
2. NOTE: should use distilled or other pure water
for dye solutions. For test solutions any water will do.
3. CAUTION! Quinalizarin dye is very potent stuff
and will have a tendency to use too much; if too much
is used the solution will have a dark-purple color and
thus hard to distinguish from the blue of beryllium
4. AMOUNT OF DYE: The nearest we can estimate
this is to compare with 72 grain of rice in 3cc. of water;
a little more or less of each immaterial. By a little ex
perimenting, using less, then more dye, then tryon
known sample of beryllium ore; you will find best
amount to use.
5. NOTE: If solution too dark use one drop instead
6. HANDLING SOLUTIONS: The best method is to
use common medicine droppers with rubber bulbs;
. should have three of tl1ese: One for dye solution (use
this for nothing else). One for plain water. One for
test solution (beryllium). Last two not so particular
if rinsed well eaeh time.
7. CAUTION: If you get a reaction for beryllium
in any test, then clean everything thoroughly and re
peat, and thus make sure not due to previous test. If
no reaction in previous test, then need not be so parti
cular in cleaning.
8. WHAT IS A CC? About 20 drops with medicine
dropper equals about one cc (or near enough). Three cc
equals about 60 drops. As we use two drops of solution
per test and two drops for blank (one blank sufficient
per tube of solution), to get full advantage of solution
should wait until you get several rocks before testing.
9. NOTE: By a little experimenting can mix half
batch solutions where fewer rocks to test.
10. AMOUNT OF MATERIALS: Most people have
the idea the more materials they use in testing the
better the reaction, but just the opposite is generally
true: if too much mineral volume of flux will be in
sufficient for proper fusion; if both mineral and flux
are increased to any great extent the total volume
will be too large for proper fusion. While a little more
or less of each is immaterial, try and use somewhere
near the quantities given.
11. FUSIONS: A good fusion is one of the most
important part of the test; however, this is very
simple and easy to do with just a little patience in
the beginning, especially with a known sample of
beryllium ore to practice on. The following will be of
assistance in this work.
First: The best material to make fusions on is a
piece of chinaware such as old plate broken up into
about one inch or larger pieces; by washing thorough
ly after each test, these can be used over and over.
Second: Take a piece of tin five inches long and
two inches wide and bend up end and sides to hold
chinaware in making fusions.
Third: Have a small sharp knife handy, paring
knife will do, and while hot run knife under fusion, if
sets until cold will stick to chinaware and be hard to
12. TESTS: The best method is to use small por
celain dishes or "spot plate". (a piece of white porcelain
with small depressions made for testing small quanti
ties). If no spot plate, quick tests can be made on
piece of broken plate; by making tests in various .ts
can make more tests without washing. If in doubt as
to color on plate, then repeat test in dish which is more
13. PRACTICE: The best way to learn this test is
to practice on known specimens; that is, ores known to
contain the elements tested for. For this purpose you
should have a known sample of magnesium ore, and a
known sample of beryllium ore. (The latter with a
known percentage if possible for estimating percen
tages of unknown ores when found).
14. PROCEDURE: First, make up dye solutions as
given on following page. Second, make test on known
sample of beryllium ore. Third, make "blank" for com
parison. Fourth, make test on known sample magne·
sium ore. Fifth, proceed as in step 4 to distinguish
beryllium from magnesium.
The following equipment is all that is needed. If you
now have our "Field Kit" for our "Quick Qualitative
Analysis" all you will need are the last eight articles.
1 Alcohol Lamp, about 2-ounce capacity best size.
1 Blowpipe for making fusions.
1 Small porcelain mortar and pestle; size 000 best
3 Medicine droppers for handling solutions.
1 Metal holder for chinaware for making fusions.
1 Test tube %·inch by 4-inch for Quinalizarin Solu
1 Small porcelain dish for test solution (beryllium).
1 Small porcelain dish or spot plate for tests.
1 Small porcelain dish (if no spot plate) for "blank"
(can use piece of broken plate for quick tests).
1 Smallest amount Quinalizarin dye powder obtain
1 ounce Borax Glass for making fusions.
1 Ounce Sodium Hydroxide for fusions (pellets best).
2 Small test tubes (2-inch x 14 ·inch best size) to
learn to distinguish beryllium from magnesium.
1 or more small pieces chinaware for fusions.
1 Sample Magnesium Ore for practice and compari
1 Sample Beryllium ore for practice and comparisons.
(Also for Magnesium)
METHOD OF PROCEDURE
NOTE: First read the previous instruction under "Gen.
eral information" over carefully, then proceed as fol·
STEP No.1: To prepare Quinalizarin Solution.
1. Place 3cc pure cold water in a clean test tube.
2. Add Sodium Hydroxide equal to lh size of pea.
3. Shake tube or agitate with dropper to help dissolve.
4. Add Quinalizarin powder equal to lh grain of rice.
5. Mix thoroughly with medicine dropper.
Results: Solution will have a purple color.
STEP No.2: To prepare Mineral Fusion:
1."lace on chinaware or crockery Borax Glass equal
to lh size of common pea.
2. Make slight hole in center of above and add pow·
dered mineral equal to size of large grain of rice.
3. Take Sodium Hydroxide Pellet equal to lh size of
pea and place flat side down on above.
4. With blowpipe fuse thoroughly in lamp flame.
5. While hot remove with knife blade and fuse again.
6. When thoroughly fused, and while hot,. remove
with knife blade, then crush and powder in porce
STEP No.3: To make Beryllium and Magnesium Test.
1. Place powdered fusion in clean evaporating dish.
2. Add about 20 drops COLD water( colder the better).
3. Stir with dropper and shake dish to help dissolve
(all may not dissolve. Okay). This is Test Solution.
4. Place 2 drops of above in small dish (or spot plate).
5. Place 2 drops plain water in another small dish.
(This will be "blank" for comparison):
6. To each dish add 1 or 2 drops Quinalizarin Solution.
RESULTS No.1: The blank will have a purple color.
RESULTS No.2: If either Beryllium or magnesium is
present the solution will have a light-blue color which
is easily distinguished from the purple of the blank.
RESULTS No.3: If no blue color, test is complete. But
if blue, proceed as follows to determine if Be or Mg.
STEP No.4: To distinguish beryllium from magnes·
1. Place about 8 drops test solution in small test tube.
2. Add 4 drops Quinalizarin Solution; shake tupe.
IF MAGNESIUM: There will be a blue solution, which
on setting for a few minutes will become cloudy, with
small blue particles floating in solution,. which in 30
minutes or so will start settling to the bottom of the
tube as a dark blue precipitate, leaving a colorless
IF BERYLLIUM: There will be a clear-blue solution;
no blue particles floating in solution, and no dark blue
precipitate in bottom of tube after setting 30 minutes
to one hour, and the solution in tube will remain blue.