An Explanation of the Practice of Sang Offering by Gyalsé Shenpen Tayé

Without ever straying from the absolute space of reality, beyond conceptual elaboration, You appeared as the illusory manifestation of supreme, immaculate wisdom—like the reflection of the moon in water, Dancing playfully in an ocean of great bliss-Glorious heruka Lhatsün, be my guide and care for me! I shall now offer a brief explanation--word by word--of the practice known as Riwo Sangchö, which is part of the profound Dharma-cycle of Rigdzin Sokdrup1[1] that originated as a pure vision in the treasurelike mind of the great and accomplished vidyadhara Lhatsün Namkha Jikmé. This will be divided into two sections: (i) a brief explanation of the historical origins of the practice of sang offering; and (ii) a more elaborate discussion of the text in the form of a word-by-word commentary. A Brief Explanation of Sang Offering’s Historical Origins It has been said by some that the practice of sang offering did not originate with teachings found in the sutras or tantras. Others point to passages in the sutras referring to the Buddha‘s benefactors welcoming him with the burning of incense on their roofs, or by holding incense-burners in their hands. These, they say, describe the earliest form of the sang practice, as do the many similar references to be found in the tantras. Although we might classify these as offerings of sang incense to a supermundane deity, the type of sang offering we are concerned with here has an additional aspect, which is the focus on cleansing or purification—as indicated by the so-called purification of impurity or contamination (mnol bsang) and the purification of spiritual pollution or blockages (grib bsang)—so it is difficult to identify these definitively as examples of genuine sang offering.

The kriya tantras. this practice could be described as a method using the element of fire in particular in order to purify obscurations until all temporary and ultimate defilements have been cleared away. if we speculate concerning the origins of sang. Amongst these. the texts of Secret Mantra teach countless methods of purification employing the individual elements. Historical Origins in Tibet In the past. such as pacifying rites that use fire. And the tantras. regarding the second aspect. In this case. we can say that generally since the victorious ones are skilful in methods and endowed with great compassion. We could also establish this point using logical reasoning. such as peacocks consuming poison or the technique of pouring liquid in the ear. purification. Then. they train beings by whatever methods are most appropriate in any given situation. teach rites of cleansing and ablution using earth and water. In which case. for example.2[2] Then there are also examples which illustrate the uncommon method of purifying poison using the poison itself. the aspect of offering] does accord with the authentic sources mentioned earlier.Still. The authenticity of this aspect of the practice is therefore beyond question. incense offerings carried on the wind and so on.3[3] Moreover. fire and wind--provide numerous methods for purifying or cleansing the stains of both temporary and ultimate obscurations. according to the particular experience and level of practitioners. the four naturally pure universal elements--earth. teach a number of methods.e. The general principles of this approach may be illustrated by the householder Shrigupta‘s verses for purifying poisonous food. there appeared three Dharma Kings who were emanations of the Lords of the Three Families. water. in general. because there is no end to the buddhas‘ enlightened activity on behalf of beings to be trained.. we can say that the first aspect of the practice [i. it was during the .

who are as vast as space. When this was reported to Guru Rinpoche. all that appears and exists is the perfect buddha mandala: In order to liberate all beings from samsara. The text to be explained on this occasion was revealed by the great Lhatsün Kunzang Namgyal. the main part and the conclusion. who was Manjushri in person. unchanging temple of Samyé was constructed. The Beginning The beginning includes the sections of taking refuge. speech and mind of all the buddhas. arousing bodhichitta. a smoke offering was made to the deities. together with its history and a description of its benefits. for the benefit of future generations. At that time. and then. AH and HUNG signify the three vajras--the enlightened body.time of King Trisong Deutsen. Powerful and wrathful vidyadhara Pema Tötreng Tsal. as you do so. that the second buddha. were inscribed on the walls at Glorious Samyé. the Great Master of Oddiyana. recollect the qualities of what they represent. as he was opening up the sacred hidden land of Sikkim. was invited to the Land of Snows and the glorious. Clean wood was sought and then by purifying it through the element of fire. or Traktung Namkha Jikmé. . texts of sang offering practices appeared increasingly. The king recovered. I take refuge in you! The syllables OM. Within your body.‘ From that point on. and gathering the accumulations through the seven branches. he replied that he had a method for dispelling the sickness. Taking Refuge OM AH HUNG The heart essence of all the sources of refuge of samsara and nirvana. on one occasion the great Dharma King fell ill as a result of spiritual pollution. Begin by reciting these three syllables and. This is renowned even today as the ‗Sang Offering Mural of Samyé. A More Elaborate Discussion of the Text in the Form of a Wordby-Word Commentary The actual explanation of the meaning of the text has three sections: the beginning. spontaneously perfect. the instructions on sang offering.

or tiklé. ‗…you.Now. are all the mandalas of the buddhas. so that The three obscurations of all beings may be purified in the ground of the luminous tiklé of supremely secret wisdom. speech and mind. of the expanse of primordial wisdom. the first three lines may be explained in the following way: There are two extremes which are feared by the shravakas and pratyekabuddhas of the hinayana. perfect by their own nature‘. saying. when commenting upon the meaning of this. in whose body. and the activity of magnetizing and wrathful subjugation in particular. The supreme sources of refuge with the power to protect from these two fearful situations are the perfectly enlightened buddhas. it is here referred to as an extraordinary approach of the supremely secret mantra path. This is the great sphere. and existence (the beings within them). you might also refer to the sub-categories of causal and resultant refuge. one is like the innermost heart-essence. and by the bodhisattvas of the mahayana respectively. It is the one with the secret name of Pema Tötreng Tsal. the essence of both the illustrative and the actual luminosity is the inseparable union of bliss and emptiness. using the words [of the root text]. Who is that? It is the one who has reached the level of a spontaneously accomplished vidyadhara. As a method for purifying temporary and ultimate obscurations through perfecting the two accumulations of merit and wisdom it is unlike any other. Arousing Bodhichitta I generate the awakened mind of bodhichitta. In terms of its view. as vast as space. and With the four visions spontaneously perfected in the tiklé of the wisdom body. Here the text singles him out by the use of the second person pronoun. appearance (the pure realms). and the extreme of the peace of nirvana. may be liberated from the vast ocean of samsaric existence. May they be liberated into the youthful vase body! The general meaning of sang offering has been stated above. Should you wish to elaborate further on this topic. who has perfected the general activity of the victorious ones. And so. infinite in number. And of all the manifestations emanating from the wisdom that is inseparable from their enlightened minds. They are the extreme of samsaric existence. wherein the ‗edges‘ or ‗corners‘ of any . We take refuge in this precious master--Guru Rinpoche--so that all beings.

speech and mind of all the victorious ones. and gain the extraordinary. the habitual obscurations of the three appearances of transference4[4]--are purified. merit is accumulated based upon the apparent luminosity. is similar to the sky becoming clear of clouds. This wish to benefit ourselves and others on a vast scale incorporates all the essential points on bodhichitta. We make the aspiration to accomplish this however we can. speech and mind will be perfected spontaneously in the tiklé that is inseparable from the vajra body. I pay homage! And . By resting in the state of realization arrived at through practising this method properly. unaltered nature of rigpa. 3. uncommon experiences of the four visions: 1. the obscurations of all beings--including ourselves--will be purified in the fundamental ground of luminosity. We make the aspiration that on the path. 4. and the absolute bodhichitta. we will attain the fruition. At that point. In this way.concepts related to the eight extremes have been eliminated. In which case. The first is the branch of prostration. the culmination of the ultimate path of Dzogpachenpo. the relative bodhichitta. The vision The vision The vision The vision reality of of of of experiencing the nature of reality directly increasing experience awareness reaching full maturity the dissolution [of ordinary experience] into the nature of The svabhavikakaya may be likened to an expanse of sky. indistinguishable from the primordial nature of all phenomena. and wisdom is accumulated through the empty luminosity. a particular instance of the latter. intellectual (or cognitive) and thirdly. When these three obscurations--emotional. gross physical body together with its ordinary experiences into the inner expanse of the youthful vase body. are performed together. our own and others‘ body. or into a body of clear light. the liberation of the ordinary. The text says: To the primordial. Gathering the Accumulations through the Seven Branches This section has seven parts. 2. which includes the aspects of aspiration and application.

Thus. And it is to this that we perform this prostration. it is a sublime object of veneration. . whose selfradiance and power can be spoken of separately as the sambhogakaya and nirmanakaya. the homage directed towards our own inherent wisdom. The third branch is confession of negativity. is the ultimate offering. just like the offering-clouds of the bodhisattva Samantabhadra. both manifest and latent. This is known as ‗Confession in the Expanse of the View‘ and is the king of all confession practices. The fourth branch is rejoicing. present and future. which is difficult to fathom and without centre or circumference. this is the original dharmakaya. beyond the ordinary mind. we practise confession within the expanse of luminosity. The text says: In the expanse of the sameness of samsara and nirvana. realizing the absence of true reality. we are freed from the conceptualizing of the ordinary mind and all dualistic perception fades away. I confess! In the expanse of the luminosity explained above. At the level of the ground. all the phenomena of samsara and nirvana are equally lacking in self-nature. Following this. The second branch is offering. The text says: The luminosity. By making offerings like this. are exhausted. when we arrive at the culmination of the four visions that are unique to Dzogpachenpo. we will complete the two accumulations. I offer! Meditating on the meaning of the aforementioned dharmakaya luminosity. ‗And‘ is a conjunction and connects this line with the next. we use the four powers to confess all the negative acts and impairments of vows committed by ourselves and others throughout the past. all the dharmas which might perpetuate samsaric existence. Since this is so. and its unaltered nature is the primordial luminosity. we then consider that we emanate ordinary offering substances like fresh water and so on until they pervade throughout the whole of space. It is in this inconceivable occurrence that we rejoice.The innate condition of the mind is known as the wisdom of pure awareness. the three kayas are nothing other than the actualization of this very [primordial luminosity]. From such a state. At that time. I rejoice! As explained above. Then again at the time of the ultimate fruition. The text says: In the great exhaustion of all dharmas. transcending limits and dimensions. and we are liberated completely in the vast expanse of the primordial ground.

the virtues that are its object. path and fruition. The text says: Turn the wheel of the teachings of the spontaneously perfect Dzogpachenpo! All the points of the teachings of Dzogpachenpo--the Great Perfection-included within the three categories of ground. the act of dedication. I pray! Here we request the buddhas and bodhisattvas residing in the infinite realms throughout every direction not to pass into nirvana. We should perform the dedication out of a state that is unspoiled by any clinging to the true reality of the three conceptual spheres. and the subject. Although the text here emphasizes the appearance aspect of spontaneous perfection. So here the expression ‗spontaneously perfect‘ is used to refer to the path of Dzogpachenpo as a whole. may be explained in terms of both primordial purity (kadak) and spontaneous perfection (lhundrup). i. object or activity. represented here by the merit produced through the first six branches beginning with prostration. we move on to the actual practice itself. but to remain for as long as samsara remains. there is the branch of dedicating virtue. and the manner in which the offering is made. These are the seven branches. towards ultimately passing beyond suffering. and to stir samsaric existence from its very depths. free of subject. This has three sections: blessing of the offering substances. there is the branch of prayer. The Main Practice Having finished our examination of the preliminaries essential to the sang offering. identifying those to whom the offering is made. this does not imply the exclusion of the aspect of primordial purity.The fifth branch is requesting the turning of the Dharma-wheel. . we call upon the deities of the field of merit to listen and respond. which include all the methods for completing the accumulations. The text says: Stir the depths of samsara. Sixthly. Making this request for the vast wheel of the teachings of this two-fold path to be turned continuously. the one performing the dedication.. Seventh.e. The text says: In the absolute state. I dedicate! We dedicate all the merit accumulated by all beings throughout the three times.

Through the emanation and re-absorption of light-rays.Blessing of the Offering Substances The text says: Bhrum! In the vast lustrous vessel. Mixing inseparably with the nectar they take on the essence of wisdom nectar and the form of offering goddesses in countless emanations. Then visualize the three seed syllables OM AH HUNG. consider that all phenomena included within the categories of all that appears--the outer environment--and all that exists--the beings within it--gather together. transformed into vast offering clouds of all that is desirable. Through this blessing. They in turn become filled with light and start to melt. the blessings of all the buddhas throughout the ten directions are gathered together and dissolve into the three seed syllables. made of the essence of various jewels. dakinis. consider that the torma container transforms into a vast and lustrous vessel made of the essence of various jewels and as large as the world itself. Out of a state in which there is no focusing upon phenomena-represented here by the offering substances--recite ‗Bhrum‘ (pronounced ‗droom‘) the seed syllable of the Ushnika Universal Monarch Tantra. are Transformed into the nectar of wisdom through the blessing of the three seed syllables OM AH HUNG. Inside it are all the desirable objects in worldly existence in the form of samaya substances--the five meats and the five nectars. This was the identification of the offering substances. Bad signs in dreams and all types of evil omens. . As you do so. Those to Whom One Offers The text says: This I offer to the lamas. one above the other. So that all that appears and exists becomes an offering of all that is desirable. all the desirable objects in worldly existence. symbolizing the body. yidams. speech and mind of all the buddhas. dharmapalas and All the mandalas of the buddhas of the ten directions. The samaya substances. And especially to those who would steal my life and deplete my life force. To the local deities of this world. beings of the six realms and the guests to whom I owe karmic debts. To the malicious jungpo demons who inflict sickness and obstacles.

There are the spirits of the dead included in the class of pretas. represented by those of our own continent of Jambudvipa--the earthlords. There are the ghosts of men and women who have died. Next. Furthermore there are those forces. térangs. each tormented by their own particular sufferings. There are also the seventy-five glorious protectors of pure abodes together with their retinues. To forces that bring obscuration and madness. This refers to beings wandering throughout the six classes. In short.e. There are the eight classes of negative spirits. the masters of magical illusions. Firstly. Then there are also the dharmapalas. the masters of magical illusions. The glorious Lama.. devas and nagas. The yidam deities of the mandalas are the sources of accomplishment. And there are the arrogant spirits of this world who bring bad signs in dreams and all types of evil omens. terrifying ones and great kings. the gods. place and wealth. to the shades of men and women dead. There are the térangs and the ghouls who inhabit towns and other places. to whom we owe food. wealth and possessions. there are the guests of the six classes invited out of compassion. is the source of blessings and the embodiment of the Three Jewels. deplete our life-force or kill us. There are the malicious jungpo demons. ghouls and female ghosts! Here all the recipients of the offering are explained according to the categories of the four types of guest. first of all. there are those to whom we have not repaid our karmic debts. there are the guests to whom we owe karmic debt. the ‗karmic . And. Dakinis are included in the inner Sangha of vidyadharas.The eight classes of negative spirits. i. the planetary and stellar forces. And those to whom I owe karmic debts of food. To all the spirits. demigods. Furthermore. beings who create obstacles such as sickness. Then there are the guests invited on account of their qualities – the protectors. this includes all the inconceivable mandalas of buddhas residing throughout the infinite buddha-fields of the ten directions. or hungry ghosts. male and female. This refers to the local deities of every place and continent. and are included under the Buddha Jewel. in particular. and especially those who would steal our life-spirit. In short. guardians of the directions. human beings. animals. there are the guests invited out of respect – the Three Jewels. dwelling places. There are demons that cause insanity and illness. hungry ghosts and hell-beings. that bring us impurity and obstructions.

for example. Whatever each one desires. let the flames of the sang offering fill the entire universe--the whole of appearance and existence--and may every minute particle of flame become a limitless and inexhaustible cloud of . or reverence shown to us by our inferiors. may all our negative actions and obscurations of the past. burnt in the scarlet flames. in devotion and for the dead-whatever obscures us on the paths and bhumis--be purified completely in the fire of this sang offering! ‗And similarly.creditor‘ guests include all the obstructing spirits of the various classes of ghosts and demons. in devotion and for the dead. may the objects of their desires rain down: For as far and as long as space exists I dedicate an inexhaustible amount of sensual stimulants! May my negative actions and obscurations accumulated in past. all the different guests are satisfied. And misuse of the offerings made to the Three Jewels. The three realms of samsara be liberated into the rainbow body. of protection granted to us by our superiors. and they receive a great downpour of all that their minds desire. How the Offering is Made The text says: Now all my karmic debts are paid. Pervade throughout the six classes of beings. present and future. We dedicate this by saying: ‗For as far and as long as space exists. And all sentient beings awaken into the heart of enlightenment! Whatever karmic debts we may have as a result. they are all repaid through the offerings made to the scarlet flames: burnt away and purified. male and female. Through this act. particularly our misuse of offerings made to the Three Jewels. present and future. Be purified in the fire of this sang offering! Let its flames fill the entire universe and every minute particle of flame Become an inexhaustible cloud of offerings like Samantabhadra’s Pervading throughout all the buddha realms! May these flames. down to the Avichi Hells. may this great shower of desirable objects rain down and become an inexhaustible supply of the five sensual stimulants! ‗Through the power of this dedication. offering rays of five-coloured lights of wisdom.

and the eight consciousnesses of the mental continuum are. Therefore. the vast and secret Akanishtha pure realm. which is the space of the five buddha-consorts--the five elements of the outer environment in their utter purity--has the nature of a palace. the five buddhas. ten thousand or one hundred thousand times or more. pervading throughout all the Buddha realms of the ten directions! ‗At the same time. Samsara is liberated into nirvana. aspiration and requesting activity. in their pure nature. Dedication The text says: All is purified into the three kayas: the environment. but especially in the Avichi Hell of ultimate torment. in their pure nature. I share with all those who. in their pure nature.e. the ‗vessel‘) are. form and formless realms--be liberated into the rainbow body! And may all sentient beings awaken into the heart of complete and unsurpassable enlightenment!‘ Actualizing the visualizations that correspond to the recited text. This is because the five elements of the outer environment (i. Have been guests in worldly existence. flooding the whole expanse of the sky with rainbow light. a heavenly place where Dharmakaya. this essence of immaculate nectar. The whole of appearance and existence is pure in its nature of the three kayas. sambhogakaya and nirmanakaya--appearance and the form aggregates of existence Melt into nectar. recite OM AH HUNG one hundred. the five wisdoms. harmful actions and obscurations accumulated throughout samsara without beginning be purified! May the three realms of samsara--the desire. And the aggregates. the contents--the five aggregates--are. the five buddha-consorts. one thousand.offerings like Samantabhadra‘s. and there may they bring cooling bliss and relief! ‗May all the negative karma. elements . from beginningless time until now. The Conclusion This has three sections: dedication. from the tips of these flames--visualized as the five-coloured light of wisdom--may multi-coloured rays of light appear emanating clouds of offering! May these rays pervade throughout the six classes of beings.

The steam and vapours from the amrita appear in the form of rainbow-coloured light. in their purity. meditation and action. As for the objects to whom we dedicate. Through this method. within the sky-like space of Samantabhadra‘s wondrous wisdom mind. sambhogakaya and nirmanakaya. And dispelled all obstacles in view. we can amass immaculate virtue and. This is the quintessential ‗amrita‘. may we attain all the noble qualities as we gradually traverse the five paths and ten stages which culminate in the ten strengths. may we accomplish spontaneously the welfare of ourselves and others! May all obstacles in our view. until no part remains unchanged. We dedicate to them in a state that is free from the three conceptual spheres. they are the guests in worldly existence who have wandered throughout the three realms of samsara from beginningless time until now--all sentient beings who have been our very own parents. are. four fearlessnesses and so on at the level of fruition! In this way. but is contained within ‗a vase body‘ since it is not yet manifest. the ‗container‘ that is the outer environment) and the form aggregates of animate existence are blessed and thereby melt into amrita nectar (symbolizing the destruction of the maras). the mandalas of buddhas of the dharmakaya. Firstly: Having attained all the noble qualities of the stages. may we seize the stronghold of the youthful vase body—the inner clarity that is ‗youthful‘ because it is clear wisdom with its own powers perfectly complete.e. overcome all our negative emotions. paths and fruition. and samsara itself is liberated into nirvana. Then: And when at last the great ocean of samsara is emptied. which floods the whole expanse of the sky. the virtue that we dedicate. by doing so. Within the sky-like space of Samantabhadra’s wondrous wisdom mind. meditation and action be dispelled! And ultimately. Inanimate appearance (i. May all beings attain buddhahood in the Lotus Net of Akanishtha! . Aspiration The aspiration appears in the next five verses.and sense sources that are found within this sphere. May we seize the stronghold of the youthful vase body! Through the power of all this accumulated virtue.

So we make the following aspiration: ‗When at last the great ocean of samsara is emptied. brilliant splendour! The sang offerings of red and white bodhichitta blaze in bliss and emptiness! The sang offerings of emptiness and compassion fill the dharmadhatu! Upon the ground of five-coloured vajra light of phenomenal existence. And in future. our ordinary bodies are liberated into illusory enlightened forms of vivid.Having attained complete enlightenment and secured our own wellbeing. we perform this sang offering for the attainment of precious. may all beings attain buddhahood in the pure realm of Akanishtha. the untainted ―Lotus Net‖ extending throughout the whole of space!‘ The aspiration continues: The sang offerings of the aggregates and elements blaze in vivid. And samayas of the vidyadharas. samsara and nirvana. the wisdom of the unity of bliss and emptiness blazes supremely. may we never again be drawn into the cycle of obscuration! The text continues: All impairments of the vows of individual liberation. I confess them! In the future. samsara and nirvana. perfect buddhahood. may all our karmic debts from past lifetimes be purified! In the present. we will go on to act uninterruptedly for the benefit of others. spontaneously accomplished. through this confession. I offer the sang offering of spontaneously accomplished perfect buddhahood. Through the power of this. The sang offering of indivisible emptiness and compassion fills the dharmadhatu. . may I never be drawn into the wheel of obscuration! Through making a sang offering of the impure aggregates. brilliant splendour. bodhisattva precepts. Through making a sang offering of the ordinary red and white bodhichitta in the fiery expanse of wisdom. elements and sense sources as the blazing forms of peaceful and wrathful deities. Upon the ground of the blazing five-coloured vajra light of all the phenomena of appearance and existence. May all my karmic debts from the past be purified! In the present so they do not remain in my mind-stream. we confess our harmful actions and transgressions so they do not remain in our mind-streams.

obscurations and impurities be purified! May this age of plague. In the first of these it is primarily refraining from certain proscribed negative actions that is taught. may all our illnesses. incurred consciously or unwittingly. nagas and arrogant king-like spirits.Conscious or unwitting. I openly admit. harmful influence. who cut short the breath of life. be repelled! . be repelled! May the eight great fears and sixteen lesser fears be overcome! For me and all those around me. and the secret vows of the vidyadharas each have their own unique system detailing what is to be adopted and what is to be avoided. May illness. in the second it is the precepts of accumulating virtue and maturing sentient beings. such as plague. Through this confession. speech and mind. may all that is inauspicious be averted! May the powers and strength of samaya-breakers and gongpo demons be averted! May the attacks of invaders. harmful influences. famine and warfare. be repelled! May all the forces that create obstacles by inviting spiritual teachers to leave this world for the realms of peace be averted! May all inauspicious bad omens for the land of Tibet be averted! May the planetary forces. and in the third it is the various samaya commitments of the extremely secret mantra vehicle. who so abruptly cut short the breath of beings‘ life. obscurations and impurities arising from the transgression of our vows and commitments be purified! May all the calamities of this age and place. famine and warfare be pacified! The outer vows of individual liberation. We openly admit and confess all our impairments of these vows and commitments. or of barbarian armies coming from the four border regions towards Lhasa in order to destroy representations of the enlightened body. the inner vows of the bodhisattvas. nagas and arrogant king-like spirits. or to carry them off as plunder. be pacified! Requesting Activity The text continues: May the attacks of invaders be repelled! May the forces that create obstacles by inviting the spiritual teacher to leave this world be averted! May inauspicious bad omens for the land of Tibet be averted! May the planetary forces.

wild animals and so on and the sixteen lesser fears be overcome! May all that is inauspicious. drowning. It is in the lotus grove of the pure scholarly tradition of scripture That the sublime masters take their pleasure and delight. Through the merit of this. I have not taken even so much as a droplet on the tip of a blade of kusha grass. Gya. the sang text says: Through this diamond-like practice of Riwo Sangchö. Yet this garland of words that I have laboured to produce. From the stream of elegant sayings that benefit the teachings. and . Gya. As for the benefits of this practice. for me and all those living around me.May the eight great fears of fire. And ultimately. I. but For those continuously engaged in village ceremonies. practise as indicated in the ritual for the fire offering. The explanation provided here may be applied to more elaborate or briefer versions of the sang offering text as appropriate. with 108 sang burners and various kinds of wood. Not having seen many histories like this before. Lhatsün the illusory manifestation. may all beings Find immediate relief from sickness. Gya. evil influence and fear of harm. entitled ‘The Gentle Rain of Benefit and Joy’ was composed in response to the request of one named Samantabhadra. one will be able to ‘ransom’ death. Always abiding by what is good and virtuous! This explanation of sang offering. may they be freed from the torment of the negative emotions. May still contain some moisture drawn from the clouds of Dharma. wrote this in accordance with the dakini’s instructions when revealing the hidden land of Sikkim. purify the misuse of offerings and avert the various kinds of obstacle. this donkey‘s voice May still provide some amusement with its garden of assorted advice. be averted! May the powers and strength of obstructive samaya-breakers and the hosts of gongpo demons be averted! When offering sang in this way.

5[5] May virtue increase! . I.recognizing that people these days take special delight in this practice as a method for improving the conditions of their present life. Gyalsé Shenpen Tayé. it was done mainly to be of benefit at this particular time. wrote down quickly whatever came to my mind in my hermitage ‘The Palace of Great Bliss’ at the monastery of Rudam Orgyen Samten Chöling. the Dharmapreaching monk.

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