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Sean Li Math 4340 Notes Spring 2013 Abstract Algebra

Lecture 24 3/15/13

Groups of order 21. Commutative group: cyclic group C 21 . Non-commutative group:

G C 7 C 3 , as from the previous lecture, restated below.

“Assume G exists, then it has a unique normal subgroup K of order 7 and non-normal- subgroups of order 3, denote one of these H. Then H K = {e}. Clearly H normalizes K as K G. If ϕ : H Aut K, then G H × ϕK. An automorphism is found by setting x x 2 x 4 x.”

Proposition. Let H, K be two normal subgroups of G such that H K = {e}. Then H commutes elementwise with K and HK H × K.

Note hkh 1 k 1 = k k 1 K and hkh 1 k 1 = hh H , thus it is the identity. Thus we have hk = kh.

For the second part, every element of HK can be uniquely written as hk as H K = {e}. Then the mapping HK H × K given by hk (h, k) is a homormorphism, as (h 1 k 1 )(h 2 k 2 ) = h 1 h 2 k 1 k 2 (h 1 h 2 , k 1 k 2 ) = (h 1 , k 1 )(h 2 , k 2 ). This is one-to-one and onto, so it is an isomorphism.