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33 views1 pagesNotes from lecture. Cornell University, Spring 2013.

Mar 15, 2013

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Notes from lecture. Cornell University, Spring 2013.

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

33 views

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Notes from lecture. Cornell University, Spring 2013.

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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Sean Li Math 4340 Notes − Spring 2013 Abstract Algebra

Lecture 24 − 3/15/13

Groups of order 21. Commutative group: cyclic group C _{2}_{1} . Non-commutative group:

G ≈ C _{7} C _{3} , as from the previous lecture, restated below.

“Assume G exists, then it has a unique normal subgroup K of order 7 and non-normal- subgroups of order 3, denote one of these H. Then H ∩ K = {e}. Clearly H normalizes K as K G. If ϕ : H → Aut K, then G ≈ H × ϕK. An automorphism is found by setting x → x ^{2} → x ^{4} → x.”

Proposition. Let H, K be two normal subgroups of G such that H ∩ K = {e}. Then H commutes elementwise with K and HK ≈ H × K.

Note hkh ^{−}^{1} k ^{−}^{1} = k ^{} k ^{−}^{1} ∈ K and hkh ^{−}^{1} k ^{−}^{1} = hh ^{} ∈ H , thus it is the identity. Thus we have hk = kh.

For the second part, every element of HK can be uniquely written as hk as H ∩ K = {e}. Then the mapping HK → H × K given by hk → (h, k) is a homormorphism, as (h _{1} k _{1} )(h _{2} k _{2} ) = h _{1} h _{2} k _{1} k _{2} → (h _{1} h _{2} , k _{1} k _{2} ) = (h _{1} , k _{1} )(h _{2} , k _{2} ). This is one-to-one and onto, so it is an isomorphism.

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