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SHELL INLAY FROM ROYAL TOMB AT UR .
etc. GORDON CHILDE B. Professor of Prehistoric Arch&ology in Edinburgh University* Author of The Aryans.. NEW YORK ALFRED A.THE JVLDST THE ANCIENT EAST ORIENTAL PRELUDE TO EUROPEAN PREHISTORY BT V. The Dawn of European Civilization. KNOPF 1929 .Litt.
PRINTED IN GREAT BRITAIN BT ITIPHBN AUSTIN AND SONS. tTD n HIRTfOM> .
. EUROPE AND THE EAST 220 237 NOTES ABBREVIATIONS 247 INDEX . I. . . . IV... THE SETTING OF THE STAGE 21 III. 251 . THE OLDEST THE THE THE THE FARMERS . PAGI FROM HISTORY TO PREHISTORY i II.CONTENTS CHAP. 123 WRITING AND THE HARNESSING OF 146 ANIMAL MOTIVE POWER VIII. FIRST PREDILUVIAN CULTURE INVENTIO'N OF . SUMERIAN CIVILIZATION AT THE END OF THE IVTH MILLENNIUM IX* 169 201 THE INDUS CIVILIZATION X. SECOND PREDYNASTIC CULTURE RISE OF THE DYNASTIES 78 100 V. . VI.. 46 . VII.
of Egypt Exploration Society vii . disc-mace. flint saw and fish-tailed blade. () Wavy-handled jars. combs and theriomorphic palette. tags. OF PLATES PACE. Esq. . Egypt Exploration Society. (c) V-baaed blade and dagger of Egypt (J) Knife showing $erial flaking. London . Tomb (<j) stone vase. (tf) Clay (4~c) Model house. (middle). . Courtesy of 44 IV. (^) Urial Ram. and flint laurel-leaf. . Royal Scottish Museum (<r) Basalt () Interior of White Cross-lined bowl. bracelets . (tf) Prehistoric basket from Fayum. Zoological Gardens. discshaped mace. L. VIII. Courtesy Exploration Society model of cattle. Esq. Ca ton-Thompson. Early Predynastic. amulets. alabaster vase. . Middle Predynastic. Courtesy of 63 66 Egypt Exploration Society Illustrates clay figurines showing penis-sheath. steatopygous figurine. Egyptian Museum. Courtesy of G. Stone vases and pottery copies.. I. and 73 combs IX. VL VII. Woolley. 54 58 V. by the courtesy of C. tags. Miss G. .LIST PIATES. . Royal Scottish Museum and alabaster vases. Cairo Tomb groups from Diospolis Parva. Esq Badarian figurine. . Royal Scottish Museum. (6) Badarian pottery 1 . (bottom). Courtesy (rf) 83 X. () Black-topped vases. (6) (Top) Figurines. (bottom row) pointed mace. Shell inlay from Royal Tomb at Ur. (Top) Slate pendants and theriomorphic palette (below) clay models. Brunton. 70 Courtesy of .89 . Brunton. . of flint. Courtesy of G. (a) Tusk figurine. and the Joint Expedition of the British Museum and the University of Pennsylvania Frontispiece IL II L (a) Mouflon Ram. rhomboid slate palette groups from Diospolis Parva.
(a) . . Ashmolean.178 XX. Stone vase carved with procession of animals.109 Bracelets from tomb of King Zer.) British Museum . (a) Rein-ring chariot. Tumblers from the cemetery of Susa I. XVI.172 XVIII. Ur. . Vases from Susa II. (The sheath and case are adorned with filagree work. (^) XXII. XXIV. Courtesy of Egypt . .136 155 158 from Samarra.. University of Pennsylvania with hilt and its sheath. (a) Bas-relief showing chariot.. . Courtesy of the British of Museum and the Joint Expedition . (Limestone plaques inlaid on (^) Beaker (<:) bitumen. British Museum . PAG1. painted pottery and figurines from India. The beads consist of gold. Courtesy of Joint Expedition of the (c) Earrings. British Museum and the University of Pennsylvania Stone statuette from Mohenjo Daro. J Sauce boat (a) lapis.LIST OF PLATES PLATES.) Courtesy of Joint Expedition of the British Museum and the University of Pennsylvania . XXIII. British Museum. XL The XII. XIII. and amethyst. XVII. Louvre " " from al 'Ubaid. 1 74 () Gold toilet set and case. (I) Circular bas-relief showing a hunt in the marshes. and the University of Pennsylvania Jewelry from tombs at Ur. . . Lion-Hunt Palette. XIX. Courtesy of Sir John Marshall Seals. XV. Louvre Bowls from the cemetery of Susa I. (a) British Museum and mascot from Queen Shub-ad's 181 XXI. in 1 34 . (^) Silver boat from Royal Tomb. Golden dagger lapis ^. XIV. Courtesy of Joint Expedition of the British Museum * . (a) Earrings and bearded bull amulets. Earrings and pendants from graves at Ur. Spouted vase from Jemdet-Nasr. . (i) Necklace. 19* 204 209 viii . Exploration Society. . Louvre Milking scene on Frieze from A-anni-padda's temple at al 'Ubaid. -J . Ur. . Erech. Courtesy of Sir John Marshall 190 ..
a. The whole scene is 2 5 feet long 33 .. \ Later Capsian (Getulan) flints. Badari. Asiatic Society.. arrow-head (B). 6 7 8 6 feet high Rock engraving showing elephants and leopards. after Petrie 6 17 Designs scratched on predynastic pots SmaU copper implements from Naqada I.. after Breuil .. 9 10 11 Rock-painting from a shelter in Khaimer Range (after J. Needle. near G^ryville. (The flake C has 13 14 15 1 been detached by a blow struck near its centre.HXUSTRATIONS IN THE TEXT PAGE. as . d. after Brunton Carinated bowl. &) and Adrian (c d] points. 47 . t \ . . Tunisia.. $ : . i.. \ . 28 30 31 4 5 Capsian I flints and ostrich-egg disc. 5^ 57 64 -65 ix . Fishhook. 3. Late Predynastic after Petrie. 9. . c. Predynastic. 1883) Painting from a shelter at Singanpur Painting from a shelter at Singanpur Microliths from Vindhya Hills.. \. 1 of the Most Ancient East svi 2 3 Rock engraving in the Sahara at Kef Messiouer. after Caton-Thomson in Antiquity.. after British . Algeria 'Sbatkian (a. The larger buffalo is . 53 55 . . 34 Scenes painted on the walls of a rock-shelter near Alpera.. . . . shown by the bulb visible in the middle view) Bone "hook" and wooden boomerang. India. Bengal. Badari. | Petroglyph depicting the extinct Bubalus antiquus on the rocks near Er Richa.36 37 39.. $. . AIn Mouha&d. Map FIG. 9 25 1.38 .. Museum 12 Stone Agt Guide Sickle-teeth (A). Morsotte and All Bacha. Oran. after Brunton . Early Middle Predynastic. . Badarian beaker. . Sou tli-East Spain.. and side-blow flake (C). near Guelma. Pin. .
Naqada. .ILLUSTRATIONS IN THE TEXT FIG. El Atnrah* 9* . . J. . fish. . . 1 06 43 44 45 46 47 48 Chisel-edged flint blades.. 107 107 108 I *o of apes . J. J . 8.D. J Flint blades with V-base. Tarkhan . rhomboid daggers. Foreign ship from late Decorated pot Ivory handle for a flint knife like Fig* 26. after Petrie . 1 FACE. . 84. . after Petrie . . J (Zer) .115 *6 117 . 36 37 38 39 Painting on the wall of a tomb at Hierakonpolis .. Naqada.. .. . Royal Tombs. Royal Tombs. . 93 rot . . toad . after Garstang . . etc. : 68 69 71 72 20 21 White Cross-lined bowls showing basketry patterns after Capart. 86.. Middle Predynastic. 29 30 3r 32 33 Decorated vases (and two Wavy-handled jars in centre) imitating stone vessels in shape and ornament. 83 and 85. S. Early. about Block figures. in bottom row claw and fly amulets Copper flat celts and dagger from Naqada. 86 .74. arrow-heads (5 is perhaps protodynastic) after 8 de Morgan 19 Ivory vases and harpoons of First and spoons of Second Predynastic culture.. Middle. loz 103 104 40 41 42 Late Predynastic copper harpoons. Black Incised ware. . Flint knives. . Amulets : r. J. after Petrie.. Slate palette in ^ -J 22 23 form of a . 2. in I . 24 25 26 27 28 Ivory combs. | Flint hoe. . . \ Flint razor blade. about J . 82 and 82 . claw.. " in stone and fayence. -J.. f Flat copper dagger J. .. Decorated pot figuring boat Theriomorphic and spouted vases. .. Evolution of tomb types. after Capart . 65 Predynastic stone beads . i and 2.. Tarkhan Great brick mastaba.. -73 8t |.. Early Predynastic flint work 3 and 4. J . Bull's head .. after Petrie . Copper Figures " goblet. restored 90 with ivory handle.. . Early dynastic chamber tomb Small masta&a. 75 . . . . 83 84 85 86 87 89 34 35 Flat knife or razor. Gaming piece in form of a lion from First Dyaaaty Royal . * . Naqada. later .
Bead seal. after Mackay . arrowheads. al 'Ubaid cemetery.134 . after Mackay . DIL . . ^ ^ . J after Jars with anthropomorphic handles.133 . . Ur. after .. ^. . tubes. . and poker-butted spear180 head. xi . . . . \ . J .130 . celt. . . . . Susa I 33 .178 Sumerun dagger blades. .129 . 49 50 51 Copper chisel with " flanged PAGE. J . .184 Spouted jars.ILLUSTRATIONS IN THE TEXT FIG. . J . . 154 155 Theriomorphic vases of alabaster from Susa II.121 128 52 53 54 55 Clay figurine. . . . Button Susa II. Kish A. near Musyan Sumerian single-bladed and double axes. J Store jar painted in red and black from Tepeh Aly Abad. tomb of . Arrow-heads and celts. Susa I. arrow-butt and axe.151 . Susa I Pointed stone mace-head.152 153 66 67 68 69 70 71 pin. . Sickle teeth Hetep-heres. Theriomorphic seal or weight. . J Store jar painted in red and black from Tepeh Aly Abad. . Susa II. . Kish A. . $ Brick tombs from the necropolis of Tepeh Aly Abad. Square vase of alabaster. 185 Beaker*. . Susa I . ^fa. Ur. Ur. . 183 Mackay 183 Cky baains or offering tables. Jemdet Nasr. .130 131 chisels.186 Copper vessels. J 177 Sumerian axes. needle. ring. . necropolis seals.139 . Susa Flint arrow-head and stone celts. depicting human figures . . al 'Ubaid cemetery. of Susa I . . I after Mem. Kish A.. al 'Ubaid. .. . 1 135 37 de Morgan .177 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 Sumerian transverse axe. . .. . . after de Morgan Stone receptacle for paint in the form of a cornet. 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 Carinated pot and spouted jug. Twin vases of alabaster from Susa II. 156 1 57 72 73 near Musyan. J Flaked chert hoes. cemeteries round Musyan. . J . the mother of Cheops and saddle quern from Susa Perse. Copper Copper fish-hook. .138 . 159 161 . -J . $. Susa I Sherds from Susa I. spear-head. . . al 'Ubaid. Kish A. 132 1 56 57 58 Flint arrow-heads. . *' blade from the . J Limestone pebbles ground to form a knife and Susa I . xiii . . Kish A.
Harappa 207 Copper beaker from Harappa . Ur.. P.. showing disposition of victims in Queen Shub-ad's tomb.... Kish A.. PAGE.ILLUSTRATIONS IN THE TEXT FIG. .. . J Copper bracelets and earrings with flattened ends. 189 Raquet pin. Kish A. I 190 Plan of two Royal Tombs at Ur. . 789 192 206 Copper dagger and chisel. 81 82 83 84 85 86 188 Copper pins. . G.
branch of archaeological science is discovery proceeding at such a breathless pace or leading to such revolutionary results. at once intelligible to the general public and adequately illustrated. gives the man in the street a clear idea of the context of the new finds. To try and build up an elaborate and coherent theory out of our present half-knowledge would be waste of time when incalculable new discoveries are upsetting the most cherished conclusions of the experts. for no extant work. In no . weekly papers many people are made aware of them without being able in the least to understand what they really imply . The disinterment of the forgotten Indus civilization. Yet perhaps these very discoveries may be pleaded From the daily and as a palliation of my rashness. To produce a manual (supposing I were capable of that) which would be bound to need radical revision years would be sheer extravagance.PREFACE TT -* seems peculiarly rash to write anything about the Ancient East just at this juncture. In any case the novelty of my material may be advanced as an excuse for the inconclusive nature of my essay and the popular treatment of its theme. the opening of the Royal Tombs at Ur. and the discovery of the Badarian culture in Egypt have effected a more radical and dramatic enlargement of the historical horizon than any event since Evans* identification of the Minoan civilization or Schliemann's disclosure of the treasures of Mycenae. xiii in a couple of .
Professor Langdon. the Director of the Royal Scottish Museum. I hope this little work will be of real value to some serious students in this respect without becoming unreadable to the laymen. and the Director-General of Archaeology in India. Woolley. H. Brunton. attempted to sum up objectively the ascertained facts. the Trustees of the Museum and of the Pennsylvania University Museum. O. Father Bovier Lapierre and others have most obligingly given me information as to unpublished discoveries for which I take this opportunity to thank them. together with some authoritative interpretations. or presents in the light of the newest chronology of Egypt and Sumer a conspectus of the types whose appearance north of the Mediterranean gives the framework for European prehistory.PREFACE I have. Prof. Thanks to a number of figures that explain themselves without dull commentaries. At the same time I do be of service to one class of that book my may hope serious students* As I tried to show in my Dawn of our ancestors' progress was for European the Ancient East . Yet no cheap and generally accessible book illustrates the original forms assumed by those Oriental inventions that Europe adopted and adapted. Mr. Professor Junker. Sir Flinders Petrie.B. Mr. Mr. Professor Langdon. British xiv . For these illustrations I am indebted particularly to Civilization^ Mr* Guy Brunton.. so that the reader may hereafter be able to read with more comprehension of their drift the reports of subsequent discoveries. the Conservateur of the Louvre. and the whole long inspired by chronology of prehistoric Europe rests in the long run on synchronisms with the historical cultures of Babylonia and Egypt. the Egypt Exploration Society. Breuil. Woolley. Miss Caton-Thompson. therefore.E. the Director General of Archaeology in Egypt.
adoption. And it is .CHAPTER I FROM HISTORY TO PREHISTORY BARELY a thousand years ago Scotland and the rest of northern Europe were still sunk in the night of illiteracy and barbarism. Yet the people so revealed remain almost nameless to us and to many. A thousand years earlier and history's upon our dark continent merely from a few on the shores of the Mediterranean. and can such human groups with the aid of their artifacts. He thus wins the picture of the material life of various peoples who inhabited Britain and adjacent territories at successive at times even trace the wanderings of epochs. And in points the next millennium these points flicker out one by one light shines until only the ghostly radiance of heroic myth lights up the storied walls of Troy and Tiryns. The prehistoric archaeologist can shedlJome light on the savage past of our ancestors and forerunners by digging up their rude tools and clumsy ornaments and arranging them in approximate temporal series or local groups. inevitably their spiritual life their very antiquity is virtually a sealed book may be a matter of doubt But one thread is clearly discernible running of these prehistoric through the dark and tangled tale the westward spread. and transEuropeans : formation of the inventions of the Orient. .
with the adoption agriculture and stock-raising. and then the discovery of metal and the realization of its have indeed been passed before the curtain properties Yet even so. From the Oriental kinsmen . urban There in the Ancient life.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST from a study of objects of Oriental type found. or copied. writing. and conscious art. serve as a written commentary upon European prehistory* the peoples pf Oriental antiquity were dose kinsmen to the neolithic inhabitants of parts of Europe or descendants of tKe race of palaeolithic hunters who Some of had lived there before.C* For on the Nile and in Mesopotamia the clear light fifty of written history illumines our path for fully centuries. rises. in the cultural provinces of Europe that we may hope to define in more than purely relative terms the age of the several cultural groups recognized in illiterate Europe before the middle of the first millennium B. East. some episodes greatest at least in the great of the conquest of stage. too. civilization are enacted The moments that drama on the open revolution whereby man of ceased to be purely parasitic and. we are so much nearer the beginnings on the banks of the Nile and the Euphrates that we have better hope of understanding those most momentous advances there than from any scrutiny of kitchenmiddens on the Baltic or of shell-heaps on the Scottish And frequently the data from the Orient coasts. and looking down that vista we already descry at its farther end ordered government. became a creator emancipated from the whims of his environment. imported.
That is my excuse for offering in this volume a survey.FROM HISTORY TO PREHISTORY of our barbarian ancestors may we not expect to learn something even of the spiritual life of the latter ? May texts.C. opening up a quite new chapter in Egypt's fsmotest past at & Bad^rL Disclosing a flourishing neolithic culture older than any previously known elsewhere. of Oriental achievements. and inconclusive. that cannot help being one- sided. The record of the achievements themselves is enshrined in the former. from the point of view of the purely archaeological story of Imman culture has not yet been attempted. of the 3 results of the . or again the dramatic entry of India on to the --stage of Oriental history Darg. Now in no sphere of archaeological or anthropological research are such startling discoveries being made as in I need only instance the the Ancient East. \ with the excavation of Harappa jand Mojjgjyo An appreciation of these revolutions. glossed by literary throw light on contemporary usages in silent Europe ? The Ancient East prehistoric and protohistoric archaeology of the is therefore an indispensable prelude to the true appreciation of European prehistory. not the practices of the Orient. or the dazzling revelation of the brilliance of Sumerian civilization at the end of the fourth millennium B. The latter is at first mainly the story of the imitation. And even the archaeological context to which they belong is by HO means readily accessible to the ordinary worker itf $Jie field of prehistory. or at best adaptation. incomplete.
though cognate my As own. separated by intervals of decline or even Old Kingdom corresponds to Manetho's Dynasties III-VJ. This historical period begins with the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt as a single kingdom by the first Pharaoh. Modern historians recognize three main periods of Egyptian greatness. composed under Ptolemy Philadelphus. and New Kingdoms respectively. has been subdivided by Manetho by dynasties. particularly the so-called Turin Papyrus written about 1300 B. and the Palermo Stone inscribed some fourteen hundred years earlier serve to date the archaeological monuments from about three thousand B.C. the Middle his Xlth and Xllth. specialists in a field different to. traditionally called Menes (really a composite personage). Throughout chaos . and the New to the XVIIIth and XlXth. onwards. and then certain fragments of much older native Egyptian annals. In Egypt the written records tion in primarily the compila- Greek by Manetho.C. a preliminary it is necessary to recapitulate some conclusions of the philological historian so as to define the basis of early chronology that forms the framework for my tale and to introduce the actors who are to play the leading r61es in our drama. Middle.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST work of to. termed the Old. the the whole of this period lists most monuments of kings and possible to give the age of in terms of solar years thanks to the it is their reigns controlled by certain astronomical dates given by peculiarities of the Egyptian 4 .
resident presumably in Memphis of cultivators or Heliopolis. Sirius appears on the horizon just before dawn on the same day as the flood reaches those cities. And there is one yet earlier date. was to mark of thirty days with five intercalary days superadded. definable in like numerical terms. elaborated a calendar for the guidance in which the heliacal rising of Sothis the beginning of the official year and to field to give the signal for the cycle of labours in the months twelve of The official year was to consist start. that is to say. The Egyptian most immediate forerunner of our own. in the latitude of Memphis and Heliopolis at the apex of the Delta the beginning of the inundation Now coincides with the heliacal rising of Sothis. 5 . The Nile of Egypt. The recurrence of this vital event was a challenge to the dwellers on the Nile to devise some more exact system of measuring time than the lun^reckonin^jof barbarians. that. in fact to effect an artificial reconciliation of the lunar and solar years. Hence some genius. takes us back into a prehistoric epoch -that date is the introduction of the calendar calendar. was created in response to an imperative demand of Egyptian agriculture. our Sirius . according to one school of interpretation. in order that the necessary agricultural operations might be put in hand in due time. and all agricultural operations. are regulated by its flood that recurs annually with mathematical regularity. that forms the itself. upon which the prosperity and indeed the very existence is the very life of prince and peasant depend.FROM HISTORY TO PREHISTORY calendar.
and it is possible day of the is often to connect with the several kings in (Senusert III) even Sothic system the accession of the XVII Ith dynasty and of one as early as the Xlltk The beginning of the last-named dynasty cannot on the strength of the royal lists possibly be put later titan 2000 B. slight imperfection in the system makes it possible to calculate this date so exactly although no written A documents have survived from so early an age. In fact New Year's Day. that a Sothic cycle began in A." could have no relation to the activities they had been designed to guide. a discrepancy that would at first pass unnoticed but would mean in a couple of centuries that " ** the official Inundation." seasons. 1 Hence the introduction of the Sothic calendar must be assigned to a either still earlier Sothic cycle 2776 or 4236 B. The Egyptian year fell short of the true solar year by just under six hours. Sowing/' " Harvest.C.C. would only coincide with the official This year once in 1461 years* a Now know Sothic we termed period cycle. implies a ment and body of collected probability have been devised and brought into operation in the year 4236 before the beginning of our reckoning. which was at heliacal rising first all of times celebrated on the day of the Sirius.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST reconciliation of the primitive lunar calendar with the solar year was a really extraordinary achieve- Such a and systematized experience and a degree of forethought not to be found Yet the system must in all among barbarians. 139.D. But the calendar was already 6 .
Osiris supplanted had mastered the whole Delta or had. That year may therefore rank as the earliest fixed date in human history.FROM HISTORY TO PREHISTORY established under the Pyramid builders of the IVth to computations based Dynasty that reigned according upon the fragments of native annals earlier than 2776. Menes' work was merely the unification of these two realms.8 And behind that conquest Hor. alive Traditions that were still very much when information the Palermo Stone was inscribed give some " on the protohistoric period. the system must have been established as early as 4236.* Hence if the date for the pyramid age obtained by dead reckoning be accepted. a thousand years before Menes or our oldest inscribed monuments. whose names are even recorded on the Palermo Stone . But the two kingdoms were in a sense the result of the disruption of an older unity created by the conquest of Upper Egypt by the Followers of Horus or Shemsu- certainly a king of Upper Egypt who Before his sway on the fertile Delta. date just mentioned implies a flourishing and advanced culture a thousand years before the written The record begins. Menes " was almost there imposed had been kings of Upper Egypt and kings of Lower Egypt. 7 . had him of the Falcon clan whose original home was in the western Delta. a unification symbolized in the double crown Menes and all his successors wore. the men went other preparatory events vaguely reflected in The worshippers of Osiris and Anzti wnom tradition.
the former hieroglyphic script. And may be referred to the same period of northern supremacy. For instance. must have been invented in the Delta since plants and animals peculiar to the Delta are prominent among its signs.totemic animal . the.4 tkughfc the dominion to Upper any case preceded the advance their Egyptians agriculture and links him curiously cult invested him with the shepherd's witlTByblos . a conquest that in Tradition says that ^Osiris had of the Horus clan. 8 . and the universal adoption of this script in the Nile valley. his personality crook and the ploughman's ox-goad in any case is reminiscent of an Asiatic vegetation deity. In any its the tradition despite some ambiguities in interpretation leaves no doubt as to a case. As his human shape is in contrast to. 4 political supremacy of the North over the South was reversed by Menes when the North had already that profoundly affected Upper Egypt.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST on another view. used by the dynastic Egyptians. Linguistics and comparative ethnography offer to guide us still farther back towards the origins of Many philologists regard the as a Egyptian language compound or hybrid speech in which a Semitic strain allied to Assyrian or Hebrew Egyptian civilization. that cannot of course have been introduced by the southerner Menes. even extended Egypt. must be referred to some older unification perhaps under the the establishment of the calendar - Shemsu-Hor. of the Nile. so the economic system which he represents is far ahead of the African hunting or garden deities culture.
5 The social and religious institutions that face us in such maturity at the dawn of Egyptian history not only challenge us to investigate the process of their growth but also provide us with clues to facilitate the task. The Std festival. monarch the meaning and function were to confer upon renewed life and vigour by a symbolic death and . celebrated periodically by every Pharaoh from Menes. for example^ in The coincidence of the words for left and right with the designations for east and west is held to prove that the Semitic element for came^in from the north such a terminology for the points of the compass would .FROM HISTORY TO PREHISTORY has been engrafted on to an African . Behind the impressive figure of the omnipotent and deified Pharaoh lotoms the shadow of a humbler personage tht his sovereignty dhdnejking^as Eraser has depicted him. 6 And so it presupposes actually a time to when death Pharaoh's predecessors were put 9 . in fact not only accredited with many of the functions assigned to such kings among contemporary barbarians he escaped their fate only through the performance of a magic rite that was equivalent to a ritual death. be natural to a people ascending the river and the words in question belong to the Semitic stratum. the god who had died and risen again. who holds by virtue of his magic power and as its price must lay down his 'life 'ere that power grow Pharaoh was enfeebled with the decay of his body. Hamitic stock such as Berber. was a magical identification of the king with Its Osiris. resurrection. is represented in a purer form.
There we have a liviag 10 . totem) ancestry who was ritually they are a congeries of autonomous totemic war with one another. and dress. The Shilluk. age among these : monarchy the Dinka stage immediately prior to the divine of Menesstill older phase is seen among A clans. language. Similarly a contemplation of the weird animal deities of the Egyptian pantheon has suggested that the Falcon Horus. had taken their places under the Falcon totem of the victorious clan in a national pantheon.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST ceremonially to make room for young and potent successors lest their magic efficacy vanish with their enfeebled frames. cranial 7 These are ruled proportions. and the tribes are organized in totemic clans. Now on the Upper Nile there dwell to-day people allied to the oldest Egyptians in appearance. the Cow Hathor. And that implies behind the unified Egyptian clans State a multiplicity of totemic whose patron ancestral animals and plants had become local deities and then. often at tribes on the Upper Nile social development had been arrested at a stage that the Egyptians had traversed before their history began. ruled by a centralized king with animal slain. stature. the Serpent Neith and the rest have grown out of totems.e. illustrate a (i. with the unification of the land by the Shemsu-Hor. and each ruled by a " " rain-maker who was ceremonially killed before old overtook It really looks as if him. by rain-maker magicians or by divine kings who were until recently ritually slain.
as it is called. is derived almost entirely from jjraves) that contain no written document from which a calendar date might be obtained.C. We can do no more than guess Petrie 8 at the length of time represented in each of the cemeteries.FROM HISTORY TO PREHISTORY museum whose Legends and exhibits supplement and vivify the prehistoric cases in our collections. we in the way which the wavy ledges that once served as handles for certain types of jar in the course of years lost II . The archaeologists' a revealed has concrete record of man's progress spade from savagery to largely civilization in the substantiates the traditions same region. infusing for Egypt a moment the glow of life into those pale lips. of most ancient But further brings own into living remote past. comparative religion and ethnography thus cast some light on tribal and dynastic movements. philology. It and deductions it just summarized and at them and enlarges their the reanimated body contact with Europe's the same time supplements it scope. on spiritual and social revolutions in the Nile valley long before 3000 B. we must explain one point in the framework on which interaction of multiple concrete groups that picture must be based. but thanks to Sir Flinders can arrange the graves in their relative Petrie began by an analysis of chronological order. Our knowledge of Pre- dynas^c -Egypt. In due course we shall deal in detail with archaeology's revelations that disclose no abstract evolution but the and the blending But first far-sundered contributions from of regions.
Sir Flinder^Tetrie^y a comparison of the number of prehistoric ancT pre-Roman dynastic graves near Diospolis. which of course give no true idea of duration but merely mark successive points in the temporal series without offering any clue as to the intervals separating " " is them. 30 and 77 is that ordinarily termed predynastic while the newly discovered Badarian civilization can be fitted in before that date.D.000 B. 30 falls in the seventh millennium on the short chronology or about 10. assign to the predynastic period about half this duration. 77. 30 by estipa3ting the length of the predynastic age. of computation. Peake and Fleure.D.D. Assuming whose community graves are discovered was approximates 12 . The scale consists of furniture.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST their true function as hand-holds mere decorative wriggles. the so-called sequence dates (S. and degenerated to Then he correlated the several stages of this orderly process with phases in the development of other associated articles of tomb-' Eventually he worked out a numerical scata by which the position in time of any one grave relative to the rest can be defined in figures.) numbered from 30 to 80. The accession of Menes assigned to S.D. came to the conclusion that the and pharaonic periods were approximately' Hence S.C* on Petrie's. using a different method predynastic equal in length. the period between S. Attempts have been made to give an approximate absolute value to S.D. Maclver and Mace state that the total number of graves in a cemetery in use throughout the whole period that the to 500.
on tablets of baked inscribed in cuneiform characters clay together with the Greek compilation of native 13 . were actually -found in ruined huts superposed upon those containing sherds of the supposedly older wares whose was thus deiijipnstrated. we incline to equate S.FROM HISTORY TO PREHISTORY similar in size to a modern fellahin village. 30 with 5500 B. priority we In ^Mesopotamia we stand in 1928 much where Written records stodd ~ in figypt in 1898. The whole volume entitled Egyptian Prehistory is scarcely Prior to 1895 the record in Egypt with the Pyramid age.D. Dynasty while Petrie laid bare the still older series of graves that took us back to a time when only poor villagers ignorant of writing dwelt upon the banks of theJSTile. xroveries at that site did more than open a new chapter our confirmed they reading of the older ones by providing the first stratigraphical confirmation for Petrie's system of sequence dating. assumed on the theory to be later. 'available to the general reader. the period represented by the cemetery would be two thousand years. In the settlement near Badari the ceramic types. the adult death-rate averaging to-day one in four These figures seem altogether reasonable and years. Then Amdinau Jreally began and de Morgan chanced upon the tombs of the First thirty years old.C- It may not be amiss here to recall how extremely new our knowledge of Predynastic Egypt really is. The " \ Bad^i was only opened prefatory chapter of^us volume entitled in 924^ and is not yet Incidentally the dis.
se cities and linguistic or racial differences from time to time was raised by energetic rulers to a position of hegemony or even paramountcy over more or less extensive portions of the land. or nearly a thousand years after the unification Prior to that date Babylonia was divided of Egypt. up between more or Despite separatist ideals less autonomous City States. But the earlier Babylonian dates are even mofe dubious than the Babylonia was only finally unified into a Egyptian.C. a dynasty funded by Amorites from single kingdom by the Semitic West termed the First Dynasty of Babylon. Even before that catastrophe they name eight or ten antediluvian monarchs reigning " in five or six distinct cities for fabulous periods before and describe an age of Anarchy descended from the heavens " that royalty lists had 259.000 yeajrs since the Creation* Could they be taken at their face value such lasted for 14 .THE MOST ANCIENT EAST by Berosus take us back as in Egypt for nearly five thousand years. tradition composed Its accession can be fixed by astronomical data to 2196 B. going right back to an event termed the Flood. drawn up in the latter half of millennium have been unearthed that purport the third to give a list of the cities that had from time to time attained the hegemony with the names and reigns of their rulers Now several tablets 9 who enjoyed such documents in question in fact offer a list kings of Mesopotamia The imperial powers* of the high with the years of their \reigns . one or other of the.
the tablets more than once present as consecutive dynasties that reigning contemporaneously Babylonia and. So in the case of the First Dynasty of Kish.C.FROM HISTORY TO PREHISTORY would evidently give an exact framework for the chronology of Mesopotamia from its remote beginnings. represented principally derived from the French excavations 15 at . Unfortunately.519 years 3 months and 3-^ days ! And equally fabulous reigns the> are attributed to some kings of Dynasty of Awan. of later between the kings dynasties can often be laps proved conclusively from business and other documents dated by regnal years and can be inferred from archaeological evidence with high probability in the case of still The Prediluvian kings' reigns are all earlier kings. when they come in in reality were different of parts down to the earlier Overdynasties. however. A clear epoch was marked by the conquests ^ ofSargon of Agade and Nar^m-Sin. the fourth from the Flood and several yet later kings. the years assigned to many kings are plainly impossible. " " " " or archaic period pre-Sargonic only a vague by archaic sculptures and inscriptions. The twenty-three kings of this house are said to have reigned together 24. give figures that are plainly fabulous. Even in the early historical period incredibly long. Finally. documents bearing the names of the earlier rulers anterior to the Third Dynasty of Kish were till recently / unknown. Semitic princes who nrigedr But before that there was shortly after 2730 B. the first dynasty after the Flood.
who appears in the tablets as the founder of the First Dynasty of Ur^ the third dynasty after the Flood. Such was the position till in 1924 Mr. Thus a single stroke of the pick brought a whole epoch. together with the discovery of yet more archaic revelation monuments now inscribed with pictographs at Kish have demonstrated that the traditions embodied in the lists dynastic rest upon a very solid historical basis..THE MOST ANCIENT EAST Lagash or Tello the mythical. lists a period that rapidly vanished into The earlier dynasts mentioned in the seemed scarcely better than mythical beings. The of the high stage of material civilization reached under. none the less. son of Mes-anni-padda. and perhaps even before this already dynasty. however distorted the chronology of the earlier periods must be. and v some of them actually figured in mythology.C.two distinct ethnic elements speaking 16 . While there seems at the moment to be more or less general agreement that the First Dynasty of Ur was in power just before 3000 B. it is at present quite impossible to find any historical basis for the chronology of the earlier dynasties to say nothing of the antediluvian monarchs* Tradition and legend throw. WoolleyVound an inscription of A-anni-padda. some light upon ihese ^earliest days of human life in the Tigris~~ iphrates plairi^ In historical times the valley had been pied by. suddenly into the purview of sober history. separated in the lists from the oldest previously known royal inscription by several obviously mythical dynasties.
cities The Ur. Which of these elements was the oldest or the most influential cannot yet be determined. and Agade (which latter gave its name in the form of Akkad to the whole of North Babylonia) were traditionally the homes of Semitic rulers. even after the final victory of the Semites under the Dynasty of Babylon. we find persons with Semitic names among the rulers mentioned on the dynastic lists. that Still more recently the priority belonged to the Semites. Akshak. Kish. Assyrian. Lagash. Dynasty of^KisJb). Eduard Meyer argued from the beards and headdresses of the oldest Sumerian deities. akin to of Eridu. as we know c 17 . it has begun to look as if the Sumerians.FROM HISTORY TO PREHISTORY different languages. at It had long been culturally thought that the Sumerians were least the senior people since their language was long used. Shuruppak (Fara) was dominated down to the unification of the land under the first Dynasty of Babylon by a curious people known to us as the Sumerians (from Sumer. the Semitic name of the country) a people distinguished by language and dress. and the towns of the north. At an early time the Sumerians had spread also over the northern part of Babylonia and even into Assyria as the But there they were archaeological remains show. Sippar. and Arabic. mixed with people speaking a Semitic dialect. as represented in the' earliest figured monuments. Hebrew. and Uruk. southern part. including the Larsa. Opis. Adab. Umma. for ritual and magic formulae* t)n the other hand. the firstjafter the Flood. As early as the First jf*?**\.
in addition to Sumerians it is that over.. These people are in late documents described as of a fair complexion and in this respect are contrasted to is the black-headed Sumerians. quite possible and Semites a third etjaaic element had inhabitfcdLtJxe " For this the name Subaraean * land at very early times.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST them posite in the third folk. Now some authorities would see a reference to the presence of representatives of this stock in early Sumer in the Sumerian legend " " of the expulsion of the wicked Martu under Lugal- bandat. however. interpret years Semitic Amorites from North Syria. arrival ' and an to a coming into use. point to a southern origin from overseas. millennium their B. a designation properly applicable group of peoples spread along the foothills around the upper reaches of the Tigris and Euphrates in Assyria and North Syria during the third and second millennia. a semi-mythical king of the First Dynasty of Flood) Erech'i (second ! after the who reigned authorities. such as the legend of the culture hero Cannes. 10 Other 1200 Martu as age and the relative extent of the occupation by the wicked Martu cannot be defined* But later events would warn us not to minimize the precise The number of racial elements represented in Mesopotamia 18 . a man-fish who swam up the Persian Gulf to Eridu.C. But the cult of their deities on high places and the popularity of mountain animals on the oldest Sumerian seals suggest no less Moreclearly that the Sumerians were a highland folk. Some of were already a comtraditions.
civilization had reached a very high level by the end of the IVth millennium B.dscade have Anglo-American expeditions at JKish/ and . the Chaldaeans and the Persians from the highlands to the north and east and by the Amorites and other Semitic tribes from the west The political and ethnic diversity thus revealed by Mesopotamian history and tradition is naturally a handicap to the archaeologist. of a different type.Typ'revealed the tools and weapons in use under the first These suffice to show that.C. even more than dynasties. that was not Of surpassed during the whole pre-Sargonic epoch. . the first settlement in Mesopotamia was uncovered at\Tell al'ublia Then in 1926 another prehistoric settlement in 1922. the prehistoric cultures that preceded. this time a town where pictographic Writing was already in vogue. only preserved and published inscribed documents or First during the e^rrent objects of aesthetic interest. the material Earlier excavators extraordinarily scanty. Instead of dealing with a unitary area and one or two compact groups as in Egypt he is confronted with a plurality of independent and despite a growing measure of as time advances. Moreover. was unearthed tQjISi^^jx at jfemdet Kfas? near Kish and later at Kish itseTfT We .FROM HISTORY TO PREHISTORY at the dawn of history. in Egypt. In historical times the land was overrun successively by the men of Awan. it is often hard to distinguish uniformity between differences due to temporal causes and those communities. embodying available is ethnic divergences. the Gutians. the Kassites.
cultures since at comparable to the two predynastic Susa the two appear to be consecutive. and no legends can be plausibly used to interpret the new archaeological data. though not yet historical for us^could nevertheless already boast a civilization fully equal to that of Egypt . The script is still undeciphered. have revealed a true urban civilization where writing and the other arts of civilization were already flourishing. Having thus mapped out the historical world as it looked about 3000 B. where recent discoveries.. still only known from newspaper paragraphs. Still we are probably justified in speaking of two prediluvian cultures.C. 20 . In a later chapter we shall Here it suffices give some account of the remains.or Sumer.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST cannot yet say how much the differences between the two groups of sites are temporal rather than local. That region is the Indus valley. to signalize the existence at the dawn of history of a third province that ought to be historical. it remains to mention one region which.
but is is separated from it by the rift of the Nile valley and East Red Sea. too. Egypt. though the causes are not case. the whole lie region. The Arabian desert forms the natural continuation of the Sahara. and the Punjab rivers that traverse on the valleys of great permanent a more or less continuous desert plateau. and Extreme to the three ancient foci and excessive summer heats are common features and to the intervening regions> precisely the same in each a certain unity characterizes Geographically. The farther side of the hollow is bordered by the Zagros and the parallel chains of Western Persia 21 . The Sahara which flat .CHAPTER THE SETTING II OF THE STAGE THE our three oldest centres of true civilization last named in chapter lie on a belt between the twenty-fifth and thirty-fifth parallel that constitutes the hottest driest aridity climatic zone in the world to-day. constitutes its its western section t is by no means considerable surface is interrupted by quite ranges and depressions that sometimes fall below sea-level. of chasm the th itself broken by great of that gap and the high gable beyond it the desert and the slopes away to the depression of Mesopotamia Persian Gulf. The plateau is of course interrupted by marked physiographical features. Sumer.
geographically to Anatolian-Armenian but climatically nearer to Arabia. physiographically the last-named chains constitute a of the So in dividing line than the inland sea* Asia. other extremity the plateau breaks Atlantic coasts to the there is And then at the the the low sweltering plain of Western India. a down again to Thus from monsoon region of Central India countries. Italy. The northern frontier would seem to be provided by the Mediterranean but climatologically the winterrain regions of Spain. The unity of the strip between the Atlantic and the Tigris at least is of such barrier to an order as to justify the employment of a term j#frasi^ to denote the whole region. it is the continuation of the real more same lines of folding in the Anatolian mkssif. Then the Indian Ocean forms the southern limit of our zone and beyond the Indus it is again hedged in by the monsoon forest. however much diversified. continuous zone of desiccated which. are connected without any insurmountable physiographical transverse impede intercourse. belonging tableland.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST that frame a still more the elevated desert. common fringed with savannah passing over into tropical forest while farther east and in Southern Arabia the monsoon rains promote the tKe~ On south the Sahara is growth of a jungle border. the 22 . and Greece approximate more north closely to the Sahara than to the cyclonic lands And Pyrenean-AIpine-Balkan ridges. although the desert extends north of the Elburz into the Turanian Basin.
the present time the whole region suffers from a terrible insufficiency of rain that makes it virtually At uninhabitable outside the range of irrigation channels that tap the great rivers crossing it. can support only who have little encouragement to cultural progress and have in fact remained backward. 1 In such conditions the whole region. except for the river valleys that cross a sparse and exiguous population. Asian desert. and even the high country of Central Persia is virtually desert. ice as far as the Harz. The Atlantic cyclones that water Northern and Central Europe reach the Mediterranean only in winter and miss the Sahara The same winter storms do indeed reach altogether. and the Alps and the Pyrenees were capped with glaciers. that forms the true northern border None the less. it. At the same time a complicated set of causes prevent the precipitation of the monsoon rains on the Indus basin. conditions in the Central of our zone. Mesopotamia. the Iranian plateau and even the Indus valley. which relies on cyclonic rain from the West. the Arctic high pressure 23 . particularly in the Tarim Basin. But these conditions did not reign at the time our While Northern Europe was covered in story opens. are not very different.SETTING OF THE STAGE Caucasus and the Elburz and then in the Hindu-Kush and the Himalayas. but they have been so largely drained by crossing the highlands farther east of is Palestine-Syria that the precipitation inadequate save along a in narrow belt North Syria.
across Mesopotamia and Arabia to Persia and India. filled year. and the Indus valley parklands and savannahs such as flourish to-day north We of the Mediterranean at a time or wind-swept steppe as loess. and farther east the showers were not only more bountiful than to-day but were distributed over the whole restricted to the winter. strand-lines the Baluchistan. Persia. precipitation. testify to the erosive power of the confirms them. rain-waters In Persia and they once carried off. and the reindeer were France and Southern England. in the woolly rhinoceros. North Africa 24 . Arabia. While the when much of Europe was tundra on which the dust was collecting mammoth. undrained by Lebanon. entering Arabian the plateau. 2 The cyclones that to-day traverse Central Europe then passed over the Mediterranean basin and the northern Sahara and continued. encircling the old high lakes bear witness to the flooding of those inland seas 3 as just forecasted and into them flowed that are now lost in the desert.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST deflected southward the Atlantic rainstorms. glaciers. The parched Sahara enjoyed a regular rainfall. instead of being On although insufficient the Iranian plateau the to feed extensive the great hollows that are now salt deserts with shallow inland seas whose presence tempered the severity of the climate. many streams should expect in North Africa. Such are the deductions of climatology and geology The dry wadi beds traversing the Nile on either side and draining the Sahara.
Barbary sheep. i. have been depicted for us by their hunters on the rocks of the Saharan Atlas. 7 just south of the Tripolitan borders where to-day not a beast nor a tree is to be seen. a huge wild ox. 4 The Algerian contemporaries of our mammoth-trappers were hunting the Mauretanian rhinoceros. the buffalo. jackals. Kef Messiouer near Guelma. i) hippopotami. the gnu. 5 These animals panthers. In the very heart of the Sahara at In-Ezzan. and lions that preyed thereon* FIG. the zebra. the African elephant. Similar 25 . Rock engraving in the Sahara at Algeria. and sheep as well as human figures and dogs. and perhaps another equid. ruminants as well as the bears.SETTING OF THE STAGE was supporting a fauna that is found to-day on the Zambesi in Rhodesia. and in Southern Oran 6 (Fig. oryx. camels. are paintings of bulls. cave-hyenas. and other parkland gazelles. deer. and ostriches are also depicted.
And it must be recalled that cyclone belt offers a climatic most favourable to human energy.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST drawings have been reported from the vicinity of Lake Chad. deduced from the flora and fauna preserved in peatbogs and on raised beaches. Even as after the the so-called " main European Boreal ice-sheets had retreated. geologists term Atlantic ". the Sudan. and it is reasonable to suspect that in this favourable and indeed stimulating environ- ment man would make ice-bound north. implies a storm track travelling least the much farther south than to-day so that at northern Sahara would have benefited from First with the onset of the a Mediterranean rainfall. 8 the environment The process of desiccation whose deplorable results we see to-day should have been only gradual. the cyclone belt was displaced southward and approximated to the latitudes where the oldest civilizations of the world were born. So as far as the archaeological evidence goes it confirms the inferences of meteorology. the Ouenat oasis 600 miles west of Haifa. warm " moist phase that Swedish pleasant grasslands of North Africa and Southern Asia were naturally as thickly populated by man as the The frozen steppes of Europe. Somaliland. and even Arabia. " climate reigning in the north. did the cyclones begin to settle down into their present northerly track and to desert the north of Africa. When Europe was more or less icebound. In fact greater progress than in the it is somewhere in this region 26 .
In any case the African Mousterian exhibited a distinct superiority over its European counterpart. 27 .SETTING OF THE STAGE that many would locate the first cradle of Homo sapiens? Lower Palaeolithic men have left their hand-axes all over North Africa from Morocco to Egypt. in Palestine and Syria and in many parts of India. could make very neat tanggfl points arrow This specialized Mousterian found or javelin-heads. of course very sparse and physically very primitive. in addition to the monotonous series of points and side-scrapers manufactured by the Neandertal Europeans. associated with On implements of Mousterian type in $tenya. Implements of Mousterian type that were made in Europe principally during the earlier and culminating phases of the last glaciation have a very similar distribution to belong to the and at least in Syria seem same geological remains of a pluvial horizon. These agree so exactly in form with those made in Western Europe during the last interglacial and before it that one assumes a more or less uniform population. Leakey has recently found human remains that are certainly not Neandertal. period. the JSfeandertal species that implements in Europe. and Southern Asia. Africa. in Somaliland. specialized north of the Eurasiatic spine during the ice ages. associated with made Mousterian found in our area the contrary Mr. has not been 10 except in Palestine. The North African ) Mousterians. being But that queer perversion of the human type. common to Western Europe. but may well in the end find a place in the main trunk of our family tree3 .
FIG. 'Sbalkian (a> . 28 . the desiccated belt of to-day was the cradle wherein our remotest direct ancestors were developing along more normal lines. It was not confined to North Africa since very similar implements are found south of the Equator. 2). to a counterpart of our Acheulian and has been termed by French archaeologists the 'Sbaikian.) and Adrian (c. while in the was being meet the rigorous evolved through specialization conditions of North-Eastern Europe and Upper Asia north an aberrent branch of the stock to human during the glacial periods. a. points shaped rather like a laurel-leaf and worked on both sides quite in the manner of the Hungarian proto-Solutrean were current The latter industry is to some extent affiliated (Fig.i. J .THE MOST ANCIENT EAST from Morocco to Egypt is designated Aterian.11 And about the same time. 2. Tunisia.*4i- The inference from these facts is that. d) points. or even earlier. *.
adequate skeletal material. Even at least infer that they But we may in Europe three times distinct . The cultural remains from our area when better known may be assumed expected to throw more light on this be differentiation.SETTING OF THE STAGE By last. by must the human reservoir whence the Aurig- nacians were recruited have presented a variety of types. which shows more highly specialized types of tool and an even greater internal diversity will surely come to light with the multiplication of discoveries. to those introduced into Europe with the first neanthropic stocks in AurigOf the makers of these tools nothing nacian times. was undoubtedly occupied by men of modern to be equated with the ice-age in Europe at any rate. the desert is type as contrasted with the extinct species of Piltdown These have left their implements or Neandertal. can they Already distinguished from the contemporary Aurignacian. belonged to no single race but already embraced a diversity of types. and in probably ancestral. in Palestine and Syria and also in Egypt implements which are allied. all >the An Upper Palaeolithic industries of North Africa) Syria and even the northern shores of the Mediterranean under the common designation Capsian a term derived Gafsa in Tunisia where the individuality of the 29 . throughout Little Africa. but at present it is customary to group together individual art. the pluvial period that belt or Wiirm. races are represented Aurignacian population of the a fortiori^ therefore. cases some can be asserted in default of .
the types are less fine and varied than those of the Aurignacian of Chatelperron (Fig. Gravers in particular are all simple and not very common* But the great feature of the Capsian flint work exhibited by all tools to diminish in size is till the tendency in the later phases true pigmy implements 4). The Capsian tools are made from blades. the within complex are already provided by the discovery of some primitive bone harpoons 12 in the cave of Antelias on the slopes of Lebanon . 3). scrapers. J* are or on the ends of blades. No less surprising is the Jove of 30 . till no comparable and even in Europe the harpoon does not appear a later stage. 3. Aln Mouhaid.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST Hints of diversity industry was first recognized. rounded FIG. Though knives finely worked on the back. for bone-work is known from North Africa. Capsian I flints and ostrich-egg disc. awls and even gravers or burins common. are absolutely pre- dominant (Fig.
on the other hand. as beads (Fig. and certainly nothing comparable to the masterpieces of carving not far advanced. the sites are principally enormous heaps of kitchen-refuse consisting largely of th shells of snails and freshwater mussels. On the coasts of North Africa and of Syria such Capsian remains are found in caves as in Europe. Bone-work was apparently Apart from the Syrian harpoons no instances of finer bone-work have survived. 4). J. 4. The animal remains noted on p. On the other hand the of North Africa were skilled at cutting little Capsians discs out of ostrich shell and perforating them for use FIG. 25 have been collected in such stations. Morsotte and All Bacha.SETTING OF THE STAGE geometrical shapes that becomes ever more accentuated as time goes on (Fig. executed by the Aurignacians of Europe has come down to us from south of the Alps. But besides the industrial remains from caves and middens and stray surface finds of flints> the contemporaries . In Southern Algeria. 3). Later Capsian (Getulan) flints.
while the newer ones are relatively fresh. European contemporaries they have adorned the rock-faces and cave-walls with magical engravings and paintings. rock-paintings petroglyphs palaeolithic or even very ancient . all label or then. In a few cases of drawings have been superposed on another older series whose authors had presumably been long 13 Or forgotten before the later ones were executed. the absence of extinct species or the appearance of modern intrusive beasts. the older drawings having suffered much from blown sand or even rain. may mark some groups as later than others. some at least are recent enough to depict men with guns and to include Arabic graffiti. Again the extent of the weathering varies considerably. more vivid picture of life in North Africa during the pluvial period than any geological or archaeological excavation but indicate quite distinctly the existence of a multiplicity of artistic traditions that are best understood in racial terms. expecting from the creative act of the artist a realization in the actual world of the good things These monuments 6 not only give us a far depicted. are by no means set one differences in fauna. At the same time the drawings all contemporaneous. cannot. But there remain some which by the correspondence of their fauna with that of the palaeolithic sites and its We contrast with that of to-day or indubitably palaeolithic agreement with works in Spain must be assigned by their 32 .THE MOST ANCIENT EAST of our reindeer-hunters have left other and regions more monuments of Like their their sojourn in now lively desolate.
5. FIG. of naturalistic or seminaturalistic series engravings on exposed rock-surfaces. on the cliffs generally 33 . their magic efficacy depending upon their realism. There are examples in Morocco and Algeria just north of Lake Chad. In each school the tendency had been at first to make the representations as lifelike as possible. And others belong to the immediately succeeding ^prpalaeolithic perioclVhen climatic conditions were only beginning to growunfavourable. in the Ouenat oasis. The larger buffalo is 6 ft. The latter are on the whole more conventionalized. high. Oran. in the Eastern Sudan. With the progress of thought from concrete to abstract the artist-conjuror found it enough to sketch the desired object in a sort of shorthand in order to create it in the real world.SETTING OF THE STAGE to the pluvial epoch that concerns us. At the moment at least two distinct schools have left their records on the rocks of North Africa and also in South-East Spain and both can be traced south of the There is in the first place the widespread Equator. Petroglyph depicting the extinct Bubalus antiques on the rocks near Er Richa.
buffaloes. is represented in some cases though that beast was extinct in North Africa by early historical times. and it is altogether uncertain whether the Arabian and Indian petroglyphs belong to this family at all .THE MOST ANCIENT EAST overhanging the Nile and even in Arabia and India. elephants. long. Kuhn } 4 has justly compared this series to the Aurignacian drawings from the French caves which likewise use bare outline and make no attempt at grouping. The whole scene is 25 ft. hippopotami and rhinoceros and other animals Even the camel that have long migrated to the south. with much verisimilitude but always in outline and without is " even in North Africa " itself the attribution to a any attempt at regular composition. 6. but the African figures are always active 34 . These are very far from constituting a chronologically uniform group. Besides animals men are figured wearing a feathered crown FIG. near G&yviHe. Rock-engraving showing elephants and leopards. and armed with bows and arrows and carrying figure-8 shields. single But some engravings from the Saharan Atlas undoubtedly constitute a well-defined group. giraffes. school naturally by no means established. 6 These depict.
the Central The uniformity Sahara. This series group by side with in which domestic gives place to another less naturalistic cattle and goats appear side ostriches. gazelles.SETTING OF THE STAGE while placidity and repose is characteristic of the AurigSo that the independence of the African nacian art. and rare lions a fauna that plainly denotes a climate much moister than to-day. The best and most famous representatives of this family come from South-East Spain. too close to be accidental. But the East Spanish art had parallels. school is attested on purely stylistic grounds. of artistic convention throughout this area combined with the community of flint tools means that East " Bushman *\ art are merely extreme outSpanish and a posts of great province whose centre must have somewhere aimed at filling lain in the Sahara. and near Lake Tanganyika. and combats. dances. In this school the painter depict his figures with movement and loved to hunts. As in the by lively paintings in red or brown. in the earliest The second series is constituted group 1S of so-called " Bushman " painting South Africa associated with an almost Capsian Links between Spain and South Africa are industry* in provided by analogous paintings in Tunisia. regular scenes 35 . than by engraving. Often the outlines are formed by battering the rock rather far as is known to-day the more Sudan and Egypt can at earliest easterly groups only be assigned to the younger series if a generic connection be admitted at all. but curiously enough both styles seem to recur in South Africa.
page 36] . 7. after Breui. J.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST FIG.shelter near Alpera. Scenes painted on the walls of a rock. South-East Spain.
Asiatic Society.- -Rock-painting from a skelter in Knaimer Range (after J. maces. the women wear The men are armed with boomerangs. and perhaps FJG. In rock-shelters is painted a scene 37 .SETTING OF THE STAGE inclusion in the Spanish scenes of a rhinoceros and later of a reindeer suffices to demonstrate the pleistocene age of the art-galleries there just as does the situation The of pictures at In-Ezzan. The fell African school of painting like that of carving into decadence artistically. but the distinctive weapon is the bow and arrows. in the Khaimur range near Mirzapur 16 . possible pendant to the East Spanish and African A paintings is to be found also in India. 8. Everywhere the figures in Spain survive in barely became conventionalized and recognizable shapes into the Copper Age. cave-shelters we see men the walls of these Spanish wearing caps or feather crowns. Bengal. lances. 1883. 7). no scale given). In some scenes the dog assists in the hunt (Fig. On but otherwise naked save for tasseled bands below the knees . a long bell-shaped skirt.
THE MOST ANCIENT EAST representing a rhinoceros hunt (Fig. 38 . Outside a cave near Singanpur in the Raigarh District (Bellary) 17 are depicted a series of small animals. Taken in conjunction FIG. but is by no means necessarily quaternary. The age of such works of art is quite uncertain. The rhinoceros has certainly been extinct in Central India for several centuries. 9. best understood The community postulated might be if we imagine a continuum of hunting whole belt defined We should then have to figure a loose chain of interrelated bands of hunting folk ranging all along the temperate grassland of North Africa and Arabia and extending even into India on tribes spread very thinly over the at the beginning of the chapter. depicted in scenes looks need be a late sort of but hunting weapon no more than a wooden shaft armed with microliths that The many-barbed harpoon might be extremely ancient. Painting from a shelter at Singanpur. with the implements of Capsian types also found in India these paintings really do suggest some ethnic community with the more westerly sections of the pluvial cyclone zone. 8). one alleged to represent a wallaby.
or Brown race whose representatives appear in historical times in occupation of most of our zone. 19 Of other domestic animals there is no certain evidence since the date of the pictures of tame wethers is still undecided. Unlike their European contemwere poraries they apparently assisted in 'the chase by the dog. man's oldest companion. It was. 10.SETTING OF THE STAGE the one hand and into South-Eastern Spain on the other. 18 Of the continuum of peoples postulated for late pleistocene times. can be said to be really known to us. This population would belong presumably to the so-called Eurafrican. Painting from a shelter at Singanpur. only the western branch FIG. however. apparently a people of hunters and shell-gatherers. Nor 39 . Mediterranean. like the European Aurignacians.
for at its close we are already found expression confronted with a diversity of racial types. Doubtless there existed other groups during the long period called the last Ice Age .THE MOST ANCIENT EAST are there any indications of agriculture. Yet the hunters were already provided with mechanical devices so advanced as the bow. Caucasus. spears. even the men They were no longer naked savages wore a short mantle and decked their heads with plumes. On the southern edge of the Sahara recent discoveries have disclosed living in Kenya. perhaps at an even earlier date than our Saharan cultures. the art of pot-making and could manufacture truly excellent vases that sometimes even had flat bases* It is that in the then habitable tablelands perfectly possible of Iran and Anatolia that are still absolutely unexplored from the standpoint of palaeolithic archaeology. their kinsmen of Predmost Isolated finds from the caves in the and the Solutreans. other human groups were living and had made great progress. 40 . and used boomerangs. We know something : of Europe of the less favoured hunting tribes the Aurignacians. and maces. in Their organized orgiastic dances and in graphic art. a people physically not unlike some Aurignacian skeletons and manufacturing blades and scrapers of obsidian that recall This folk had already discovered Capsian shapes. : while the spiritual women draped life a skirt about their loins. from the upper reaches of the Jenisei in Siberia and from the loess of the Shensi province of China reveal stragglers possessed of a cognate culture living north of the Eurasiatic spine.
mind environment other groups were carrying on and improving the older core-industry represented in the Chellean and Acheulian hand-axes that had been in a different characteristic of Lower Palaeolithic times. more easily than the pursuit of game. the facts observed 4* . retaining the core tradition of the hand-axe. and many therefore seek it farther north. in Such hypotheses are still unsupported by one shred of But they are perfectly legitimate and some cases seem almost inevitable in order to explain later. usually grouped together under the name of the Alpine Race. Finally the possibility must be bor4' in that. It is quite possible that the makers of the hand-axes were not so much hunters as gatherers of roots and berries a mode life that might. to find Hence one might expect somewhere groups. direct evidence. The axes and hoes that characterize the neolithic period that we shall shortly reach must surely be connected somehow with the heavy tools of of Lower Palaeolithic times. while hunting folk on grasslands and tundras were elaborating ~a flint industry based on blades. lead on to agriculture. evolving contemporaneously with the Capsian and other blade-using hunters but on divergent lines. Their previous history cannot be traced on the southern grasslands.SETTING OF THE STAGE Those regions are reputedly the home of those round- headed types. No skulls cer- tainly attributable to the makers of such Lower Palaeolithic on the implements have survived to show that they were not direct line of ascent to modern man.
and soon we shall encounter men who are masters of their own food supply through possession It of domesticated animals and the cultivation of cereals. Mediterranean Enforced concentration in oases or by the banks of ever more precarious springs and streams would require an Animals intensified search for means of nourishment. and men would be herded together round pools and wad is were growing increasingly isolated by desert tracts. that the situation thus engendered to produce the desired effects It is clearly necessary that the men who had to cope with the crisis should find at hand the cereals and animals apt for domestication. Turkestan. But it has 42 . Transcaucasia.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST For now we are on the brink of the great revolution. Wild barley is as a matter of fact found in Asia Minor. Palestine and perhaps Arabia Petraea. That event would certainly tax the ingenuity of the inhabitants of the former grass-land zone to the utmost. seems inevitable to connect that revolution with the crisis produced by the melting of the northern glaciers and consequent contraction of the Arctic high-pressure over Europe and diversion of the Atlantic rain-storms from the South zone to their present course across Central Europe. Afghanistan. Persia. From the present distribution of wild grain ^ it has been argued that the cultivation of cereals probably began in Asia. and such enforced juxtaposition might almost of itself promote that sort of symbiosis between man and beast For that is expressed in the word '/ domestication **.
Moreover. Vavilov. is the result of a cross between the two varieties just . implying an extension of the natural habitat of the ancestral plant from Palestine also across the Isthmus of Suez and the Delta during the pluvial period. Obviously in the have grown still farther south might pluvial period on the edge of the Nile rift where the geological conditions potamia. arguing not from the discovery of stray ears of wild barley but from the number of varieties cultivated. The uncultivated form of another variety of wheat. The wild ancestor of emmer has yet barley ^vheatN (Trificum dicoccum with fourteen chromosomes) domestication is alleged to in grow Syria it native in Western Persia and Meso- Palestine. Asia Minor. Triticum monococcum or dinkel. and are the same as in Palestine. and Kurdistan on the frontier of Persia. North Africa must have enjoyed precisely the same climatic conditions as those that nourish the wild wheats and barleys in Hither Asia to-day. or at a certain stage just after In the it. especially wheat. would place another centre of in Abyssinia where. North Syria. pluvial period. no wild been found. any case no wild ancestor is known for the present distribution of the cereals. 43 . Some botanists hold that bread wheat.SETTING OF THE STAGE been detected in Marmarica. however. Triticum vulgare. better argument is founded A upon the animals. Asia does seem to have a better chance of being the original centre than North Africa. common in mentioned it. grows in the Balkans. But the Hence on present distribution is thoroughly deceptive.
slightly A different variety inhabits the highlands of Hither Asia from Anatolia to the Elburz and the Zagros. The oldest Egyptian sheep. (Plate XX#). especially the sheep. Ovis palustris.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST 21 wild sheep exists in Africa . Still it period some is perfectly possible that in the pluvial sort of mouflon or even a urial lived in European species are conspicuously rare in the pleistocene fauna of North North Africa. Baluchistan. Though Asiatic or 44 .be clear that the sheep at least was introduced into Africa and into Europe from of the urial. Ovis musimon. The home of this variety is the northern slopes of the Elburz. The Asiatic mouflon appears domesticated on a Sumerian vase dating from the beginning of the Illrd millennium European congener was only tamed at a relatively late date in European prehistory. a long-tailed sheep. for the so-called Barbary sheep does not really belong to the genus. The oldest domesticated sheep found in the Swiss lake-dwellings and other early deposits in Central and Western Europe. lives north of the Mediterranean in Corsica and Sardinia and once had a wider distribution in continental Europe. Asia. the other hand three wild sheep exist No On in Asia all of which have given rise to breeds of domestic sheep. Afghanistan. longipeS) is said to Turkestan. lives to the east may argue from the present distribution of the animals. is the domesticated B. but his descendant of the Asiatic urial (Ovis vignei).C. The mouflon. and the Punjab. Ovis belong to the same stock* The third variety of Old World sheep. it would . the If one argal.
MOUFLON RAM URIAL RAM .
Tanganyika territory come reports of a in a late pleistocene context near Moreover from fossil 22 sheep found Oldoway. And there of course the mysterious petroglyphs depicting tame wethers obviously belonging to the species Ovts are longipes. it would be possible to point to rock-drawings of camels as evidence that some such types were represented there. 25.SETTING OF THE STAGE Africa as enumerated on p. 45 .
three alternatives were open to the hunting populations affected. Among the hunting folk of the Capsian culture the later industrial stages that should correspond more or less to the European Magdalenian are distinguished by the progressive reduction in size of the flint tools and conventionalization of art. archaeological record of the sub-pluvial epochs is not very clear. . emancipate themselves from dependence on the whims of their environment by domesticating animals and taking to agriculture. they might remain at home eking out a miserable existence on such game as could withstand the droughts or they reshift might.CHAPTER FACED with the gradual III THE OLDEST FARMERS desiccation consequent upon the northward of the Atlantic cyclone belt as the European glaciers contracted. Still we can detect evidence both of a The progressive degeneration of culture in North Africa and of migrations from the desiccated zone. still without leaving their home-land. Both phenomena seem to be signs of degeneration among groups oppressed by adverse conditions and unable to cope with them. They might move northward or southward with their prey. following the climatic belt to which they were accustomed .
MicroHths from Vindhya Stone Hills. and along another line presumably FIG. India. x evidently dealing with a northward migration to escape the consequences of desiccation such as we had deduced as likely from a consideration of climatic shifts. in Poland and Western Ejstfope. The same types appear in the final from Spain right across North Africa to India Capsian and this parallelism illustrates more (Fig. natural size. ii. across South at Russia least into Lithuania. clearly than anything else the cultural continuity of the whole belt during late pluvial times. u). Ultimately the same types from across France to Great Britain and Spain spread the Baltic Lands. after British Museum Age Guide. Perhaps 47 . Moreover.THE OLDEST FARMERS Everywhere we find those puzzling little geometrically shaped pigmies the mode and purpose of whose manufacture elude us. from Syria. the makers of the a pigmy flints took with them the(dog as the conventionalized art that had and companion Here we are evolved in North Africa and Spain.
" " neolithic . and carving conventionalized pictures on the These do not seem the authors of any economic revolution. living by hunting and snail-gathering. but rather stagnant unprogressive savages. Yet there begin to appear among the microliths. sometimes even with gravers. the discoverers of agriculture or the tamers of animals. conveniently termed gathering stage. 3 barbed or tanged arrow-heads 3 and probably also polished " "4 5 celts stone axe-heads or and ring-shaped maceso-called heads 4 of ground stone. making pigmy flints but no more gravers rocks. Nor were conditions in Little Africa particularly favourable to the rise of the new economy Farther east in Egypt conditions were better and the record is fortunately clearer. 3 sickle-teeth. Getulans. Egypt appears to-day above all as a corridor of fertile and habitable country drawn athwart the desert zone which divides the grasslands of the Sudan from the coastal belt of Mediterranean rains.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST about the same time there was a corresponding migration southward that brought to South Africa an analogous set of pigmy flints. coarse potsherds. the use of ostrich-shell discs as beads 2 and again the dog. None of these migrants had passed out of the food- And others. These things are marks of the civilization of the first food- producers But the manner of their appearance in Tunisia suggests much rather gradual borrowing from without than local invention. This character . remained in North Africa.
But in the pluvial period conditions must have been very different. Even In the valley itself spread extensive swamps. To-day the country south of Cairo is virtually rainless and would be utter desert save for the annual irrigation 6 by the Nile flood. possibly wild cereals. giraffes and the lions and leopards and in the historical period hunts for such animals ate depicted on the walls of Middle Kingdom tombs. The valleys of the wa dis running in from the high desert must have been clothed with spring grasses. fringing the river. The Delta. or Lower Egypt. is a narrow rift bordered on either hand by rocky walls above which lie the now arid tablelands of the Libyan and Arabian deserts. this including quite . Yet these rock walls are pierced at many points on either bank by the gorges of old streams that drained the plateaux on the east and west during the pluvial period. Yet Egypt is no physiographical unit. herbage must have nourished herds of wild asses. gazelles and that preyed thereon. These dry watercourses constitute entries to the valley for the caravans coming from the Red Sea coasts or from the chain of oases that lie in a depression parallel to the Nile's course. on the contrary. and elephants. and two kinds of wild pig 49 E . Upper Egypt. antelopes. Barbary sheep. is an open and once marshy plain continuous is with the coastlands of Libya and Palestine and accessible from both quarters and from the sea. urus. kudu.THE OLDEST FARMERS due exclusively to the Nile which is not only itself a moving road but which also fertilizes by its annual inundation a strip of the valley on either bank.
It is be expected that. the influx of nomads towards the well-watered valley would be accelerated. Mr.. White Nile the traveller will find. To find a floristic and faunistic environment comparable to that encountered by the most ancient Egyptians one must On the travel far upstream into the monsoon zone. the idea of their deliberate cultivation would be suggested on the banks of the Nile as nowhere else. plants that survived in historical Egypt only in gardens. 5 . Perry has stated in glowing terms Egypt's claim to be the cradle of agriculture. 7 just above Gebel Silsileh. All that would be needed.. " would. by means of its perfect irrigation cycle. And such would be faced with conditions calculated to induce the change from a parasitic to a 8 productive life. ancestors of wheat and barley." writes Perry.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST roamed in the jungle besides the hippopotami. crocodiles. The annual flood and the rich soil it deposited would cause grains dropped on the ground to germinate without human intervention* " The Nile valley. and wild-boars that survived till recent times. growing wild. Quite recently a branch of the Lower Capsian industry has been recognized in the valley itself at S6bil. and along the channels leading only to to the Fayum. Granting the existence on the edges of the valley of the nobler grasses. . be growing wheat and barley for the Egyptians. Hunters from the high plateaux had been visiting the valley from Lower Palaeolithic times leaving their implements on the high terraces on either side. as the droughts became more frequent and acute on the surrounding deserts.
a mode of life that might tribes Nilotic for would be some genius to think well represent the stage intermediate between the foodgathering culture of the Capsian hunters and the settled agriculture of the oldest sedentary inhabitants of Egypt. the oldest agriculturists certainly disclosed valley "our gaze by anywhere else. prehistoric times grew their roots are found to-day among the huts and graves of the prehistoric settlement. narrow skulls. the Badarians were a short and extremely Physically slender race with small. in the eastern desert. The Hadendoa lived last century as nomadic herdsmen But they maintained more or less within reach of the flooded lands to permanent villages which they would repair in force in the late summer. Such people. they scattered millet seeds on the wet mud left by the recent inundation and awaited the harvest.THE OLDEST FARMERS of the simple expedient of making channels for the water to flow over a wider Modern observers have described. trees of kinds unknown to Egypt in historic and later at the foot of the desert cliffs . 9 Tall fell regularly as high up the Nile as Assiut. Here a community of farmers made their village on the edge of the flood the groves at the foot of the cliffs. to archaeology in the Nile or When rain still the earliest food-producers settled at Badari. Then have perhaps preserved for us precisely the mode of Jife attributable to the immediate ancestors of the IJadarians. fixed south of the belt of extreme desiccation." of the Sudan. They thus closely lands among 10 5* . among the area.
bone. weaving. are usually termed In addition they were neolithic. barley and emmer and probably raising domestic animals. the Kolarians. i. supply of marine Sea for necklaces and of malachite. plentiful them a archaeological features of the Badarian civilization may be summarized as follows. and In a word they had mastered all the arts that ivory. A belief in a future life found expression in a regular and careful funerary ritual. acquainted Some sort of trade relations were already sufficiently established to ensure shells from the Red probably from Sinai. Culturally the Badarians were a whole stage removed from the savagery of the Capstan hunters and were indeed superior to any " neolithic in " community in Northern cultivating Europe. pot-making. were made by grinding or even polishing pebbles to a sharp edge. and could with copper glaze stone beads. Such implements. Celts. and even the Veddahs of Ceylon. though of course they also hunted and fished.e. for eye-paint. basketry. axe or The adze-heads. They lived regular villages. Thus they are offspring of that ancient racial continuum whose extension throughout the desert zone has been inferred from communities of industrial remains. and the carving of wood. They clothed themselves in garments of linen or in goats* skins and were skilled in polishing hard stone. as Myres has .THE MOST ANCIENT EAST resemble the later predynastic Egyptians but are a trifle more negroid and in some respects show affinities to early Indian races particularly the Dravidians.
Flint was very skilfully worked by pressure-flaking into barbed. In later predynastic times none are found in Egypt. 12. arrow-head (B). almost mitre- 53 .THE OLDEST FARMERS recognized. were needed primarily by wood-workers. and side-blow flake flake (c) after Caton Thomson in Antiquity > L a blow struck fcear its centre as c has been detached by (The shown by the bulb visible in the middle view. presumably because the suitable timbers had died out 3 Inch* Fic. Sickle-teeth (A).) with the growing desiccation.
which were coated with a ferruginous wash. funerary use. 12 c) flake. and indications of the use of a mace with a stone-weighted head. as with battered backs and flakes with denticulated blades serving perhaps as saws or sickle-teeth. But the most distinctive flint type is a curious curved flake struck ofF by a centrally directed . were often fired inverted so that the lower part was exposed to the free air and hence reddened by oxidization while the rim and the inside were blackened 54 . it at right angles to the greatest has been christened a side-blow bone-points sharpened at either end may have been used as an alternative to flint tips as arrow-heads. a wooden boomerang or 13) was a favourite weapon. was also common. till 13). perhaps with a blunt-toothed comb. vessels. A steep-ended scraper or push-plane. I2B) and thin laurel-leaf points.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST form arrow-heads (Fig. Besides the Round bow and throwing there are stick (Fig. to produce an exquisite rippled effect that must be seen to designed for a perfection of ceramic technique especially those be appreciated. carved out of bone. perhaps another were knife-blades. illustrate never excelled in the Nile valley. some arrows. blow length (Fig. Curious little three-quarter rings with a perforated projection. The vases. may perhaps have served as fish-hooks (Fig. carpenter's tool. The finer ware is thin been and has decorated extremely by burnishing before firing. though otherwise there are no indications of the use of the line a much later The pottery date.
PLATE III a BASKET FROM FAYUM b POTTERY AND FLINT LAUREL LEAF FROM BADARI [/ircep 54 .
Badari. 13.THE OLDEST FARMERS action of the glowing ashes and the gases of imperfect combustion. the ferric oxide in this by the deoxidizing FIG. often steep-sided 55 . after Brunton. case being reduced to ferrous* The chief shapes manufactured in this fabric were bowls. Bone " hook " and wooden boomerang.
triangles. have been evolved in leather. also looks very leathery. The shape of the beaker. Finally. Similar shapes and designs survive to-day in basketry from North-East Africa. Here form white-incrusted and decoration allow of a glimpse into an era before for the potter faithfully pottery had been invented follows traditions handed down^by his predecessors. Badari. 1 5). 14). and one shape found in coarse ware. or bar-chevrons arranged in horizontal zones or radiating from the base. a globular flask with four handles on the belly (Plate III. The sole shape known in this black incised ware is a tulip-shaped beaker (Fig. 6). there is a great abundance of very coarse ware containing much straw and shell and badly burned. Carinated bowl. however. FIG. Yet even in this fabric quite elaborate shapes. there was a fine black ware decorated with incised and patterns of hatchings.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST and sometimes even carinated (Fig. often with 56 . after Bninton. Secondly. may in the last resort in this case the basket-maker. 14. .
holes were bored on either side of the fracture and connected by grass rivets.THE OLDEST FARMERS bottoms. Though pottery was very plentiful. ornamented with carved birds. flat the vases. Ivory combs. were manufactured. older. Even cylindrical basalt was FIG. J. especially the finer ones. sometimes shaped and hollowed out by grinding and with overpolishing to form a slightly conical vessel hanging bevelled rim. graves almost square palettes of alabaster were used instead. Notable is a shallow square-mouthed bowl and the flask already mentioned. after Petrie. have often been wherever carefully mended in prehistoric times : inclination to crack appeared. flasks. everted rims or necks. and spoons carved out of ivory. Besides pots. were worn in the hair. possibly the^malachite used as an eye-paint . beaker. and pins of the same 57 . the Badarians used vases. 1 5. Rectangular palettes perforated at the corners or with slits in the ends were made out of slate for grinding in a few. Badariao.
the . Ostrich feathers were apparently used as fans. worked ivories. in sometimes with grooved heads and an eyelet the neck.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST material. 11 They. tubes. or perhaps even earlier. but and barley pastured herds of oxen. images of a mother goddess or substitutes for the wife the deceased left behind him in this life. and Red strung together as necklaces or girdles. were shells Sea discs cut out of ostrich eggs. surface. perhaps fastened the clothing* Copper other and of beads stones. The Badarians were interred in the contracted posture in shallow trenchgraves. Female figurines modelled in clay or carved out of Such may be ivory have been found in the graves. glazed quartz. and sometimes lying on a rough bier covered with twigs. About the same time as the Badarians settled in Upper Egypt. wrapped in mats or goat-skins. a cognate tribe took up its abode by the shores of a lake that then filled the Fayum depression to a height of 200 feet above the present lake fishers and hunters. were cultivated emmer and only the copper and glazed beads have not yet been found. while shell bracelets were worn on the arms. too. felspar. for instance all the fine " fish-hook rings". and pottery. and plugs of soft stone were stuck in the ears and nose. sheep or goats and swine upon the lake shores. They stored th6ir grain in straw-lined silos and possessed most of the other neolithic arts attested for the Badarians. Some Badarian forms are missing. But trade brought to the Fayum shells from the Mediterranean as well as from the Red Sea.
Sir Flinders^ Petrie 12 /assumes that the Badarians 59 . Plainly this is the source of the neolithic elements From the distribution of similar that we found arriving in Southern Tunisia and Algeria.THE OLDEST FARMERS most ornaments. discshaped mace-heads and a grooved type. appear as strange interlopers among pure Getulan microliths. mitreform arrow-heads. The pottery flint celts is all extremely coarse. and the boomerang are represented. the side-blow flake. the origin of the latter m.North (or at least North-West) Fayum We Africa. (It must be remembered that no On the other hand the most graves were found.) types such as polished celts. implements it may be confidently inferred that a kindred population was spread about the oases and watercourses as far south as the Kharga oasis and from Helwan to Siwa. with barbs projecting from a rounded stem. Strange to Badari are characteristic Badarian with ground blades. but includes mature forms square-mouthed bowls and others with flint a rudimentary pedestal. for instance a few mitreform arrow-heads. the later seems to be the context of the radiations from the Badarianare therefore disinclined to seek industry. and harpoons. In every case the location of the implements shows that their makers chose sites suitable at once for agriculture and fishing. tanged arrow-heads. But on the whole the farther west we go. in some of these western stations definite Fayum types. Indeed. : muddy and ill-baked.
the arguments based on the Asiatic distribution are. 13 down to historic times in the so-called " C-group ". names in the Book of the Dead have also been cited in support of the Caucasian theory. coming from Syria . and much weight is justly laid on the story of Osiris. however. In that direction many Badarian elements survived in a pure form Brunton. . 11 and Junker 14 on Caton-Thompson.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST and kinsmen came from the direction of the Caucasus. as the bringer of cereals. been shown to be quite no Solutrean is known in Asia or the superficial and the African 'Sbaikian provides a nearer and Caucasus. Nevertheless not one specifically Badarian type has ever been reported from the Caucasus region or even North Syria and the delicate dolichocephalic Badarian skulls with their negroid affinities are the very last thing one would expect from the cradle of the Alpine Race. equally plausible parentage for the Badarian laurelLater echoes of Caucasian and Armenian placeleaves. of cereals and domesticable animals of course. 60 . the other hand have rightly insisted upon the Nubian analogies to the Badarian-Fayum complex. He once went so far as to identify them with a branch of the family a parallel movement of which their by a more northerly route brought the Solutreans to The supposed similarity of Badarian and Europe. to be duly considered. Solutrean flint-work on which the latter part of the theory rested has. for the Badarians were undoubtedly the And all founders of Egyptian agriculture.
figurines Similar figures survived into " neolithic Crete. There are indications that a racial type. possibly ancestral to the true negro but far less specialized.THE OLDEST FARMERS The authors of the latter in their turn are no less clearly linked to the most Egyptian element in predynastic to the purest Hamites. Austria. the 15 The Badarians Beja of the Eastern Sudan. and rather later from grotto shell-heaps at the mouth of the Tagus. just as steatopygy is of beauty in Hottentot women. the steatopygous from palaeolithic sites in France. many of the vases from the latter indeed agree extraordinarily with early Danubian pots. on the other. recent time at Italy in late pleistocene and early in addition to the negroid skeletons from a Grimaldi near Mentone. Upper Italy. Something of the same sort has already met us at Badari and it survives in Nubia in the C-group graves . 16 It is therefore just possible that all these anthropoa logical and cultural phenomena are due to survivals of very old and primitive i^urafricw^JraditiQn whose adherents would have spread northward and southward 6l . was spread as far north as Portugal and Upper . would on this view belong to a branch indeed of the Egypt on the one hand and great Capsian stock but a branch specialized in the Nile valley or farther to the east. and Russia have been interpreted in this sense. and Thrace. regarded as a mark " Europe the earliest pottery is a black incised ware whose shapes copy gourds. The negroid traits observed in the Badarian skeletons 'open up a vista of very curious speculation. In the same parts of times in Malta.
the rain belts as their and consequently homeland became would have become was not. the First Predynastic culture. at a time when the rainfall was no longer sufficient for the growth of 17 It is known large trees. 62 . But the Badarians' ancestors were not the Getulan hunters of the Libyan desert and Sahara. into the Nile valley. from a great number of settlements and a few villages extending from Badari on the north well into to us Lower Nubia. From the fusion between these and the Badarians there arose in Upper Egypt. but was that of the Hadendoa mentioned above and who may well have been the Such a condition ancestors of similar modern tribes. otherwise the spread of that culture or its emanations can hardly be understood. In any case the oldest Egyptian civilization as far as made. as we have noted. The Early negroid traits 18 had lost the Predynastic Egyptians in noticeable their Badarian forerunners. the immediate for assumed of semi-nomadism must be some group whose cultural level ancestors of the Badarians prior to their fixation. The perhaps already affected by that westward cultural drift. increasing dryness eventually caused a considerable infiltration of Getulan elements from the west. it spread among the Getulan hunters to the Atlas and the Straits of Gibraltar.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST following desiccated. specialized along divergent lines. introduced from without ready Far more probably was it autochthonous in the we can judge. For. Nile valley.
PLATE V a TUSK FIGURINE BLACK-TOPPED VASES I face p. 63 .
still later. And to the skeletal remains is besides a slender type. They are about 51 feet in height. and some at least of the symbols that now meet us recur in the succeeding period as clan-ensigns and. Petrie considers these represent survivors of a conquered race that would be identical with that substratum of Eurafrican protonegroids mentioned. conclude that the First Predynastic communities were 63 . often shaved their heads The women on the other hand and wore wigs that are separately modelled. just Like the Badarians the Early Predynastic Egyptians lived as settled communities in regular villages on the hypothetical products of their crops and flocks.THE OLDEST FARMERS perhaps owing to the infusion of Getulan or Libyan blood. seen among the Beja of the Eastern Sudan Figurines of clay or ivory supplement the picture given by the well-preserved corpses. of the chase and of the representation on vases or amulets fishing. there another group characterized by marked steatopy^y (Plate VII). Hence one is tempted to as the emblems of deities. A feature may be to-day. The early ivories depict men clean-shaven or wearing long pointed beards with a prominent aquiline nose and a high domed forehead (Plates Va and VI la). small features lightly built with type identical in almost every straight hair. slender and and a long small skull. corresponding and the male statuettes. of undesirable animals such as crocodiles and scorpions 19 From the existence of a totemic cult has been inferred.
on predynastic pots. 16.EAST THE MOST ANCIENT D44 FIG. Designs scratched 64 .
the guished by All the industries carried on by the Badarians still flourished save that polished stone axes were no longer vases . Small copper implements from Naqada 3. The in the use of existence of personal property is implied " " scratched on the proprietary marks (=> o 1234.THE OLDEST FARMERS totemic clans living in autonomous villages. Late Predynastic after Petrie. $. sufficiently distinguished from the rest to deserving such a title. o) it 65 F . generally female. Middle Predynastic. Early Pre- dynastic. in the kingship or chieftainship there early cemeteries no grave is in richness Of is no sign . and of captives with their hands bound behind them.5678 v* . Needle. Fish-hook. though except in the pins with looped head (Fig.3 : 9 FIG. be assigned to any personage Yet slaves already existed to judge by figurines of water-bearers. 17. like the Dinka of the Upper Nile mentioned in the first chapter. i. In compensation qopper was now used even for small tools such as harpoons. 9. Pin. all manufactured presumably because timber requiring the use of such tools had become extinct. 17. the vases in one grave are normally distinsame sign.
Besides copper and malachite from Sinai and gold from Nubia. With the same might be connected the elaboration and widespread diffusion of those alphabetiform signs that appear scratched on our vases. coniferous woods from Syria. then the Egyptians would already have harnessed a non-human motive power. against the Nile current. The still barbarous practice. obsidian and lapis lazuli from Western Asia. But boats of this type are " " never depicted with sails spread while the later foreign " " trade barques are thus represented. It gave support for two square to facilitate Naxos 21 found their way to cabins amidships and was propelled by seven or eight pairs of oars.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST was treated of its true properties like stone or ivory without any appreciation as maleable and fusible. recently observed by some 66 . Perhaps such intercourse the Egyptians had evolved a very serviceable boat made out of bundles of papyrus lashed together (Plate VI). progress religious belief is shown by the elaboration of the funerary ritual. and emery perhaps from relations Upper Egypt. 20 Foreign were more extensive and regular than before. The marvellous of the in the bodies hot sand of the desert preservation in The would suggest idea of the to the Nile dwellers a peculiarly vivid continuation of life after death. Petrie believes that such boats must have been equipped with sails as rowing would be ineffectual If this reasoning be correct. the steersman standing sheltered by a bough at the stern. signs whose origin is ultimately to be sought in palaeolithic marks.
INTERIOR OF WHITE CROSS-LINED BOWL .PLATE VI a BASALT AND ALABASTER VASES ft.
of slaying wives and menials and burying them with their lord to attend him in the had apparently been abandoned because sympathetic magic offered a more economical alternative. Other possessions such as cattle were replaced by clay models (Plate X#). enable us to disentangle the several constituents of this culture and justify our initial assertion. Such scenes were not executed merely to delight the eye of the soul but. are probably substitutes for living wives and attendants as were demonstrably the ushafai future life figures of historic times. the kbours of his and his own pleasures at the banquet and the chase. often forced to accompany his master in death and buried with him in the tomb. as the accompanying texts show. from the First 67 . The statuettes of women and of servants bearing waterpots on their heads. In dynastic Egypt paintings on the tomb walls depict the bringing of offerings to the dead. the dog. was.THE OLDEST FARMERS Nilotic tribes farther south. to secure to the defunct by their inherent magic virtue the actual enjoyment of such services and delights. however. but funerary vases and slate palettes were decorated with comparable scenes that are linked by a continuous chain of later monuments to the earliest painted tombs as will appear in the serfs 22 sequel. In the prehistoric grave there was no room for paintings on the walls of the simple pit. let us now To examine some of No archaeological traits stone axes or adzes are known its more closely. Man's dumb servant.
Early Predynastic 4. arrow-heads (5 is 3 and and 2. 1 8. perhaps protodynastic). rhomboid daggers. after de Morgan.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST Fie. flint work: i 68 .
the latter probably used as razors.THE OLDEST FARMERS Predynastic period. 24 Notable types are the fish-tailed in . but the flint tools include sickle-teeth. First and spoons of Second Pre- dynastic culture. at least Nubia. Ivory vases and harpoons of . 85) that is really just a Capsian point worked all over one \J FIG.and end-scrapers. 26. disc. transverse arrow-heads of lunate or trapezoidal form now occur. but. 23 The arrow was tipped with concave-based or tanged points as before. after Petrie. and a beautiful comma-shaped knife (Fig. 19. face by pressure-flaking.
red ware. more often of bone and always flatter than those from the Fayum (Fig. bottom). hafted by its point into a wood or ivory hilt and allegedly used for hamstringing game. Cross-lined pottery that was only manufactured between S. a polished shapes the flasks. resembles the finer Badarian manner of its decoration by partial oxidization of the ferruginous wash but lacks the tasteful ripple burnish and the fineness of the latter fabric (PI. rarely of copper. Others are ornamented with the representations of men and animals. fired wholly in an oxidizing atmosphere. were now in use. 1 9). First there are vases adorned with simple rectilinear motives evidently copied. but the lank tumblers are the most distinctive. all inferior to the best Badarian. 1 8). Among the in the carinated bowls. goblets on a low pedestal and twin vases are noticeable. was current as was a black ware produced by reduction and Yet more characteristic is White imitating basalt. sharp-edged stone disc or more rarely with a pointed blade (Plate head of stone (Plate VII. The commonest fabric. Secondly. Fish were speared with harpoons. from basketry originals (Fig 20). termed Black-topped Ware. " " or dagger blade lance and the great rhomboid The mace now used was weighted with a (Fig. but the result was 70 . VS). The designs belong to two series. It is essentially red-polished ware ornamented with patterns in dull white paint. 31 and 35. already referred to as of magic purport and evidently intended to be lifelike.D. Several classes of pottery. like the vases they adorn.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST VII Lz).
PLATE VII a -b TOMB GROUPS FROM DIOSPOLIS PARVA [face p 70 .
VI). These painted scenes have ruder precursors scratched on Red-polished or FIG. Black-topped modelled animals generally elephants or hippopotami 71 . 20. Wnite Cross-lined bowls showing basketry patterns after Capart.THE OLDEST FARMERS not always very successful (PI. T V some cases plastically In vases.
Barbary sheep. only Early Predynastic types are tall ovoid beakers on a pedestal with two lug handles just under the rim cylindrical jars with slightly convex sides and bevelled rims (PL Via). a fabric principally found in Nubia. 21. The 72 material used for the Early . These figures and the painted a lively giraffes.vessels. It corresponds in technique to the Badarian is beakers and like them is inspired by basketry models FIG.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST walk round the vase's rim. though not very often. pendant to the White Cross-lined A the rare Black Incised ware. Black Incised ware. The and Stone was also used for . . with the exception of some Nubian vases that imitate a gourd in a straw sling. and scorpions give us picture of the prehistoric fauna of the Nile valley and its immediate borders.
** '''* - -VK .PLATE VIII OQOOO . 5 ^ "* ^ i f T :% 1 . ..'^ .^**h^ . ab. t R ~ K : l ^ \ i. TOMB GROUPS FROM DIOSPOLIS PARVA [facep 73 .^ $ ^ ^.
cornelian. J.pr v fishes that may have been ^totemie emblems or magjd amulets.THE OLDEST FARMERS Predynastic stone vessels was exclusively fine-grained rocks. to judge by the figurines. birds. to^ toilet articles Other vases were were still Turning we find that the eyes It was ground on slate painted with malachite. or flat ivory slips of a similar shape or well-carved stone models. and ivory pins may have been similarly Necklaces of ostrich-shell discs.D. VII. bottom that palettes to represent animals The right) or carved (Fig. made out of ostrich shell or ivory. FIG. ? The body was tattooed with various patterns.. or The arms were decked with bracelets of shell. Slate palette in form of a fish. To them were attached slate pendants representing animals. are now either rhomboidal (PI. principally basalt and alabaster. Long- toothed ivory combs like the Badarian. ivory. S. Men. steatite. Naqada. material was carried in little bags decorated with tags (Plate VIII) that may be either real tusks. lapis or green glazed beads and marine shells or coral were hung round the neck. 73 . tortoise-shell. worn. 22). 22. were stuck in the hair or wig.
but were shod with sandals of grass. The graves were shallow oval pits in which the corpse was interred doubled up. wore a linen apron. Sometimes more than one body lies in a single grave. FIG. and in other cases the bones 74 . Ivory combs.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST went stark-naked save for the " Libyan sheath " or penistasche (PL VII#. and sometimes at least wigs. centre) and plumes stuck in their Women hair. about J. 23.
The deceased was liberally provided with weapons.D.THE OLDEST FARMERS are found in disorder as if interment had taken place only after the skin had decayed from them. In the first we have the ivory tusks showing only the head (PI. 38. 24). Naqada.only they give way to rough the head and bust that survive into the Second period The clay or mud figures are generally much (Fig. Va). earlier examples are fine and realistically carved the end of the First Predynastic age about S. and food for the future life as well as the magical apparatus already described. 75 . Erect and squatting types occur and the arms be upraised or curved round below the breasts may (Plates VII and VIII). " " block figures showihg. Next comes a series of complete statuettes also in ivory. The place figurines belong to several classes. . 24. The FIG. ornaments. Block figures. rougher.
but the Egyptian fell artist. Thomas 25 a detailed conventionalized comparison elements of later has recently between the more Spanish cave art and the signs on White Cross-lined and Black-topped And he finds so many coincidences that it is clear that Early Predynastic Egyptian art was not only inspired by the same ideals but also developed along the same lines as that of East Spain. the slate palettes. prototypes in the clay Beads of ostrich-egg discs Capsian middens of Algeria. are combs and all pins. shell scenes painted on White Cross-lined pots or incised on Black-topped vases or slate palettes betray in style and mentality the closest kinship to the Capsian paintings and engravings described in the last chapter.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST In the complex defined by the foregoing traits the sedentary life. pottery. S. . short of the best achievements of his North African or Spanish confreres. ivory bracelets and glazed beads. the or less directly from them. experimenting in a new medium. the anklets worn at Cogul are also indicated on an Early Pre- dynastic have figurine. Then there are many agreements in costume between vases. the east and west. the grains and domestic animals which made that possible. the black-topped just improvements on the discoveries of the Badarians or are derived more On the other hand. The feathered head-dress of the Saharan rocks reappears on White Cross-lined vases. instituted E. the penis-sheath on clay and ivory figurines . There are the same liveliness and impressionism in both groups. the fine flintwork.
distinctively Capsian transverse arrow-head appears beside the Badarian dynastic of Nubia. was becoming the desert had invaded the fertile valley and mingled with the Badarian farmers. accordingly confirms the view advanced at the beginning of the section that the Early Predynastic culture contains new Libyan elements Getulan nomads from what foreign to the Badarian. superimposed upon a purely Nilotic Badarian substratum. barbed form in the Early Pre- The appearance in the First Predynastic civilization of Upper Egypt of so many forms that have a long history in North Africa.THE OLDEST FARMERS The The 26 predynastic dog looks like that depicted at Alpera. 77 . That influx would help to explain the elimination of negroid elements in the Nile valley and the clash of contrasted cultures and divergent traditions would promote the great progress that marks the rise of the Early Predynastic civilization.
possess well-shaped everted rims. and cognate remains have marked by diminution in the size of the flints and the reshaping by chipping of once polished implements. But in Lower Egypt there grew up out of a like substratum a culture parallel to the First Predynastic of Upper Egypt but with a more Mediterranean tinge. despite their clumsy technique.CHAPTER IV THE SECOND PREDYNASTJC CULTURE IN the Delta the oldest remains of human settlement are hopelessly buried beneath many layers of Nile mud. 78 . coarse and only roughly polished. 1 The sole vestiges of this early civilization are a few ovoid vases. In the Fayum itself culture gradually went down hill. But a culture similar to that of the Fayum must. the decline being whole belt. have covered the actually come to light on the western edge of the Delta and east of the Nile in the vicinity of Helwan. found in a tomb near Ma'adi. and one basalt vase of the distinctive shape peculiar to the Early Predynastic graves of the South. in a black-faced ware which. exclusively from stray finds on the western bank of the Nile near Gizeh and from a poor settlement c and cemetery excavated by Bovier Lapierre near adi It is known Ma on the opposite bank. from the distribution of sites east of the Nile.
and this civilization ultimately dominated Upper Egypt. The that was to adorn red crown the King of Lower Egypt and symbolized the goddess Neith of before Sals in the Delta. degenerate children of Early Predynastic types. of weapons and orna- ments intrude in ever greater numbers till they predominate or even oust the old entirely. and of the Libyan sheath. as opposed to African. And in Upper Egypt there is no sharp break between the the latter gradually First civilization and the Second . It is in fact only known directly from the latter region. 39 Crete the use of ivory block figures.3 But it is still uncertain whether these kinsmen of the First Predynastic folk of the South were the authors of the black-ware culture of Lower Egypt or whether represent a subsequent band of Libyanized intruders . too. In any case Lower Egypt eventually became the seat of a higher civilization with definitely Asiatic. though its presence may be inferred with confidence in the North. At the same time the old culture becomes atrophied . but indirect evidence exists of the presence of an allied population in the Delta. adorned a Black-topped pot from 2 Naqada in Upper Egypt. though Black79 . trickled in.D. affinities. the older New types of vases. elements. but dominating. mixing with. Refugees from the western Delta flying from Menes at a later date brought to S. for their affinities are partly with the Libyan they elements in the First Culture.SECOND PREDYNASTIC CULTURE The last-named Upper Egyptian culture has never been found north of Badari.
the past is A pear-shaped mace indicated in the following replaces (S. therefore. the fishtailed blades (with base) give place (S. 45 oust the comma type . differs as known in from the first on the one hand greater richness and its technical superiority. tion of foreigners. 40. the adoption of ideas belonging to a different cycle and presumably effected by the infiltra- we That impression is confirmed when observe that the Second culture never penetrated into Nubia. pottery. Such denote. and a consolidation of religious and social ideas.D. 84) at S.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST topped ware continues to be manufactured no 4 new forms are developed after S. The first group of features need mean nothing more than independent progress in arts and crafts.D. and dress that denote a breach with the past. scimitar- U V shaped knives (Fig. in its Predynastic civilization. 42) the disc type that only survives later as a cult object . growth of wealth. 80 . 26. on the other by the abrupt changes of fashion in weapons. 38) to swallow-tailed shapes with a base (Fig. can only be explained in ethnic or political terms.D. The changes in armament and dress on the contrary. flint daggers come in and arrow-heads with concave bases go out but the chisel-bladed arrow . 25) . The Second Upper Egypt. associated as they are with no less thoroughgoing modifications of religious ceremonial and burial rites. The break with traits.D. They do not grow naturally out of the older traditions but mark a definite break with established custom.
25. figurines are no longer modelled in clay after S. in ivory after S.SECOND PREDYNASTIC CULTURE occurs occasionally even in Middle Egypt . |. 43 nor carved FIG. Flint blades with V base.D. Naqada.D. after Petrie. 45 . but clay and stone vases are made in the form of animals and the ivory-carver turns 8l G .
THE MOST ANCIENT EAST his attention to the manufacture of amulets and spoons strange to the first culture. 82 . Household vessels. 84. later Middle Predynastic.. Middle. of ethnic change. Flint knives : 83 and 85. 26. Though Blacktopped and Red-polished ware continue to be manufactured they are no longer the vehicle for new shapes. Early. 82 and 86. are radically altered. always the most sensitive indicator FIG. J.
PLATE IX a. STONE VASES AND POTTERY COPIES 4 WAVY-HANDLED JARS c V-BASED BLADE AND DAGGER OF FLINT d. FLINT KNIFE SHOWING SERIAL FLAKING .
the so-called Decorated pots. as rims and by their shapes.PREDYNASTIC CULTURE while White Cross-lined has gone out altogether. are to be sought in stone The patterns on instead of in leather and basketry* either the the earlier vases imitate mottling of coarsegrained stones or the protective straw jackets in which 83 . imitatinj black wares. Its the as ware is taken vases of typical place by light- coloured buff clay painted with patterns in brownish red. especially the "undercut" long tubular handles. J. Decorated vases (and two wavy-handled jars in centre) stone vessels in shape and ornament. Technically the production of a light-coloured fabric like this implies very different traditions to those embodied in red and FIG 27.SECOND . disclosed The ancestry of the decorated pots.
28. Such " " been have theriomorphs regarded as signs of foreign influence but the animals represented include definitely 84 . probably imported. In addition we have the famous Wavy-handled jars FIG. And actually many graves contain stone vases agreeing precisely in form with their clay copies and distinguished from those of the previous period both by their shapes and by the preference for variegated and coarse-grained rocks (Plate IX#).THE MOST ANCIENT EAST such vessels. Decorated pot figuring boat. and in colour vessels of clay or stone in the shape of animals. were carried. and then a multitude of " < " Rough pots. like Chianti flasks or ginger-jars to-day. There are further a few spouted jars. generally reddish and often provided with a pointed base. the whose progressive degeneration provided Petrie with first basis for his sequence dating (Plate IX#).
29. characteristic of the Second Predynastic stone-ware (Fig. plants.SECOND PREDYNASTIC CULTURE Nilotic species such as hippopotami. ^. and ships are also depicted upon the Decorated 85 . After S. after Capart. 45 subjects taken from nature. 29). TKeriomorpliic and spouted vases.D. animals. and some theriomorphs are made of just those variegated stones and with just those peculiarities that are exclusively FIG.
THE MOST ANCIENT EAST
vases and the treatment of the themes
stylized as contrasted with the naturalism
of the older White Cross-lined painting. No less radical alterations are observable in dress
disappears taken by short-
Petrie, S.D. 65.
combs or combinations of such
with hair-pins. The rhombic slate palette goes out of fashion at S.D. 40 and with it the various tags and tusks that had decorated the malachite bags. Yet the eyes
painted with malachite, and theriomorphic
used for grinding
In the intimate domain of spiritual
SECOND PREDYNASTIC CULTURE
ment of figurines and the adoption
of amulets in the shape
of bulls' heads (SJD. 46) and flies (S.D. 48), falcons, and other animals denote a new orientation (Figs. 30-1).
No regular orientation interments have ceased ; multiple no are buried with their masters, and weapons longer dogs are rarer in the tombs. The ornaments, vases, and
Burial rites are revolutionized.
Predynastic stone beads
row ckw and
time of deposition. perhaps Yet the change from the First to the Second culture
than the mere substitution of one barbarism
The high cultural level attained during the previous epoch was preserved, and fresh storeys
were erected on
a complex enriched by fresh ideas and wider relations.
THE MOST ANCIENT EAST
Farming remains the
importance of hunting has declined as the disappearance of hunting weapons from the tombs shows. But now some villages were well on their way to becoming towns,
the nuclei of the
cities that in historic
the capitals of the regional divisions termed nomes, and then designated by ensigns representing animals or plants. Most authorities agree that the historical nome banners are totemic standards representing the
patron or fetish of the region/
on the Decorated vases bear on a mast
an ensign (Fig.
the ships depicted in front of the
Not only do such ensigns correspond in nearly every case to later nomestandards, but when two or more ships are depicted upon the same vase, their several ensigns are always Hence it is those appropriate to contiguous nomes. 5
clear that the totemic clans,
vaguely discerned in the
First period, are now firmly established in their historic seats ; only a few are to vanish in the unification that
Additional proof of the totemic organization is perhaps afforded by the amulets already mentioned. And B6ndite 6 believed that rows of animals, repreis
yet to come.
sented on certain ivory knife-handles, are pictorial records of"conflicts between such totemic clans ; the
in a regular order
animals depicted are always the same and are grouped with the elephant, historically the
arms of the
nome of Upper Egypt,
idea of the houses in which the clansmen lived
EARLY PREDYNASTIC MODEL OF CATTLE
MODEL OF MIDDLE PREDYNASTIC HOUSE
SECOND PREDYNASTIC CULTURE
by the model from El Amrah (Plate X), representing a solid structure of mud, or wattle and daub.
and dagger from Naqada,
J, after Petrie.
with a wood-framed doorway on one long area has been estimated at 25 by 1 8 feet. 6
'communities, specialization of labour and consequent
32). 17) and tweezers. remarkable achievements of the stone-borer who in could work even the hardest rocks and of the glazier FIG.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST progress The craftsmanship are only to be expected. 90 . knives and razors (Fig. Flat knife or razor. 33)5 and even needles (Fig. (Fig. But coppeij! remained bear witness to such specialization. 33. Flat and adzes chisels rare.
And so the craft of the flint-worker flourished lustre. but the method of hafting in a hilt from which crescent- shaped arms project enfolding the blade on either side. The earliest metal daggers. are flat and triangular. 50. (Fig.D. These marvellous blades were just flakes that had been first ground before in the wonderful(^erial flaking after 40. beginning soon knives current from S. 32. El Amrah (restored). with undiminished flaking attained its Indeed in this pe^od^the acme which. 60 (Fig. 3) none are specifically metallic types. 34. Flat copper dagger with ivory handle. 34). culminated SPthe fifie 9* .D. 55-66. J. dated to about S. is that which is distinctive of Egypt at all later dates FIG.SECOND PREDYNASTIC CULTURE are found sporadically.D. but with the exception of one dagger with a mid-rib of S.
: it is really the graves temples have been identified of the progress of ideas that give us the clearest idea at this period. 35 to an oblong trench. symbol of the dynastic god of Menes. shallow oval pit of the earliest graves 'had given On place soon after S. 40 a ledge was left to accommodate continually growing more whole pit might be filled the Alternatively with the funerary gifts and a small recess cut in the rock The the offerings that were numerous. One such measured 4*5 by Hierakonpoliis 2-0 by i*5m. to receive the corpse. lead. and the arms of other deities. the Cow of Hathor. The use as amulets of the Falcon. Progress in spiritual life is indicated in the may mean that these totems already to the rank of local had been promoted But no shrines or gods. In other cases a sort of wooden shelter was erected round the corpse. Naturally trade was intensified. and in the Second Predynastic graves. 63 rich men had their graves lined with mud bricks.. and turquoise the foreign substances already silver.D.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST the long parallel scales were taken off by pressureflaking. are found as well as amethyst. one side of it after S.D. and was divided into sepulchre at 8 92 . in the previous period. Or the corpse itself might be enclosed in a wooden coffin or laid upon a bier of twigs. an operation that served no practical purpose (PL IXrf). 7 By the end of the Second period at S. mentioned enjoyment of a game like draughts as well as in the advances in religion.D.
scenes of the chase. at the ancestor once is be. all in the style of The painting. between men and and white. black. of combats ships. and the lineal descendant of the prehistoric vase-paintings. Hierakonpolis tomb just mentioned offers one its walls had been plastered over with unique feature a layer of mud mortar which had been washed over The : with a coat of yellow ochre to serve as the ground for a mural painting (Fig. It 93 . Other offer parallels to this division. 35). and dances. Painting on the wall of a tomb at Hierakonpolis. of the later sepulchral frescoes. 35. The artist had delineated FIG.SECOND PREDYNASTIC CULTURE two equal compartments by a transverse contemporary graves wall. crude though it the Decorated pots. thus supplies the needed link between the avowedly magical art of historic times and the reputedly magical art of the remoter past. in red.
In it we see has also a sociological increasing concentration of wealth and power. graves. the theriomorphic vase. series. are_ obvious. on the other hand. since before that date isolated Decorated Vases had occasionally found this their way into Upper Egypt. probably the tradition of dark on light decoration and the technical processes it implies are all features of a great cultural province extending across Hither Asia as far as Kish and Susa 94 .D. have been connected by Petrie. element at least to inhabitants of the eastern desert there the physical conditions would admittedly encourage the use of stone for vessels. according to the pioneer of Egyptian prehistory. culminating in the single painted tomb of Hierakonpolis. the spouted jug. Petrie 9 attributes . come pig-taildj3eople bringing to the first Pharaohs as tribute ^stone vases l of the type actually found in the Second Predynastic The Wavy-handled jars. Frankfort. 39. just described. 10 and Scharff u with Palestine and Syria. and thence. out of the equalitarian squalor chieftainship has arisen preparing the way for the unification of the land under a king. The In any case Asiatic contacts pear-shaped mace.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST The tomb significance. agreed that the new elements that distinguish the culture of Upper Egypt in the Second Predynastic phase are derived from the north or northIt is universally east^ And innovations * it is almost certain that the autKorsT of living in tfrese had been touch with the Upper Nile for a considerable time prior to S. No private clansman rested in that sumptuous sepulchre but at least a chief.
original in an<^ There home its lay the land of the Libyan Tehenu. the Fish. 12 One With root Second Preinto dynastic civilization Asiatic soil. but emerges on the oldest . Newberry has shown that out of 288 boars depicted on Decorated pots. of Egypt this down deep complex then might reasonably be connected the Osiris legend^ that point to Syria./Egean ships. And Newberry has shown that the chief port of Egypt lay in the western Delta in the Harpoon nome. quite isolated cylinder of S. less attempt an inscription at least is 46 bearing a meaningpoints in the same of the struck direction. while 80 others bear the emblem of adjoining western Delta nomes. disappears from historical Egypt. the Second Civilization belong culturally to an Asiatic province. Now. of j^tron immediate vicinity were extensive deposits that could be used in the manufacture of 13 glazes". 1 66 fly the ensign of the Harpoon nome situated in historical times on the Canopic mouth of the Nile.SECOND PREDYNASTIC CULTURE that we shall come at to know A better in a later chapter. the of olive-culture according to Newberry. and probably some Syrian influences too were transmitted across the sea through 95 . its focus came to lie in the western if But Delta. Another sign. and with its southward extension that first unification of the land under the authority of the eastern Delta as deduced by Junker from the legend of the contest between Osiris and Seth and other fables. It would therefore be through the mediation of the western Delta that Egypt came into contact with Crete.D.
45. as illustrated in the boat vases imported after S. and its extension to Upper Egypt denotes the cultural ascendancy of the North. is Of attractive theory by no means . coincide approximately with S. : the Second Predynastic culture was largely a product of Lower Egypt. pierced for suspension a type very common in Crete and Syria.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST In any case. Thus Does the imposition of the new culture on the South and the power of the western Delta. as an amulet this channel. In the immediate vicinity of Horus* southern sanctuary we find a tomb that might almost be designated course this royal.C. 4236 ? B.D.. reflect the political domination from the north implied in the legend of the Shemsu Hor as interpreted by Sethe ? Are the barques flying the Harpoon standard Harpooners spond original u the ships of the advance of the to who accompanied Horus ? new Second Culture southward infusion Mesniu or Did the corre- that of Semitic' elements into an Hamitic ? philologists Was linguistic stock postulated by many it at this time that the calendar Memphis and Heliopolis and the script of the Delta were diffused throughout the whole of Egypt ? Does of then the first Sothic cycle. 45 plausible. All these theories signs for The later hieroglyphic somewhat seem the mace and the arrow are the pear-shaped and chisel-ended types of the Second Culture. in one Second Predynastic gravte was found a miniature celt.D. The Falcon Horus appears the on Decorated vases and the amulets among signs in Second Predynastic graves.
the Falcon Hence the French savant contends that monuments are pre-Horian that is to say the conquest of Upper Egypt by the Shemsu Hor must be The oldest record of the successes dated after S.D. 63. the struggles of the clans of Upper Egypt. race we shall later in dealing return ourselves dynastic with the Mesopotamian connections of Protodynastic important only to show that tradition is compatibly with the archaeological deduction of a high civilization once centred in the Delta and of civilization.D. The Second civilization has indeed Asiatic connections. doctrine of a dynastic race from the south to whom clan must be assigned. 97 H . it Here is its Down superposition on the native culture of Upper Egypt. a victory over Libyans in the western The interpretation of the Egyptian legends Deltal correlation with archaeological monuments their and its is And theme To the theory of a are matters for the philologist. is absent.SECOND PREDYNASTIC CULTURE Sir Flinders Petrie endorses the universally accepted. 70. according to Ben6dite. all the more important discoveries and inventions may have been made within the Nile basin. of the Falcon clan is the Lion Hunt palette that cannot be dated very much anterior to Menes or about S. On the carved that knife handles to the end of the Second ivory belong the Horus e Predynastic age and record. these . to this point It has been possible to explain the growth of civilization in the Nile Valley as a self-contained and continuous process. Though more than one racial element contributed to it and we distinguish two civilizations.
The rudiments of a script. that all the elements that distinguish neolithic and chalcolithic culture as defined in among the barbarian Europeans had been created Egypt out of the common palaeolithic heritage of south and north. assuming the presence during the pluvial period of suitable plants. been devised. already possessed a boat that has been claimed by many as the ancestor of all later ships. faces with malachite. as we have seen. the conditions were ideal for the rise of regular agriculture. had already social sanction in Early Pre- It may therefore fairly be contended dynastic times. And the First Predynastic people. and given based upon older palaeolithic hunting signs. of the ore fell on to hot ashes. It is generally admitted that the cultivation of the olive was initiated Being accustomed to paint their the predynastic Egyptians were constantly handling copper ore the conversion of which to metal might easily happen before their eyes if some in the western Delta. favourable and the development of the polished stone celt to be The riverine conditions were eminently for the first experiments in navigation.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST but nothing proves its indebtedness to Asia . In Badarian times the valley was still sufficiently wooded for the need of a tool to split timber to be felt thus evoked. At the same time the Egyptians could not live in . the parallels reflexions as interpreted Mesopotamian may at least theoretically be of a civilizing current from Egypt. In the Nile valley.
The Late Predynastic and Protodynastic epoch of Egypt is distinguished by the appearance on the Nile of objects. which. At the same procure obliged A time the grass-lands to still extending from the Atlantic Zagros were occupied by scattered nomadic tribes. was at this epoch originative. (after land lacked adequate supplies of timber Badarian times). 99 . independent. progressive people with needs like the awakening predynastic clans would be these from to without. and North Thus there were abundant opportunities for and discoveries of the Egyptian to be inventions the disseminated and copied on the Iranian plateau. technical devices. and other The necessary raw materials. malachite. Armenia. are in any case now reaching a point when definite contacts were established with another centre of civiliza- of We tion that. spices.SECOND PREDYNASTIC CULTURE isolation. the In any case foreign substances in Egyptian graves attest relations extending as far as Persia. Minor and the in Crete. and individual. must have formed a real continuum like the rare atoms in a vacuum tube. despite their dispersion. in Asia Syria. We must later inquire whether autonomy of Egyptian all civilization and the dependence others be really as complete as is alleged. whatever her past. and artistic motives that were native and lasting in Mesopotamia but in Egypt occur only sporadically or enjoy a quite temporary vogue.
the investiture of petty chiefs with the majesty of divine kingship and the union But of the of the warring clans into a compact State. At El Amrah attention was turned to the/ 100 . entry of the coffin-bearers and subsequent bringers of offerings. 63 and 76 saw the transformation of villages into cities.CHAPTER V THE THE RISE OF THE DYNASTIES period between S. cities nothing remains differentiation of the and it is only the gradual tombs 1 that allows us to infer the is emergence of an ever more complex while their furniture given to art and and the termination of internecine wars. social hierarchy.D. the sole index of the impulse industry by contact with distant lands Throughout the period the poorer citizens were still But now there were buried in simple trench-graves. the The elaboration followed With the growth of the trench-grave downwards. The cemetery of El Kab illustrates the soul. and a roof had to be built with posts and wooden beams. advance of time and concentration of wealth the tomb was dug ever deeper through the sand and into the Then steps had to be cut for the underlying rock. richer men who demanded a more elaborate home for divergent lines that only began to converge again after the unification of the land.
RISE OF THE DYNASTIES o I o ! VO 6 W 101 .
77 a superstructure begins to appear above the ground. body it was enlarged. In a second series beginning about S.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST recess for the original pit formed into a distinct room. 37. the chamber was formed by three upright by a fourth after the manner of a dolmen. and it is thought by Reisner that the earlier bricked tombs were surmounted by some structure on the ground level to serve as a monument 102 . unfortunately polis. slabs of desert sandstone roofed undateable. Some neolithic graves near Helwan had been marked above ground by a pile of stones. FIG.D. the wicker partition being In other cases the trench replaced by a brick wall. Early dynastic chamber tomb. was lined with brick or timber walls and eventually divided into a grave proper and a chapel of offerings by a transverse wall as in the painted tomb at HierakonIn another tomb 2 at the same site. divided from the by a wicker partition and eventually trans.
In the private First Dynasty the grave proper was just a deep shaft above which was a brick-walled chamber But on the west side of apparently filled with sand. a wooden hall 28 feet The planks enclosing it were supported by square. In the Royal Tombs of the First Dynasty at Abydos 4 FIG.RISE OF THE DYNASTIES and a chapel tombs of the for funerary offerings. 38. the burial chamber proper. 38). a serious attempt was made to reproduce underground The grave was a huge brickthe house of the living. The whole structure was surrounded with rows of smaller tombs containing 103 . always found filled with vases and 8 presumably serving as a mortuary chapel (Fig. In its centre stood lined pit 43 by 48 feet square. this and communicating with it by two low slits was a smaller chamber. buttresses projecting from the walls of the shaft forming a series of small store-rooms. Small masta&a Tarkhan.
seen in a rudimentary form at Tarkhan. and the pit was sometimes floored with granite slabs. Tarkhan. FIG. the superstructure. It is uncertain whether these had been slain to accompany their royal master to the grave. Great brick mastaba. was converted into a monumental erection termed a mastaba (Fig. 3 This was an enormous rectangle of brickwork enclosing several small chambers under the central one of which the grave-shaft proper was The outer wall was recessed in a peculiar manner. By the end of the First Dynasty the plan was completed by the addition of a stepped passage leading down to the chamber. however. 104 . 39.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST the bodies of courtiers and dependents. dug. 39). In other tombs of the same reigns.
the superposition of a series of mastabas one upon the other produced under Zoser the famous stepped pyramid of Saqqara. neither The adze provided with sockets. use for tools and weapons and also for vessels. evolutionary is a apparent question a description of other aspects of protodynastic culture has been completed. the concentration of power. but just stuck into the shaft.RISE OF THE DYNASTIES two of the recesses on the eastern wall being distinguished by a wooden or brick pavement. Finally. of such types coincides with a revival of carpentry consequent upon the establishment of regular com- 105 . shall return which we when and the rise of city life are equally reflected in the ' Copper is now in general progress of the industrial arts. Under the Third Dynasty the whole structure was translated into stone while the subterranean portions were enlarged and provided with a stepped entrance passage. It is thus possible to present the funerary monuments from Middle Predynastic times down Dynasty as to the Third a self-contained Whether to this continuity is real or series. and in the passage between the wall with a brick wall. The tools in use include flat axes (celts) with parallel sides and no expansion of the blade. The growth of wealth. These recesses served The whole complex was encircled as funerary shrines. and a battle-axe with rounded blade. adzes with rounded butts. The rise has sometimes a rounded butt. and the face of the mastaba the bodies of attendants and in one case of two asses were interred.
But metal had by no means ousted even under the earlier dynasties Indeed. core-casting. and as late as the Pyramid age the tools for great constructional 106 . Flat. The spear-heads had a flat tang which fitted into the split end of a shaft . copper was rare. 1 7. 40. and a copper ' FIG. Late Predynastic copper harpoons. f . Copper daggers have a rhomboid outline and are strengthened with stout mid-ribs.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST munication double-edged knives and copper harpoons were taken over from an earlier age (Fig. ferule encircles both shaft and tang in an example from Tarkhan but no socketed weapons are known and it is certain that the Egyptians were unacquainted with flint. 9) Syria. first with appears for the time under Menes' dynasty. 40)5 but the fish-hook of copper (Fig.
RISE OF THE DYNASTIES works. 107 . Flint razor bkde. often well worked though never reaching the perfection of the disc-scrapers. sickle-teeth. to say nothing of agriculture. out of flint nodules (Fig. |. rough blades. were of stone. 41). and other flake-implements. From the early town 5 sites come hundreds of hoes chipped FIG. 42.
a rectangular tomb of Hetep-heres it FIG. Chisel-edged flint blades. Other protodynastic types are finely flaked. chip perfectly flat on the bulbar surface and evenly bevelled on the opposite face. 43. the final form of the square-ended flake. the pearshaped mace. i (Zer-Ta). 43). Royal Tombs. a tanged razor. appears associated with an exact copy in gold . was a toilet implement. Some interesting series illustrate the connection of the early flints with razor with one end rounded metal implements. chiselended flint blades. too.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST Middle Predynastic later serial flaking. perhaps descended from the swallowof the previous epoch (Fig. " (as in the classical end-scraper on blade ") and the other squared can be traced from Menes' time till in the A occurs side by side with its In the same tomb gold counterpart. the boomerang ia8 tailed blade . evidently it. the chisel-headed arrow.
The beautifully out in the Second Predynastic are now abandoned for the alabaster and basalt that had enjoyed a preference also in the First. * On the one hand earthenware is ousted by metal and fine stones from the tables of the On the other with the specialization incident rich. double-axe sign. hard-baked vases survive. 70 is important type appearing first about the open tubular stand whose walls are often An perforated with triangular apertures . precise parallels are common in Mesopotamia. however. 7 The decline of fine ware has a dual cause. On the Lion Hunt palette we see also a weapon often taken to be a double The artist has. scratched on protodynastic vases. Painting dies out during the sixties and eventually only red or The preference for drab.D.RISE OF THE DYNASTIES and the shield with concave sides. that the shaft does not pass through the head as in the Minoan weapon but round it. however. identical with the Minoan It is. 6 ^Esthetically the pottery declines. pointed bases and a rim-collar are absent. upon city life The stone vases are again on the whole more varied stones sought monotonous. been at pains to show axe. the potter becomes industrialized and turns from craft-work to mass-production. but some think that a sort of potters' wheel was coming into use. is noticeable but handles S. though vessels of obsidian and rock- 109 . uncertain whether the same interpretation can be applied to two figures. Probably we are here dealing with a grooved mace-head an approximation to which at least has been found in the Fayum industry.
By far the commonest shape is a tall cylindrical vase. with a ring encircling the stem where foot and body join (Fig. 44). and rather later by jars with a spout brazed on. no . definite Mesopotamian Besides clay and analogies.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST crystal from the Royal Tombs constitute exceptions. 44. 66. appear in the Royal Tombs. J. in is them provided by blocks with twin cups bored out has very this type. An important new type. vases of glaze and fayence FIG. tumblers. The craft of the carpenter may be illustrated by 8 . a pedestalled goblet made in two pieces. however. Royal Tombs. like the clay stands. though squat bowls with tubular handles and undercut rims derived from a well-known Second Predynastic shape are very popular. stofte. couches with the legs carved to represent bulls' hoofs such served as biers from SJD. Copper goblet. And metal vessels are represented by dishes. .
BRACELETS FROM TOMB OF KING ZER
and amulets may be noted here. animal form, but generally highly conventionalized survive till the beginning of the Dynastic
Slate palettes in
age, and indeed in a magnified version serve as a vehicle for the records of the Falcon clan and of its princes,
but the normal type after SJD. 70 is rectangular. Among the ornaments spiral beads of stone burnished with gold
Figures of apes in stone and fayence, about J.
occur between S,D. 65 and 72 9 and iron beads 1U are Under the First Dynasty fayence dated to 72 likewise. is quite common and a spirally gadrooned long barrel
bead (Plate XII) is very characteristic. The original form is given by coiled gold wire this was then copied by engraving on lapis. A large number of new
THE MOST ANCIENT EAST
gaming-pieces, notably the lion after 64, the baboon before 77, the frog or toad about 65, the scorpion after 70, and a bird perhaps a dove about 77. All these
A camel from Abusir el Meleq
however, very puzzling,
and may be a descendant of a hypothetical pleistocene race from North Africa. Cylinders appear as amulets after S.D. 65, and under
the First Dynasty at latest they are used regularly as seals for the authentication of documents and bear inscripdate too, writing is in regular use ; though the hieroglyphs, have not yet assumed their final form, the main principles of the script, the use of
determinatives, for instance, are already established. But even as early as S.D. 63, one of the characters
of the later script appears on a slate palette apparently 11 The ancestry of the script, whose already as a glyph.
signs are essentially Nilotic, should perhaps be sought in some pictorial records kept by the clans which are
implied in certain ivory knife-handles, already mentioned and dating from the end of the Second Period. Alternatively a body of magic pictures such as are illustrated in the funerary paintings and petroglyphs of prehistoric
times might have supplied the material for a system of writing, since the later hieroglyphs possessed not only
a phonetic or ideographic value but also a magic power. The development of the regular script would in any case
be promoted by the emergence of individuals, royalties 112
RISE OF THE DYNASTIES
names and For the existence of an urban
to perpetuate on monuments their personal also by the necessities of trade. foreign
such as had
grown up already in protodynastic times was only
through the maintenance of permanent and regular relations with outside countries. Copper ore must be mined in Sinai, gold in Nubia, and cedar wood for the Royal Tombs was brought by ship from Byblos. Marble was imported from Paros and from Asia came
obsidian, now in quantities sufficient for the facture of vases, lapis lazuli, and other stones.
Direct proof of protodynastic intercourse with North
afforded by the French excavations at Byblos 12 where a flint knife, a late theriomorphic palette, a vase
form of a camel and other articles of ihdubitably Egyptian provenance have been unearthed. By the Second Dynasty a stone temple had already been erected
at that site, perhaps the oldest stone building in the world.
Corresponding proof of trade along the Red Sea is afforded by a late predynastic cemetery at Ras Samadai ' 13 59 N.) containing Late Predynastic (latitude 24 vases and slate palettes. The multitude of Red Sea
shells in protodynastic graves and town sites indicates the regularity of trade in this direction, and the Tridacna
begins to appear in Crete must have come by way of Egypt.
about this time
certain or problematical Mesopotamian contacts be considered in the light of the trade relations
evidence consists in the temporary
THE MOST ANCIENT EAST
by the protodynastic Egyptians of devices and artistic motives that constituted permanent elements in Mesopotamian civilization. 15 None of the actual objects found can possibly be regarded as Babylonian the Mesopotamian devices were elaborated products
thoroughly Egyptian way; the Mesopotamian motives adorn purely Egyptian objects and the contacts
are spread out over the whole of the Late Predynastic
and Protodynastic age.
the very beginning of the period at S.D. 63 we encounter a whole group of foreign objects and motives
depicted together on two thoroughly Egyptian monuments. The monuments in question are an ivory knife-handle found at Gebel el-Arak and the painted
tomb of Hierakonpolis already mentioned.
of the discoveries are significant ; they lie near the termini of well-marked caravan routes to the Red Sea.
Both documents depict a boat, foreign
to the ordinary
monuments and represented
as in conflict with the usual
Nilotic ships as depicted so frequently on the Decorated The foreign vessel is distinguished from the
papyrus barques above
Decorated pots (Fig.
by its tall prow and high Egypt besides only on two 46) and on a few isolated
can hardly be derived from the old papyrus boat but on the other hand might easily grow out of the type of boat
monuments of the
by the oldest monuments found
in fact representations
of boats very
lions. different from the older Egyptian greyhound identical with the oldest Babylonian. hand was very popular in Babylonia. The impression of Mesopotamian inspiration becomes irresistible when we observe that the hero is wearing a full beard. to illustrate the might be used 16 The hero looks more like a god of Hall rightly says. but type On the knife-handle again. the desert between the Nile and the Red Sea than a " Gilgamesh epic . and in the tomb-painting. " Foreign " ship from late Decorated pot.RISE OF THE DYNASTIES ours are found on Sumerian vases early in the third millennium. yet. 46. we see a group representing a hero dompting two The theme is strange to Egyptian art. The Gebel very el-Arak knife-handle again depicts a dog. while the cap on his head and the long robe that drapes him The whole scene are no less typically Sumerian. but on the other FIG. .
Ivory handle for a flint knife like Fig. 116 lion grasping a bull The Gebel-el .THE MOST ANCIENT EAST a god conceived by his Gilgamesh or an Elamite worshippers under a form strongly influenced by Meso- potamian and Elamite ideas brought to the coast (?of Magan) by sea and executed by a predynastic Egyptian artist/* FIG. by the hind quarters on the Arak handle and the processions of animals on others are again themes that recur repeatedly in So too do the monsters with entwined Mesopotamia. 86. 26. 47.
48) depict the beast with gaping jaws in the manner of Susa and Babylonia a treatment which was subsequently abandoned in Egypt. very long history in Babylonia and was regularly used So too a there as the vehicle for votive sculptures. Vi- With the rise of the First Dynasty still more are ments with early Mesopotamian usage are agreenoticeable. 47)3 and on the later slate palette of Menes. the earliest Egyptian sculptures of the lion (Fig.such carved vases were very popular in early Sumerian times and enjoyed a long vogue in the Tigris-Euphrates valley 117 . couple of broken vases with figures carved in low relief suggest Mesopotamian influence jsyaee. 16 FIG. Some of the oldest dynastic monuments carved mace-heads. toads.RISE OF THE DYNASTIES necks and the rosettes carved on another knife-handle (Fig. Gaining piece in form of a lion from First Dynasty Royal Tomb. the animals that appear as novelties in the Late Predynastic plastic the lions. 48. one of which represents the Sed festival Now the piriform mace has a of the first Pharaoh.. apes. and Among In particular scorpions all recur in Mesopotamia.
objects have been found in the oldest strata at Assur. so that. On tomb tomb the other hand. and Woolley has pointed out that these mats bore Syrian and not Egyptian The same author has traced the recessed patterns.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST Still more while they never took root on the Nile. But it must be noted that this sort of facade only copies in brick a type of building originally evolved in wood. brick-architecture of Sumer to the prediluvian huts of matting supported by posts. unmistakably Asiatic are the tubular stands or supports Similar already mentioned. Great importance has also been attached to certain architectural features observed in the early mastabas. and survives in Irak to-day. the paintings of the recesses in the of Hesy at Saqqara and the tiles of Zoser's new show that in some cases the spaces between the 18 columns were closed with reed mats. are certainly painted to imitate wood. and at Tarkhan 17 wooden panels that could be fitted together to give of the sort precisely the assumed effect were actually found. Fara. On one view the recessed wall represents the fa9ade of a pillared hall between the pillars of which were fixed light wooden doors. Royal Tombs and The recessed brickwork in particular Babylonia has parallels in from the earliest times onward. even if the similarity 118 . Later Egyptian coffins illustrate something the false doors of the early stone mastabas . everywhere decorated with the same triangular excisions as in Egypt. and elsewhere in Mesopotamia and also in the of baked earthenware second culture at Susa.
in every case with indigenous to Mesoafter it potamia that persisted there long had been abandoned on the itself. The bodies of Menes' were interred in annexes to his tomb . All these agreements in funerary structure and courtiers practice are certainly more than accidental. agrees the hieroglyphic script consist of purely Nilotic so strikingly with the Babylonian in its curious combination of phonetic that the two signs with ideographs and determinants systems must be somehow interrelated. and at Ur the king's whole retinue was slain and buried with The two asses 19 and a menial buried in the him. it rests on a community of And the reed and types. And though its elements plants and animals. The tombs successors represent attempts to scale at the bottom of a great Menes and reproduce on a small And so do the earliest royal shaft the hall of the king.RISE OF THE DYNASTIES of the Egyptian and Mesopotamian brickwork be not due to direct imitation. The cumulative effect of all these comparisons is 119 . though inscribed a device Egyptian characters. Nile. The cylinders that under the first ciynasties were used as seals are. corridor of a mastaba at Tarkhan recall the harnessasses and their drivers found in the tombs of Kish and Ur. tombs of Ur just excavated. timber prototype is not attested for the Nile in predynastic times. pre-existing architectural But the potamian of earliest in more than his Egyptian tombs resemble the Mesoaccidental features.
note that in the Royal Tombs a new physical type. the intelligent use of metal. conclusive. And later on when the capital Lower Egypt under the Third Dynasty " " a brachycephalic Armenoid type becomes prominent 21 Let us note. the potters' wheel. carpentry and the monumental relations Other authorities are content to invoke trade Red Sea supplementing those by Syria that may go back to Second Predynastic times. a sea-faring people often mentioned by the Sumerians. still dolichocephalic. that the among the upper classes. too. but larger and more robust than the earlier predynastic people. Let us. As to the mechanism of these relations opinions differ. 20 along the scale. Many of the phenomena would indeed be radiated simultaneously to better explained by the assumption of a third centre from which influences Egypt and Sumer. upon stone.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST Sumer and Egypt at the time of the oldest kings were no longer mutually isolated but were in direct or more probably indirect but regular communication. transferred to 120 . artistic sense. however. And the traders need not have been Sumerians but intermediaries such as the inhabitants of Magan. responsible for the introduction of writing. Petrie speaks of invasions by Elamites and with de Morgan invokes the intervention of a Sumerianized " The latter would have been dynastic race ". appears in Egypt was for the first time. sculpture on a large tomb. The issue between commercial and ethnic explanations of the Mesopotamian ^contacts is not a profitable theme.
FIG. the mother of Cheops. Copper chisel with "flanged" blade from the tomb ' of Hetep-heres. [page 121 . 49.
THE MOST ANCIENT EAST racial types protodynastic slate palettes certainly depict a variety of among the enemies and followers of Menes . and the metal work of (^een Hetep-heres' tomb is nearly as good as anything produced in Sumer. the Egyptians discovered the principle of the flanged But a just comparison can only be made when we have traced the genesis of Sumerian civilization celt (Fig. Third Dynasty the sculptures and architecture in stone illustrated under Zoser far surpass any Mesopotamian achievements. 49). 122. of Ur the existing display a higher at that date. ethnic and commercial explanations Petrie's dynastic race might altogether incompatible. Petrie 22 distinguishes as are many as six. That is a question partly dependent on the chronologies of the two countries which are uncertain just at the vital evidence the Royal Tombs civilization points. Plainly then the racial prehistorian Nor the has plenty of material to play with. . If the Sumerian s had invented the shaft-hole axe. " be identified with those followers of a god of the Eastern Desert conceived under a form strongly influenced by " Mesopotamian and Elamite ideas brought by sea postulated by Hall. On than we have in Egypt In addition to wheeled vehicles Sumerian metallurgy had attained a far higher degree of perfection than that by any Egyptian finds of the first two Yet when we come down to the end of the dynasties. It is of much greater importance to decide to what extent Egypt was merely passive in her relations with Mesopotamia. as we have the growth of Egyptian.
The sites of the great Sumerian cities farther north may just have been emerging from similar lagoons in 123 .C. The detritus from the Armenian-Persian mountains brought down by the Tigris and Euphrates is gradually filling up that pocket at the eastern end of the tilted peneplane of Arabia and at the foot of the folds of the Persian Mountains. that was presumably at one time flooded by the sea. To-day the deposit of the rivers up the head of the Persian Gulf so rapidly is silting that the coast line advances about one and a half miles a century. In the seventh century B. the first royal city of Sumerian tradition. alluvial plains where Sumerian civilization attained apoge are of quite recent formation. the Kerkha. 2 1 ruins of Eridu. which now joins the combined stream of the Tigris and Euphrates debouched into the Persian Gulf. opposite Sennacherib had to sail 1 60 km.CHAPTER THE VI FIRST PREDILUVIAN CULTURE HUMAN The its lithic flints remains comparable in antiquity to the palaeoof Egypt can hardly be expected in Babylonia. and Basra. from the mouth of the At the beginning of historical times a tidal lagoon extended inland almost to the foot of the limestone ridge on which stand the Euphrates to reach its estuary.
it is even worse provided than Egypt with other primary materials.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST the level of the plain has been raised over 25 feet by deposits of silt since the first settlements were established there. while the marshes were inhabited by swine. 124 . To counterbalance the country's wealth in food- stuffs. The ancient Sumerian creation legend. wherein order is fruitful conjured out of the primeval chaos by the separation of land from water. Egypt the gifts and habitable the settlers must combine to dig canals and to raise mounds that should put their settlements above the reach of inundations. mountain slopes to the east wheat and barley are said grow wild. But even more than in to of nature could only be enjoyed by man To render the marshes at the price of co-operation. The snow-fed rivers by their inundations and with the aid of canals might be made to supply the deficiencies of the heavenly waters. fifth the millennium. And the same ranges support mouflon sheep and goats capable of domestication. At Kish The alluvial plain that was being slowly raised by the streams as the surrounding lands fell a prey to drought took on the aspect of a paradise in the eyes of its neighbours. The alluvial flats were ideal soil for the date palm that would provide food for man and whose cultivation would help to instil On the sedentary habits in the breast of the nomad. preserves a vivid recollection of the task imposed upon the first colonists. Timber and stone for building and the raw materials for industry must all be imported.
The latter country is easily defended. diffuse the light of such civilization as they evolved. on of clefts. the inhabitants of Babylonia must maintain regular intercourse with So they would be in a position to adjacent lands. was consequently intimately bound up with that of surrounding countries while Egypt in comparison enjoyed a fortunate isolation. in early historical times.FIRST PREDILUVIAN CULTURE Even more than the Egyptians. The Semites have 125 . gives access from the and Armenian tablelands to the basin of the The fate of Mesopotamia Tigris and Euphrates.000 years. always a nursery of peoples dryness. for 2. and from the beginning of the historical period successfully closed her doors against foreign aggression. and the Euphrates provides a path Through the leading down from Syria and Anatolia. the fact that stone and flint were almost Incidentally as hard to obtain as copper ores would encourage an intensive use of metal where the Egyptians were content. the a mountain walls north-east series steep by tributary streams. save for brief episodes like the Hyksos interlude. From the west came repeated incursions by Semitic tribes whose leaders carved Iranian eventually secured the sovereignty. Westwards the land despite its up gently to the heights of the Arabian plateau. to keep to ancestral flint But the relations between Babylonia and her neighbours were destined to be of a different order to those of Egypt. The Tigris-Euphrates slopes valley is far more exposed. even tools.
language. buried deeply beneath protohistoric foundations. highland. and on the eastern frontier there are deposits of tin. and other folk from the opposite side of the valley are less easily estimated. obsidian animals than Babylonia. And it was no less well provided with noble grasses and domesticable In addition. These discoveries enable us to assign to the prehistoric or in let us say Prediluvian harmony with Sumerian tradition 126 . and armament of the ancient Babylonians. the Iranian plateau was in all probability already habitable. the encircling mountains are rich in copper and other metals .THE MOST ANCIENT EAST left their stamp on the religion. reached Southern Babylonia from While the lowland was still marsh. Woolley has unearthed on virgin soil hut ruins. that the oldest It is certain human remains found to in Southern Babylonia are connected with a great cultural province whose centre lies the east on the 'Ubaid near Ur of the Chaldees. At al disturbed by the oldest Sumerian interments. the conditions were ideal for the rise of a progressive civilization while the desicpation that was to pluvial filled epoch had be so beneficial for Mesopotamia might impel emigrations from the plateau. when the rains of the and lapis lazuli the depressions with standing waters. Yet it is quite possible that the oldest colonists of the Tigris- Euphrates valley that quarter. Hence. The contributions made by the no less frequent incursions of Elamites. and graves. Kassites. both occur. men of Gutium.
the First Prediluvian civilization is a far looser and more abstract unity than the First Predynastic civilization of Egypt. But the pottery found has the closest affinity Mesopotamian with a series of wares from sites It is on the tablelands extending from Elam and Western Persia to Seistan and even Baluchistan. other sites. Mesopotamia. notably at Kish and the adjacent site of Jemdet Nasr. as might indeed be expected considering its enormous 127 .5 At the former the remains that concern us are overlaid by others containing monuments of a different. The tions only sites in on a large scale the province where scientific excavahave reached these prediluvian al levels are. Samarra. but still pre- historic. indeed the hall-mark of a great cultural province occupying the whole plateau and best illustrated at Susa in Elam. revealed by the excavations at both sites with the reservation that in many respects the remains from the We Babylonian site seem more advanced and actually later in date than those from Susa. Indeed. Eridu. site Susa 4 and 'Ubaid. Ur. but apparently exclusively in the north.FIRST PREDILUVIAN CULTURE period. come remains of this at all these 3 prediluvian culture. The civilization revealed in the lowest levels at culture that is also found in Susa and at al 'Ubaid may accordingly be the First Prediluvian qualified provisionally as culture in contrast to that shall describe its general traits as of Susa II. chance finds of implements and pottery from From Bushire on the Persian Gulf. and even Tell Zeidan far away on the sites Lower Balikh. in fact.
is the technical term but had been merely dried in the sun and not kiln-fired. walls and cushion-shaped on the other plano-convex like the oldest Sumerian bricks. I after Mem. 50). The bricks were flat on one built of mud-bricks. In all But they probability they possessed domestic animals. township at Susa was planted on a low spur above the plain of the Kerkha and defended with a wall first The of sun-dried brick or perhaps just stamped earth. 128 . Inside the huts stood hearths the doors were pivoted.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST geographical range and the diversity of countries comprised within its bounds. At al 'Ubaid there are traces of posts from which hung reedmats plastered with bitumen to constitute the houseemergence. and of the cupped stones lying flush with the threshold on which. Del. as in all later Babylonian houses. side The villagers in both cases certainly cultivated grains which they milled on saddle-querns (Fig. Sickle teeth and saddle quern from Susa Perse. The site of al 'Ubaid was an island of river silt just rising above the marshy alluvial plain that was still in course of The dwellings had flat or barrel-shaped and walls of wattle and daub or of matting. 50. xin. roofs FIG.
at Susa lying just fully buried in regular cemeteries. Commercial relations of some the arts of the potter.FIRST PREDILUVIAN CULTURE hunted and fished and. copper only known. and stone-grinder. and carpenter was not Moreover. Fine garments were woven of linen. town outside the Normally the bodies were interred in the contracted posture. were sufficiently well established to bring obsidian in abundance from Armenia to the banks of the Kerkha and Southern Babylonia together with bitumen from the wells near Hit. Clay figurine Susa I. 51. at Eridu. FIG. but even at Susa its properties as maleable and fusible were fully appreciated and it was employed for tools and toilet articles such as mirrors. wall. Lapis lazuli from Central Persia or Afghanistan has been found at Susa I. and The dead were careat Tell Kaudini in Baluchistan. A vitreous paste was also manufactured. flourished. but sometimes sort 1 129 K . manuprows and sterns like the modern Arab vessels. factured boats with high at least in Babylonia.
TO 3 8r. since in a FIG. figures indicate that the hair was done up in a bun behind while the beard was allowed to The Prediluvian archaeological culture may celts. round discs is peculiar (Fig. that distinguish the First be summarized as follows. al 'Ubaid. 380. traits grow long. The South Babylonian T. bUMHUij^ TO. Polished stone trapeze-shaped in outline and often 130 . 284. Susa.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST the final burial only took place when the skin had decayed from the bones . Flint arrow-head and stone celts. FIG. 35. TO. T. in such cases the skull was deposited bowl and the long bones in a big tumbler. 52.O. 382. Arrow-heads and celts. the skeletons have rotted away in the alkaline soil. J. 379. these give the only idea we have of the appearance of At Susa the representation of the eyes as the people. TO. TO. 7 Figurines of men and women were also manufactured and. 53. 51).O. 281.
from 'Ubaid may have served as net-sinkers as Woolley supposes. 52. 54. hand-axes. 54). into .FIRST PREDILUVIAN CULTURE with squared small sides were used as axes or adzes at all sites (Figs. sometimes Palaeolithic ground but more often fashioned out of chert by flaking and strongly reminiscent of Lower (Fig. chert. but they may in reality represent those grooved hammers that throughout the world are found in the oldest prehistoric mines. and rock-crystal blades were worked up flint. Fkked chert hoes. At Susa semicircular knives were fashioned out of limestone pebbles al by grinding (Fig. 53). served presumably as hoes Stones with a groove round the middle FIG. al 'Ubaid. Everywhere obsidian. 55). Spatuliform implements. J.
FIG. In this case the First Prediluvian people in Southern Mesopotamia must be 132 . are solid implements whose blades are splayed out in a word thoroughly metallic types implying a full comprehension of the properties of copper and the methods and a regular and adequate supply of the material. borers. Limestone pebbles ground to form 'chisels and a knife. In arrow-heads. Susa I. and sickle teeth. Southern Babylonia curious sickles were made of clay . and prototype for most sickles. that served as the they imitate the animal's jaw-bone. a clay model of an axe with a hole for the shaft from al 'Ubaid is almost certainly of working it a copy of a metal original. 55. with flint teeth.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST knives. Moreover. may have been armed But copper also was already employed at this date the copper flat-celts for the manufacture of axe-heads .
often depicted on The were the sling. And clay models of nails from Southern Babylonia suggest that FIG. 57) not unlike the First . less often tanged. principal weapons arrows. Susa flint I. arrow-heads were of or obsidian generally lozenge shaped. Susa I. Flint arrow-heads. punches and even needles with an eyelet were made out of copper at Susa. Besides axe-heads. 56. there at least copper nails were already in use as they were in the immediately succeeding period. at Susa and at al 'Ubaid sometimes triangular but never hollow-based or barbed as in Egypt (Fig. stout chisels. The normal mace-head was 133 pear- shaped but a pointed type (Fig. and the mace. 57.FIRST PREDILUVIAN CULTURE accredited with the discovery of the process of corecasting and the invention of the shaft-hole axe. 56). 6 FIG. The sling-stones at Susa were often painted red. Pointed stone mace-head. the bow and The the vases.
open bowls.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST More rarely still the Predynastic Egyptian occurs. however. ovoid jars with everted rims. squat carinated pots with shoulder-lugs (Fig. 58. spouted jugs (Fig. b Carinated pot and spouted jug. The main shapes in order of frequence are lank tumblers. thin. with four propiriform mace-head was embellished tuberances. The commonest vessels are therefore of quite simple forms whose manufacture does not presuppose any long established ceramic tradition . 580). -J. we have 134 a form superior to . too thin in fact to The be of much often porous owing to the low practical use and temperature at which a FIG. Yet the vessels are so regular that many authorities believe that the wheel or at least the tournette was used in their manufacture. Susa I. it was fired. pottery of Susa available for study is exclusively funerary ware as the excavators did not take the trouble to bring back one single sherd from the contemporary The sepulchral pottery 7 was marvellously settlement. in the spouted vase. and a small goblet on a stem. 58^).
most effectively combined with figures of animals all and plants elaborated and stylized with a view to with outspread wings. equids. The geometrical patterns. sheep. depicting hnman figures. eagles verisimilitude completely subordinated to the whole Dr. is 135 . Frankfort has shown that some of the shapes might be based upon leather models. are including chequers. Maltese crosses. wild goats. Aquatic birds. but all are so rendered that decorative effect. Frankfort calls this treatment decorative scheme. is a good deal of the funerary vases are ornamented with designs executed in a dull black paint. dogs. 59. but others are unmistakably inspired by basketry as decoration. ibex. steps.FIRST PREDILUVIAN CULTURE anything produced in Egypt in predynastic times. swastikas. Dr. and even men or quivers are depicted. The FIG. Sherds from Susa I.
The domestic stantially from ornamentation it agrees so strikingly with and technique the sherds collected not only on Mesopotamian sites from Bushire to Samarra but also far to the east at Seistan that pottery from al 'Ubaid differs subthe funerary ware of Susa.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST 8 young and abstract. But no slip was applied nor is the use of the wheel attested. thought by pots from the cemetery. The fine ware in question was decorated as at Susa with patterns in a matt black paint. realistic repre- sentations do occur and perhaps belong learned to transform to a time before the artist had such into mere elements of a complex and gorgeous pattern. There is. The designs. a class of more practical vases by four vessels from the necropolis of Susa L These are made of a reddish clay but agree in form and decoration with the normal globular and keeled This red fabric. The finest been fired at such a high temperature that the the clay have often partly fosed. giving the sherds a greenish appearance. represented Dr. however. Frankfort 7 to be evidence of foreign influence at Susa. are almost exclusively 136 . however. but Pettier justly remarks that it would be possible to distinguish stages in the subordina- tion of naturalism to decorative effect . But in the uniformity to the of ceramic tradition from the Euphrates fabric has silicates in Helmund is unquestionable. certainly has analogies with sherds found on more northerly sites of the First Culture as far away as Erivain and Mohammadabad and perhaps will in the last resort prove to be connected with a series of Indian wares.
others agreeing technically with the painted ware but decorated with a comb drawn over the surface of the moist clay to leave a ribbon of parallel furrows. In addition to the fine painted ware. Susa I. and a vessel stability. though there are a few Isolated representations of natural objects. a sort like a modern sauce-boat from al 'Ubaid (Plate XV). Square vase of alabaster. final result time a certain number of the motives seem to be the of that process of stylization that had been at work at Susa and either recur there or at some mounds to the north-west near later Musyan where we seem to have a and more conventionalized edition of the Susian art. al 'Ubaid has yielded other contemporary fabrics.FIRST PREDILUVIAN CULTURE geometric. often carinated and provided with broad FIG. 60. The commonest shapes as known in Mesopotamia are open dishes. 137 . small keeled pots with a sloping shoulder from which rise four lugs and spouted jugs. after de Morgan. bowls with ring-stands to give them of beaker from Samarra. some fired in a smoky furnace. at most of the At the same sites that have yielded this pottery at all. bevelled rims. always highly stylized.
indeed the profile is to be seen on some alabaster dishes from Susa belonging to the Second Period. Besides clay. But at al 'Ubaid a hemispherical bowl of diorite with flattened base was dug up in a prediluvian grave. FIG. particularly in Seistan. From Susa. Bitumen was also 138 . was a curious little trumpet-shaped receptacle for face-paints termed by the French a cornet (Fig 61). Hall like copies of stone vessels .THE MOST ANCIENT EAST In these fabrics we meet new with true handles forms. Stone receptacle for paint in the form of a cornet after de Morgan. 60) said to come from the cemetery. apart from one square-mouthed vessel of alabaster the only type (Fig. stone was employed for the manufacture of vessels both in Elam and Southern Babylonia and probably at other sites. in particular cups apparently the earliest dated examples of such a device. 61. while many of same the carinated dishes with their bevelled rims look to Dr.
and were kept apart by flat spacerbeads of vitreous paste. 139 . limestone. at Susa. Bead seal. 62. An important type found at the same site is a spirally fluted bead of white paste. FIG. and white paste beads. Strings lapis. together with fish-vertebrae.9 At the latter site rings The person was of shell were worn on the fingers. Feathers were worn in the hair which was allowed to grow long (Fig. a pair of rather similar objects made of grey limestone were found in a grave at Susa. From the same site come numerous little nails of obsidian or rock-crystal that were probably used as nose plugs . 59). At Susa the strings were sometimes double. toilet the ladies of Susa were provided with substantial copper mirrors. Plugs in the shape of little cylinders with concave sides as at Badari were apparently worn in the lips at al 'Ubaid.FIRST PREDILUVIAN CULTURE used for the manufacture of vases. shell. To assist them in their painted with various colours. necropolis of Susa I. of carnelian. particularly cornets. rock-crystal. were hung round the neck.
they represent a later stage of that culture than that represented in Susa I.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST two almost hemispherical beads. The culture there revealed and evidently native to the highlands appears as the parent of the oldest in civilization The of the Tigris-Euphrates plains. Susa yielded ! while the Mesopotamian sites belong to the same complex as the Elamite. It seems that the First Prediluvian civilization reached the plains of Babylonia at a later stage of its evolution than that represented Elam. On the other hand. existence. as cannot be effected by the Under existing conditions tracts of horrible desert where the habitable areas are separated by wide its rise would be inconceivable. given restricted but easily interconnected habitable areas the colonization of vast regions by early agriculturalists is quite comprehensible. of a culture characterized by dose agreements in a craft so domestic as that of the potter cannot be explained by any common-place formula. And that impression is confirmed by the fact that both at al 'Ubaid and on there are points of contact with the group of remains that at Susa appear in the ruins of the second the Helmund city that overlies the first. Any 140 . with a perforation parallel to the flat face which is engraved with a rough animal figure (Fig. These are the oldest known seals From the foregoing analysis it would seem that Finally. 62). It implies such a synthesis of contraries continuity and dispersion " blessed word trade ". spread over the huge area between the Euphrates and the Indus.
The same people were apparently the first to devise inventions that that convenient method of identification of course also of consecration and at by stamping on a first soft material the image of the owner's animal patron or ancestor. evidently maintained con- tinuous interconnection. that are The world of villagers which thus arose. for And they may claim credit have revolutionized human life. obsidian. often on sites now utter desert. the same time nomads from the grasslands to the north and south would be likely to contribute fresh contingents to the young communities in prosperous centres. And each new colony of farmers would in its turn become a centre whither artisans would At congregate and whence new colonies must be sent out.FIRST PREDILUVIAN CULTURE community taking conditions or first to agriculture under favourable at once multiply rapidly. 10 notably the discovery of metallurgy in the true sense. in a environment is a surplus that must and and Indian deserts seem alluvial basins The valleys between the Arabian in fact to have encouraged the multiplication of communities by a slow process of budding off. a device that has been used universally in of a signature till writing became a generally familiar art. and lapis lazuli are lieu 141 . but the immediate result of sedentary of life congenial overflow. finding such for its application would In the long run no doubt the population would adjust itself to the means subsistence. Bitumen.
Perry. Dr. north. in this sense primitive but is on the contrary already But his arguments do not necessarily mean zone ready-made. just taking to agriculture as incipient desiccation diminished The exquisite but useless Susian the supplies of game. would like to reverse the process and derive the culture of Susa I from the Nile valley. incipient desiccation would ensure its propagation to adjoining regions. And given a higher culture on the plateau. for funerary purposes. Struck by certain similarities between the Second Predynastic and the First Prediluvian cultures he contends that colonists from out Egypt had sought 142 . He sees in Susa I the first settlement of a tribe of hunters. Mr. lazuli in their settlements as far away as Baluchistan. east. vases would be the first efforts of potters forced to find. though we have no traces of pre-neolithic man. and west. crisis that the culture in question was brought to the highland On the contrary at the moment of succeeding the full pluvial epoch conditions would have been propitious for the beginnings of agriculture and the domestication of animals. The appropriate plants and animals were certainly available and. substitutes for the vessels made not from skins that had been hitherto employed. no serious search has yet been made. and the traffic substances must have been at one time conducted by In fact we find lapis the people under discussion. Pettier 6 I is has indeed shown that the civilization of Susa mature. Frankfort 7 would go much further. 11 on the other hand.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST in these products of the highland zone. M.
FIRST PREDILUVIAN CULTURE
the Iranian plateau and settled there to
approximate synchronism between the Second Predynastic culture and the First Prediluvian is indeed
And some relation between the two is beyond dispute; common to both are the pear-
shaped mace, spouted jugs, needles, flat celts of copper, dark-on-light ceramic decoration, as well as the use of
But some of these elements, for obsidian and lapis. instance the spouted jugs and of course the obsidian
look like foreign intruders in Egypt, whereas are at home in the domain of the Asiatic Prethey diluvian culture whose frontiers had extended at least into
Accordingly a better case could be made out Syria. for treating Susa as the parent of the Egyptian Second
Culture than for the contrary relationship postulated by Perry ; the only objects at Susa for which an Egyptian
might plausibly be claimed are the paste beads, from any predynastic Egyptian In other respects Susa seems specimens known to me. to be ahead of Egypt.
the cultivation of cereals, the polishing
of stone for axes, pressure-flaking in the manufacture of arrow-heads, the arts of the potter and the weaver,
the use of stone beads and other more or less significant common traits do challenge us to find a point of contact
between the oldest
of Susa and Egypt
anterior to the relations between mature cultures dis-
Middle Predynastic times 143
THE MOST ANCIENT EAST
view of the apparent southern affinities of the Badarian civilization in Egypt such a point must lie to the south. The late Professor Ramsay would find it on the bottom
of the Persian Gulf that would have been dry land during the ice-age and only flooded at the time of that general
transgression of the sea which produced the 25 foot Such a hypothesis is not only a beach in Scotland.
confession of ignorance but in effect a denial of the
Very tempting are the speculations of Dr. Christian The former and Professor Menghin of Vienna. 12 claims to find linguistic and ethnographic evidence
a stratum of
garden-culture practising peoples, acquainted with navigation, both in India, Elam, and These would have been the inaugurators the Sudan.
negroid) not un-
That at once of agriculture in Hither Asia and Egypt. calls to mind the affinities exhibited by the Badarian
skeletons to the primitive races of India. Menghin reminds us of those broken fragments from a chain of
Lower Palaeolithic traditions, detected
both in Somaliland and India.
by hand-axes that might easily be taken as the ancestors of the hoes of al 'Ubaid and Susa. And in the same
Kenya colony the oldest yet known pottery has to light. One can well imagine that as climatic zones shifted northward with the melting of the
of hand-axes too might travel towards the Lower Nile and the Iranian plateau. But such a
glaciers, the users
FIRST PREDILUVIAN CULTURE
the adherents of Lower Palaeolithic
planted grain and tamed
moment hardly even a legitimate inference. on rather more solid ground when we refer
from the hypothetical culture of that southern whose domain once embraced Egypt, steppe Mesopotamia, and Western India. Such a survival might perhaps be seen in the feathered head-dress worn In Mesopotamia it is more obvious in the at Susa. zoned decoration of the beaker from Samarra. That is certainly sprung from the same family of grass baskets as the Badarian beakers and their later Spanish relatives. But the differences in this case suggest independent
translation into established ceramic groups. The prediluvian culture before it first meets us has already
possesses a mentality oldest artistic products quite different expressed in its from that evinced in Africa.
become highly individualized and
OF WRITING AND THE HARNESSING OF
ANIMAL MOTIVE POWER
the time of the Second Prediluvian civilization
find that the dwellers in
Mesopotamia and Elam have
learned the lessons sternly taught by their environment. The overflowing highland folk who had colonized the
put their dwellings beyond the reach of flood. They have built them sacred cities raised above the swamps on platforms of brickto
work. They have submitted to the temporal guidance of rulers whose palaces crown the citadels. They have
extended those trade relations essential to existence
on an alluvial plain till they exchange goods with Anatolia and Egypt. For the conduct of their business they have devised a script and have applied the seal to the
a rudimentary form at least, those legal premeans, scriptions and financial conventions that gave rise in classical Babylonian practice to the contract and the
They have harnessed
the strength of bulls and asses. For its application have the invented chariot and the wagon. they
marks an era
SECOND PREDILUVIAN CIVILIZATION
domain at Jemdet Nasr * we find the oldest written documents to which an approximate The script in which they are date can be assigned. drawn up, although its characters are still pictographic, is the direct ancestor of that which was used thenceforth for
nearly three thousand years as the
and diplomatic correspondence throughout the ancient It was, moreover, already used for accounts east. and business documents, not merely for the transcription of personal names or the commemoration of kingly
seal-impressions implying something of the legal system so well known from documents of the third millennium
and yet so surprisingly modern.
At Kish 2 the Oxford-
Expedition has recently unearthed tombs that contain as far as we can judge the oldest known wheeled
known of the by man of any source of energy beyond human
be the use of
on Predynastic boats,
cognate invention was that of the potters' wheel.
time, as counterparts to the many indications of Babylonian influence in Egypt noted in, a previous
Mesopotamia and Elam maceheads and ape-statuettes of Egyptian form and glazeware possibly imported from the Nile valley. Unfortunately the culture of which so much may be
is still a On the one hand, very vague entity. seems to grow out of the First Prediluvian culture yet it is distinguished therefrom by features, especially
THE MOST ANCIENT EAST
the pottery, that seem to belong to a distinct tradition, a new ethnic element. On the other hand, the Second civilization overlaps both with the First Prediluvian
in the dynastic Sumerian civilization as represented and First Second oldest tombs at Ur. Only at Susa are the civilizations contrasted at the same site and separated
And even at Susa, thanks stratigraphically in time. to the obscurities of the excavators' reports, the relation
of the Second culture to
predecessor on the one hand,
the earliest historical culture of Babylonia on
very far from clear. read in one place that over the ruins of Susa
the excavators found a sterile stratum, suggesting to Dr. Frankfort a desertion of the site. But the sterile
most probably really the debris of the platform upon which the Second City proper was erected. Then
level many characteristic second prehistoric traits of the Second civilization, such as polychrome painted in the
though it is above
alabaster vases are very poorly 4 represented, its main outlines are already discernible. And
this layer that the sterile
levels which first superimposed " " in its classical form the Susa II culture
stratum intervenes. "
are already confronted with
to the ordinary protohistoric or pre-Sargonic
may be regarded as an outpost of a great cultural province whose remains are also
Sumer proper. the Second is distinguished from the First by certain features which can hardly be regarded culture is as the simple result of direct evolution in either of the regions where the First well known Elam and Sumer but which in fact suggest a break with local traditions* These points of contrast can be better discussed when the main outlines of the culture 7 are known. and Susa II also built rested on a similar substructure. Jemdet Nasr was that raised the city several on a platform of mud-brick above the marsh.SECOND PREDILUVIAN CIVILIZATION found further to the north-west in the cemeteries of Tepeh Khazineh and Tepeh Aly Abad near Musyan on the upper Kerkha 5 and then in Mesopotamia at Kish and Jemdet Nasr. the Second Civilization is apparently lacking save for a couple of vases from al 'Ubaid and one or two more stations as Nor is it characteristically from Shuruppak (Fara). private houses built At the former site They were convex as of and a palace were unearthed. at al 'Ubaid and These were not planoall pre-Sargonic Sumerian 149 . in North Syria. 15 miles to the north-west. Ceramic remains similar to those from the sites just mentioned allow us to assign to the same province remote as Rhagae and Nihavend in Western Carchemish and perhaps even Sakje Geuzi and Persia In Southern Babylonia. sun-dried bricks supplemented in with true kiln-fired bricks. 6 culture Besides the discordance in distribution. represented on the Iranian plateau east of the Kerkha and even in Western Persia only in a belated variant.
The industrial division of labour is disclosed in the variety and excellence of commodities lapis. riticum was being grown as a find shows. The palace itself was a monumental 2 complex of rooms covering an area of 92 by 48 m. Jemdet Nasr and Kish commerce facilitated by written records and accounts. rock-crystal. But obviously these cities were much more than communities of farmers. alabaster. Only industry and commerce fisherman. such as formed the regular vehicle for all contracts and ores. and was At least at The correspondence in Babylonia throughout historical times. conclusive evidence of the use of the line was still from Jemdet Nasr active and the first could nourish the large aggregations of people suggested by the size of the ruins and the monumental character of the buildings. building timber.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST 3 buildings but parallelepipeds 20 by 8-5 by 8 cm. by the impression of stamp or cylinder seals just as in 150 . is supplied by two copper fish-hooks from Jemdet Nasr (Fig. *vulgare^ And now The ordinary bread wheat. 65). and sheep and swine grazed thereon. too. The documents were inscribed on biscuit-shaped clay tablets. are the direct ancestors of those . manufactured and trade by the importation of agate. used by the oldest Sumerians but they were still pictographs only slightly conventionalized though some signs seem already to have acquired a conventional The documents were authenticated phonetic value. and approached by a staircase. Fields in the vicinity supplied the citizens with cereals. or 3 23 by 9 by 6-5 cm. too. characters. felspar.
seals bear instead and theriomorphic seals. of animal figures com- plicated geometric motives (Fig. In the lower levels of Susa II no such written documents have been recorded. and curiously later Elamite hieroglyphic script seems quite the enough Yet the different from that current at Jemdet Nasr. 64) that are extremely common at Susa often approximate closely to the shekel . Susa II. 63). 63. sometimes made of The button clay.SECOND PREDILUVIAN CIVILIZATION historical times. The seals in animal form (Fig. J. exclusively stamp seals which can be paralleled at Jemdet Nasr. They include besides the hemispherical bead seal already appearing under the first culture. seal and later of cylinder were II Apparently the lowest levels of Susa yielded FIG. same types of stamp found at both sites. button seals. Button seals.
Besides flat and axe-heads Jemdet Nasr has yielded the oldest known copper is hole axe al fish-hooks (Fig. But everywhere copper was regularly used chisels for tools and weapons. both implements in precisely the same form as at al 'Ubaid. 64. model as at But the tombs round Musyan and a late Susa 8 have yielded a type with a tubular hoard found 152 . Even Stone implements were found at most sites. Theriomorphis seal or weight. and chert II hoes current Susa were still in clay sickles GJL FIG.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST or some multiple thereof when weighed even in their present imperfect condition . represented there only by a clay at The shaft- 'Ubaid. of weights and measures goes back in part at least to the Second Prediluvian age. Susa II. they may therefore have served as weights as well as for the authentication of Hence the classical Babylonian system documents. J at Jemdet Nasr. 65).
As to the weapons the mace generally has a pear2 shaped head but sometimes the head is disc-shaped as in arrows had The the First Predynastic culture of Egypt. In these cases the shaft-hole has been late Susa hoard which the shaft-hole is formed by bending the butt of the implement back so as to itself form a Presumably the butt upon loop. The adzes sometimes had rounded butts as in protodynastic Egypt (Fig. 66. 2). Fig. and the projecting end then folded over round the shaft. was inserted at right angles into a split wooden shaft cast but there are specimens from the of a much more primitive type in FIG. while the hoe-like type with the blade at right angles to the shaft is illustrated in the Susa hoard of Sargonic age. flint or copper heads and reed shafts into the fitted little 5 since copper forks there was a danger of the reed splitting if a notch for the ends of which were .SECOND PREDILUVIAN CIVILIZATION shaft-socket for the shaft and a narrow sloping blade. 665 10. Copper fish-hook. Jemdet Nasr. f. 65.
spear-heads The Susa hoard were not socketed but had pokercontained model daggers with elongated leaf-shaped blades . The butts. however. J. which. arrow butt and axe. 66. the hilt overlapped the blade projecting to form rudimentary guards from which the shoulders sloped back steeply to a flat grip with parallel sides. Copper pin. types body " " being convex and the neck slightly concave and deep bowls with long open spouts projecting from the rim and even strainers perforated with fine holes.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST string were made in the base of the shaft (Fig. being in fact Sargonic in age. FIG. spear head. cemeteries round Musyan. Copper was certainly in use for vessels and a number of these have been preserved in the Susa hoard. ring. But stone vessels were really more distinctive of the } 154 . 66. 9). belongs to a later date than the other types here described. celt needle tubes. arrow-heads. The there illustrated include carinated the bowls.
I Q I i i .
The animal vases that The are very abundant at Susa represent ducks. pigs. 1 keel and almost cylindrical jars with bevelled rims recall from the Susa hoard. Yet some of the shapes. levels at Susa II 4 as also at Jemdet Nasr the cups and 155 . are little twin vases (Fig. however. dishes with a wide bevelled rim and slight particularly culture. like Egyptian forms. The most distinctive forms. in alabaster. 68). toads. and unrecognizable animals pottery of the period in is is The (Fig. 67) and theriomorphs FIG. are reminiscent of the products of the First Prediluvian civilization. Twin vases of alabaster from Susa II. 67.SECOND PREDILUVIAN CIVILIZATION Porphyry. Others. but even in the coarser is unpainted wares technical progress attested by the In particular in the very earliest (transitional) forms. apes. J. twin vases recall the compartment bowls of protodynastic Egypt. granite and above all alabaster The alabaster were employed in their manufacture. is said to be a local stone. of the vases are painted. superior to that of the previous epoch and the surface that most vases are wheel-turned Some frequently coated with a fine slip. the flattened hemispherical bowls and square-mouthed vessels.
. accentuated by a ridge. however. of the domestic pottery is of course quite plain. the shoulder is generally angular and . that serve Much 156 .THE MOST ANCIENT EAST that often jugs were equipped with genuine handles These are the oldest rise above the rim of the vessel. at al 'Ubaid and specimens of handled vessels except remain isolated. the necks are cylindrical. vessel stability Spouts have been inherited from the previous epoch but are much more common. 68. The distinction is between the various is members of the vessel well attached at the base where a ring. Finally the best wares were painted. maturity is shown by foot structural features. and sometimes decorated with a plastic ring . since in later periods the handle was not in vogue. These. the rim is bevelled and everted. to necessary give the marked FIG. Theriomorphic vases of alabaster from Susa II. In all wares. set squarely on the shoulder. Other coarse vessels were decorated with plastic mouldings quite often representing serpents or even human busts.
all above the more realistic treatment of such natural objects as FIG. J. chains of lozenges. and double-axe to all figures. nevertheless differ very materially in points of detail from site to site. Store jar painted in red and bkck from Tepeh Aly Abad. pattern. 69. are represented. a metopic arrangement of the designs and the general use of hatched triangles. is A zoomorphic common groups a deer with reverted 157 . Common to all regions is the use of red in addition to black paint.SECOND PREDILUVIAN CIVILIZATION to define the culture.
In Elam the vase-surface is normally matt . At Jemdet Nasr such paratively naturalistic patterns are com- rare and rectilinear motives is In many cases the whole surface predominate. Geometrical curvilinear patterns are also found at the latter site. indeed in a large class of Susian vases. The zoomorphic themes include rows of fishes and beasts as on the oldest cylinder-seals. the The guilloche for example and concentric semicircles. covered with a red wash and only a panel is reserved to receive the hatched But the red surfaces are normally black patterns. The Musyan vases figure rayed semicircles that suggesting the rising sun. and this motive recurs on archaic asphalt reliefs from Susa II. the bird with outstretched wings grasping his prey in his talons. a motive that can be traced through later sculptures right into the Scythian art of Europe. ' enumerated as common to the 158 . Bowls and flasks with spouts. framed 'with black lines. forms include notably great store jars with bowl-shaped lids and some fancy shapes such as triple bowls in addition to the types already whole culture. small biconical jars with steeply sloping shoulders on which stand lugs are the commonest shapes. the red is often badly fixed and plays only a secondary r6le .THE MOST ANCIENT EAST head. the' hero dompting lions and other themes reappear in Babylonian art from archaic times onwards. The vessels are often polished. polychromy has been altogether abandoned. thought by Frankfort to be later than the rest.
w a. .
Several of the forms belonging to the First certainly for instance the spouted jar. Continuity cannot. Store jar painted in red and black from Tepeh My Abad. Besides pottery. J-. bitumen. be admitted LnY I r& lA& tHi mm FIG. while a vase in the shape of a pig Nasr is said to be in the same material. survive into the Second the ovoid vase and the carinated pot with shoulder lugs. however. and metal vessels there are a few examples of glaze-ware.SECOND PREDILUVIAN CIVILIZATION Second Prediluvian pottery and in particular of the Second Style at Susa to that of the previous period has been the subject of much debate. in view of the very different treatment of the themes in the two groups. stone. One jar in this material was included in the Susa hoard already mentioned. near Musyan. from Jemdet the water- The chariots miraculously preserved in 159 . 70. many zoomorphic subjects are common to both groups. relation of this The Moreover.
The vehicles were provided logged soil of Kish 2 These are with one or two pairs of wooden wheels. The dress of the to the absence of figure. Probably the two-wheeled cars would look exactly like that illustrated in Plate XVIILz. owing competent representations of the human unknown. 9 But . while models of four-wheeled wagons from Kish illustrate an alternative type. may be interpreted clay and sometimes painted.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST give us a quite unexpected glimpse into the art of the carpenter. 5 The former type must have been used to in the shaft fasten a sort of cloak. perforated a -ihe centre which are generaRj^Vermed spindle-whorls. As implements of the weavers discs. and other pins were provided with a globular bead of lapis lazuli to serve as a head. The wheels apparently draft animals turned with the axle. The were oxen or asses which pulled in pairs harnessed on either side of a pole on which was mounted an ornamental ring for holding the reins. is still 1( Second Prediluvian people. Those current at Susa II agree exactly with the stone mace-heads of predynastic that m^rm E^yot and the painted limestine implements of the same form appear in protodynastic deposits there. 5 But toggle-pins with an eyelet already were worn. Simple burial in the earth of contracted skeletons still as hi the previous epoch was practised also in the Second the newly discovered Prediluvian period as of Susa II under the cemetery Apadana seems 160 to show. described as solid and were fastened to the copper-cased felloes by large copper nails.
Examples have long been known ^^'^-7 ^' ^^V . Brick tombs from the necropolis of Tepeh Aly Abad near Musyan. .SECOND PREDILUVIAN CIVILIZATION more this elaborate time in and almost monumental tombs were by use. 71. J ^ FIG. the sepulchres at from the vicinity of Musyan 6 Kish excavated in 1928 were just enclosed by low M 161 .
71). 2 though one tomb even at that rural site measured as much as 5 by I m. Here in effect of the Babylonia was given to the full implications of the philosophy 162 . 2 The roofs were often barrel-shaped or ogival vaults formed by the junction of overlapping courses of bricks each projecting inwards a little further than the one below on the principle of corbelling (Fig. and ornaments and the provision of food and drink offerings. charioteers had been life slain to accompany their masters had the oxen or asses that drew his car. Two or more skeletons were occaAt Kish attendants and sionally found together.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST brick walls but not roofed over. of human revival of the extremely ancient practice sacrifice in the first tombs that make the least The pretension to be subterranean reproductions house of the living is significant. corpses are described as partially consumed by fires. kindled apparently in the tomb. This savage practice had been abandoned without leaving a trace by the time when Sumerian literature to the future as Yet it is only the natural and logical of those corrolary eschatological ideas that prompted the deposition in the tomb of the deceased's weapons commences. The tomb was now a small subterranean house of brick-work resting in some cases on a stone foundation. The plan of the chamber was rectangular and its area at Tepeh Aly Abad seldom exceeded 2 by r j'o m. while in other cases the bodies were interred in the At Musyan some extended position.
SECOND PREDILUVIAN CIVILIZATION embodied brutality. however. While the principles of decorative composition and a few individual themes have been as inherited from the previous epoch. alabaster From and the same levels lapis come very remarkable statuettes of apes that resemble the Late Predynastic Egyptian representations in every respect. That site statuettes earlier has none the less yielded miniature alabaster of a female figure safely assignable to the phases of the Second City. The date of the specimens from Susais. The aim of the vase- 163 . Prediluvian art of the second phase is illustrated by the above-mentioned statuettes from Susa as well by the archaic glyptic and the theriomorphic vessels and the paintings on the clay vases. Other evidence of the religious ideas of the Second in Predynastic civilization are perhaps to figurines of a female personage that be found in the were modelled clay or formed mould. in such a tomb without any mitigation of its The tombs thus distinguished have therefore a good claim to be placed at the head of all the series of chamber-tombs that archaeologists have distinguished and tried to correlate. uncertain. lonian The by pressing the liquid clay into a negative figures no doubt represent the old Babysince identical models are Mother Goddess found as votives in the temples of the deities who in every city represented the local revelation of the primordial divinity. All these monuments illustrate diverse aspects of what is an essentially homogeneous group. 10 the art of the second period is essentially naturalistic.
7 however. deny altogether a break of the kind here assumed between the First and Second authorities. Dr. the Akkadian element in Babylonian civilization. Similar theriomorphic vases. Prediluvian culture would belong to a race. Frankfort has built up an ingenious theory The Second of the ethnic diversity of their authors. in the an element previous epoch he had used animals merely as in the decorative scheme. But a partial solution of continuity between the First 164 . The Second would be the natural outgrowth of the First. And both might be designated Sumerian since the tablets from Jemdet Nasr are 12 apparently Sumerian and have analogies in Sumer. Primarily on this contrast between the first and second of two great cultural styles of Susa as representatives groups. and twin-pots of stone. specialized North Syria who would have brought to Northern Babylonia and Elam this naturalistic tradition in art in together with the use of polychromy. and the theriomorphs and cylinders and compartment-vases might conveniently have reached Egypt in predynastic times from the same North Syrian focus from which they were brought to Elam. would be Semitic. in Palestine from a northern source. naturalistic pottery appears.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST painter in depicting animals was verisimilitude . Other 11 Prediluvian cultures. cylinder-seals. though admittedly at a later date. This race from the northwest that brought the Second Prediluvian culture to Northern Babylonia to the exclusion of Sumer proper.
and the disc-shaped mace from Jemdet Nasr is certainly an Egyptian type. At the same time the genesis of the Second culture involved a direct or indirect interchange of ideas with other civilized peoples.SECOND PREDILUVIAN CIVILIZATION and Second cultures. a cultural standpoint at any rate the Second Prediluvian culture is really rooted in the First as specialized in Babylonia. tion that supplied their successors with obsidian. indeed. at Susa at least. The glaze ware from Susa. are endorsed with seals tablets bearing human figures and lions while no such seals were actually found at the site. At the same time the Second culture at Susa seems if not certainly quite definitely continuous with the proto-Elamite which. lapis. the script there used is no doubt the immediate ancestor of the oldest Sumerian And curiously enough the writing. Egypt has as good a claim as any country to be the cradle of the theriomorph. the men of the First culture must have opened up the ways of communicametal. but that is all. the ape-statuettes and even the 165 . seems undeniable. was neither Sumerian nor Semitic. Elamite. the spouted jar. Relations with Egypt are implied by the theriomorphic vases and compartment bowls and need by no means have been exclusively one-sided . The perhaps Subaraean. From From thence it derived the of all its arts and even such concrete devices basic principles as the shaft- hole axe. the stamp-seal . possibility must therefore be borne in mind that the Second Prediluvian culture belonged to a third element. Nor is it yet certain that the language of the Jemdet Nasr tablets is truly Sumerian .
The new realism may be inspired a by fresh draft upon that reservoir of hunters who still inhabited the grasslands and whose distant kinsmen for the naturalistic paintings and of North Africa and South-East Spain. But the change in the art so clearly mirrored in the Susian vases may in truth be due to the infusion of a ethnic element. purely hypothetical centre of higher civilization far away in North Syria where only belated monuments attest man's emancipation from barbarism. The plastic decoration and the high-handles on the other hand that appear only to vanish again in the lowest levels of Susa II and at Jemdet Nasr are at home in a different region. even in Europe of clay stamps reproducing the forms of the button seal and motives peculiar to the oldest of such alabaster or Babylonia implies relations going back to the Second Prediluvian period. seals in Elam This dual set of contacts therefore confirms Frankfort's views in so far as the specialization of the Second Civilization out of the First must have taken place in Northern Mesopotamia rather than in Sumer and in the valley of the Euphrates rather than on the highlands of Persia That does not oblige us to postulate a or in Elam.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST from which they and many vases are made may all have come from the same quarter. namely Anatolia and its maritime The appearance at a later date in Troy and extensions. The solution of the racial problem and even a just new were responsible 166 . And engravings such hunters might indeed have spoken a Semitic tongue.
The earliest cemetery at Ur. One point at any rate may be asserted : Oriental civilization was now. as we they. an organic unity. not scribes have yet been reached from Umma of Kish. contain chariots Writing. including the royal tombs which by their furniture and ritual recall those later as and Ur show. too. But even if it be thought at necessary to invoke the infusion of such a new ethnic element to explain the polychrome pottery. They may still be due to the Sumerians even if it should be proved that the men who employed them at Kish were Semites or Subarseans or proto-Elamites or at least mingled with such outsiders. can in point of fact be latter. the sole credit for the great inventions of the Second The same pictographic writing as Prediluvian age. wheeled vehicles. therio- morphic vases and seals. seem all purely Mesopotamian.SECOND PREDILUVIAN CIVILIZATION appreciation of the degree of cultural originality to be assigned to the Second Prediluvian Babylonians are seriously complicated by the uncertainty reigning as to the chronological relations of the earliest levels Susa II and Kish to the oldest group of remains just brought to light in Sumer. compartment pots and other is there no reason to ascribe to the intruders innovations. little if at all than the shall see. was current at Jemdet Nasr was tablets in use in Southern Mesopotamia though the cities of its by excavations. Egyptians and Babylonians were no longer isolated communities who at best bartered their 167 . like European civilization to-day. the greatest And inventions just described.
is partly at least Second Prethe result of this fruitful dawn burst of splendour that heralds the of the historic period is no less due to the opening The intercourse along the Red Sea and as we shall see to the entry into the system of yet another centre of higher civilization.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST manufactures for the gleanings of barbarous Bedouins or sent out occasional expeditions to win copper in Sinai or the Taurus. Caravans were travelling across the deserts ships were sailing and up and down the Euphrates . between Syria and the Delta. whether commodities passed through the hands of one or ten alien intermediaries. The products of Babylonian . with commodities ideas passed from one civilization to another. the human response to the conditions of the one and inventions. up of new channels of 168 . in Late Predynastic The progress of in Egypt and of Babylonia diluvian times intercourse. India. It matters not whether a citizen of Memphis ever beheld one of our nameless Babylonians. the fabrics industry were being marketed on the Nile of Egypt were in use in Elam. the other to adapt or reject. were crystalized as concepts proffered to the inhabitants of land.
in a conflagration and was never the ruins of the First Prediluvian above But culture at al 'Ubaid and of the Second at Kish. First Dynasty Sumerian And at graves belonging to the age of the have been laid high up in the shafts Ur The latter must take us leading to yet older tombs. back to the middle of the IVth millennium and may well overlap with the Second Prediluvian graves of Kish. increased amenities of life 169 . and separated therefrom in each case by an artificial platform. The huge cities with their monumental institutions. these tombs are revealed as Sumerian by the same evidence from inscriptions and dress. The progress achieved by protohistoric civilization over the prediluvian is expressed not so much in revolutionary industrial inventions as in the stabilization of and a widened and horizon opened up by the extension regularization of foreign trade. but. like the protodynastic remains from Kish and 'Ubaid. And the al writing is already in advance of the pictographic script of the Jemdet Nasr texts. first stand the monumental buildings of the dynasts.CHAPTER VIII SUMERIAN CIVILIZATION AT THE END OF THE IVra MILLENNIUM JEMDET NASR perished rebuilt.
of bears and other exotic the antics heart of princes. and its security is preserved by a well-drilled The temples and palaces and well-equipped army. not just beads like the predynastic Egyptians. iron. cedar wood from Syria and glaze wares and even the sistrum from Egypt. tin. and Lagash of peculiarly Indian seals. and a game like back-gammon played on richly inlaid boards provides diversion. lapis. also metallic iron or at least made large they possessed tin and sometimes at least used an implements from meteoric innovations doubtless were. The complicated urban life is controlled by a regular heirarchy of princes. If the commerce with abundantly attested by the discovery at Kish. seals. in the round and tastemodels are adorned with life-size The music of harps soothes the ful friezes and inlays. But epoch-making though these it is the fine articles turned out 170 . dancing to its tune is a bear surely a native of 1 Armenia or Syria (Plate I). Ur. Commerce brings cornelian beads.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST from the temples and sumptuous palaces must result synoicism of smaller towns. In such a milieu inventions and discoveries might reasonably be expected. priests. and obsidian from the Iranian plateau and Armenia. beasts distract their leisure hours. Umma. and officials. The Sumerians had discovered alloy of tin and copper . stone for vases and doubtless cotton and apes from the Indus. intercourse with Egypt and the exchange of ideas as well as is India goods shell is no less dramatically demonstrated by an archaic And plaque depicting a jackal brandishing a sistrum.
skeletons x series The reveal a to the moderate stature and modern Arabs of the region. But at the latter site in Akkad one skull was "brachycephalic of Armenoid type. 1 the oldest human remains yet rescued from the saltimpregnated soil of Mesopotamia. the body solidly built and almost fat. the people buried in the graves. This type was alone represented in the First Dynasty cemetery of al 'Ubaid and predominated in the more or less contemporary graves of Kish. prognathous and more capacious than those from Upper Egypt. may have belonged to an older conquered 171 . and from a long of competently executed statues and engravings. though they spoke Sumerian or at least scratched Sumerian legends on their vases. the neck thick and massive. by the goldsmith and the engraver The Sumerians are known to us from their skeletons. * '* The impression produced by thef * archaic statues 2 is rather different. On the other hand it may be that the Sumerians. were in fact a small ruling caste . The early Sumeriainspeaking inhabitants of al 'Ubaid would accordingly " " Mediterranean race belong in a general way to the but the skulls are less dolichocephalic population. Perhaps this impression is due to the incompetence of the early sculptors. of light build approximating closely like the predynastic Egyptians. The head seenfs round rather than long.SUMERIAN CIVILIZATION that give a true idea of the high technical skill of the early Sumerians and the elaborated specialization of crafts that it implies. who are indubitably represented in the statues.
hardly seems likely since the Armenoid type is found at Kish in what was historically the Semitic part of Babylonia while in Sumer proper the population. ornamented with hanging loops. several racial types among the statues. was of wool. Priests. but the value of this evidence is open to question. was uniformly longChristian 3 claims to be able to recognize headed.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST stratum. That. As an infallible mark of the Sujnerian can only be admitted the tasseled skirt worn round the loins. perhaps Semitic as Buxton suggested. the class most often portrayed. naked in the performance of those religious ceremonies that form the subject of most representations. The tassels may appear it is in several rows forming regular flounces. as far as the existing material goes. wigs were worn. shaved the head. the differences in fashion seem to The dress of the Sumerians depend upon the rank of the person portrayed and the age of the monument. but normally was covered by some loose garment worn like a plaid and fastened at the throat with a toggle pin. a practice attested from Early Preleaf skirt such as is The bust was left 172 . usually termed a kaunakes. or In some cases it is supposed that falling over the ears. is again quite distinctive. however. but doubtful whether the garment represented. manner of wearing the the in variations small though hair have been seized on as proofs of racial diversity* Actually. or a palm- worn in India and the Pacific to-day. but the laity frequently wore the hair long and done up in a bun at the back of the head. however.
I i I U. O 3 s .
the male milkers apparently blowing up the vulva of the animal. All these fashions are illustrated on the mosaic depicting a banquet recently discovered at Ur. 4 malachite was used for the purpose. and a blue paint of undeter- mined composition.SUMERIAN CIVILIZATION dynastic times in Egypt. industry and trade were highly specialized. kohl (antimony sulphide). but the moustache was generally shaved. 173 . which were invested with a sacred value and fondly depicted upon the walls of temples and palaces. The person was painted as in Egypt. it would 9 seem. The wheel-made pots are regular factory The incomparable skill of the metallurgists. pomegranites were cultivated in the gardens. even long-horned antelopes. judging from an archaic engraving found at Nippur. but the townsmen loved the simple occupations of the husbandman and farmer. Some early Sumerians wore a chin beard and others whiskers too. Gold models of the fruit and of ears of grain were among the precious jewels of royalties. harnessed to the plough. besides oxen and to the The antelope may even have been goats were tamed. Sheep with perverted horns directed nape of the neck as in the typical mouflon. Besides wheat and barley. asses derived from the wild species of the vicinity and. together with red iron oxide. products. a practice paralleled among other primitives to-day (Plate XVII). These Sumerians dwelt in real cities. But naturally Celtainly dates were cultivated. and many were clean-shaven. The scenes show that cows 5 and goats 8 were milked from the rear.
And the Sumerian love for shell-work implies maritime connections. For inland trade wheeled vehicles were doubtless used. We have indeed chariots 7 of this date which are much like those from Kish already described. together regular schools of trained craftsmen. in labour and of a high degree specialization All this. engravers. notably with the Indus. But the Sumerians. that would travel easily over the alluvial mud and the loose sands in dry weather. required written documents. by sea. gem-cutters. and so we find that by the time of the First Dynasty of Ur and even in the allegedly older graves the old pictographs had been simplified into those unrecognizable forms that characterize the pre-Sargonic Most people carried seals which. resembling a sledge. Plate XX). if they were not actually mariners themselves. jewellers. leathertired and turning in one piece with the axle. at least were engraved with a peculiar device the reproduction of which upon a tablet would be the equivalent of a signature. 174 . whose structure is excellently illustrated by the c silver model from a royal tomb at Ur (Plate XVIII. The wheels were made of solid pieces of wood.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST bespeaks and sculptors carpenters. used in the the only boats preserved are river-barques as marshes to-day. There were also light vehicles on runners. None the less we have no indications of sea-going ships at this date . if they did not script. with *the foreign trade it entailed and the legal and governmental system that presided over all. bear the owner's name. must have conducted some of their trade.
UR [face p.PLATE XVIII a. BAS-RELIEF SHOWING CHARIOT. 174 . UR b. SILVER BOAT FROM ROYAL TOMB.
huts. in this case the material was available in the immediate vicinity. Sub- sequently stone was used in architecture almost exclusively for door-sockets. work of facades the monotony of the front was relieved by broad piers or buttresses. Brick was the principal material of the Sumerian The industrial products of this highly and the type now in general use was the planoconvex form characteristic of the pre-Sargonic period A permanent feature of all Mesopotamian in general.SUMERIAN CIVILIZATION complex system can only be briefly sketched. or by recesses retreating : have already seen that this correspondingly. of panelling might be inspired by the alternation system between the reed mats and the projecting palm-tree uprights that constituted the walls of the prediluvian Another survival of architecture in timber that. One of the royal tombs of Ur was built entirely of rough blocks of And the same valuable material. date from a later period. architecture. Kish boasted a regular portico of four brick columns. The retaining walls of the platform at al 'Ubaid rested on two courses of quarry-dressed limestone blocks that must have been transported for a distance of forty miles. were likewise of limestone . Stone. that may. however. now first attested. We however. the walls of Eridu. projecting one or two courses beyond the main face of the wall. was used to some extent. too. forming a corbelled vault. was the recessed brickarchitect. The most momentqus discovery of the 175 . was entirely discarded after the protohistoric The archaic palace at period was the use of pillars.
is and the type with a looped tang for handle to be regarded as Sumerian. at Of woodwork Ur discloses some articles of furniture. One of proto-Sumerian period was. The charioteers were armed with spears of two types. nothing more than the casts in the ground of the chariots and other constructions have The banqueting scene recently discovered survived. however. By this date too the "jaw-bone for sickle had been translated into metal. the other for in-fighting. the royal tombs at Ur was roofed with a vault constructed of a series of brick arches though the apse at the end was surmounted by corbelled work. apparently of basketry. As a new tool appears the bronze saw. one designed for throwing. The footmen 176 . houses in whose construction timber must have been of the protohistorical period were almost entirely of metal which had practically ousted stone in the urban centres. on an inlay recently discovered at Ur included both charioteers and infantry. The chisels were long and often with a pointed triangular butt.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST the arch. The implements the handle. These as illustrated The Sumerian army weapons were carried in a special receptacle. Some clay models of date unearthed at Assur seem to represent two storeyed freely used. It was equipped with a tang flat. and the serrated blade curved away " slightly from the base. in the front of the chariot. notably folding stools and thrones or couches with bulls' legs as in rather later protodynastic Egypt. The chariots were manned by a warrior and a driver.
Ur. Ur.SUMERIAN CIVILIZATION were divided into skirmishers armed with arrows and heavy pikemen who fought in the phalanx. the spear. FIG. Sumerian transverse axe. J. Sumerian single-bladed and double axes. protected by copper helmets and wore in addition to the kaunakes a cloak of some spotted material hung over both shoulders and fastened at the throat. 73. The weapons include the battle-axe. anticipating the Macedonians by three thousand years. the bow and arrows. the mace with pear-shaped head of stone. 72. and a curious smashing weapon resembling a boomerangN 177 . These were FIG.
724) were of course provided with a shaft-hole and include both the sloping and the transverse type already club armed with a copper blade. J. A. 74. The FIG. curious that the shaft-hole in some cases by folding the butt over into a loop (Fig. however. Sumerian axes. Kish. described. 740) and specimens of this primitive It is.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST axe-heads (Figs. still was formed 178 .
UR ? 178 . UR a. GOLDEN DAGGER WITH LAPIS HANDLE AND ITS SHEATH.PLATE XIX I GOLD TOILET SET AND CASE.
a with blades back mounted in scalloped segmental from wooden derived the curved shafts. prototypes evolved. 74<5). Cones of sheet copper perforated with rivet-holes butt-pieces (sauroters) of the pikes. blades it is in fact the oldest double-axe. covered with a carefully shaped ferrule. two. boomeranga sort formed of intermediate between the club. weapon . 75). axe and the sword (Fig. The hilt of wood or lapis lazuli was riveted to the tang by one. may represent the (Fig. This often overlapped the blade. The shoulders The daggers are square or steeply sloping. They constitute the from which the harfS was subsequently The armament. little the aid of a sling. The spearbutt fitted into a reed shaft which name poker-butted was frequently strengthened with a metal ferrule or Some of the throwing spears were hurled with casing. They are accordingly provided with forks of metal to serve as notches. or three rivets the junction of hilt and blade was sometimes . but never curved round it as in early 179 . 73) have flat ogival or long blades triangular strengthened with a midrib and extended by a tang projecting from the base. lanceolate spear was no less typical than the axe in Sumerian The majority of the actual specimens have or poker-shaped blades and rectangular tapering butts (whence the head) (Fig. now first time has two axe that for the of appears type A Fourthly.SUMERIAN CIVILIZATION variety were found side by side with highly finished third examples provided with a cast tube for the shaft.
never a of blade FIG. For sharpening the dagger warriors carried whetstones suspended from the belt by a ring passing through a perforation at one end. i. and poker-butted spear-head. Sumerian dagger blades.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST Egyptian specimens. 75. 180 . Ur. Kisk A. so that the meeting-point and hilt formed a straight or even line convex. semicircular indentation (Plate XIX#).
PLATE XX STONE VASE CARVED WITH PROCESSION OF ANIMALS. ERECH CIRCULAR BAS-RELIEF SHOWING A HUNT IN THE MARSHES .
copper. . The bow 6 was probably composite . but the edge opposite the blade has been narrowed down tail. known in any case some bows were bound with were tipped with curved pieces of ends the and gold copper to which the string was attached. However. electrum. They look like metal versions of the type formed by setting a of a reed.SUMERIAN CIVILIZATION Royalties who were armed with golden daggers sharpened already of the variety them on as lapis whetstones. hard-burned. lapis lazuli. obsidian. of gold. the Sumerians alabaster. to replace the notch. sometimes most are tanged but some have barbed or four-sided tubular sockets formed by folding the beaten copper. These were based upon the trapeze. but technically of good quality. and ostrich-shell had ousted fine pottery from the tables of the wealthy while the friezes of animals painted on the prediluvian clay vases have been replaced by the processions carved in low relief on the stone vessels. The arrowheads were normally of metal and leaf-shaped. Sumerian pottery was a thorough factory product colour and turned on the wheel. drab in True handles do not 181 . The shafts were reeds often equipped with little metal prongs. like the spear-butts on a smaller into a sort of scale. The harpoons used in fishing were chisel-ended and single-barbed. one bunch of arrows from the tomb of Mes-kalam-dug at Ur had been tipped with chiselbladed heads of flint. flint lunate obliquely at the end vessels Among silver.
76. Kish A. 182 . after Mackay.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST B33 823 B13 FIG. T^-. Jars with anthropomorphic handles.
Kish A. 76). after Mackay. ^-. outer surface with the features of a human face (Fig. 183 . are and this other forms having Spouted jugs very common. 77. Clay basins or offering tables. but on some jars from Kish the rim of the neck is joined to the shoulder by a flat strip decorated on its B16 B33 815 620 I FIG.SUMERIAN CIVILIZATION occur.
al FIG. " " on a^high hollow pedestal. leaving often Sometimes the shallow basin in met protodynastic Egypt. the large table of offerings XCIV xcv XCVJ jars. 78. however. at the top is omitted " " a tubular stand such as we have altogether. Nevertheless there is 184 . T3^ perforated with triangular apertures (Fig. The most distinctive shape from the older tombs was. 77). Spouted 'Ubaid cemetery.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST been taken over from the prediluvian period.
The metal vessels supply the prototypes for many of vra xm FIG. T ^. the rims were occasionally strengthened by doubling over. In a few cases wire loops have been . and " wood or some other perishable material. Beakers.SUMERIAN CIVILIZATION evidence that these as the " Germans call " Opferstander them. al 'Ubaid cemetery. the forms reproduced in clay. 79. The bases were often a to form cupped ring stand. originally supported a basin of Herdst&nder ". spouts might be soldered or brazed on.
80. We may note among the shapes graceful tumblers resembling in outline those from Susa I. but jugs and cups were always handleless. Copper vessels. after Mackay. The metal vessels are often tastefully decorated with flutings radiating FIG. various spouted jugs. J. and offering tables exactly like the As a curiosity we clay ones described above.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST metal beads soldered on to passed through perforated the rims and the large copper cooking pots were provided with movable handles like modern cauldrons. Kish A. 186 . from the base that might be supplemented by engraved bands below the rim and simple patterns such as the rosette on the base.
For the toilet the Sumerians were indeed well provided. Lapis lazuli and obsidian were naturally reserved for royal persons. and a second hole is cut in the enlarged volute. 187 . far alabaster were commoner. Among the stone vases the greatest variety is observable both in material and shape. is In typologically late specimens the opening by cutting. but no petrographic examination has yet been made to confirm this hypothesis. and The steatite. At Shuruppak palettes of alabaster are mentioned. Ostrich shells were also used as vases and were sometimes decorated by a band of bitumen inlaid with lapis lazuli. resemblance that these cylindrical alabaster vases to protodynastic Egyptian types suggests 10 importations from the Nile valley. By the time of the First Dynasty in form and material of the may be of Ur at least the limestone vases were often carved with figures in low relief while even in the supposedly older tombs of Ur geometrical patterns are carved on the vase walls. And mother-of-pearl shells 6 served as lamps. first leaving a narrow strip which is shaped and engraved to represent the head and neck of a bird. in metal or alabaster. the vessel Cardium and cockle contain shells were regularly used to the face-paints X1 both at Ur and Kish. Calcite. The shell lamps were then copied being open all over.SUMERIAN CIVILIZATION may in cite a silver wine-skin from left Queen Shub-acTs grave legs which even the lugs by the have been faith- fully imitated.
" Cutters/' narrow FIG. The latter . seem to have served a similar 9 purpose. and tweezers were 188 also in use. Copper pins.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST The facial hair was removed with razors. 33. flat oval blades with a short tang rather like Fig. Kish A. copper strips with an edge at one end and turned over or rounded at the other. J. Si.
SUMERIAN CIVILIZATION were combined with prickers and earscoops in regular The three instruments were attached to a reticules. 3). Pins fastened the garments or adorned the hair. and Kish sometimes decorated with an engraved pattern that recurs on pins of the (Fig. Raquet pin. 82 is another type bull's head. on the principle of the knot-headed pin (Plate XIX). while by an 189 . 8 1. J. instrument. same family in Central Europe Less common are the pins with a stylized one surmounted from Ur is The ape unique. passes. Favourite types are the bead-headed variety attributed also to the Second Prediluvian culture and the toggleat pin in which the shaft is flattened round the eyelet. FIG. has been formed by hammering out the upper end of the implement into wire and then twisting this wire back The looped head through which the common ring of each upon itself and coiling it round the shaft in a word. 82. hairpin with raquet-shaped head shown in Fig. Ur. 6 ring and enclosed in a case. represented at Kish.
No less admirable are the amulets 190 . rosettes encircled by a hoop and groups of helical cones of gold wire soldered on to a The throat was encircled gold hoop (Plate coils XXI). 83. . The execution of these little and their mounting attests the consummate skill of the goldsmith. The arms were decked with bracelets and the fingers with rings. necklaces. flattened out to a boat-form (Plate XXII). simplest type. by strings of beads from which hung pendants and amulets. else the FIG. Among dandies of gold or patterns. but these ornaments were always of the that recurs in Central Europe .THE MOST ANCIENT EAST Woolley is no doubt right in suggesting that the tube formed by rolling over the head was designed to support two feathers. Kish A. The pendants include heart-shaped leaves. fillet decorated with or silver. and pendants illustrate better than anything supreme skill of the Sumerian goldsmiths and so give a welcome indication of the level of civilization attained. diadems. engraved punctured A was sometimes worn on the brow as a frontlet. the ends were magnified to an extravagant size. In the ears were hung helical rings the ends of which have generally been The ear-rings. Copper bracelets and ear-rings with flattened ends.
PLATE XXI a REIN RING AND MASCOT FROM QUEEN SHUB-AD S CHARIOT .
barrels and tabular or biconical faceted beads are the commonest types. of the head-dresses of the queens and harem beauties from the older tombs at Ur baffles description.SUMERIAN CIVILIZATION in the form of bulls (Plate XXII#). Lapis. birds sheep. though shell and various less valuable stones were used. the common citizen was normally interred in a simple trench grave in the flexed posture. cylinders. The excavator describes this ". deer. cornelian. and other animals. as wearing a false beard. and fayence (the latter substance not in the oldest cemeteries at Ur) were the commonest material for beads. particularly in what seem to be the earliest graves. 5 6 9 In some cases. but there are multitubular and other spacers. Woolley 6 states that the head had been consumed by a fire kindled apparently in the as grave " itself. some represented pecking at silver fruit. phenomenon partial cremation but Hall 10 questions whether the burning was deliberate. gadrooned globes and barrels (at Kish as in Protodynastic Egypt) and compounds for instance two axially gadrooned globulars united by a segmented tube. The Royal Tombs 7 discovered during the campaign of 1927-8 at Ur belong to a quite different world of 191 . fishes. gold and The splendour Turning to burial rites. long bicones. though sometimes he might be wrapped in matting or enclosed in a pottery coffin variations which apparently go back to the protodynastic cemeteries at Ur. Discs.
FIG. showing disposition of victims in P 789. Plan of two Royal Tombs at Ur. G 192 . 84.
PLATE XXII .
in Yet there is no textual evidence for such a belief Babylonia whereas there are documents implying that the boats were perhaps designed to carry away the o 193 . The ideas underground house were here.SUMERIAN CIVILIZATION ideas real . musicians. carried out with barbarian logic. ladies- and grooms lay in the shaft where Outside the tomb of a nameless they had been slain. 2 in shaft that evidently intended to be a The burial place was a huge is area associated with the and roofed with a corbelled vault. harpist. but drivers. attendants. the bodies of twelve women in court dress. fully armed. for the sepulchre underground house. royal dead had been conveyed to the tomb on chariots or sledges dressed in full insignia. and armed guards were obliged to follow their sovereigns to the future world. attested from the graves. Not only the draft animals. and grooms (Fig. courtiers. 84). 2 At might measure as much as 12 by 8 m. One consisted of three parallel chambers of undressed stone each measuring 5-90 by 2*50 m. to the other world is The Egyptian evoked by also idea of a voyage several seals from Kish. Old Kingdom onwards. while her in-waiting. In the King's grave was found further a silver boat. In the same chamber as the body of Queen Shub-ad lay the corpse of an attendant. and bitumen models of boats were deposited in later Naturally these discoveries suggest comparison with the* funerary boat of the Nile. of was built the bottom the underground dwelling brick or stone. as at Kish. ladies-in-waiting The and the women of the harem. king lay soldiers.
and evidence for the cult of another at Kish quite as early. The oldest concept in Sumerian theology was the Mother Goddess who under many names was worshipped in the several cities . we already have the temple of such a deity at al 'Ubaid under the First Dynasty of Ur. seems to be an on engraving from one of the very oldest depicted graves of Ur (Plate I). did the Nilotes . Sumerian art too was fully individualized by the time of the First Dynasty of Ur. even Gilgamesh peculiarly Sumerian hero. The characteristic media for the school were engraving on shell (particularly mother-of-pearl) and inlaying with shell and other materials such as lapis and cornelian. All this is in striking contrast to only in the story of Isis and Osiris. Egyptian religion that has been inspired by Asiatic ideas. Yet in other respects the main features of Sumerian it in the third millennium. perfectly assimilated. ritual dress. seem to religion. not and subsequently rejected.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST of the departed. that typically Babylonian monsters are shells or seals. Both practices seem restricted to the late prehistoric and earliest historic period. as we know have been already established by the fourth. the already engraved on himself. The familiar gestures. But the Sumerians were already executing 194 . But of course there is an equal absence of epigraphic testimony to the slaughter of sins victims at royal burials. and vessels are already represented at that date. generally upon bitumen. Both - might therefore be inspired by Egyptian ideas. approximate to such a conception.
and the The mountain origin of the Sumerians inferred from later legend and ritual could be explained by a First Prediluvian in .C. It is prediluvian village at al In the First Prediluvian period altogether wanting. copper. bitumen. the bird with outspread " " bun of hair at the back of the head. the spouted jar. The use of granulated and filigree work in round surfaces definite affection for the jewelry also deserves notice. 195 . and plano-convex bricks were already indeed a far cry from the Yet links are not 'Ubaid. for instance the shaft-hole axe.SUMERIAN CIVILIZATION monumental sculptures at least in wood and bitumen by the time of the earliest graves from Ur and began statuary in stone (trachyte and limestones) about 3000 B. spirals in the series of eyes used as a frame and the guilloche. are apt to be so dazzled by the complexity of the We institutions and the perfection of the art revealed in the newly discovered tombs that the whole civilization looks like a miraculous child for which a foreign divine parent must be sought. use many distinctive ancestry. It is quite alien to Egyptian Among the motives should be noted the running gold wire decorating the reticule from Ur (Plate XIX^). 12 as the supports for bas-reliefs or A engravings is noticeable in the carving of stone bowls and mace-heads and may have dictated the choice of the taste. cylinder as a form for seals. Sumerian types can trace their pedigree to that remote period. the rosette and star with an even number of points (generally eight). wings. the trefoil and quatrefoil.
theriomorphic vases and seals. not common to the whole group. cylinder seals unless Jemdet Nasr and Musyan provincial be dismissed as Sumerian civilization back-waters reflecting imperfectly the true as disclosed in the oldest royal tombs at Ur. awaiting discovery. chariots.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST would equally be false to set up an impassible culture and the gulf between the Second Prediluvian It The latter certainly has dispensed proto-Sumerian. while others again may really have Sumerian elements not persisted. In any case the protohistoric culture derived must be admitted that all its writing. and the relations were most intense in contact As in the earliest period as represented in the graves. man-headed may simply be leading inventions from the Second. vase-painting. But the loss of painting may of pottery just be the result of industrialization . compartment bowls. Now. other traits may be Elamite peculiarities. with some of the most distinctive traits of the Second Prediluvian. " it is And to explain the " higher civiliza- was is natural to invoke Egypt. that Sumer with Egypt in the protodynastic period clear enough. a counterpart to the Babylonian constructional artistic Ur methods and motives appearing in Egypt we 196 . The only distinctively attested in the Second culture the kaunakes. There are indeed those who would see in the Sumerians an invading minority who had imposed their language and their culture upon the autochthonous inhabitants tion of Mesopotamia. shell-inlay bulls it and engraving.
In Sumer the funerary ritual was carried out with a primitive logic unknown in Egypt even in the Royal Tombs of the First Dynasty. is hard to determine which partner made the the apparent continuity architecture on the Nile it might leading contributions. and no 197 .SUMERIAN CIVILIZATION now have barque. From of funerary ritual and well be argued that the chamber tomb as represented at Ur or at Kish had been suggested by Egyptian originals and consequently that the whole system of ideas embodied in the oldest Sumerian graves was introduced from Africa. however. that the dynasts responsible for the synoicism of the " " Children of the Sun 1 cities were That argument might. and wheeled vehicles. especially as it persisted on the Nile while no later parallels have been found in Babylonia. for instance. on the same inlay as the sistrum appears Gilgamesh and on the very same panel a bear ! We two It are dealing accordingly with intercourse between mature cultures. the finer types of metal tool. In any case in material progress and wealth Sumer was far ahead of Egypt. But the same tombs contain a host of objects that are thoroughly Babylonian and often specifically Sumerian . The latter country lacked. such as the socketed axe. the funerary the chamber tombs and the alabaster vases. be inverted. " It would be an easy step to argue that the "heaven " " whence the kingship descended to make such tombs possible and necessary was located on the Nile. the sistrum (from an early tomb).
Thus. making glazes must be understood in the same way.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST Egyptian jewelry anterior to the Third Dynasty can compare either for sheer wealth or artistic merit and The fact is technical excellence with that of Shub-ad. as Sidney Smith 13 very pertinently suggests. At the time Sumer was the focal point. countries. But such percolation would in no sense affect its radiating power. still less theories of conquest explain the facts. The mere fact of the land's material superiority would expose it peculiarly to percolation by foreign ideas. whether free or servile. 198 . stone-workers trained in the Egyptian school may very well have been the makers of the much discussed alabaster vases of Mesopotamia. can ship. The native genius of the people who could invent writing and wheels and harness the ox and the ass will doubtless explain very much. and thither would come artificers native crafts from other lands bringing with them their and inventions. diffusion of the art of The Nevertheless the concentration of wealth itself and trade demands explanation. were emancipated from the bonds of the primitive clan and would gravitate in accordance with purely economic laws to the centres where trade and wealth were concentrated. that at the point we have reached no one-sided relationor colonization. Egypt and Sumer were citizens civilized whose were not restricted to the external relations of direct or indirect barter or to the planting of mining colonies such as Perry seems to have in mind. In each country there existed specialized craftsmen who.
Perhaps the dynasts who concentrated wealth and power in the cities were foreign conquerors. which agree precisely in shape. incapable of proof with the evidence at our disposal. and design with those found in great abundance in the ruins of prehistoric in the last cities in Lagash. in pre-Sargonic deposits. The first prosperity of Sumer was bound up with Indian intercourse. But such events are equally it . But one cultural factor that may lie at the base of the becoming accessible. in some instances glazed. Such beads. At two instances Umma.SUMERIAN CIVILIZATION since Babylonia failed to maintain the position of supremacy she had acquired as compared with Egypt. These were partly political and as such elude our grasp perhaps ethnic forces too were at work. the Indus valley. 14 Then in the archaic tombs at Kish Mackay found beads of cornelian etched with an elaborate patterns by process. but in India they are common and enjoyed a long popularity. But would seem that some special factors came into play. to which Ur has now yielded parallels. the oldest other two is indisputable instances in the world of manufactured goods of precisely defined provenance being transported for long distances from the centre of their fabrication. material. The regularity and intimacy of the intercourse with India is proved by the occurrence on Sumerian sites of objects imported from the Indus valley. Ur. have been found rectangular stamp seals of steatite. are in Mesopotamia confined to this one period. identified as the 199 . Finally from al 'Ubaid come fragments of vases made from a rock. and Kish.
TKe survival of such scraps is some indication of the liveliness of commercial intercourse between the two distant lands. It has. 15 Dr.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST " " which is used still in India for the manupot-stone facture of vessels.C. this intercourse popularity of mother-offor inlays connects the Sumerian pearl as a material civilization by one of its most fundamental traits with The the south. The legend of Cannes who came up the Persian Gulf to found the the same direction. been suggested that denotes more than trade. more Do the trade relations attested about 3000 B. we must see what is known of the Indus 200 . And now the discoveries on the Indus have revealed a civilization than that of Mesopotamia still more advanced before the middle of the third millennium . Hall 16 has drawn attention to the resemblance of the Sumerians as represented in their statuettes to the Dravidians of India. however. there many of the distinctive elements of still the Sumerian's cultural superiority existed in a developed form. first Sumerian city at Eridu and the Sumerian location of paradise in the south point in Those who believe that the similar kaunakes was a palm-leaf skirt can cite the use of a garment in modern India and above all its association with the pre-Aryan goddess Parna?avari. just continue older ethnic relationships ? Were the higher elements of Sumerian culture inspired by India ? Did Sumerians themselves as a conquering minority bring those devices to Mesopotamia ? Before answering the these questions civilization.
The region. Upstream the Indus plains lead into a submontane zone comparable to that of North Syria. They are not encumbered with but nourish principally drought-resisting plants. western border consists of steep ranges leading up to the same high tableland that constitutes the eastern frontier of Mesopotamia. outside the true already indicated. or originally two. mighty snow-fed rivers. The great Thar Desert. east of Sindh. balances the Arabian Desert west of Babylonia. as monsoon area and rely for their rainfall largely on the same Atlantic storms as water Mesopotamia. like Irak.CHAPTER THE INDUS IX CIVILIZATION SINDH and Southern Punjab form in a sense an eastern counterpart to Mesopotamia on an enlarged scale. The river valleys give pasture for cattle capable of domestication. lie The lowlands. is a recent alluvial plain watered by Its one. 1 The foot-hills to the north and west are still the haunts of urial sheep from which the oldest European 201 . including the humped Indian oxen or zebu that on one theory are the ancestors of a common breed of early domestic cattle in Babylonia and the West. many species being shared with the desert belt between the Zagros and the Atlantic* tropical jungle.
and the elephant in the Southern Punjab and Sindh. allied culturally to the early inhabitants of North Africa. And from a purely typological study conclusion of the stone implements. palaeolithic man.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST domestic sheep were descended. 202 . 2 Its antiquity is proved not only by the representations on its monuments of animals now extinct in Western India but also by the Mesopotamian connections. Parallel to the Indus flowed another great stream. If Vavilov is right in deducing an original focus of wheat cultivation in the plant must once Afghanistan. that Though buried in his relics on the alluvial plain are naturally silt. Obermaier was led to the that the transition from palaeolithic to neolithic industry very possibly took place in India. the rhinoceros. carried the waters of the Sutlej to the sea. had spread right across into Central India. the Great Mihran. we now know there were extensive tracts of jungle that sheltered the tiger. That country certainly was the home of cotton. fact. In any case in the pluvial period all the conditions for the rise of a high civilization were fulfilled in India. Within the last six years proof of the existence of a mature and complex civilization flourishing in the Indus basin under precisely such climatic conditions has come to light. the wild ancestors of have extended into Western India. Copper ores are available in the Salt Mountains to the north and in the western ranges. In glacial and early postglacial times the Indus basin enjoyed a more bountiful rainfall than to-day owing to In the deflection southward of the Atlantic cyclones.
And then there is Tell Kaudeni 4 with primitive tools and weapons and a pottery that invites comparison with Susa L Do these cultures represent rude forerunners of the Indus civilization ? Or are they mere stages in considering alternatives. though only the three latest have hitherto been explored. that appear in Babylonia early in the third millennium belong to the latest The phase of the civilization at home. . nothing is known. houses. in its detail peripheral degeneration ? Before the implications of these two we must summarize what 203 has been vouch- safed to us in newspaper reports of the Indus civilization. no less than ten superimposed cities have been identified. At the one site. Indeed the Indus civilization is already old when we meet it. 3 But the high antiquity of the Indus civilization is proved in other ways. the necessity of which was only recognized in relatively modern times. and temples. The the Punjab. But not only is the civilization thoroughly urban. In Baluchistan and Waziristan there are humbler sites that have yielded C9gnate remains of a barbaric sort.C. such as drains and baths. had reached such a surprising level. was apparently abandoned sooner and the material gathered there is on parallel site in the whole older than that reached further south. Of the antecedents of the civilization that soon after 3000 B.THE INDUS CIVILIZATION Indian seals already mentioned. its authors have dwelt in towns so long that they have devised amenities. Our material is derived from vast cities with regular streets. Harappa. Mohenjo Daro in Sindh.
The primary the basis of life then prevailing climate was agriculture for which and the possibilities of rivers afforded ideal irrigation. The was worn long done up in a bun at the back of the head. perhaps but practised cremation. the zebu race. Buffaloes. turtles and tortoises were also eaten. 204 . sheep. interred by itself at belong to a dolichocephalic " Mediterranean race ". A A kilt or skirt was draped round the loins like the Sumerian kaunakes. The cattle belonged to two stocks. Domestic animals were also kept. have also been reported. one like the modern and another^ pariah reminiscent of our mastiffs. And true cotton was grown for the manufacture of textiles. pigs (of the variety Sus cristatus). opened up by the twin conditions. on the The other hand was pronouncedly brachycephalic. including sea-fishes imported presumably dried. hair a short chin beard being allowed to grow. elephants. patterned shawl was worn over the left shoulder and under the right. Bos indicus. the alabaster statuettes same impression is produced by depicting a type not unlike the Sumerians with prominent nose. Mohenjo Daro. thick lips. the victims of a pestilence.[exactly as in Sumer. The upper lip alone was shaved. Two varieties of dog. apparently resembling the One skull. and a shorthorned stock. and horses were also kept. Fish.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST Indus civilization apparently a number of skeletons. These all type. Wheat similar to that grown locally to-day was accordingly cultivated as the staple article of diet. were found in a late house at authors of the The Mohenjo Daro. and receding forehead (Plate XXIII).
DC (d X 1 it E W H UJ 1 .
in cities. 205 . the bricks being thin and by 2-75 in. and in drains damp-course But wood was employed for used for pillar bases.THE INDUS CIVILIZATION A proportion. at Mohenjo Daro) but kiln fired and Bitumen was used as a set in genuine lime mortar. The signs are found stamped on copper bars or engraved on seals that served to authenticate documents which have perished. In one or two floorings as well external walls niches two to three feet wide and nine inches deep were used decoratively just as in Babylonia. as These were regularly laid already remarked. 3 by 8*5 in. or 17 in. The principle of the arch is not illustrated by any monument . The universal building material was brick. out with streets. bitumen perhaps from Mesopotamia. Stone was perhaps baths. from fish the sea shell^ird coasts. by 5-5 in presumably as for roofs. of the population dwelt. to the east or the west. tin The Indus people employed animals in industry and commerce The elephant and the horse can only have been domesticated for such purposes and a copper model from depicts a two-wheeled cart with a gabled the motive-power of as did the Sumerians.. however. drains were covered over with a corbelled vault. biscuit-shaped (n in. A system of weights was recognized which differed from the Babylonian. This trade was facilitated by a system of writing which was still partly pictographic. Harappa hood over it. temples. Copper was imported from the neighbouring highlands from Khorasan or Burma. Naturally such a civilization subsisted on trade. and baths. by 3 in.
Copper dagger and chisel. and could from 6 to 12 per cent tin. ousted stone tools had by no means was used for sickle-teeth. by hammering but also to some extent by principally casting. at least on with the coast. and beads and larger articles were of a blue encaustic fayence. and knife-blades. Stone was perhaps used for 206 chert . weaver. 85. is presupposed in the Navigation. even make an The alloy of copper with crafts of the potter. FIG.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST the Indus. evidently regular intercourse were artizans The urban expert in working metals. the less even in the cities metal . goldsmith. Moreover the secret of producing glazed fabrics had been mastered. made None scrapers. and jeweller were no less flourishing. Harappa.
copper vases resemble tall beakers with narrow cupped bases and splayed out lips (Fig. for vessels of considerable size number of weapons note here long chisels. Vessels were made of copper. flat is particularly small. . 85). rivet holes and straight backed saws with a convex little Some of the chisels broaden out a blade (Fig. We may axe-heads and adzes (celts). silver. narrow tapering daggers with pointed tangs but no FIG. One Spouts and handles were apparently unknown. silver vase is cylindrical in while some shape. below the butt.THE INDUS CIVILIZATION At the same time copper was spheroid mace-heads. 86). The pottery types 207 splay out again at the blade. 86. employed for the manufacture of many tools and even and was alloyed with tin where a specially durable edge was required as in Few types have yet been published and the razors. shell. the sides then contracting only to and pottery. Copper beaker from Harappa.
but painted ware The paint is generally black on a red slip or wash. Some Most of the pottery is stand on pedestals. fayence. not otherwise represented in the most ancient east. in the ears. which was bent back and twisted round the stem to form a loop. These ornaments are often of the penannular type. jadeite. tubular and rounded lenticular beads of cornelian. and a pair of tweezers. hung variegated stone. The butt of each implement had been hammered out into wire. The arms and ankles of the women were encircled with bangles and anklets of gold.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST include many similar beakers. 8 It consisted of a yielded an interesting toilet pricker. silver. 208 . including concentric circles and rosettes. Elaborate metal plugs made in two pieces were worn Strings of spherical. Some of the barrel-shaped beads are divided into segments by deep cuts. shell. gold. plain. or fayence were round the neck or worn as girdles. great elongated piriform jars with very*narrow bases craters and well-formed necks. Multiple silver. barrel-shaped. or shell. separated by spacers. a narrow knife. and show that the idea of the knot-head was familiar on the Indus. seems to have been specially popular. This triad of interlaced implements forms an almost exact counterpart to the Sumerian reticules. but very popular in Europe during the bronze age. occurs especially at Harappa. necklaces of five strings. ivory. and the patterns are predominantly geometrical. Pins do not seem to have been used but Harappa set.
SEALS. PAINTED POTTERY AND FIGURINES FROM INDIA .
The seal-designs of Brahmani bulls. in one case at Mohenjo Daro. The art of the Indus is best illustrated by the glyptic. The a skull had been ritually buried without the other bones of the skeleton. moreover. However. Female figurines of clay are quite common and may be votives denoting. No less successful are fayence statuettes of 209 p . as in Of great Babylonia. that no doubt existed at points where later The now stand. and other beasts are admirably executed and thoroughly life-like. some of enormous " size and others quite " small. large tanks are supposed to have been connected with temples. sanctuaries importance is a fayence plaque representing a female deity sitting cross-legged between two serpent-votaries There are. but accompanied with vases and offerings. the cult of a Mother Goddess. and on the seals the pipal-tret is already represented as an object of sanctity. tigers.THE INDUS CIVILIZATION general practice was apparently to cremate the dead and deposit the ashes in cinerary urns or in small brick shrines. are assigned to the class of ritual objects by the puzzled excavators. Then there are little stone columns that have been taken for phallic symbols. hybrid in attitudes of adoration. many features of later Indian religion must be rooted in the prehistoric Indus civilization. engraved on the seals that have been compared to the Sumerian monsters of the Gilgamesh cycle. elephants. If these interpretations be correct. In any case the cross-legged deity between serpent adorants directly anticipates a well-known theme of Indian iconography. Stone figures rings.
Though flint implements more numerous than in the plains. often very mature. Painted pottery is commoner than Harappa or Mohenjo Daro. We have and Sindh is seen that direct intercourse between attested Sumer region of typical by the importation into the former Indian products. a clay animal with hand are thoroughly barbaric . Carving in marble had made some male heads from Mohenjo progress as is shown by the than the earlier Sumerian finer are Daro that certainly The clay and copper models on the other statuettes. and boasted several rooms. of the same general wheel-turned type. apart from worthy movable head is of animals. adzes. and presents at a variety of shapes. have been found. Fractional burials. the trefoil and the rosette occur on the seals as in Mesopotamia as well as elaborate maze patterns* What looks like a provincial variant of the same to light at Nal in the Zhob valley. But even here the houses were of brick. particularly 210 . It is apparently. Axes.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST monkeys and dogs. were quite total common in Mohenjo Daro by one example at Nal. represented at only. all of the are Indus type. Among the motives. chisels. seals. The use shell particularly quaint. however. though cremation and contracted posture were also interment the practised. at other sites in the hill countries of Baluchistan culture is coming and and Waziristan. and daggers. and even copper vessels have come to light. copper was used at Nal too. work is particularly other and statues of for the eyes inlay of attention.
ranges and farther west is in Baluchistan. civiliza- But does not some ethnic proved up these commercial ties ? kinship perhaps underlie The figurines from Mohenjo Daro certainly fortify tions Hall's identification of the Sumerians with early Indian races . but to a more primitive stage. suggest that the wheel and carts independently invented in both lands. The daggers from Harappa. But that was a late phase of the Indian 211 . The Sumerian and Indus toilet-sets cylindrical vase of silver are in principle identical. the seal cutting and the grace of the pottery. from Mohenjo Daro invites comparison with the alabaster vessels of the same shape from Ur and Susa. are It is fantastic to common to both countries. again.THE INDUS CIVILIZATION possible reflex of this traffic in India is the bitumen used for damp-courses at Mohenjo Daro. The Indus and Sumerian The beakers have an unmistakable family likeness. tht way of dressing the hair is identical. had been Judging by the domestic architecture. and each construction of the looped head. show the same peculiar Artistic devices like the use of shell inlays connect the two regions strikingly. the Indus civilization was ahead of the Babylonian at the beginning of the third millennium. belong to the same tanged family as the Sumerian. for the features are really similar. None the commercial intercourse between two mature to the hilt. But it cannot A be positively asserted that the material itself came from Babylonia in view of local supplies available in the Sulei- man less. Motives like the trefoil and the rosette. even religious themes such as monsters.
distinctly to historical Indian ideals earliest classical Sumerian do the and iconography foreshadow the And there is another set of Babylonian. the dot-ringed circle. may have Were then the it enjoyed no less lead in earlier innovations and discoveries that civilization characterized proto-Sumerian not native of Indian developments -on Babylonian soil but the results Sumerians themselves the had If ? so. the step-pattern. Tell Kaudeni in the Zhob The valley very truly links the two provinces with and its Persian lapis. concentric semicircles. toiletsets. to both groups : the rosette. 4 Were its Indian elephant Harappa and Mohenjo 212 . forms. painted pottery from Harappa and Baluchistan. .THE MOST ANCIENT EAST culture times. despite material and significant differences in technique. monochrome pottery. the sloping oval. and other Sumerian specialities to Southern Babylonia. Yet the Sumerian script is not that of the Indus despite agreeThe Indus art and religion point already as ments. must in the long run belong to the same family as that described as the Prediluvian in In fact several distinctive motives are common Iran. A minority from the Indus or saturated with its inspiration might well have been the bringers of wheeled vehicles. " the double-axe ". inspiration come from its the Indus or at least from some region within immediate sphere of influence ? Some of the above-mentioned agreements are of an order that might almost be termed ethnic. mother-of-pearl. and decoration. cults as art and contacts to be considered.
such a speculation we leave at once all hold on the solid world of fact. grew into the Indus civilization ? choose between to these to sheer guess-work attempt alternatives or to decide whether either suffices to between Sindh and Sumer explain those similarities racial that presuppose kinship. Remember that hair was worn in a bun at the back even in the prediluvian Daro offshoots Eridu and al village of al 'Ubaid. freighted with the stuffs of Sindh consigned to Babylonian river towns* 213 . is Surely that world romantic and exciting enough 1 Here. The to recommend it that it second alternative has ancient this could be harmonized with those hints of an immensely province traditions in the south.THE INDUS CIVILIZATION from the prediluvian highland culture 'Ubaid ? Or was the highland culture like itself an early branch from the tree. that. we find on the now impoverished banks of the distant Indus a brilliant civilization in touch at once with the prediluvian villages of the Iranian plateau and the nascent city-states of Babylonia. rooted in Lower Palaeolithic of But with industry. reaching back into the fourth millennium before our era. rooted in It would be India. Already the laden caravans were crossing the wilderness of Iran that the merchandise of the mysterious east might be bartered for the raw products of the young barbaric west in the marts of Kisbu Already the Arabian Sea was ploughed by dhows. That discovery completes the graphic picture of the ancient Oriental world that the treasures of Ur disclosed. where agriculture first originated.
is The Arabian Sea named after them. Part of the commerce and the Euphrates was surely conducted by sea as throughout historic times. The Babylonian records from Sargon of Agade onwards make mention of the land of Magan. folk nor the Sumerians appear to us as seafarers. Sindh. unanimously termed and might certainly depicted on a vase from Babylonia But have grown up out of the native river-craft. a maritime people who acted as intermediaries between Now. no certainly native representations of the vessels are found only sporadically in known. the vase which figures them belongs to a special alien class " Babylonia and Elam . The author of the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea extols their exploits and mentions how the commerce of India and Egypt met in their ports. and has been plausibly 214 . The Egyptian evidence cited in Chapter VI no less implied maritime intercourse between the twin rivers and the Red Sea terminals of the But neither the Indus caravan routes to the Nile. whence diorite and metals were obtained. and India. The monuments are deep-sea ships on the oldest Egyptian Similar vessels are foreign ". throughout Egypt. It was inhabited by sea-faring people. historical times the southern coasts of Arabia and especially the region of Oman have been the homes of inference is The that there bold sailors trading with Ethiopia. was a fourth party. and gulf ports. Mesopotamia.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST It is this worth while dwelling upon the implications of between the Indus picture.
And Yemen. that figures so prominently in the oldest Egyptian traditions. certainly the source of frankdistorted incense. . found at Lagash and Susa but its provenance is fixed by the boats figured on the first named example it Palaeolithic ancestry Lower India and Somaliland. and the ranges of Southern remnants Ethnologically these coasts are inhabited by " " of that stock that Christian negrito first authors of agriculture in Egypt and Elam. together with a brachy cephalic majority. such centres of maritime commerce flourished even in Only so does the peculiar indirect- ness of the relations between Sumer and Egypt in Late It can hardly Predynastic times become intelligible. on later the of Arabia be fortuitous that coinage appears a version of the twin-serpent motive that one of the links between the Nile and the constituted Euphrates. But the region in question is not ill-adapted to have been also an originative centre. Later on it . It is perfectly legitimate to infer that the fourth millennium. is just as likely as Somaliland to have been the original Land of Punt. Archaeologically we should expect there the links between the core postulated as the industries of found both in was producing a dark-faced ware decorated with incised and punctured patterns. that belongs to the same family as the incised Nubian wares found on the Nile from Badarian times The fabric is only known from pyxides onwards. Geographically the highlands of Southern Arabia are intermediate between the Abyssinian plateau Persia.THE INDUS CIVILIZATION located in Oman.
Schweinfurth speaks of a triangle placing the first of civilization Yemen. Egypt centres of agriculture in that order. Sumer.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST comes from our assumed maritime centre. Quite apart from such speculations which are still premature. The first investigators of the Elamite and the Indus scripts were alike struck with the resemblance of many signs to the Minoan. the r6le of the maritime peoples of the Arabian littoral as intermediaries between Egypt. to the time of Herodotus a tradition that they had come from the Persian Gulf a tradition quite as worthy of credence as that referring to the foundation of Melqart's It is sanctuary that excavation has partially verified. Crawford asks whether the Sumerians and the hypothetical dynastic race of Egypt did not both set out from Southern Arabia along divergent routes to Babylonia historical and Egypt respectively. as in historical times. and Crawford upheld that thesis. The similarities may be more than fortuitous. There legitimate deduction. a maritime civilization on the Arabian Sea in the fourth and Sindh is quite a millennium. a counterpart to that which flourished on the Mediterranean in the third. must have been already. thus quite possible that the sudden rise of a brilliant 216 . Sumer. A good case might therefore be made out for Arabia as the cradle of 5 and Schweinfurth have both civilization. 6 Such a general similarity scripts would be to a intelligible if the respective went back common system in use among The Phoenicians preserved early nautical merchants.
and the Mediterranean on the other. Their fusion produces not a a single crucible. One condition for the progress there exhibited seems clearly to have been the enlargement of the mental horizon by contact with distant lands. The climatic changes were producing a continuum of human groups that were gradually sorting themselves level and finding a permanent cultural and by adaptation specialization to meet peculiar local circumstances. with the maritime route to India and Abyssinia. Trade into conducts diverse ideas and inventions. trade routes to India to Syria and conjuncture of circumstances favoured the establishment of far-reaching B. a peculiar Before three thousand communications between peoples in North Africa and South-Western Asia. of wealth and also of the concentration rapid explains ideas in the Tigris-Euphrates valley. and predatory 217 . The cities of Babylonia throughout history have owed their prosperity to their position at junctions of the great overland and Inner Asia on the one hand. The rise of higher civilizations in Mesopotamia and Egypt must be interpreted in the light of the facts already adduced.C. crystallized out in response to varying environmental conditions.THE INDUS CIVILIZATION maritime civilization on the Mediterranean was due in the transplantation across the Isthmus of Suez part to of some of the coastal culture of the Arabian Sea. hostility. The final result of such specializaactivities tion was exclusiveness. mere mechanical aggregate but a new compound endowed Commerce with India itself with generative powers.
sooner and more adversely than Egypt. is thus resolved : it showed The Sumer definitely ahead of Egypt at the end of the fourth 218 . for all their The conqueror gave Egypt internal peace just at the moment when the high material culture of the Sumerian cities was making their hostilities peculiarly dangerous and destructive. and return for incidentally exported necessities like grain in luxury and cedar wood. The latter was rather a terminal country. which owed its special prosperity to its intermediate position. autonomy. cities Hence Sumer of the East. articles like spices powerful enough to retain or at least demand local autonomy while their mutual interdependence would promote jealousies. These obstacles would affect Sumer. it looks as if some catastrophe overtook the of the Indus basin shortly after 3000 B. lost her civilized partner in the commerce apparent contradiction. 7 Secondly. Mohenjo Daro was deserted about that time.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST that eventually seriously impeded intercourse as did the increasing extent of desert tracts. Finally. revealed by a comparison between Egypt and Sumer. there was an internal source of weakness in The city-states along the two rivers were Babylonia. Harappa even earlier.C. So Babylonia was rent from very early times by wasteful and destructive internecine wars. The clan villages or petty townships of predynastic Egypt on the other hand were unable to defend their local mutual suspicions. against the unifying powers of Menes and the Falcon clan.
indispensable commodities and blessed with internal peace. Sumer. could barely hold her own against the savagery that encompassed her. rent by civil war. had prospered. Egypt. her trade oppressed by barbarian neighbours. and lacked the energy for further progress save during the short a strong. supplying .THE INDUS CIVILIZATION a few centuries later the mutual positions millennium of the two countries had been completely reversed. dynast could win for his city hegemony over all the rest. entrenched at the head of the trade-routes. intervals when 219 . but often alien. and exacting deprived of Indian inspiration.
C. By the end of the IVth millennium the material culture of Abydos. Yet Badari itself was already a stage removed from 220 . Metalcivilization in the region by historians as marking an epoch in human progress. The first picture of the Oriental world prior to 3000 salient feature in that picture is the hoary antiquity of under review.CHAPTER X EUROPE AND THE EAST IN the preceding pages I have tried to conjure up a B. rightly taken the third millennium. had certainly been practised intelligently even a thousand years earlier. In the whole of Europe we can attribute to such a remote antiquity not one single nium food-producing community outside Crete. Ur. or of any mediaeval town. unless perhaps the disgusting savages who left the shell-mounds on the shore of the Littorina Sea cultivated a little barley. on the most modest reckoning. The stage of higher barbarism represcale sented at Badari and in the Fayum must. In no part of Europe outside Crete was metal demonstrably in use before lurgy. have been reached in the sixth millenbefore our era. or Mohenjo Daro would stand comparison with that of Periclean Athens. and its general employment on a comparable to that exemplified in Susa I dates only from the second.
C.EUROPE AND THE EAST the beginnings of food-production as illustrated. Egyptian. and climatic basis conditions that favoured intercourse at that juncture. the methods of preserving metal beads grains. were even able to formulate questions as to political We 221 . of settlement. unity of the eastern world embraces a diversity. the perfection of the pottery. And the same threads that held together the various postulate be accepted. in the rather hypothetical Campignyan culture. economic. The This continuity is not an abstract identity. stability The The inventions Orient's claim to the origination of all the primary is thus beyond dispute. and Indian civilizations. for all their common and regular intercourse. The factors promoting and maintaining the unity of the Oriental world at the end of the fourth millennium can legitimately be summed up in the blessed word " In the last two chapters we have tried to trade '*. foundations of life are not just agriculture and stockraising but the cultivation of cereals and the breeding At the same time the of cattle. sheep. the and pin all presuppose a long period of apprenticeship. once the diffusionist But the accuracy of the postulate is guaranteed by the fundamental continuity that characterized the Oriental world no less than its antiquity. Babylonian. centres of Oriental civilization can be shown to bind thereto the European barbarisms of prehistory. for instance. each possess a ripe and distinct individuality by 3000 B. and swine. a precise connotation and to indicate term that frive the" rather special sociological.
4 From Egypt were derived amulets in the form of claws. 1 apparently colonized Byblos in early dynastic times. working the mines to supply the Babylonian market. And so trade goods of Egyptian or Babylonian ancestry be found on the islands of the ^Egean. luxury articles like spices and precious stones. on the Anatolian coasts and far away in Macedonia. no less than necessities like copper and timber. before the rise of the dynasty of Agade. The accumulation of wealth and the aggregation of population in great cities obviously intensified enormously the demand for all sorts of raw materials. 2 The first impetus to Minoan civilization in Crete was given by a colony of plausibly regarded as refugees from the conquering Menes. of 222 . Ships flying the standard of a predynastic Delta nome anchored in Cycladic ports. The same circumstances would stimulate an intellectual ferment and a spirit of adventure to which the histories The Egyptians of Greece or Venice offer parallels.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST events that might have contributed to the realization of the possibilities inherent in the situation thus defined : the unification of " race from the south ? civilizing conquerors Was Egypt the work of a " Were dynastic the historical Sumerians from the same quarter ? The same terms can legitimately be used to account for the propagation of a higher barbarism on the fringe of the Oriental world. Egyptianized Libyans. 3 A partial transplantation to Phoenicia is of South Arabian maritime culture are to a legitimate inference from traditions. Semitic merchants were established in Cappadocia.
whether the higher civilizations of the river valleys. of the dove or falcon and The jewelry toilet articles such as palettes and tweezers. a pin with knot-head formed on the principle illustrated by the toilet set of Plate XIX. 82. and fayence and lapis beads all suggestive of western influence. But the intercourse thus defined was already between autonomous communities. eventually made its and using the as at Kish. Gold vessels of archaic Sumerian style were unearthed in a tumulus near Asterabad in Northern Persia. or the young barbarisms of the Eastern Mediterranean or Upper Asia. At Troy we find filagree spiral too. 5 and ear-rings with flattened ends named type to the tin-lodes of way right up Bohemia where it is associated with the The lastDanube other Babylonian forms.EUROPE AND THE EAST of the papyrus sceptre. These com223 . flies. The trade " is quite significant if invoked to explain such phenomena. word " In another direction beyond the Caucasian passes. the raquet pin like Fig. stamp-seals. model carts. 81. 3. and later with eyelet pins whose shafts may be engraved shown with the same patterns as those from Kish in Fig. work reminiscent of that of Ur. of East Crete and the smaller islands includes articles such as gold rosettes and diadems whose prototypes have recently come to light at Ur. and on the great caravan routes that traverse Central Asia similar trade goods are found. copper daggers and sickles. 6 As far away as Turkestan the third settlement at Anau 7 in the Merv oasis yielded figurines. wheel-made vases.
are unmistakably linked by cultural traits that can hardly have arisen most obvious instance independently. their number initiated. " its therefore have been a "craft". And most people will have to import their material. great bondage eased for them. must entice or compel such a one to live among them or have one of . merely acquiring through barter a copper pin or a hatchet A they must acquire a smith . Hardly revolutionary metal by heat is . As for magicians or the of tribal custom would be warriors. despite their autonomy.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST munities. Metallurgy is the of this interdependence. that is the oldest industry depends upon the transinto mutation of one substance hard brittle stone another maleable and fusible metal that does not less in the least resemble the first externally. The crafts of the miner and smith are distinguished from all others by the peculiarly mysterious nature of the The extraction of copper process upon which they rest. practice presupposed initiation into the properties of rocks that look to the layman quite commonplace and into a number of complicated and highly technical given people cannot learn the art by processes. a mystery ". the transformation of the properties of for the changes undergone by clay Metal working must are superficially less drastic. And this very fact would give adjoining 224 communities the chance of enlisting the services of a . At the same time initiates must have enjoyed a position of privilege in their own society.
the hammers used for breaking the ore all consist of a grooved stone. Yet by the end of the IVth millennium. of tradition in metallurgy. lashed into the fork of a stick by thongs. into a hilt that met the blade in a straight or convex line. supplemented by a ferrule. The oldest Indian celts are long 225 and narrow. Spain. hafted with the aid of a tang. universal metal types are the flat celt (axe the triangular dagger. or adze) it is The most and generally greatly exaggerated. In such the smith often figures as a mysterious and alien personage.EUROPE AND THE EAST privileged position of such is abundantly illustrated in Africa to-day. The protodynastic Egyptian axes have straight sides and a straight or rounded blade that is never splayed out the adzes normally have a rounded head the daggers are triangular . Babylonia. the types current in Egypt. where in many regions metalworkers constitute a distinct caste. attached by rivets to a hilt from which arms project downwards in a crescent gripping the blade on either side. Indeed. The thing is and no to the Smith ". the Caucasus. The generic similarity of the is still oldest metal tools and weapons better known. the adzes Q . or rhomboid. . and Cornwall. and Sindh are easily distinguishable. reflected in the popularity of the name less in traditions and folk-lore traceable right back " Heroic Age of Greece. In Europe the same smith. fitting in the groove. the Austrian Alps. In historical Sumer the axes and adzes were alike provided with a shaft-hole the daggers were . Archaeology affords positive proof of the continuity In ancient mines in Sinai.
THE MOST ANCIENT EAST
often have almost a shoulder
and the daggers are hafted
with the aid of very long tangs without rivets. The developed Egyptian axe-heads and adzes seem
The Egyptian method of peculiar to the Nile valley. the dagger was, however, known in the ^Egean hafting
over the Western Mediterranean from
the earliest times and thence into
Bohemia and Central was certainly a which The shaft-hole axe, Europe. Babylonian speciality going back to the phase of pre-
culture represented at al 'Ubaid, has never8 It is unknown in theless a very limited distribution.
(Anau), Africa, or Western Europe. reached Elam, the Caucasus, South Russia, Syria,
Even Anatolia, the VEgean, and the Danube valley. so, the archaic type illustrated in Fig. 72 is confined to
Babylonia and Elam.
go back to the
and Cycladic form represented
'Ubaid and Jemdet Nasr. The Babylonian shaft-hole adze is confined to Babylonia, But the tanged daggers Elam, and the Caucasus. characterize the whole Asiatic area as far as Turkestan,
the models from
and Troy, and reach Crete and South Russia.
Indian types cannot be exactly paralleled elsewhere, though the adzes must have some connection with the
we must go back to (S.D. 56) in Egypt and the Susa I phase of the First Prediluvian in Elam. At that date the flat axes and adzes show the same profile in
reach really universal types
Middle Predynastic times
EUROPE AND THE EAST
both areas and disclose a type from which the Cretan, be directly Cypriote, Trojan, and other variants may
But even at this date (S.D. 50) the Egyptian daggers were hafted in the peculiar Nilotic manner described above, which was already applied to flint
mid-rib as a device for
These differences give some idea of the enormous antiquity of the craft of metallurgy. They imply distinct
Egyptian and Babylonian schools as early as 4000 B.C. And the subtle differences in the axe-heads
and Anatolia early
assumption of other centres of metallurgy in the IVth millennium. As
far as Crete is
concerned that might be inferred from the " " discovered recently in a pre-Minoan level at Knossos, and from the use in the island of shaft-hole
axes and tanged daggers that must be inherited from a time before Egyptian inspiration became supreme.
does this affect the question of the original work ? Should the credit be given to the First Prediluvian culture of the Iranian plateau, or
focus of metal
the unexplored layers at Mohenjo Daro contain the oldest products of intelligent metal work ? From the later distribution of raquet,
and rolled pins and ear-rings with flattened ends Frankfort 9 argues in favour of the Caucasian end of
the highland equally shown
Reisner and Lucas
that, despite the
absence of local ores, the
THE MOST ANCIENT EAST
of making the Egyptians did really enjoy opportunities And there is one type, later very widely discovery.
back to Early Predynastic the loop-headed pin. (The date of the specimen times with a knot-head is still obscure.) That is not perhaps From the extreme rarity of copper in quite decisive.
distributed, that goes right
predynastic graves one
use of their
admit that the discovery. But
the oldest manufactured articles of metal in the world
are the beads
and pin from
question of priority can accordingly to-day only be settled according to the prejudices of individual writers.
In either case
'Ubaid should be
50 or 4236
so hard to identify the original cradle of metalcan we hope to locate the first centre of how lurgy,
food-production ? Speculation here becomes almost uncontrolled guess-work, that is positively harmful, Yet such a centre is more than a methodological postulate.
be absurd to suggest that
in nature is quite limited,
barley, at several
circumscribed region. to assume that the domestication of
independent centres It would be hardly
sheep and swine happened more than once. The common " traits of what is not very neolithic happily termed the " culture are too numerous to deny some unity behind it.
The oldest food-producing people of whom we
any approximately dateable remains are the Badarians.
EUROPE AND THE EAST
undoubtedly enormously strengthens the claims of Egypt as advanced already by Elliot Smith and But of course it may just be an accident his school.
due to the nature of our data. Archaeological exploration in Egypt has been far more thorough than in any other
The recent discountry, except perhaps Denmark, coveries at Ur and in Sindh have shown the danger of
the argument ex silentlo or rather ab ignorantia. They show that by 3000 B.C. Mesopotamia was in the lead.
India had progressed still further. It might hence be inferred that these countries had a start in the race
So India or some intermediate country the Iranian plateau or Southern Arabia, may still
put in a claim to be accepted as the cradle, a claim that might be supported, as we have seen, on other grounds.
Inner Asia too
Very far-reaching from rather slender
evidence obtained from an absolutely undateable settlement at Anau in the Merv oasis. 7 The few animal
bones found in the lowest levels here were described by Duerst as belonging to wild species higher up he
claimed to detect marks of domestication on the bones
of similar beasts.
any case the Anau-Ii were from
the very beginning cultivating bread wheat, and using copper and lead. In the present position of studies on
climate, flora, and fauna in late quaternary and early holocene times, Upper Asia seems far less likely to have been a cultural centre than the more favoured
regions south of the Eurasiatic spine.
THE MOST ANCIENT EAST
the passes leading into Central Asia, is a place where the southern inventions would soon be implanted.
to define the focus
of diffusion. permissible to consider the conditions In the first place the cultivation of cereals by the primitive methods at first adopted is by no means in-
presumably nomadism of a sort. The case of the with compatible Hadendoa has already been cited (p. 62). But there are numerous^ peoples, notably in the Sudan, practising
are necessarily Very far particular spot. The fields are tilled
garden- or hoe-culture,
from rooted in any by hand with a hoe and not manured
rotation of crops or regular fallowing is means that the land is quickly exhausted,
of course, no observed. That
and open up fresh
where the available land
less unlimited, for
community to break up. Some of the younger folk, irked by the restraints of the elders, will swarm off and
glacial and subglacial periods, such movements would be accelerated. They would be taking place within a zone occupied thinly by hunting folk. The farmer and hunter are no doubt mutually antiBut in lean years the nomad from the high pathetic. desert would turn for succour and sustenance to the
enlargement of the community through the absorption of the refugees or at 230
cultivators in the oases.
EUROPE AND THE EAST
propagation among the hunters of the better and safer mode of life may result from such contact.
the same time the restriction of the habitable land
extend the range of each migration. The ultimate result would doubtless be a curb on the growth
of the population and a specialization in nomadic life involving the abandonment of cultivation. The typical
Arab or Bedouin
no doubt exceedingly rude.
not, however, primitive, but the result of specializa-
meet very adverse conditions. On the other hand, " " Arabs one might really find all among so-called
between pure hoe-culture or even sedentary and unmitigated pastoral nomadism. Some agriculture
sorts of stages
of these tribes
may very well preserve The Fayum folk, in
vestiges of really the later stage of
their evolution represented by the microlithic industry, were apparently tending towards an ever more nomadic
Again, from ethnographic considerations it is certain that some sort of primitive navigation sufficient to take
of a very lowly palaeolithic culture across the into Australia is extremely ancient. The
presence of Azilio-Tardenoisian fishers on the island of Oronsay at a time when it was submerged 25 feet more
The Syrian to-day has the same implications* and presumably also the shores of Little Africa
were occupied by fishing-tribes in Upper Palaeolithic Such may very well have ventured upon short coastal The hoe-cultivators of the interior voyages.
During the bad season. would impinge upon Mutual accommodation cultivation their might result in a new economy based upon plus fishing. On the jEgean the a of horse by water is depicted on a transportation Minoan seal. At the same time the paths of folk-migration 232 . The communities of the coast. not irrelevant in this context to recall how early voyagers were supplied with food-stuffs. they planted grain and awaited the harvest before proceeding. The propagation of culture by sea ways.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST in the course of their expansion the maritime communities. is by no means incompatible with quite early means of navigation. across the drying grasslands of Afrasia and along the adjoining coasts can thus be intelligibly pictured without recourse to vast migrations that would be fatal to herds of swine. The diffusion of the new culture termed neolithic. would then participate in the work of propagation and colonization. The sailors sent by Necho to round Africa took a stock of grain with them in their ships. together with the plants and animals that formed its economic basis. this time It is by maritime routes. At least on the Nile by the beached their time of the vessels. numbers augmented by the improved food-supply thus assured. But the wanderings of people that it implies were necessarily very erratic and the cultural drift would be modified by all sorts of crosscurrents. New Kingdom cattle were transported by Lower Egypt. boat from Nubia to including the transportation of cereals and even animals.
233 . disc-beads shell. Even slate palettes are found far 11 As far away as Southern away in North-West Africa. flint sickle-teeth. in Spain one ofrthe oldest ceramic types is a globular bottle formally allied to the Badarian flasks of Plate III. None the less some traces of the spread we have been as contemplating are detectable in far afield as North Africa and how in Western Europe. and some other traits. To the same context belong leathery vessels with pointed bases betraying the same leather ancestors as have left their mark on the Badarian beakers. We have already noted Tunisia and Algeria the advent of the neolithic is culture heralded by arrow-heads of Fayum types. though likewise beginning in Badarian times. a second and more indirect spread which. The same European complex apparently shared with Badari-Fayum pebble of celts. shell-bracelets. The discoveries in any case confirm the reality of that cultural drift across North Africa which I deduced new Egyptian from the Almerian evidence four years ago. And the is decoration of the pottery from the Abri Redeyef " " neolithic sherds recently collected paralleled on Northern Egypt. In fact leather beakers of identical form together with no less leathery carinated bowls are presupposed in the oldest stratum of West European pottery as disclosed by the Michelsberg culture. however. The archaeo- of the supposed movements and drifts logical vestiges are not therefore likely to be elucidated tiy any simple formula.EUROPE AND THE EAST would long remain channels for " trade ". 12 There was.
hollow-based arrow-heads. and Western Europe this superimposed upon older cultural strata to complex is which belong the leathery types of Badarian-Fayum affinities. European 14 has shown that much of the Seligman brachycephaly thrust from this centre in North Africa to-day is due to invaders from Southern Arabia. The Badarian perhaps followed a more southerly beakers are quite clearly off-shoots from the same complex as gave birth to the much later European bell-beakers. representatives of which are still to be found in North-Eastern Africa today. The Badarian beakers go back immediately to just the same prototype. Hence the proto-beaker complex must have maintained itself practically unaltered presumably on the southern edge beakers are due to a late of the Sahara. bell-beakers in decoration of the European bell-beakers are admittedly inspired by a family of grass-baskets. Now the offshoots may only beakers were made and used by brachycephals. The arrow-heads found with Spain often approximate very closely 13 The form and to the mitreform type of Badari.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST later date and which only affected Europe at a much road. a knowledge of metal. though the reminiscence of older leather vessels still Now in Spain shows through. Were the beaker-folk forerunners of these later Arabs ? Is the original centre of beakers to be located 234 . Common to both groups are the form and incised zone decoration of the beakers. The European and even the Badarian specimens be from the same stem. invaders who as is well known also reached Spain.
perhaps also steatopygous figurines* tradition A similar ceramic seems to underlie the oldest pottery of Crete and Anatolia and steatopygous figurines crop up again in the island. 235 . The northward drift that civilized Crete.EUROPE AND THE EAST in Southern Arabia ? We certainly have proof of the existence east of the Red Sea of the family of grass-baskets from which the beakers were sprung in the vase from The hypothetical Samarra illustrated in Plate XW. and still more in Egypt. Anatolia. In these regions. associated disc-shaped mace-heads and shell bracelets. the upper Danube and the upper Nile (Nubia) we find dark-faced wares derived from gourd forms and On ornamented with incised patterns inspired by the straw With these are sling in which gourds were hung. but the remarks on navigation introduced a few paragraphs back may help make it intelligible. and the -ffigean coasts is less easily understood. oriental elements in Badari would be satisfactorily explained on that bold assumption. In a short article contributed to first number of Antiquity I tried to show how propagation along the Danube valley have taken place. might Some rash guesses based upon abstraction according to to the y the culture-historical fill method might be permitted to up the 15 picture. The propagation of culture eastward across the open tablelands of Iran and past Anau along the now desert steppes of Central Asia can be interpreted in precisely the same way as has been applied to North Africa.
but it is possible that was Danubian and Nubian backwaters preserve very faithfully the image of a primitive culture on which the civilizations of pre-Minoan Crete and predynastic Egypt rested.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST the complex and the certainly masked by later accretions divergent local developments. 236 .
and Hall in CAH. pp. 151 ff. Flinders Petrie. . So Moret. however. 237 . Nile. i. 73 f. And the " Mesniu " associated with them are not " smiths " but rather " " who harpooned hippopotami in the Delta marshes. 6 So Scharff following Sethe . XVth and XVIth Dynasties of Manetho were Sir in fact partly contemporary. Eg.NOTES TO CHAPTER 1 I If the Sothic date for the Xllth Dynasty be accepted it is necessary reduce the interval between the Xllth and XVIIIth Dynasties resulting from a mere addition of the reigns as given in later sources by assuming that the XlVth. and Egypt also. note 7. ruling in different parts of the land.g* Hall. Sethe's inferences 6 . 597 ff. as See Grundzuge. 108. The attempt to connect the Shemsn Hor with the Land of Punt (e. pp. p. 3 its seat at Memphis. Schmidt-Festschrift. The traditions p. Seligman.. inclines to the belief that the calendar was introduced under the IVth V Dynasty that actually had OZZ. Anc. open to doubt whether the totals given in the fragments Scharff points out that the figure of 300 actually justify this inference. JRAI. 48. JRAL. 665. Junker on the other hand would explain the Semitic analogies in Egyptian by the assumption that Semitic and Hamitic had a common origin and denies the validity of from the terms for east and west.. and 114 years respectively. of the legends expounded by Moret. eighty-four. 4 Newberry and Sethe adopt the former view.. 1913. Triit to Empire. p. 1913. cf. Sethe's interpretation ff. 1915. 70. Seligman. . 7 Petrie. 892. while Junker espouses the doctrine that the east-Delta Osiris worshippers subdued tipper pp. p. Grundzugt. 261. Nile. 52 . 73 Scharff.. Anc Hist. p.. It is. harpooners c Moret. would put the to of the Xllth Dynasty a whole Sothic cycle earlier. p. rise 2 together involves serious difficu ties. unwilling to admit of any such reduction. 92) must be abandoned in view of Sethe's researches. p. p. 1928.. years assigned to Dynasties IV and It would for instance follow that certain princes who state on their tombs that they had seen several reigns had lived on a minimal reckoning Scharff therefore eighty-one. pp.
Fkmande. 96). 2i4fF. Let The Lost 238 .. 387 . op.. Breuil in Rev. It must be remembered that the formation of glaciers depends not only upon depression of temperatures but still more upon increase of the snow fall. ii. Hyana spelafa. pp.J. cf. phases. Pierres ecrites Oases. but cites no evidence (Prlhistoire orientale. 1924). Hadschra Maktuba . the hysena.. xxvii.J. 8 First worked out in is elaborated in Diospolis Parva. Cf. The contrary view NOTES TO CHAPTER 1 II Soc. 5 Fauna actually found in human habitation sites in Northern Algeria . 571. vol. 6 Frobenius and Obermaier. 1923-4. Constantine. The most authoritative statement given by Sidney Smith in the Early History of Assyria. p. The f. 4 Boule in UAnthr. pp. Monsoon in India see Simpson in Q. also Professor Langdon's chapter in Cambridge Ancient History. 1928. 83 ff. 16. cf. 150^. 1928. Boule. Blankenhorn. Overland to India. 1921. The system Prehistoric 9 Egypt and the new sequence dates are appended to Prehistoric is Egypt* Corpus of Pottery.. On the f. pp. as amended by corrigenda in vol. the bear was Ursus laterti. u. x. Sven Hedin. Met. p.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST about the Land of Punt cited by Hall none the less prove conclusively an element in dynastic Egypt allied to the people of this unidentified southern region in Abyssinia or Arabia. and the deer something between Cervus elephas and C. Hassanein Bey. cit. UAnthr^ 363. Fossil Man. p. 151 2 In Q. stated So Sayce in Ancient Egypt. ii. that the mountains 3 Rec. Fenus Tablets of is Ammizaduga. scientifiquc. p. edit. 205 . . 1908. pp. . 72 by Sidney Smith. 25 feV. Brooks gives maps showing the assumed paths of the rainstorms in various prehistoric See also the same author's Tte Evolution of Climate (2nd. (London). Oxford.. and 10 now Langdon and Fotheringham. i. p. xlvii (1921). 42. i. de Morgan believes of Western Persia were glaciated. canadensis* Cf. 1924. p. p. Soc. pp. Met.
. pp. 428 F. p. 16 J.NOTES 7 Antiquity. 505 el-Adhim. 1923-4. Constant. xxiii. Huntingdon.. p. 21 See J. Jour. Soc. 228 ff. pp. 358f. 7. 95 ff.. literature Mechta The 1923-4. Turville-Petre and Keith. 112. 298. Researches in Prehistoric Galilee. 1928. pi. no rocksurface was re-used till the original artist had been entirely forgotten. 8 9 i. see Childe. September. JRAS. Elliot Smith. question of the distribution of cereals abundant by Peake. Prehistory. Bihar Orissa Res. pp. 26. On 17 18 J. Sci... The Human Habitat (London. Cossar Ewart in Proc. his remains are reported from the Capsian midden of el-Arbi. Cambridge. 94. ibid. As.. iii. 83. xxii 8 Abd (1925).. On the Capsian affinities of the Bushmen see Goodwin. . 499. 1918.. NOTES TO CHAPTER 1 III On the Capsian affinities of the users of the European pigmy flints. 31.. So for instance Fleure. 1928. 8. p. According to Stow. 59 19 f. Sergi. Iii (1883). Highland and Agric. Prlhistoire orientate. Presidential Address to the British Association. 1899. Soc. p. Library). Obermaier in ReaL. 1926. 18. 409. 56 ff. xxv (1913). 14. according to Mr. 1928. 353 . xxxvi. 11 Burkitt. pp. H Field's report to the British Association. pp. 22 Nature. A. iz. and Schapera. Native Races of South Africa. Ancient Egyptians. iii. 12 Figured in de Morgan. 13 pp. ff. Addendum. 547 . UAnthr. Beng. 1927. The Field Museum Desert Expedition. 20 Represented according to Breuil on the painting of Alpera. 15 14 Z/. p. p.. is summarized with and The Origins of Agriculture (Benn's 6d. South Africa's Past. The Mediterranean Race . Constant. p. p. the phases of Bushman art and its relation to the Capsian see Miles Burkitt. 10. p. 1928). Section 10 H. 1926. VAnthr. Mar. 2 Dawn. p. p. iv. 1 60 ff. p.. p. collected scores of flints of Upper Pakeolithic and Neolithic types in the heart of the Syrian Desert. Rec.. Rec. JRAL.
16 Cf. graves. 1924 p. 1928. p.. Section H. Vignard argues that this new " S^belian " industry derives directly from the local Moustierian. . M. Badari and Qau. xxiii . 250. Preh. p 29 Nature.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST 4 Abri-Redeyef. p. 21 AZ. 16. 1928. 78. Caton-Thompson in JRAI. p. . with similar pottery to that from Abd el-Adhim. 34. 8 9 The Growth of Civilization. 1922-3.. Cairo. L'Anthr. arcL or. 6 On the climate. cit.. 30 Brunton. Seligman. Caton-Thompson and Petrie. 49 Petrie. 5 Jebel Fartas.g. 9-1 1 .. e.franf. pp. pp.. xxxi. iii. 1924. ki (1926). 23 24 For the flint work p. 125. 301 pp. JRAX. 103. 1927. 17. Franc. fig. 22... Scharff has omitted these 25 62 . op. 1907-8.Eg. 11 1928. p. The view there advanced of the history of the lake has been confirmed against Petrie's objections by the campaign of 1927-8 . Eg. 21. p. 18 Elliot zliii. 1925. 326 ff. Nub. p. p. Junker. i (1927). and flora of early Egypt see Newberry. Presidential Address to Brit. pp. Junker. fauna. Assoc. Bull. inst. 212. Ivi. Capart. Man. 80.. 85. 19 20 21 Smith. Soc. 240 .. Arch. Man. Biometnka. xix (1927). . 10 Antiquity. . 78. pp. 28th May. 78 . Wainwright Capart. p. The Ancient Egyptians. 200 ff. pottery as above. Report. cit. iroff. 50 and 26 A fuller enumeration of such points ff. ib. ii. Grundzuge der ag Forgeschichte. see Diospolis Parva. 7 Bull. 5-6. 670 . pis. pi. Rec. 17 fig. Dawn. "Report^ 99. xxii. Studies. I ff. 1907-8. Survey Nubia. is given by Scharff. 12 13 14 15 Anc. p. 139. Constant. in Anc.> 605 .. p. pp. El Kubanieh Nord. 1925. supple- mented by verbal information. Debuts de I'art en Egypt. rviii (1921). p. p. op. Prehistoric Egypt . 17. Man. with Childe. Schmidt-Festschrift.. 867. pp. Jf and Arch. Surv. On the Predynastic culture in general see Petrie. Scharff. 22 Frankfort. 155..
i. 10 f. 3) 1928.. . 21. f. pp. 1 5 Cf. p. 3 4 Evans. 108. 6 For the general features and Scharff. ^Z. 2. ii. and fig I delta-Expedition (Denkschr. Cf. 95. 18 v. Wissen. Studies. 30 Prehistoric Egypt. Pr^. 68.. p. 2 Rierakonpolis. from Geraeh. 27 Scharff. LA A. 134. 1925. Abydos. Grundzuge. p. p. p. Under the Vth Dynasty there was a nilt-object represented >n by this sign. is (1923). i.. ^W/r. 61. Camb. vi. . 50 Moret. of the Second civilization consult Petrie. 304.. ii.^. Civilization of Greece the 7 3 Branxe Age. Evans. Palace. p.. p. Akad. i and ii* 4 Petrie. Cairo. Gerzeh. Wien. Prehistoric Egypt. IV . 12 18 14 El Amrah. 123. and Frankfort. El Amrah. p. Reisner. Tura. 6 i. AZ. Newberry. de geographic. pp. A cf. 2 Wainwright. 10 Studies. d. 9 and Peet. p. p. Studies. i. 28. p. LAAA^v. Petrie. . R. p. 25 Frankfort. pp. 8 9 Hierakonpolis. Hall. El Amrah. y^u/. Schmidt Festschr. i. Palace. JEA. NOTES TO CHAPTER V On the sepulchral architecture see Maclver. n J. 3 There are good illustrations of mastabas in Tar khan.. . 120. 11 Grundzuge. Hist. p. p. Anc. p.pLvii. phil-hist K!. 241 R . 10 London. i. 239. p. 873 WestJunker. 104. Bovier-Lapierre.. p. 7. I. liv pi. 134. p. p. 7. Tnfc. Third Egyptian Dynasty. Garstang. 32 but see Junker's criticism in Schmidt-Fe&tichr. Nile. v. Naga ed-Der. Congrts intern.NOTES NOTES TO CHAPTER 1 . 23 and 51. n. Cf. 27. 9 Dated specimens in University College. . (1918). p. C. Royal Tombs of the First Egyptian Dynasties. 46. ii.. p. Egypt. . Moret. pp 225 7 ff.
e. Dll. pp. i. Frankfort. 1926. 17. Jan. 118 f.A. p. v. pp. 228 F. 1926. Palace. i ff. loc... y liv. esp. 230. 242 . . 25 22 pp. xxiii. p. Asiatic Soc.1925 (other sites some perhaps belonging here are mentioned by Herzfe d. (1923). 1 21 E Hot Smith.. Perse. i. Dll. ZfE^ 1898. Perse. 7. 25off. pp. J. Rev. Saqarra. 17 Tar khan. 15 The evidence has recent y been stated in great detail by Frankfort. loc. p. p. 6. I. 20-7... Vol. ii. NOTES TO CHAPTER VI 1 2 Mem. 26. ff.Cent.) . Seistan. Arch. Manuel d Archtologie 7 8 9 orientate. by H. Arch. " 18 ///. 13 12 Man> xxiii Studies> i. 11.. xvri (1925). Ancient Egyptians. i. xni . xiii. 108. pp. 68 Z0W.. 25 . 460 F. 1926. 7. 20. pp. /. Prlhistoire orientale> pp. for Zoser. p. for Hesy see Quibell. 252.Al' Ubaid. vii. 28 and 47. viii. Ant. Growth of Civilization. 46. i. Mem. 3 Eridu. p. figs. R. 14 Evans. L. 3 Mem. R. Tarkhan. 1928. 19 20 ArUbaid. h. Studies> Rev. Samarra and Mohammedabad. ZDMG. Arch. Tarkhan. pp.. p. 395 ff. 81. 124 and Hall. Hall and C. Rev. pp.. . Dtl. : Woolley 5 Susa f. Arch Ixx . Mon. pp. p. 4 Al 'Ubaid Ur Excavations \\. xxxi. 57 ff. Centenary Fal (1924) p. . p.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST xxv p. 243. kx. Btometrika. i. D/L Pcrse> xvi . pp. 25 f. Burhngton Mag . Bushire Mem. Dec . p. vols. yJLf.S. freshwater character see Campbell-Thompson -n Arch. Te'l Zeidan. cit. 10 11 12 MAG PT t Frankfort. For its Perse. 1928. 10 f. Man 1926. Contenau. Plot. 14 6 de Morgan. cit. p 8. On the technique and style cf. .* iii.. R. TeS Kaudeni near Fort Sandeman in Baluchistan. News..
Mem. 75-7. Ausgrabungen Deralte Orient. xxi. p. pp. Ass. VerSffd. Representations of Sumerians : see especially Andrae.. Intermediate stratum. tombs. Perse. viii. 2 3 VII seit> 1 in Babylonien 1918. pp. Manuel. I7th 1 1 .. xxiii. I. 1 928. M*/ar. Orient-Gesell. 107. Langdon in Archaeologia. p. For the general character and area of the Second Culture see Frank- fort *n Ant. Langdon. May. Pene. 10 For complete continuity especially Pottier in Rev. vii. i. Woolley went so far as to assert that the Second Style at Susa was only the domestic pottery and the profane art of the people who His archaistically used the First Style vases for funerary purposes.. It looks as if in Elam a good deal of the material here described may be in fact inspired from Babylonia. * from Kish described by Dudley Buxton in these from al 'Ubaid by Keith in Hall and Woolley. 35 f. pp.. Arch. Sidney Smith. in Times. lii. p. 85.. Langdon's Kish at 'Ubaid. xxiii (1926). p. 86. pp. " " argument rests upon a too literal interpretation of a theoretical section of the mound at Susa given by de Morgan. Studies. For a break. kretische Biegel. Rev. . Langdon II. XVItf the seals found in Susa hoard was contained in a characteristic store jar like PI. p. cemetery. Assyria . Susa II.e. 7 de Morgan. 243 .. it include type current in the period of Agade. D//. Musyan. 9 Rev. PrShistoire orientate. 8 The . 26 (1927). 11 Mr. Ass. Perse. 61) . 12 Tablets of the same kind have been found at Umma and elsewhere in Southern Mesopotamia. pp.NOTES NOTES TO CHAPTER Jemdet Nasr. Cf. viii. xii. D. Kish. p. 16 . Die archaiscken Iscktartempel in Assur (Wissen. NOTES TO CHAPTER 1 VIII Physical remains . hx. Mem. xiii . Arch. 70 ff. 1928. J. see JRAS. 40 ff. also Matz. 60 ff. Rev. D/t.. Frankfort. Hence these vases in monochrome paint were certainly still in use in the period which in Babylonia was early Sumerian. FriihFor a new element only Contenau. DtL Susa 4 5 6 66. xxi (1924.
1928. archaic cemetery. 698 ff. 56 and 99 . p. Paris. 1926. ii. excavations at this early . Hall. Excavations at Kish.. The Ox and his Kindred> of this culture by Sir John Marshall in the issues of 1924. 1927. Ant. and 4th Oct. viii. 133. 42. 16 For a racial connection. 17 xyii. pp. pp. Ant. pp. The discussion of the foreign relations of the early civilizations of the Ancient East on these pages is far the most sensible that has ever appeared. J. and Christian. NOTES TO CHAPTER IX 1 Lyddeker. Near East. 60. The Early History of Assyria. Ass.. p.. and literature there cited. 15 For the leaf skirt see Christian. 27th Feb. Oct. xv. gives accounts 244 . History of Burner and Akkad. Kish.. : The German . Mackay. 175. al Vbaid. 173. 10 Cf. viii (1928). Antiquity. liv. i ff. viii. 26th and 27th Sept. p. viii (1928). Field Museum Anthrofoligical Publications. cf. MAGW. p. Sidney Smith. i ff. cf. 14 The main sites are : 5 Christian in 4 Kish MAGW. MDOG. 15. vol. liv. Rev. and 6th Mar. 1925. 8 Kish. t zxii (1925). Archaic Sumerian palace. Ischtartempel \ Langdon and others hold that the tassels on the kaunakea are of wool and imitate a natural fleece. Excavation of the at Kish. temple and cemetery of the First Dynasty of Ur. p. . p. and Andrae. 89.. 9 "A" Cemetery 11 site Shuruppak (modern Fara) . cit. al p. Hall in Antiquity.26 ' .. loc. Indian pot-stone. p.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST A. Anc. Woolley. JRAS. Hist. royal tombs possibly older than the First Dynasty. Langdon. . 1928. J.. 1924. pp. seals and beads. Ant. 52 ff. 12 See 13 Matz. 'Ubaid. also Ant. Fruhkretischen Siegel.. ii. Al Ubaid. cf. 7th and I4th Jan. . seals. 7 Ur. Mackay. i. 14 Indian imports . z The Illustrated London News p. 28. p. p. i ff. 6 Ur cemetery of time of the First Dynasty. 9 and King. J. 26. have never been properly published p. Hall 3 and Woolley. Archacologia> kx. *Ubaid> p. i. J. Mackay. pp. 9 6 al pp.
188. Summaries are given by Burkitt in Ouf Early Ancestors. Childe. p. 169. 7he Aryans. identification of Magan. 34. pp 73 6 e. xiii (1927). Smithsonian Publications. J. pi. . Early Dynastic Cemeteries of Naga-ed-Der Elliot Smith. The Addendum. 5 5 f. ni. pp. op cit.. f. p. Dawn.. 90. ZfB. Menghin. 113. 16. DIL Perse.NOTES 3 Archaeological Survey of India. Sidney Smith. 10 The Ancient Egyptians 11 Reisner. Report. Lucas in JEA. p. xiii. 12 13 14 Childe. 83. pp. p. Ibid. Cf. 1923-4. p. 214 and 232. y viii. 4 5 Birthplace of Civilization. fig. xviii (1927). Ann. and by Peake and Fleure in Peasants and Potters 8 9 7 and in Priests and Kings. 4 5 I Ibid. 136 . 230. 2 1 detail by Sir Arthur Evans. p. has worked out a " " comprehensive theory of an Upper Palaeolithic Hand-axe Cycle of culture Ascalonian).. would representative is the so-called Campignyan (Bayer's various flaked flint picks or hoes of mesolithic times represent intermediate phases between the hand-axe and the whose The 245 . Ant. 7 This argument is borrowed from Sidney Smith.p. 1928'.) xlvii (1917). vol. Pettier in Mem. The cultures of Anau are described in Pumpelly's Explorations in Turkestan. Prahist. 51-4. cf. pp." Geographical Rev. p. " p. Assyria. . JEA..^. In a report it is issued to the British Association in September. by an application of this method on a much more sweeping scale with the aid of ethnographic evidence. ii. 73. 104. . No. 58 ff. derived from Oman.v\. 1898. Zeitschrift.g. 57. Prof. 1926.. 15 JRAI. 1928. 460. 3 This has been demonstrated in great Palace of Minos. 2 56. that the Sumerian copper ore was probably thus to a large extent confirming the proposed shown NOTES TO CHAPTER X Cf. p. 44 et passim* under-estimated the extent of Egyptian influence. pp.. have certainly Dawn of European Civilization.
535 ff. pp. in the Fayum. xx (1925). demonstrably later than the polished ! They are commonest where undeniably early neolithic or historical remains are rare and late.g. e.) One trouble about this sort of argument is that the flaked implements are in some cases.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST polished celt. None the less there is a great deal of truth in Menghin's general position and his researches are bound to lead to useful results. 246 . as for instance in Syria and North Palestine. and their users would be the first cultivators.
Eg. Revue archtologique. London (edited by Sir Flinders Petrie). . *Ant. Recueil des notices et Memoires de la archlologique de Gonstantine. .JMrtJSec. . . . . *JEA. Q. *Rec. . Institute. and Anthro- MAGW. . . . . Mitteilungen der deutschen Qrient-Gtselhchaft. UAnthropologie. MDOG. *JRAI. . London ( Society of Antiquaries) . Liverpool Annals of Archeology pology. *Anc. . .Const. G. . .ABBREVIATIONS + PERIODICALS Ancient Egypt. London. AZ. Antiquaries* Journal> London (Society of Antiquaries). . VAnthr. Institute). Rev. Arch. Antbropos. . S. . . Archaeologia. . Crawford). Quarterly Journal of the Meteorological Society. ZeitschriftfUr Sgyptische Sprache usw t> Leipzig. Antiquity. . Anthropos . Modling. . Man. London (R. Anthropological Berlin. . Mitteilungen der anthropotogischen Gesellschaft in Wien.J. . Pdris. London. Journal of the Royal Anthropological London. Man . LAAA. Paris. 247 . Southampton (edited * Antiquity . Journal of Egyptian Archeology 9 London. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. Arch. . JRAS. by O.
i. Modling. Leipzig. 2 London. Berlin. Paris. . Die archaischen Ischtartempel in Assur^ Wiss. . *FRANKFORT Near East. Excavations at Ur^ArUBaid^ London. 1928.THE MOST ANCIENT EAST Rev. Cambridge Ancient History. The Ancient History of the Near East. 1924. Veroffentlichungen der deutschen Orient- GeseU. . . Excavations at Kish. 61. London. ZflS. 248 . references to the French text. *Mem. Ebert's Reallexikon der Forgeschichte. Occasional Papers of the R. London. 1925. Real. Berlin. Ass. Festschrift P. 26). No. AUTHORS AKDRAE . Institute. 1925-7. ' vol. Revue d'assyriologie. Studies in the Early Pottery of the vols. CAPART Les De&uts de Fart en Egypte (transkted as Primitive Art in Egypt> London^ 1905). London. . CHJLDE EVANS The Dawn of European Civilization. Schmidt. Anthropological HALL *HALL and WOOLLEY LANGDON. Zeitschrift der deutschen Morgenland-Gesell- schaft. Nos. 1918 (Der Leipzig. 1928. 1918. vol. . S. 1927* seit Ausgrabungen in Bafyhnien alte Orient. COLLECTIVE WORKS CAH. Perse. . 1925. . Schmidt-Festschr. ZDMG. . 6 and 8). The Palace of Minos at Knossos. D/L Memoires de la Delegation en Perse* Paris (Ministry of Public Instruction). Paris. W. Zeitschrtftfur Ethnologie.
MORET . London. vol. From Tribe to Empire. . The same author's reports on special sites Naqada and B alias. Diosfoils Parva. in Egypt). . 1920. . SMITH. . 1925-7. 1927. . . . Hierakonpolis . London. 249 . Abydos. Prehistoire orientals> Paris. Royal Tombs. *PETRIE . Civilization. Leipzig. but taken in conjunction it with works cited in the notes to the several chapters will give students some guide for the as to the main sources where fuller references Of the above-mentioned works those marked immediate subject-matter of this can be obtained* * are of first-class importance book. and Tarkhan (published by British School of Archaeology essential. 12). The Nile and Egyptian 1927.ABBREVIATIONS DE MORGAN. SIDNEY . . J. Grundzuge der agyptischen Porgeschichte (Morgenland. are also *SCHARFF . 1925. This list does not pretend to be exhaustive. 1927. The Early History of Assyria^ London. (published by Egypt Exploration Fund). . etc. Prehistoric Egypt > London.
76 213. 226. . Copper. 150 Adze. 163 Arabia.181. 153. 31. 96. 176 Army. 56. 124. 142. tanged. 191. Capsian. see Magic Asses. 153. bull's . 126140. 163. 13. 195. Epoch of. 228. Predynastic. 19. 171 al 'Ubaid. Sumerian. 48. 32-5. 191. toad. 176 Aterian industry. . 96. 58. 112 . 226. Range of wild. 139. under Celts Badari. 24 remains in. slate theriomorphic.2 35 Bas-relief as decoration for vases. models of. 59. 17. 235 Apes. 147. 144 Badarian culture. Art. 112 Anau. Copper. Axe-heads with shaft-holes. 69. Sumerian. 48. . 69 . Or gins of. 93 117. 173 148. 223. 70. Art. chisel-ended. 129. 73. 16 Account-tablets. 181 Arrow-heads : Flint. spirally gadrooned. 77. 41. diluvian. 226 Alpine race. 96 73 fly.79. 145. 21 220 Basketry. 176 Arrow-butts. 132. 28. 22 Agade. 171-19^ *95> Assur. Arch. transsee also verse. 53> 5 8 69. Harness. 86. lozenge-shaped. Indus. glazed. 157. 51. 203 Battle-axes. in prehistoric India. 26 . 98. 112. 105. 137. 152. 229 Arabian desert. 223 . 128. 56. socketed. 43. character of. falcon. 191 . 139. 42. 153. 105. 115. 86.194 Baths. ff. 59 86. 228 Afrasia. 29. 60. 209 Magic origin of. 133 . in. 178. Discoveries at. defined. Predynastic. 220. 181 . 31. 223 Beakers. 86. 233 f 73 . discovered by Sumerians. 177 Beads: ostrich shell disc. 52. 80. 171. prototypes for vases. 160. 50. 181 .INDEX A-anni-padda. possible . 15. 223 ape. 229. cultivated. 208. head. 135. cultural focus in. 34 Amulets : celtiform. 17 Akkad. 70-I35* 145. 51 ff. Proto58. Principle of. 43. Former climate of. 194. 58. 170. 76. tanged. 173. 41 Aurignacians. hollow-based. 181 117. 153. 178. . 164. 214. 207 Agriculture. 233 Barley.
37. 167. 98. . 205 ^ore-casting. 222 Clans. Metallurgy. Hoes Chariots. 205. 63. 172 Byblos. 114. 170. 225. 63. 205. vases of. ivory. 43. 17. copper. Brick. 204 Crawford. 78 and arrows. 74.INDEX Beards worn. 67. 96 245. 130. 82 Boats. 58. 190. Chieftainship. 60. 14 Carchemish. 203. 187. see also under . partial. 112. 127 Capskn Tombs. 65. 129. Totemic. Combs. 177 Bovier Lapierre. 152. 208 58. 46 Copper. 108 Boomerang-club. 34. 195. 74. 222 Calendar. 174.. in North Africa. 176 Cattle. 115. 210.207 Christian. 105. 53. Chisels. 70. Use 206. 144. 54. 65. Use 92. Use of. 191. 140. 2ii . 70. 113. 37 under Arrow-heads Bow. 130 fiaked. 5. B&iedite. 175. Bow . 33. 227. 176 133. 214. 215 Plano-convex Bronze. 34. 172. 86 Conventionalization.* multiple. 133 Costume. 227 204 see also Naviga- Cedar-wood. O. 58. of. 58. 169. 134. sources of. 56. 45. . 74. ro. Climatic changes. 181 polished stone. 161. 102. 217. 193. 40. Chisel. flanged.8. V. art. 57. Camel. 130. 137. 120. 146. 105. 240 Domestic. 66. rg2. 42. 209. see also of Human Cremation Bushire. 113. 191 191 . 162. dancing. 144. 100 no. disarticulation before. Adze. 48. Composite. Dudley. 149. 202. Sails Caton-Thompson. 173. Getulan. see also copper. 2x6 252 . 58. 132. see also under Art. 129. S. 1 60. City life. Flint 197 Berosus. 149 Carinated vases. 139^59 Black-topped ware. 174. Egyptian. 37. 239 . 128. tion. 154 Carpentry. 88. 1 60. 233 metal. 60. 49. 153. Caucasus. . 97 Capsian industry. 176 Burial: Contracted. 210 . Bushmen. 206 Brunton. 47. 73. 207. 58. 159. 35 Buxton. G. 113. 73 of. Corbelled vaulting. 92. 105. 88. sacrifice. 128. see Dress Cotton. 170. 191 . 129. 66.. 124. 128. 78 Axe. 94 90. 240 Coffins. 73. G. Bitumen.176. 52. 170 Celts : Boomerangs. 60 Bull's leg couches. Bracelets : shell. 29 fT.. m aho Metal Malachite vases. in Egypt. 173 204 Bears. no.
223 Fish-hooks. Africa. etc. 202 Cylinder seals. 7. 49 . Fauna. 80. 90. 112. 93 . 173 Decorated pottery. see Shuruppak Diadems. 58. 69. see Carpentry. 204. 175. domesticated. 189 Gafsa. Copper. Steatopygy Flood. 47. 148.204 Domestic animals. 129. 1 24 Elephant. of Egyptians. 106. 197 Furniture. 59. 209. Skirts. see Arrow-butts Frankfort. Prediluvian. 220 Dress. 2 5> 3 r > 34> 238. 77. 21 Desiccation. Fraser. Amulets Fans of ostrich feathers. 190. Capsian. 37. 69. 140 Falcon. sentations see also of. 222. 193. 203 Dravidians. Meaning of term. 48. 162. Bull's leg couches. Indian. 165. etc. 170. 120. Emery. 164. see Amulets Forks. see also under the several species Filagree work. 74. 123. 208 ' Earrmgs. 29 Games. 38. 210 of Gapsians. of prehistoric Egypt. 3 5.211. 97. 50. 66 En-Izzan. folk. 139. 152 Flint work. 91. 231 Figurines. 39. 201 58. Babylonian.INDEX Creation. 130. 190. 86 225-6 Dances. Ear-plugs. 223 . Sumerian. 195. 58. 96. 163. 226. Egyptian. 170 . 179 Drains.73. 63. 142. Eye-paint. 52. The. 197. 124. 99. 53. 39. Original homes of. 25. 80 . 47. 223. 205 Cremation. 92. J. Flint. of pleistocene N. Remains from. 40-3 74. effects of. headdress. i5of. 76. ro6. .. 125. 172 of Indus 204 . 42. 205. 115. 83 Desiccated zone defined. see also Feathered 94. 99. 54. 210 Crete. 131. 58 Fara. 200. 113. 227 Ear-scoops. 17. 96 . 87. 109. 227 135. . Fly amulet. 109. 204. 150. 223 Diffusion of culture. 136 Daggers. 220. Domestic. 44 Domestication of animals. 209. The. clan. 221 Dog. see also under Statuary. 37 234 Cyclonic storms. 57. 30. 4 ff. 213 Erivain. 179. see Wheat 127. 142. 62. 154. Emmer. Repre- 92. in. 207. 42. 9 Funerary barques. 78. 229 . . 144. 14 f. 14 Fayum. Eridu. Egyptian. Dynasties. prehistoric Double-axe. 95. 52. see also under Bears Date-palm. in prehistoric India. of early India. 107. 23. 52.
Indian. Belief in. 193 Human sacrifice. Iron. 113. 67. 114 Knives. 118. 1 14 for climatic Houses. Art of. etc. 109. 56.223 **9> J '63. for Gourds prototypes vases. 211.INDEX Gebel el-Arak. 27 139. 152 ni. Egyptian. 200. 194 Glazed ware. see also worn 135. 90. 172. 60. 212 Kaunakes. 112. 193 Harpg. 19. see also Kaudeni. 165.. 59 King. 131 Lagash.145 Helwan. 225 Guilloche. 69. Getulan industry. 195 59. 126. of. Hall. Laurel-leaf points.237 Hamitic elements in Egypt. 38. 90. also 119. 114 Hoes. Iranian plateau. 15 88. Copper.206 Gold. 156. 19 Lapis lazuli.137. 186. 193 Harp. Feathered. 16. 24 House. r8i Headdress. 202. 131. 187. 115. Knife-handles. 62. Egyptian. 119. 128. 74.212. 66. Flaked. 37. 195. 77 Gilgamesh. 57. 199. 39 J S^ 179. 30. dressed in bun. Junker. 215 Handles to pots. 208 iir. Sumerian.198. R. 191. 72. Divine Ice Age. Tell. 61. 59. $. 73 Hadendoa. 226 204. 27. Shell. 170. Headdress H. 229 in. 138. 170. 48. 166 . 61. 1 06. 203 to metal vessels. 17. Mohenjo Daro Harem. 1 86 fF. 172.215 Lakes in Persian desert. 40.215. 58. 19. see King. 30. 129. 100 Kish. 27. 102 Hierakonpolis. 203. 63. Flint. 95. 237 fF. 138. Skying of. 162. 107. Carved ivoryr 97.. 191. Ground stone. 144 Kharga. Dynasty of. 103. 73.235 Former climate 24. 9. 34. 48 as clay Immortality. 8.. Pre- Geological evidence changes. Grooved hammers. JemdetNasr. 65. 6 1. 93. 54 . 88. at burials. 66.72. 144. 168. 41. 200.191. Harappa. 147 130. 179 Harpoons. 235 Gravers. 124.. 170 Ivory vases. Tomb Indian. 158. 61 Hand-axes. Capsian. 142. 139. 129. 162. no. 204 Kenya. 181. 208 Langdon. long. 131. diluvian. 170 Glazing. 51 Hair. 163 Incised decoration on pottery. 28. 115. 124. i47&> i68E. 66. a 4 Lamps. 59. 193. 205 as a subterranean. Divine. 70. 80. 102. Discoveries at.
37. 201 de Morgan. 7. 133. 175 Mediterranean race. 215.245 Oronsay. 245 Magic of pictures. 1 1 8. 223. 141. 124. 44. 60. 73. 210.239 . Finds at. 1 8 Mastaba. 128. Meyer. sheep. 224 Mirrors. Mats. 40. etc. Rhomboid. 129. 149 Myres. 112. 227 Nails. 79. Sources of .. 171. 135. 199 Magan. 97 Lucas. 67. etc. 126. 7. Painting of pottery.INDEX Lead. 173 169 Palettes. 3. 6r. 227 of. see 77 Manetho. 243 Motive power. Origin 220. etc. Neandertal man. 229 Leakey.. Eduard. 95 Ostrich shell vases.. 47. Obsidian. 52. 92. 27 Musicians. 66. 210 Ma'adi. 15 Nal. 57. Monsoon. 45 Olive. 4 Martu. 227. 157. 59. Rectangular. in Peake. Methods Millet. 220. 17 MicroUths. 161. 60. 86. 66. 59 Milking. 109. J. 231 Osiris. i35> 2 33 Libyans. Musyan. Sails Mackay. 122. 39. identified with Magan. 131. 77. 88 Nubian cultures. at. 203 ff. 73 . 84. 27. 80. 212 Palaces. 66. 27 Negroid traits in Mediterranean populations. 98. see Oldoway.214. 150. 137.. 120. 245 Metallurgy. 133. 27 Leather prototypes for pots. 146. 214. Mesopotamian. 193 56. 97. 117. First use of nonhuman. 147. 93 Malachite. 208. rir. 174. 139 Mohenjo Daro. see Mining. Discoveries 158. 153. 200 Menes. 204 Newberry. 23 5 Cannes. 108. L. Oman. 116. 71. 154. 86. 12. Theriomorphic. 232 . 222 Lion in art. 117 Mousterian implements. Menghin. O. also no. 54. Legend of. 144. 206. 52 Lion-hunt palette. 177 Navigation. 170 98.. 32. 173 also Copper. H. io4f. 149 Nomes. 187 . 78 Mace-heads. 51 of. 205 Mouflon. 1 8. 95 Metal ) vessels. 29 Neanthropic man cradled in Africa. 70. 113. 207 under several metals . 237 Nihavend. 73. 95. 139 Naram-Sin. also Beads 173 181 . J. 95. see also Boats.
58. 119. 223 used in Mesopotamia. H. Leather. 74. S^belian. 117 Punt. 195 Plough. 50. 51 . . 223 . Mesopotamian. Painting. 189. 205. 188. 17. 176. 181 . Razors. 147 Plano-convex bricks.94. E. of Badarians. etc. 200 Pottery: I 237 30. 117. 2ir. Sails. 234. Land of. 170. ii Sahara. 65 Egyptian. 173 Poker-butted spear. industry. 37. 189. G.120. 16. 69.. 142 Prediluvian defined. 227 66. 195. Wavy-handled. . 150. 21. in India. Flint. 90. 146. 210 Script: Decorated. 34^> J Indian. dynastic.INDEX Penis sheath. 9 Reticules. Beakers. 76. 12. 237 Seistan. 25. 58. see aho Pistographic Writing. 139 204 Pictographic writing. 107.. 208. of Egyptians.. 199. 127 Priests. 118. 210. Indian. Indian. 34 . 207 Sayce. 96 $ in Mesopotamia. Red Crown. 102. 207 Recessed brickwork. used in Sumer. etc. 223 . see Spear Pot-stone. 127. see also 120. 160. 37 Rosette. 127. 105. 59. C. 135 Seligman. Seals. 169. Pettier. 164 256 . Sakje Geuzi. 50 Stamp. 189 . 60 Scharff. 145. 198 Persian Gulf. 237 Querns. 136. 142.D. 136. 73 175. Gourd. 63. 189. 108. 205 Pillars. 28. 136 Semites in Egypt. S. Incised. early Rock paintings and engravings. Reisner. M. 171 . 208 Rhinoceros. W. Changes in coastline of. 24 ivory. Basketry. 237 'Sbaikian industry. 210. 205 123 F. raquet. 206 Sculpture in stone. 126. 79 Petrie. 66.. 63. Geography of. n. 202 Rings. in North Africa. Badarian. 8. 128 Quivers.237 Phalanx. 177 Physical anthropology. 34. 165. Indus. 65. (as Sequence Date) defined. 120 . 215. 149 Samarra. 175. Resurrection. 40. 55 5 Sumerian. 25. 170 Property. 223 roll-headed. 147. 94. Black-topped. see aho Cylinder seals Sed Festival.. G. 79 Perry. A.97. Sumerian. 19. 9. 167. *75 Pins: eyelet. 66. 205. 70 . 235 Saws. 96. 54. 128. 140. 209. Prediluvian. 54 f. Metal. see Proprietary marks. Pre- Scrapers.
135 ffl. 243 Skves. Evidences for prehistoric: Egypt. 18. see also under 124. vases of. once native in Nile valley. 69. Totemic cults in Egypt. 81. Shell-inky. 61. 165 Sumer. 73. 210 Shemsu-Hor (Followers of Horus). 149 Sickles. 235 Subaraeans. Elliot. characters of. 154. 165. Sculpture. of the Sidney. 215 Sothic cycle. 150. 95 i Stone. 179 . 167. 170. 76 "Smith". 197 Skirts. 66. tanged.INDEX Range Sheep. 142. 60 SomaHand. 204 113 Sindh. Sociology Significance surname. 106 Specialization of labour. 84. no. 183. 96. 223 Toilet sets. see also Mouflon. 89. 147. 152. 54. 129. 57. 174 Tattooing. 95. 223 ^ . 109. 203 Theriomorphic vases. 136 ff.63. 155. 7. 109. 120. 174 Silver. 205. 63. wild. 118. 138. Susa. 257 . 211 Tombs. on prehistoric boats. 225 of predynastic Egypt. 171 Discoveries at. see also House. 148 Swastika. 59. 208. 34. Smith. of. 44. 3 $ Timber. physical 196. Sledges. 81. 57. 66. 150. 58. 17. G. 98. 57. 52. 82 Spear-heads: Poker-butted. zoo. 139. 17 of. E.. 5. 92. Carpentry Tin. 28. Bell-shaped. 40. 26. Side-blow Signature. 84. 8. 127. 194. n Sumer. 102. 92. S. Burial. 72. origins 211 . 73. 51. 176. 8. 155 Standards. 215. of 58. Domestic. 150. 193. 203. polished.. 195 prehistoric India and West. Celts. 204. 8 8. Shuruppak. 170. 132. in Mesopotamia. Sickle-teeth. etc. <55 in predynastic Egypt. 174. 195. 54. early 59 methods Steatopygy. 161. 229. 208 201 172. etc. 164. Definition of area. 9 6 > 2 37 i5? 113.173. see aho I3 8 > r 55> l8 75 Clay. etc.. 240. to be imported. 109 132. 65>94Solutreans. Sumerians. Spiral motive. 223 Flint. Types of built.206. Shields. 237 South Spanish art. 113. 175. 20. 88 Trade. 244 164 Thomas. 37. architecture in Egypt. 48. of. 66. 170. Sistrum. 189.233 flake. 237. 119. between 146. Metal. 223 Spoons. 198.207 Spouted vases. Climate Sinai. 198. 173 Temples. 17. 107. 169. Urial Square-mouthed vases. 83. 134. 156.
70. 181. L. 202 Vegetation. 210. 129. 208. 205 Printed in Great Britain by Stephen Austin W Sons. 187 Woolley. 122. 190. 167. 166. 63. 198. 112. 84 Weaving. 210 Wheeled vehicles.Tell. 223. 49* 51 Yemen. Ltd. 215 Zebu. Pictographic etc. Dynasty. 221 Troy. 52.. 70 Umma.* fftrtftrJ. 23. 22-9 Wheel. 223 Whetstones. C. 222 197. of prehistoric 191. njechanisrfi of early. 20 1. 147. Wigs.243 Writing. 155. ' 214. 16. 199 of. . etc. 23 Tweezers. 208. 201 Vavilov. 151. 120. Script. Wheat. 214. 16 . 173. 43 ^ cultivation* of. Twin* vases. 131. 180 White Cross-lined pottery. 118. 74. Urial sheep. 164. 42 . 188. Egypt. 52. tablets. 169 ff. Beginnings of.150. 155.INDEX 199. 204 Zeidan. varieties of. 17. 43. 217.. at. 127. 174. 216. Discoveries 19. 127 Wavy-handled jars. Range and. no.. 172 Wine-skin copied in silver. 147.* 167. 147. 205. 66. 223 204. 160. 211. see also under 146. 91. Potters'. Ur. 44. 226 Turanian Basin. of prehistoric North Africa. 204 Weights.
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