Institut für Erdöl- und Erdgastechnik

Abteilung Erdöl-, Erdgasgewinnung und Erdgasversorgung

Project Assignment By International Drillers

Huzaif Memon, Gohul Dhanarasu, Faissal Boulakhrif Roy Radido Okech, And Muhammad Shahzad,

Stuck Drill Pipe Phenomenon – Solid Buildup

Prof. Dr. Catalin Teodoriu Advanced Drilling Technology – WS 2012/2013

Institute of Petroleum Engineering Clausthal University of Technology 28/01/2013

2 2.1 2.2 3

Table of Contents
INTRODUCTION PROBLEM DESCRIPTION OBJECTIVES LITERATURE REVIEW 4 4 6 6 9 9 9 10 10 11 15 19 22 23 23 23 24 24 24 25 3 3 4 3




the key to achieving objectives successfully is to design drilling programs on the basis of anticipation of potential hole problems rather than on caution and containment. even in very carefully planned wells. and. mud contamination. and planning solutions are necessary for overall-well-cost control and for successfully reaching the target zone. hole cleaning. H2S-bearing formation and shallow gas. hole deviation. formation damage. equipment and personnel-related problems. Drilling problems can be very costly. lost circulation.1 Introduction Problem Description It is almost certain that problems will occur while drilling a well. possible solutions. Therefore. To discuss possible solutions and preventive measures. The most prevalent drilling problems include pipe sticking. Understanding and anticipating drilling problems. understanding their causes. and preventive measures. in areas in which similar drilling practices are used. pipe failures.2 • • • Objectives To design and construct a model wellbore and drilling system. To demonstrate the solid buildup phenomenon using the model wellbore system.2 2. -3- . This project addresses the problem of drilling pipe differential sticking. borehole instability. due to solid buildups in the wellbore. In well planning. For example. 2. hole problems may have been reported where no such problems existed previously because formations are non-homogeneous. two wells close to each other may have totally different geological conditions.

An improper reaction to a sticking problem could easily make it worse. to major complications. -4- . Pipe sticks while tripping into the hole (pipe moving) with the bit and BHA below the casing shoe. and the BHA has been lengthened or stiffened. • • If it is possible to circulate. If the pipe becomes stuck. The probability of freeing stuck pipe successfully diminishes rapidly with time. It can range in severity from minor inconvenience. the pipe is probably stuck in cement or contaminated mud. and the mud is cement-contaminated or contains a high lime concentration. which can increase costs slightly.3 3. Some of the most common stuck pipe situations.1 Common Stuck Pipe Scenarios Stuck pipe can often be freed. • If stuck off bottom. the string probably has been wedged into a dogleg. Stuck pipe prevention and remedy are dependent on the cause of the problem. a pipe is considered stuck if it cannot be freed and pulled out of the hole without damaging the pipe and without exceeding the drilling rig’s maximum allowed hook load. it is important to understand the various causes and symptoms so that proper preventive measures and treatments can be taken. the casing probably has collapsed. However. since each cause must be remedied with different measures. every effort should be made to free it quickly. Therefore. such as loss of the drill string or complete loss of the well.1 Literature Review Pipe Sticking During drilling operations. Pipe sticks while tripping into the hole before the bit reaches the casing shoe. Circulation should be possible. It is impossible to rotate the pipe. which can have significantly negative results. A large percentage of stuck pipe instances eventually result in having to sidetrack around the stuck pipe called a fish and re-drill the interval. If it is not possible to circulate. are as follows: 1. with the most common ways to free it. An evaluation of the events leading up to the stuck pipe occurrence frequently indicates the most probable cause and can lead to the proper corrective measures. but may be restricted. 2. to avoid stuck pipe and correct it efficiently. 3. it is critical first to determine why the pipe is stuck. Early identification of the most likely cause of a sticking problem is crucial. Stuck pipe is one of the more common and serious drilling problems.1.

but may be restricted. It is probably junk in the hole. Mechanically stuck pipe can be grouped into two major categories: 1. such as when connections are being made or when a survey is being taken. It is indicated by full circulation and no up/down mobility or rotary freedom other than pipe stretch and torque. Wellbore geometry interferences. circulate and move the pipe a limited amount. 3. pipe is stuck in fill or if the mud has been contaminated with cement. Hole pack-off and bridges. Circulation should be possible. The pipe sticks suddenly while pulling out of the hole on a trip and cannot be worked up or down. even when the pipe is mechanically stuck. 2. and usually can be rotated. 6. • • If the pipe can be rotated with restricted circulation. The pipe sticks when circulating kill mud during a well-control operation while the pipe was not being worked or rotated. Differential sticking usually occurs while the pipe is stationary. Mechanical sticking usually occurs when the drill string is moving. If the pipe cannot be rotated with full circulation. If the pipe sticks while making a connection or taking a survey. -5- . the mud or cement probably has set up. and it is still possible to rotate. it is probably differentially stuck.• If the pipe is stuck close to bottom. It also is indicated by obstructed circulation. it may be jammed into an undergauge hole or dogleg. pipe becomes stuck either mechanically or differentially. • If it is not possible to circulate. Mechanical sticking is caused by a physical obstruction or restriction. with full circulation. 4. It is probably differentially stuck. however. In general. a limited amount of up/down mobility or rotary freedom is evident. Differential sticking is caused by differential pressure forces from an overbalanced mud column acting on the drill string against a filter cake deposited on a permeable formation. Occasionally. it is an indication of rocks. The pipe sticks while picking up or tripping. Differential pressure pipe sticking and mechanical pipe sticking are addressed below. 5. cement blocks or junk in the hole. It is probably key seated.

which causes pipe sticking. The settling of a large amount of suspended cuttings to the bottom when the pump is shut down or the downward sliding of a stationary-formed cuttings bed on the low side of a directional well can pack a bottom hole assembly (BHA). If this condition exists while tripping out. 3. particularly in directional-well drilling. sloughing. plastic shale or salt sections squeezing (creeping).Pack-offs and bridges are caused by: • • • • Settled cuttings Shale instability Unconsolidated formations Cement or junk in the hole Wellbore geometry interferences are caused by: • Key seats • Undergauge hole • Stiff drilling assembly • Mobile formations • Ledges and doglegs • Casing failures 3. borehole instabilities.2. This is why it is a common field practice to circulate bottom up several times with the drill bit off bottom to flush out any cuttings bed that may be present before making a trip. In directional-well drilling. such as hole caving. it is very likely that pipe sticking will occur. a stationary cuttings bed may form on the low side of the borehole.1 Drilled Cuttings Excessive drilled-cuttings accumulation in the annular space caused by improper cleaning of the hole can cause mechanical pipe sticking. or collapse. -6- .2 Mechanical Pipe Sticking The causes of mechanical pipe sticking are inadequate removal of drilled cuttings from the annulus. and key seating. Increases in torque/drag and sometimes in circulating drill pipe pressure are indications of large accumulations of cuttings in the annulus and of potential pipe-sticking problems.

27 x 10-3 m3/sec = V x 2.025 m 2 Area between well bore and Drill collar Area between well bore and Drill pipe Velocity through drill collar and well bore = Q = VA 1.3 x 10 -3 m 2 = π / 4 (well bore ID 2 – Drill pipe OD 2) = π / 4 (0.3 x 10 -3 m 2 V = 0.188 2 – 0.27 x 10-3 m3/sec = V x 0.55 m/s Velocity through drill pipe and well bore = Q = VA 1. eventually causing the hole to pack off.0508 m/s -7- .18 2) A = 2.05 2) A = 0.188 2 – 0. often around the Bottom-Hole Assembly (BHA) and sticking the drill string.025 m 2 V = 0. where annular velocities are reduced as shown by the calculations below: Calculation of Velocity of cuttings through the wellbore: = π / 4 (well bore ID 2 – Drill collar OD 2) = π / 4 (0. they accumulate in the well.Settled cuttings If cuttings are not removed from the borehole. This problem is encountered often in over gauge sections.

-8- .In deviated wells. causing pack off. cuttings will build up on the low side of the hole and may eventually slump down the hole.

hole size or casing ID.1. are presented as follows: • Mud flow rate – significant positive effect -9- . size.1 Effect of Major Drilling Parameters on cutting transport The influence of major drilling parameters on cuttings transport in deviated and horizontal wells. The different mechanisms which dominate within different ranges of wellbore angle should be used to predict: • Cuttings bed heights and annular cuttings concentrations as functions of operating parameters (flow rate and penetration rate) • • • • • Wellbore configuration (depth. A comprehensive cuttings transport model should allow a complete analysis for the entire well.4 4. and pipe size) Fluid properties (density and rheology) Cuttings characteristics (density. from surface to the bit. bed porosity.1 Project Overview Cuttings Transport in deviated Wells. and angle of repose) Pipe eccentricity Rotary speed 4. hole angle.

All other parameters are kept constant.2 m Length of well bore: 150 cm = 1. hole inclination.05 m • Maximum H: 45m Maximum Flow rate: 4600 litre/hour = 1.27 x 10-3 m3/sec . pipe rotation.188 m Wellbore OD: 20 cm = 0.1 • Project Components Dimensions and Specifications Wellbore ID: 18.2 4.18 m Length of Drill collar: 50 cm = 0.• • • • • • • • • • Mud rheology – moderate positive or negative effect depending on cuttings size. 4.10 - .5 m • Drill Pipe OD = 5 cm = 0.5 m • Drill collar OD: 18 cm = 0. the only variable is the hole angle.significant negative effect ROP – moderate negative effect Drill bit type – unknown influence due to the regrinding of cuttings after they have been generated Cutting size – small negative or positive impact depending on several conditions In this project.2. and annular eccentricity Hole angle – significant negative impact with increase in inclination Mud weight – small positive impact to moderate positive effect Mud type Hole size – small to no effect for the same annular fluid velocity Rotation Speed – Significant positive effect Eccentricity .8 cm = 0.

4.2 Drawing and Design Mud outflow line Annulus Drill pipe Wellbore Mud tank Drill collar Mud pump Inclined plate Mud inflow line 3D Model .2.11 - .

12 - .Cross-sectional Model .

2D Model .13 - .

Isometric Model .14 - .

3 Construction Annulus Drill pipe Mud outflow line Mud tank Drill collar Cuttings samples Mud pump Mud inflow line Completed Model Wellbore System .4.15 - .2.

16 - .Wellbore Drill Pipe Out flow line Drill Collar Mud inflow line Mud Tank Inclined lever Pump Inclined base Wellbore and Drill Pipe .

‘Mud’ Tank Pump .17 - .

18 - .Lever System Cuttings Sample .

27 x 10-3 m3/sec. The mud lifts the cuttings up the wellbore at a velocity of 0.1 Principle of Operation When the pump is turned on. is pumped inside the wellbore from bottom. Drill Pipe Mud Flow The mud attempts to remove the cuttings which are settled on the top and sides of the drill collar. at a rate of 1. and at 0. This phenomenon would cause the drill string to stick in the wellbore during drilling.4. Mud inflow pipe Mud circulating the cuttings .0508 m/s between the well bore and drill pipe.19 - .55 m/s between the well bore and drill collar. This abrupt decrease in velocity causes the cuttings to settle down on the top and sides of the drill collar. the mud (water in our case).

Settled cuttings Cuttings Settling-Solid Buildup Drill collar Top Cuttings settling on top of the drill collar .20 - .

Drill String being pulled off bottom to remove stuck cuttings .21 - .

4. Handle the cart with care while moving from one place to another knocks and bumps. Eating and drinking is prohibited while operating the apparatus. It is recommended to use hand gloves while operating the apparatus. Keep fire extinguishers close during operation. in case of an electrical fire. Keep your fingers away from the pump during operation. Do not operate the pump with wet hands. Equipment must not leak.22 - . . Ensure the apparatus are kept clean at all times. avoid any fluid spillages on the pump motor. Operate the inclined lever with utmost care.2 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Safety Measures Do not attempt to disassemble the electric equipment (pump). Do not siphon fluid from the apparatus by use of mouth. Many other operations normally carried out in the workshop are potentially dangerous. Do not block the pump motor’s air vents. use appropriate pipetting tools. Avoid putting your fingers and hands below the inclined plate. The greatest care should be taken at all times to ensure your safety and that of others in the workshop. Keep a first aid box close in case of any emergency injuries during operation.

This generates cuttings faster than they can be circulated mechanically from the annulus. • • • Inadequate annular hydraulics. Failure to suspend and carry cuttings to the surface with adequate mud rheology. Over pull on connections and while tripping out. drag and pump pressure.5 5. since the drilled solids tend to fall to the low side of the hole. Few cuttings returning at the shakers relative to the drill rate and hole size.23 - . • Unintentionally drilling without circulation. Increase in torque. cuttings may settle around the BHA and pack off. The major warning signs and indications of cuttings settling • • • • • Fill on bottom after connections and tripping. sticking the pipe.2 .1 Discussion The causes of inadequate cleaning of cuttings from the hole • Drilling at excessive Rates Of Penetration (ROP) for a given circulation rate. Not circulating enough to clean the hole before tripping out or making connections. Highly deviated well paths. 5. • Drilling blind (without mud returns) and not adequately sweeping the hole periodically with a viscous mud. Increase in Low-Gravity Solids (LGS) and possible mud weight and/or viscosity increases. which are not easily removed. Beds of cuttings will form. • • Formation sloughing and packing off around the drill string. When circulation is interrupted. High angle wells are more difficult to clean.

followed by weighted pills to carry the cuttings out of the hole. inclination and ROP. ROP and hole inclination. a weighted high viscous pill should be used to “float out” the cuttings. In low angle holes. . In high angle holes. Use drill string motion (rotate and reciprocate).2 • Recommendation The project can be modified to include a variable mud pump system. sweep the hole with high-viscosity mud. If the annulus becomes overloaded. in order to monitor the influence of pump rate on solid buildup. Higher circulation rates always provide improved hole cleaning. In addition. sweep with low-viscosity/high-viscosity pills.24 - .1 Conclusions and Recommendations Preventive measures to minimize the possibility of settled cuttings • Maintain proper mud rheology in accordance with hole size. • Inadequate hole cleaning causes overloading of the annulus. this results in the formation of a cuttings bed on the low side of the borehole. attempts to establish circulation must be attempted. Make a wiper trip after all long motor runs. Always circulate until the sweeps have returned to the surface and the shakers are clean. a low viscous pill should be used to disturb the cuttings bed. 6. • Use optimized hydraulics compatible with the respective hole size. • In near-vertical wells. • • • • Control drilling in high ROP or marginal hole-cleaning situations.6 6. Once circulation is established. the drill string should be rotated to further disturb the cuttings. In highly deviated wells. a downward force should be applied gradually until circulation begins. In highly deviated or horizontal wells. Use aggressive drill string rotation for improved hole cleaning. while circulating at the maximum rate to disturb cuttings beds and reincorporate them into the flow stream.

com sereneenergy.7 References • • • • • Petroleum Engineering Handbook. Lake) MI Swaco Hand books and Manual PetroWiki petroleumsupport.25 - .org . Volume II ( Larry W.

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