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HST 1010♦ Medieval Europe I The Early Middle Ages, 400-1000 The High Middle Ages, 1000-1250
Lecturer: Mr. C. Dalli, Prof. G. Wettinger Assessment: Test Credit Value: 6 The Early Middle Ages, 400-1000 (Prof. G. Wettinger) examines the broad social, political, economic and cultural changes which took place in the first six medieval centuries in Europe and the Mediterranean world, up to about the year 1000. Themes to be discussed include: the break-up of the Roman Mediterranean; the establishment of Germanic kingdoms in Western Europe and North Africa and their evolution; the making of a Christian society; the evolution of the Eastern Roman state; the establishment of Islam in the Mediterranean; the making and unmaking of Charlemagne’s Empire; and the transition of the tenth century.
Suggested Introductory Reading: Einhard and Notker the Stammerer, Two Lives of Charlemagne (Penguin, 1969) R.Collins, Early Medieval Europe, 300-1000 (Macmillan, 1991) A.F.Havighurst ed., The Pirenne Thesis: Analysis, Criticism and Revision (London, 1976) G.Holmes, The Oxford History of Medieval Europe (Oxford, 1988)
The High Middle Ages, 1000-1250 (Mr C. Dalli) discusses the transformation of Western Europe and the Mediterranean world in the eleventh, twelfth and early thirteenth century. The main theme is that of Latin Christian expansion on all fronts; the nature and types of expansion will be discussed at length, in relation to the social, economic, political and cultural dimensions of the period. Topics include: the economic recovery of the eleventh century; the rise of towns and long-distance trade; the Crusading movement; the expansion of Latin Christendom; the struggle between Popes and Emperors; the ‘Twelfth Century Renaissance’; and the Mediterranean world in the mid-thirteenth century.
Suggested Introductory Reading: Joinville and Villehardouin, Chronicles of the Crusades (Penguin, 1963) C.Brooke, Europe in the Central Middle Ages, 962-1154 (Longman, 1987) J.Mundy, Europe in the High Middle Ages, 1150-1309 (Longman, 1973) R.Bartlett, The Making of Europe. Conquest, Colonization and Cultural Change, 950-1350 (Penguin, 1993)
Structure and Change in Malta’s Economic History
Lecturer: Dr. J. Chircop Assessment: 50% by Test, 50% by Seminar Paper Credit Value: 4
As Malta’s economic history is still being reconstructed, this course is created out of on-going research and within a comparative theoretical framework. The first part of the course will deal with the chronology of Malta’s economy in relation to regional and international developments. Some landmarks which have shaped Malta’s economic history are: The Continental wars (Malta as a key trade centre) followed by depression; Malta becoming a British entrepot; The Crimean War - stepping up of British expenditure on the naval-military establishments: The opening of the Suez Canal and Malta’s role on the main maritime route to India: Malta’s strategic position and two world wars: The postwar reconstruction, the rundown and new strategies for economic development: The first development plan.
The second part of the course concentrates on specific issues constituting Malta’s economic development during the British period. In this section, focus is put on: I. The structural foundation of the internal economic system, and II. The changes induced mainly through external dynamics. The central topics to be explored during the course are: Introduction: Writing Malta’s economic history The traditional domestic economy The agricultural sector. Infant protoindustries - structure and dynamics. The Mercantile system. Malta’s economy under British rule: Maltese trade and the port economy. Patterns of Maltese capital accumulation. Expansion of an import-oriented economy. Malta’s strategic (naval-military) role: Increasing dependence on the naval-military establishments: The Labour market; Foreign Currency; Structural inflation; Structural dependence and total integration in the World Economy. Bibliography: Bowen-Jones, H., Dewdney, J.C. and Fisher, W.B., Malta, Background for development, University of Durham, 1961.
Ancien Regime Europe Enlightened Europe Privilege and Reaction in the Ancien Regime
Lecturer: Dr. W. Zammit Assessment: 40% Coursework, 60% Test Credit Value: 4 Enlightened Europe will begin with a theoretical explanation of the term and then evolve into its practical
achievements. An essential element of the unit will be an analysis of how justified it is to call ‘The Enlightenment’ an ‘Age of Reason’. Careful study will be made of its achievements or otherwise in various countries. Other topics include the Church, Government and the People, the Administration and Finance, Serfdom and Agriculture, the Reform of the Law, torture and capital punishment.
Emphasis will also be laid on how much the ideas of the Enlightenment, as expounded by such philosophers as Voltaire and Rousseau, have led to the French Revolution. Has the Enlightenment ended, or is it still significant to the modern world? Bibliography: Peter Gay, The Enlightenment (2 vols.); F. Venturi, Settecento Riformatore (4 vols.); H. M. Scott (ed.), Enlightened Absolutism: Reform and Reformers in Later Eighteenth-Century Europe; M. S. Anderson, Europe in the Eighteenth Century, 1713-1783.
Privilege and Reaction in the Ancien Regime: The eighteenth century was especially characterized by a
marked conflict between the ` absolutist'monarchies and the principle of privilege, upon which the entire structure of ancien régime society was based. Embodied in several forms and shapes (the Church, the nobility, and the clergy; tax exemptions, provincial rights, seigneurial dues, and so on), privilege progressively became the main target, the bête noire, of the enlightened philosophes. This study unit, designed for first- and second-year BA (History) students, is primarily concerned with this mutual conflict and with its long-term consequences in European society, economy, and politics, culminating in the French Revolution of 1789 and the demise of the ancien régime.
Set Text: Jean-Jacques Rousseau, A Discourse on Inequality. Penguin Classics, 1984.
Malta and the Mediterranean in Modern Times The Mediterranean in Modern Times The Order of St. John and the Mediterranean Themes of Nineteenth Century Maltese History Topics of Twentieth Century Maltese History Prof. D. Fenech / Prof. V. Mallia-Milanes Test for the first three parts of the study-unit [60%]; Seminar presentation and written paper for the last part [40%]
Credit Value: 10
Students following this course are normally expected to possess an ‘A’ level in History or an equivalent qualification.
The Mediterranean in Modern Times (Prof. D. Fenech) is a historical survey aiming to show the changing
importance of the Mediterranean in international politics in modern history. The course reviews the changes that led to the Mediterranean being superseded politically and economically by northern Europe in early modern times until it returned to international importance by being itself subjected to largely nonMediterranean powers. Themes discussed include the decline of Spain and of the Ottoman Empire; the rising interest of England and Russia; the competition between England and France for mastery of the Mediterranean in the nineteenth century; the Eastern Question; the unification of Italy; the fall of the Austrian and Ottoman Empires and the emergence of new states in south-eastern Europe and the Middle East.
Suggested Reading M.S. Anderson, The Eastern Question: 1774-1923. C.W. Crawley, The Mediterranean, New Cambridge Modern History, volume X. Dominic Fenech, East-West to North-South in the Mediterranean, Geojournal, 31.2, 1993 John Mathiex, The Mediterranean, New Cambridge Modern History, volume VI. A.P. Thornton, Rivalries in the Mediterranean, the Middle East and Egypt, New Cambridge Modern History, volume XI. Immanuel Wallerstein, The Capitalist World Economy, Cambridge, 1979. Chapters 1 and 2.
The Order of St John and the Mediterranean (Prof. V Mallia-Milanes) is meant to serve as a general
introduction to the history of the Hospitaller Order of St John of Jerusalem, to provide an overview of its development, and to show how intimately it integrated into the social, economic, and cultural structure of the Mediterranean from the twelfth century to the end of the eighteenth.
Recommended Reading: J. Riley-Smith, The Knights of St John in Jerusalem and Cyprus. c.1050-1310. (London 1967) Several papers in Variorum edition by A.T. Luttrell: to be identified during the first lecture. Hospitaller Malta 1530-1798: Studies on Early Modern Malta and the Order of St John of Jerusalem, ed. V. Mallia-Milanes (Malta 1993). F. Braudel, The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Philip II (London 1972-73). These and other books will be discussed during the first lecture.
Themes in Nineteenth-Century Maltese History (Prof. D. Fenech) examines how because of the nature of
Malta and the Maltese, the circumstances in which the British came to Malta, and the island' strategic s function, the maintenance of sound relations with the Maltese community was at the base of British policy. British policy sought to achieve this by ensuring a working relationship with the powerful Catholic Church and by guarded constitutional concessions. In addition, the needs of the naval base made the British the chief motor of the economy, making their presence appear indispensable for the livelihood of the people. Meanwhile, Malta' strategic role meant that Britain' involvement in international politics, especially where s s Mediterranean questions were involved, had a direct impact on British policy decisions concerning Malta, often with important repercussions on the local political scene. The main aspects therefore discussed are the shifting relationship between state, Church and local political groupings, the inevitable interdependence that developed between Malta and Britain and the effects of international developments on Maltese history, attempting to place the latter within the broader framework of European and Mediterranean history.
Suggested Reading: Dominic Fenech, ‘Birgu during the British Period’, in Lino Bugeja et al. (eds.), Birgu: a Maltese Maritime City, vol.i, Malta 1993. Dominic Fenech, ‘A Historical Introduction’, in Responsibility and Power in Inter-war Malta: Book One, Endemic Democracy, Malta 2005. Hilda Lee, Malta 1813-1914: A Study in Constitutional and Strategic Development, Malta 1972. Victor Mallia-Milanes (ed.), The British Colonial Experience, 1800-1964, Malta 1988. C.A.Price, Malta and the Maltese: a Study in Nineteenth Century Migration, Melbourne 1987.
Topics in Twentieth-Century Maltese History (Seminar) (Prof. D. Fenech) covers a broad range of
specific topics, including constitutional development; the evolution of, and relationship between, the political parties; the achievement of the various administrations; the politico-religious crises; the Second World War; reconstruction; and the changing relationship between Malta and Britain. This course, conducted through seminars, seeks to discuss a selection of topics of twentieth century Maltese history within the framework of the themes covered in the lectures on nineteenth-Century Maltese History.
Suggested Reading: Edith Dobie, Malta’s Road to Independence, Oklahoma 1967. Dominic Fenech, Responsibility and Power in Inter-war Malta: Book One, Endemic Democracy, Malta 2005 Herbert Ganado, Rajt Malta Tinbidel, Malta 1977. Victor Mallia-Milanes (ed.), The British Colonial Experience, 1800-1964, Malta 1988. Joseph M. Pirotta, Fortress Colony: the Final Act, 1945-1964, Malta 1991. Michael J. Schiavone, L-Elezzjonijiet f’Malta, 1849-1992, Malta 1992. N.B. When parts of this study-unit, with the special permission of the lecturer, are taken on their own by students whose area of study is not History, they shall be registered as: HST 1113 The Mediterranean in Modern Times (2 credits, assessed by Test). HST 1213 The Order of St John and the Mediterranean (2 credits, assessed by Test). HST 1313 Themes in Nineteenth Century Maltese History (2 credits, assessed by Test). HST 1413 Topics in Twentieth Century Maltese History (4 credits, Seminar assessed by class presentation and written assignment)
Western Europe in Modern Times: Political Development and Cultural Identity Britain and Italy France and Germany
Prof. H. Frendo If the student group is less than c. 40, 40% Written Paper, 50% Presentation, 10% Group discussion; otherwise a closed book test at the end of the credit. In the event of a fail in the presentation – based seminar–style, discussions, a ‘resit’ will be by a closed book test. The final mark will be an average of the assessments obtained in both credits. Credit Value: 4
This course will focus on two ‘old’ and two ‘new’ states of Western Europe: Britain and France, Italy and Germany. Taking mainly the industrial revolution and the Enlightenment as markers within the broader European continental context from the 17th and 18th century onwards, the course will emphasize and compare mainly political development in the origins and growth of nation states especially in the 19th and 20th century until the Treaty of Rome; as well as cultural differences and affinities in the moulding of a complex ‘Europeanity’ over time. Russia and Eastern Europe, including the Soviet Union, Communism and the Cold War until c. 1989, will be treated in a similar fashion in a complementary course at 2nd and 3rd year level (HST 2004). The course will include a focus on European expansion and its repercussions beyond mainland European shores, which in turn reverberated in the respective metropoles and otherwise.
Suggested Reading: M. Beloff, Europe and the Europeans (1957); L. Barzini, The Europeans (1983); S. Garcia (ed), European identity and the search for legitimacy (1993); M. Wintle (ed), Culture and Identity in Europe: perceptions of divergence and unity in past and present (1996); C. Villain-Gandossi (ed), L’Europe a’ la recherche de son identite’ (2002)
I.T. as a History Tool
Lecturer: Dr. S. Mercieca Assessment: Assignment Credit Value: 2
The objective of this course is to provide students reading a history degree with I.T. tools for the study of past societies and political contexts. The use of computers is becoming an indispensable tool in the study of history. Artificial intelligence offers a spectrum of opportunities for the exploration and contexualisation of past historical realities, which cannot be identified or explored through the conventional tools applied until now to the study of history. In this course, students will learn about computer programmes that help to establish what can be termed as a ‘scientific truth’. The course will seek to teach the students how to make a history database besides introducing them to the use of Internet for the study of history. History is human centred. Digital intelligence is a science. The success of this course lies in the cross-disciplinary nature of its structure. Therefore one of its objectives is to teach students not to mystify past historical events. The element of bias found in many of the documents has proved to be a historical trap, sometimes leading the user to ‘blackboxing’ events. This is usually attained whenever the students rely uncritically on historical documents. Students need to learn how to evaluate historical material. Computers can be tools towards the attainment of this aim. Different computer programmes, such as Excel, Casoar, Heredis, Brother’s Keeper can help students to reassess their ideas and attitudes towards the past. The gap between formal and informal history would be narrowed. The course will be given by a number of experts in the fields of History and I.T. They will explain the different I.T. material that can be applied to history while imparting a socio-scientific dimension to the history curricula.
Introduction to Historical Demography
Lecturer: Dr. S. Mercieca Assessment: Assignment Credit Value: 2 Introduction to Historical Demography aims to introduce history students to the discipline of historical
demography. It is divided into three parts. The first part is to introduce the students to the documentation used in historical demography, i.e., birth, marriage and death records. The other type of documentation is the nominative lists. The second part is concerned with the techniques used in historical demography. Emphasis would be made on the type of calculations that could be made out of these records and the formulas employed for demographic calculations. The last part of the course is a practical session on the use of computers in data processing. Suggested Reading: L. Del Panta Introduzione alla Demografia Storia. Ed. Laterza. L. Henry. Mauel de Demographique Historique. 1967. L. Henry. Population; Analysis and Models. 1976.
Medieval Europe II Warriors, Priests and Peasants: Feudal Society Revisited The Late Middle Ages. 1250-1500
Lecturer: Mr. C. Dalli Assessment: Test Credit Value: 4 Warriors, Priests and Peasants: Feudal Society Revisited discusses the emergence, consolidation and
transformation of feudal society in Western Europe across the medieval centuries. Topics covered include: the late Roman villa; the Carolingian estates; the fief and the evolution of the medieval warrior class; the expansion of serfdom; the study of manorial societies; the role of kinship; the classic form of feudal society; the late medieval crisis and the disappearance of serfdom from Western Europe; non-European parallels. The interaction of different social groups in making and unmaking the ‘feudal world’ is stressed throughout. Suggested Introductory Reading: M. Bloch, Feudal Society (London, 1961) G.Duby, The Knight, the Lady and the Priest (London, 1984) R.H.Hilton, Bondmen made free (London, 1973) W.Rösener, Medieval Peasants (Polity, 1992)
The Late Middle Ages, 1250-1500 discusses the social, political and economic evolution of Europe in the
last two medieval centuries; the approach underlining continuities, as well as changes, from earlier periods, is emphasized throughout. Topics covered include: the consolidation of Latin Christian hegemony in the thirteenth century; the Avignon Papacy and the Great Schism; the rise of national monarchies and the Hundred Years War; the Black Death and the late medieval crisis; late medieval nonconformity and social unrest.
Suggested Introductory Reading: D.Abulafia, The Western Mediterranean Kingdoms, 1200-1500 (Longman, 1997) G.Holmes, Europe: Hierarchy and Revolt 1320-1450 (Fontana, 1975) E.Le Roi Ladurie, Montaillou (London, 1978) S.Runciman, The Sicilian Vespers. A History of the Mediterranean World in the Later Thirteenth Century (Cambridge, 1958)
Renaissance and Reformations Humanism Religious Change and Nonconformity in Early Modern Europe The Catholic Reformation
Lecturer: Prof. V Mallia-Milanes Assessment: Test Credit Value: 6 Humanism will survey the origins and spread of Humanism and its impact on Europe, with particular
reference to Italy, the Low Countries, France, Germany, the Iberian Peninsula, and England. It will discuss such themes as: the notarial and legal professions in Italy; Italian and ‘northern’ humanism; monasteries and the universities; civic and republican liberty; philology, theology, and political thought; the visual arts; magic and science; the historical method and writing; the vernacular languages and literary genres; religious reform movements; and social and political reform.
Suggested Reading: Jakob Burckhardt, The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy: An Essay. (Any edition). W.K. Ferguson, The Renaissance in Historical Thought: Five Centuries of Interpretation, (Boston, 1948).
Denys Hay, The Italian Renaissance in its Historical Background, (Cambridge, 2nd edition, 1977). Erasmus, Praise of Folly, (Any edition). N. Machiavelli, The Prince, (Any edition). C. G. Nauert, Jr., Humanism and the Culture of Renaissance Europe, (Cambridge, 1995).
Religious Change and Nonconformity in Early Modern Europe is concerned with the major religious
changes which occurred in continental Europe between the early fifteenth and the early seventeenth centuries. It will deal with changes both within and outside the Roman Catholic Church. These will include the official, mainstream movements both outside and within the Roman Church: the Reformation of the princes and city magistrates: the Reformation inspired by Luther, Zwingli, and Calvin; and the CounterReformation enforced by the Pope, the bishops, and the Council of Trent. But they will also comprise a number of popular or ‘fringe’ movements, from the Taborites to the Anabaptists and the German peasant risings, which had little to do with changes inspired from above. The course will concentrate on the relationship between social and political conditions and religious movements. It will be taught chiefly by lectures, with an occasional seminar.
Text: Culture and Belief in Europe 1450-1600: An Anthology of Sources, ed. David Englander et al (Oxford, 1990)
The Catholic Reformation offers students the opportunity to study in detail one of the most significant
movements in Early Modern times - the revitalization of Roman Catholicism, especially in the period following the opening of the Council of Trent (1545). It is subdivided into three major themes, covering respectively (i) the period from the late fifteenth century to the appearance on the scene of Martin Luther, during which reform efforts within the Catholic Church either failed or were unavoidably delayed; (ii) the siege mentality behind the Catholic Church' reactionary movement to counter the Protestant ‘contagion’, s employing, in the process, repressive methods like the Inquisition, the Index of prohibited books, etc.; and (iii) the confident implementation of the massive programme of Tridentine reform, particularly in relation to the conduct of the clergy, ecclesiastical discipline, religious education, and worldwide missionary activity. At this stage, the Catholic reform movement was greatly stimulated by the reformation of the older religious orders and the established of new ones (such as the Jesuits). As it is impossible to cover all the countries of the Catholic world in equal detail, the course will focus on particular problems, looking to specific countries for example to illustrate particular points. The course ends with a seminar on the Catholic Reformation in the cultural and political history of Early Modern Europe.
Set Text: Culture and Belief in Europe 1450-1600: An Anthology of Sources, ed. D. Englander et al, (Oxford, Blackwell, 1990).
HST 2004♦ ♦ Lecturer: Assessment:
Russia and Eastern Europe: From Kievan Rus to Cold War
Prof. H. Frendo 40% Written Paper, 50% Presentation, 10% Group discussion. If group is too large, assessment will be mainly by a closed book test at the end. Credit Value: 4
Seeks to understand how the House of Muscovy came about and grew into an empire, the ‘revolutionary’ shifts from czarism to Bolshevism, and post-Stalinist Russia. Countries of Eastern Europe under Russian hegemony will also be discussed until the end of the Cold War with a focus on issues such as the tension between Westernizer and Slavophile, feudalism, capitalism, socialism, communism and after, the dynamics of nationalities and nationalism. The changing roles of Russia and Eastern European countries as a result of growing democratization may also be examined. (Includes the use of historical footage for discussions). Suggested reading: Nicholas Riasanovsky, A History of Russia (4th edn, 1984); Henry Bogdan, From Warsaw to Sofia: A History of Eastern Europe (1989); Richard Pipes, Russia under the Old Regime (1974); Tibor Szamuely, The Russian Tradition (1974); Geoffrey Hosking, A History of the Soviet Union (1985).
R. Sawka, The Rise and Fall of the Soviet Union, 1917-1991 (1999)
Contemporary Mediterranean History The Middle East and North Africa South Western Europe South Eastern Europe
Students following this course are normally expected to have obtained HST 1013 or HST 1113.
Lecturer: Prof. D. Fenech Assessment: Test Credit Value: 6
The reparian states of the Mediterranean have been grouped into three regions according to their geographical location and the nature of their political make-up and problems. The political evolution and vicissitudes of the individual countries, the relations between these countries, their relations with their regional hinterlands, their relations with the rest of the Mediterranean and with the outside world are discussed.
The Middle East and North Africa: The ultimate fall of the Ottoman Empire at the end of the First World
War, which in the nineteenth century had been at the base of the Eastern Question, released a number of new states but also extended European direct domination to the Middle East, laying the foundation for a new ‘Eastern Question’ that would last through the rest of the twentieth century and beyond. Discusses the rise of Arab nationalism in the context of the decline and fall of the Ottoman Empire, the British and French mandates, the origins of the Palestinian question, the coming of the state of Israel and the ensuing ArabIsraeli conflict, the independence of North Africa, the role of Egypt, inter-Arab relations, and external intervention. Suggested reading: Fouad Ajami, The Arab Predicament (second edition), Cambridge 1992. T.G. Fraser, The Arab-Israeli Conflict, London 1995. Doreen Ingrams, Palestine Papers, 1917-1922: Seeds of Conflict, Murray 1972. Peter Mansfield, The Arabs, London 1992. Alan R. Taylor, The Superpowers and the Middle East, New York 1991.
South Western Europe: Discusses the internal development and external relations of the countries
concerned, chiefly in terms of the main challenges confronting them in the conditions obtaining after the Second World War. Lying within, or on the periphery of, the developed world, internally the main challenges of these countries were governability and economic performance; externally, finding a new role and identity within ‘the West’ and, increasingly eventually, ‘Europe’. Stresses the elements in their development that were common and those that were diverse. Although developments in each of these countries followed markedly different paths, these paths converged increasingly over the decades since 1945.
Suggested Reading: Raymond Carr, Modern Spain, 1875-1980, Oxford 1980. Robert Gildea, France since 1945, Oxford 2002. Maurice Larkin, France since the Popular Front, 1936-1986, Oxford 1988. Roger Morgan, West European Politics since 1945, Batsford 1972. Patrick McCarthy, Italy since 1945, Oxford 2000.
South Eastern Europe: Discusses the internal development and external relations of the Mediterranean
countries concerned, chiefly in terms of the main challenges confronting them in the new conditions obtaining after the Second World War. The Balkans were the subject of the earliest manifestation of the Cold
War divisions that dominated world politics after 1945. The ` percentages agreement' the Greek civil war, , the Truman Doctrine, the extension of NATO to include Greece and Turkey, the role of the region in ‘containing’ the USSR, the defection of Yugoslavia from the Soviet bloc and the evolution of its nonalignment, the dissenting nature of Albania, Yugoslav-Albanian and Greek-Turkish tensions, the Cyprus question - these and other issues threatened to make the Balkan region the powderkeg it had been throughout the nineteenth century. The contrasting political systems and vicissitudes of the Mediterranean Balkan states mirror their external relations, which in turn equally reflect their security and economic concerns. Suggested Reading: Kristo Frasheri & Skender Anamali, The History of Albania, London 1981. Misha Glenny, The Balkans, 1804-1999: Nationalism, War and the Great Powers, London 2000. Geoffrey Lewis, Modern Turkey, London 1974. Stavros Panteli, A New History of Cyprus, London 1984. Stevan Pavlowitch, The Improbable Survivor: Yugoslavia and its Problems, 1918-1988, London 1988. Richard Clogg, A Concise History of Greece, Cambridge 2002. C.M. Woodhouse, The Story of Modern Greece, London 1968.
N.B. When parts of the study-unit, with the special permission of the lecturer, are taken on their own by students whose area of study is not History, they shall be registered as: HST 2105 The Middle East and North Africa (2 credits, assessed by Test) HST 2205 South Western Europe (2 credits, assessed by Test) HST 2305 South East Europe (2 credits, assessed by Test)
HST 2007♦ Malta in Europe, Empire and the Mediterranean: From Colonialism to ♦ Statehood.
Lecturer: Assessment: Prof. H. Frendo normally by presentations and written paper, but may also include a closed-book test, depending on the size of the group. If over 40 or so, there will be readings, discussions, lectures and a closed book test at the end. Credit Value: 4
In analyzing the influences of rule by the Order of St John, France and Britain on Malta and her inhabitants, this course will seek to identify and discuss in what ways, by what means, and to what effect the Maltese became more self-conscious as a people as Malta evolved into a small island nation-state, to an extent with a characteristic individuality of her own. Maltese history, culture and identity will be seen also in the broader contexts of Europe, Empire and the Mediterranean region, including other islands, until approximately recent times. As this is a 2nd and 3rd year course, it will assume that students have some basic knowledge of main events in modern Maltese history. Comparative, theoretical and historiographical insights will be encouraged. Suggested reading: H. Frendo, Party Politics in a Fortress Colony: The Maltese Experience (2nd. ed.); H. Frendo, Maltese Political development 1798-1964: A Documentary History; H. Frendo, The Origins of Maltese Statehood: A Case Study of Decolonization in the Mediterranean; J.M. Pirotta, Fortress Colony; The Final Act, 1945-1964 (3 vols.).
Medieval Malta Cultural Changes Malta in the Regno Social and Economic Aspects
Lecturers: Prof. G. Wettinger / Mr. C. Dalli Assessment: Test Credit Value: 6 Cultural Changes (Prof. G. Wettinger) deals with the historiography of Medieval Malta; sources of
Maltese Medieval History; the taking of Malta by the ‘Arabs’; Islam versus Christianity in Malta: apparent disappearance of Christianity; Himyari, Al-Qazwini, and Malaterra on ‘Arabs’ and Christians in Malta; King Roger and the re-establishment of Christianity on the island; Christianity in Malta in the Later Middle Ages; Language and other cultural changes in the island in the Later Middle Ages.
Suggested Reading: Godfrey Wettinger, The Arabs in Malta, second and lengthened edition, in Malta: Studies of its Heritage and History, Malta: Mid-Med Bank Limited, 1986, 87-104. Anthony Luttrell, Medieval Malta: Malta before the Knights, London, 1975.
Malta in the Regno (Mr C. Dalli) aims to analyse the political as well as economic relationships which
were active in the Kingdom of Sicily from the Angevin era (1266-1282) till the end of the fifteenth century. The Maltese islands will provide a principal case-study of these patterns at the local level. The approach will be comparative and an analysis of political behaviour and economic strategies in terms of core and periphery will be encouraged.
The course will discuss the following topics: 1. An assessment of the Angevin era. 2. The War of the Vespers (1282-1372) and its impact on the South. 3. The South in the fourteenth-century crisis. 4. Political relationships between the Sicilian demesne and the Crown in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. 5. The realignment of local economies in the fifteenth century. A set of related primary documents will be provided. Suggested Reading: A.T. Luttrell ed., Medieval Malta: Studies on Malta before the Knights (London, 1975) G. Wettinger, The Jews of Malta in the later Middle Ages (Malta, 1986)
Social and Economic Aspects (Prof. G. Wettinger) will analyse and discuss the following aspects: the
settlement pattern of Malta and Gozo; agriculture in the Maltese islands during the Later Middle Ages; other economic activities; the municipal government of Malta and Gozo; the royal administration in the Maltese islands; the defence of Medieval Malta and Gozo; education and culture; the Jews of Malta and Gozo; and everyday life in the Maltese islands.
Suggested Reading: Anthony Luttrell, Medieval Malta: Malta before the Knights (London, 1975) Godfrey Wettinger, The Lost Villages and Hamlets of Malta in Medieval Malta: Malta before the Knights, e.d. A.T. Luttrell, London, 1975 Godfrey Wettinger, Agriculture in Malta in the late Middle Ages, in Proceedings of History Week 1981, 1-48, and esp. As offprint, with emendations.
Social History of Modern Europe New Dimensions in Social History European Society before Industrialisation European Society during the Industrial Revolution
Lecturer: Dr. J. Chircop Assessment: Short essay or project (70%) + presentation (30%) Credit Value: 6 New Dimensions in Social History is intended as an introduction to social history. The first part will
focus on the theoretical debates inherent in the field, and the particular techniques used by modern social historians. The second part is structured around key themes which deal with rapidly expanding fields of research and publication in Europe. The course will be taught through lectures and seminars based on the study of texts relating to the themes listed below: Part I: Introduction: The relationship between historical and sociological analysis; Scientific techniques used by the social historian; A focus on oral history. Part II: Social classes: Formation, Structure, and Experience; Urbanization and Human Movement; Gender, Sexuality and History; Childhood: Education and Upbringing; Marriage and Kinship; ‘Forgotten’ Minorities and History; Crime and Punishment.
The Course will include visits to locations which are related to the topics discussed. Copies of selected articles will be made available to students.
European Society Before Industrialization examines the social structure of European societies and the
major changes which took place in them during the preindustrial era. All lecture sessions revolve on specific key topics approached from a comparative perspective.
The first part of the programme deals with the social structure of European societies before industrialization. Here discussions zoom on specific areas which include: the nature of preindustrial agrarian societies; social classes, status and the idea of social station; the triangular social hierarchy; class experience and class relations between the dominant elites and the common people; the structure of everyday life; work, leisure, upbringing, the domestic household; women in society. The second part of the course will cover the more dynamic aspects of European societies before industrialization. In this section, key topics include: the rural-urban connection; patterns of population movement; the growth of urban population centres; wealth and poverty; social diversity and conflict; marginal groups and the social nature of riots, rebellion and popular protest. Students will be provided with a set of papers on the various topics to be discussed in the course. However, they should prepare for the course by reading Christopher Hill, Reformation to Industrial Revolution, 15301780. The Making of English Society, vol. 1, N.Y., 1967.
European Society During the Industrial Revolution: As from the late eighteenth century, the Industrial
Revolution and industrial expansion in Britain and Western Europe produced profound social changes. The first sessions will be dedicated to a discussion of the nature and development of the Industrial Revolution in Britain and its unfolding on the European continent. The course then focuses on topics which square with the main objective: to identify and investigate (compare and contrast) the transformations brought about by industrialization on different European societies.
The key themes to be discussed are: social restructuring brought about by the Industrial Revolution: the generation of new social groups; the development of urban mass society; the social impact brought about by new modes of production; the work ethic and discipline; dismantling of ancient social customs; new forms of social consciousness; identity and conflict; wealth and poverty; women and the industrial system; the
ongoing debate on the social costs of the Industrial Revolution; the standard of living controversy; reaction against Industrialization. Copies of papers related to these topics will be provided in class. However, by way of preparation students are urged to read Hard Times by Charles Dickens and E.P. Thompson’s The Making of the English Working Class.
Early Modern Spain and France Politics, Culture and Society in early Modern France Behind the Scenes in Imperial Spain: Aspects of Spanish Social and Economic History: 1500-1800
Lecturers: Dr. C. Cassar / Dr. C. Vassallo Assessment: Assignment and/or Test Credit Value: 4 Politics, Culture and Society in Early Modern France: 1560 – 1660 (Dr C. Cassar) discusses the changes
that took place in France during the century between the French Wars of Religion and restoration of royal authority under the guidance of Richelieu and Mazarin. Special emphasis will be given to the civil conflict during the last thirty years of the sixteenth century; the establishment of a new dynasty by Henry IV and his need to conciliate the various factions within France; the role of Louis XIII. The course will also discuss the effects of the cultural and economic changes that developed with the Fronde and the impact such changes had on the lives of the common people.
Suggested Reading: R. Briggs, Early Modern France 1560-1715. J. H. Shennan, Government and Society in France 1461-1661. J. L. Flandnin, Families in Former Times. N. Z. Dasci, Society and Culture in Early Modern France.
Behind the Scenes in Imperial Spain: Aspects of Spanish Socio-Economic History 1500-1800: (Dr C.
Vassallo) Most studies of Imperial Spain have concentrated on the political and diplomatic aspects. This unit will seek some insight into internal socio-economic realities. 1. The legacy of the Catholic Kings. - The primacy of Castile in Spain' demographic and economic base s Social groupings - Social protest: The Comuneros and the Germanies. 2. The Habsburgs’ international hegemony coupled with the economy of a less developed country - The pressures for social conformity: The Inquisition. 3. Seventeenth-Century Spain - Demographic stagnation and overall decline - Social inequality and conflict: The Catalan Bandoleros and ethnic cleansing Spanish style: The expulsion of the Moriscos. 4. Bourbon Spain - Change within a non-changing framework: Reaching new highs in population, agriculture, industry and trade.
Bibliography: Benassar B., 1979; Berkeley, University of California Press. The Spanish Character. Attitudes and Mentalities from the Sixteenth to the Nineteenth Century. Kamen Henry 1983; Enlgand, Longmar. Spain 1469-1714. A Society of Conflict. Elliot J. H. 1989; Yale University Press. Spain and its World 1500-1700.
N.B. When parts of the study-unit, with the special permission of the lecturer, are taken on their own, they shall be registered as: HST 2111 Politics, Culture and Society in Early Modern France (2 credits, assessed by
Assignment) HST 2211 Behind the Scenes in Imperial Spain: Aspects of Spanish Social Policy and Economic History, 1500-1800 (2 credits, assessed by Assignment)
Malta and early Modern Europe Venice, the Order of St. John and Malta Spain and Malta through the Ages
Lecturers: Prof. V. Mallia-Milanes / Dr. C. Vassallo Assessment: Test Credit Value: 4 Venice, the Order of St. John and Malta offers students the opportunity to reach an understanding of the
manner in which the Order of St John conducted the intricacies of its relations with foreign States during its long sojourn in Malta. It will focus on the Order' relations with one State - the Republic of Venice s but, where appropriate, similarities and differences with others - like France, Tuscany, Sardinia, Monaco, etc. - will also be analysed. Though details of the course may vary from year to year, the objective will be pursued by a study of the topics listed below:
Venice and the
- Venice' interests in the central Mediterranean in the late Middle Ages (e.g., Venice and Sicily, s Hafsids) - Traces of Venetian contacts with late Medieval Malta. - Venice and the Order of St John, to 1520. - The Order' Grand Priory of Venice. s - Malta' role in Venice' wars with the Turks. s s - The Maltese corsair and Venice' Stato da Mar. s - Why the Venetian sequestro? - Consular relations. - The Huomo della Repubblica in Malta. - The fate of Venetians in Early Modern Malta. - Venice and Malta' quarantine system. s - Veneto-Maltese trade relations. - Napoleon, Venice, the Order, and Malta (1795-98).
It is not necessary for students taking this course to have prior knowledge of Venetian history. Recommended Reading: V. Mallia-Milanes, Venice and Hospitaller Malta 1530-1798: Aspects of a Relationship (Malta, 1992).
Spain and Malta through the Ages: (Dr C. Vassallo) Malta' integration into the Catalano - Aragonese s
Empire - Imperial Spain' southern flank - The 18th Century: The Substitution of Political Dependence by s economic dependence: Spain as a source of employment and foreign exchange.
Suggested Reading: Luttrell, A.T., ‘Malta and the Aragonese Crown 1282-1530’, Journal of the Faculty of Arts, i (1965), 1-9. Malta, Royal University of Malta. Luttrell, A.T., ‘ Approaches to Medieval Malta’, in Medieval Malta, Studies on Malta before the Knights, ed. A.T. Luttrell. London, British School at Rome. 1 - 70. Actas Primer Coloquio Internacional Hispano Maltes de Historia, 1991 Madrid, Ministerio de Asuntos Exteriores. (Xeroxed translations of papers available).
N.B. When parts of this unit, with the special permission of the lecturer, are taken on their own, they shall be registered as: HST 2113 Venice, the Order of St John and Malta (2 credits, assessed by Test). HST 2213 Spain and Malta through the Ages (2 credits, assessed by Test.
The Theory of Historical Anthropology
Lecturers: Dr. C. Cassar Assessment: Test Credit Value: 2 The Theory of Historical Anthropology sets out to develop an awareness of the utility of social theory
and anthropology to historical research. It will analyse some basic concerns and cultural values by studying differences, changes, and developments in social, economic, political, and religious issues that can be applied to the study of history from a comparative perspective.
Suggested Reading: J.R. Goody, The development of the family and marriage in Europe. M. Weber, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. A.D. Smith, The Ethnic Origins of Nations. M. Mauss, Essai su le don (English translation - The Gift)
Monographic Courses* The Book and other forms of Written Communication in Eighteenth Century Malta Salient Features of the History of Maltese Trade The Tridentine Impact on Maltese Society Genoa, The Assertion of a Maritime Republic
Lecturers: Various Assessment: Assignment Credit Value: N/A
Students are not obliged to follow the whole unit. Each component within this unit is worth one credit.
The Book and other forms of written communication in Eighteenth-Century Malta (Dr. William
Zammit) would concentrate upon an analysis of the role of written communication within Maltese eighteenth-century society. This would include a discussion of the persuasiveness and limitations and written communication both within and beyond the Island, its dual conservative and innovative role and alternative forms of communication.
Bibliography: A. General works Burke Peter, The historical anthropology of early modern Italy: essays on perception and communication (CUP, 1987). Carter John, Muir, Perey H. (eds.), Printing and the mind of man (Munich, 1983). Cuaz Mario, Intellettuali, potere e circolazione delle idee nell’Italia moderna: 1500-1700 (Loescher, 1982). Darnton Robert, “What is the history of books?” in Books and society in history; papers of the ACRL Rare Books and Manuscripts Conference, June 1980, Bston, Massachusetts (New York, 1983). Eisenstein Elizabeth I., The printing press as an agent of change: communications and cultural transformations in early modern Europe (CUP, 1979). Febvre Lucien, Martin, Henri-Jean; The coming of the book: the impact of printing, 1450-1800 (London, 1976). B. Works re Malta
Mallia-Milanes Victor (ed.), Hospitaller Malta, 1530-1798: studies on early modern Malta and the Order of St. John of Jerusalem (Malta, 1993), especially Papers 1,8,11. Zammit William, ‘Con licenza de’ superiori’: printing in Malta during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries (Malta, 1992). Zammit William, Ignazio Saverio Mifsud, 1722-1773 (Malta, 1997). Zammit William, “A bibliography of Giovanni Antonio Ciantar’s printed works” in Melita Historica, Vol. XI, no. 3 (Malta, 1994).
Salient Features of the History of Maltese Trade: (Dr. Carmel Vassallo) An overview of Maltese trade with particular reference to the period from 1700 onwards, based mostly on original research conducted in Maltese and foreign archives.
Suggested Reading: Vassallo, C., Corsairing to Commerce: Maltese Merchants in Eighteenth-Century Spain (1998); Vassallo, C., The Chamber of Commerce (1848-1979) (Forthcoming); D’Angelo, M. 1990 Mercanti inglesi a Malta, 1800-1825. A folder will also be made available to students with relevant articles etc.
broader framework of the Catholic Reformation and to trace its impact on popular culture. Special emphasis will be laid on the role played by the Tribunal of the Inquisition in Malta and its attempt to reform the popular beliefs of the masses. The course will address such themes as: heretical behaviour, the Index of prohibited books, the uses and impact of literacy, schooling, printing and its uses for Church propaganda, the cult of the saints, pilgrimages and processions, popular healing, the evil eye, divination, love magic, the witch and the sorcerer, and witchcraft and popular culture. The students will be introduced to the Archives of the Inquisition in Malta. Suggested Reading: P. Burke, The Historical Anthropology of Early Modern Italy. L. Châtellier, The Europe of the Devout. The Catholic Reformation and the formation of a new society. E. L. Eisenstein, The Printing Revolution in Early Modern Europe.
The Tridentine Impact on Maltese Society (Dr Carmel Cassar) aims to study Maltese society within the
Genoa [The Assertion of a Maritime Republic] (Mr. Ivan Grech) aims to assess how Genoa (the capital of
the region of Liguria on the Tyrrhenian coast of Italy) developed into an important Mediterranean trading and financial centre by early modern times. During the course of these lectures strict chronological boundaries will be discarded. Instead, the course aims to be a venture sweeping centuries of Genoa’s history starting roughly from the tenth century. References to different historical periods will be made in an attempt to illustrate certain aspects of this city, the surrounding region, and its people.
A ‘Recommended Reading’ List will be distributed during the Course. N.B. When parts of the study-unit, with the special permission of the lecturer, are taken on their own, they shall be registered as: HST 2150 The Book and other Forms of Written Communication in Eighteenth Century Malta (2 credits, assessed by Assignment) HST 2250 Salient Features of the History of Maltese Trade (2 credits, assessed by Assignment) HST 2350 The Tridentine Impact on Maltese Society (2 credits, assessed by Assignment) HST 2450 Genoa, the Assertion of a Maritime Republic (2 credits, assessed by Assignment)
Seventeenth Century Europe General Crisis of the Seventeenth Century Louis XIV and France
Lecturer: Prof. V. Mallia-Milanes Assessment: Test Credit Value: 4 The General Crisis of the Seventeenth Century takes a comparative approach to the phenomenon of
change in seventeenth-century Europe. It will endeavour to answer the question: To what extent, and in
what ways, was crisis the major driving force behind the process of structural transformation of European States in the course of the seventeenth century? An attempt will be made to arrive at a working definition of crisis. This will be followed by a general survey of the social, economic, and political structures and the religious institutions and beliefs in early seventeenth-century Europe. Within this general framework, the following themes will be addressed: The genesis of the general-crisis thesis: a discussion of the views of the two proponents of the thesis - Eric Hobsbawm (for the social and economic crisis) and Hugh Trevor Roper (for the political crisis), subsequent interpretations, which elaborated or modified the original thesis; critics of the thesis; how the different European States reacted to the crisis; the outcome of the crisis: the end of the seventeenth century. The course ends with a seminar on the applicability of the crisis thesis to Hospitaller Malta. Basic Text: Paul Hazard, The European Mind 1680-1715 (Penguin 1963; 1st edn: Paris 1935)
Louis XIV and France: Under the monarchy of Louis XIV two worlds, two distinct realities coexisted -
Versailles and France. The world of the Sun King, of Lionne, Le Tellier, Louvois, Colbert and ‘that narrow circle of rich idlers’ was the world of the court at Versailles. The other France, the ‘true’ France, was represented by the soldiers and sailors who fought Louis' wars, the savants and the prosperous s bourgeoisie, the administrators and diplomatists, the peasants and craftsmen. Away from the huge palace and its landscape gardening, millions of people lived the horrors of taxation, widespread economic depression, unjust privilege, religious intolerance and the notorious dragonnades. Louis had become a stranger to these people. The course will address both worlds through such issues as: the monarchy of Louis XIV; prosperity, poverty, and problems; diplomatic and military achievements; the intellectual and artistic flowering of France; Church-State relations; and the dark side of the grande siecle.
The course will be conducted mainly through seminars; the approach will be document-based. Set Texts: Madame de Sevigne: Selected Letters. Trans. Leonard Tancock. Penguin Classics, 1982. Voltaire, The Age of Louis XIV. Trans. M.P. Pollack. London, Dent, 1926. V. Mallia-Milanes, Louis XIV and France. Macmillan 1986.
Lecturer: Various Assessment: Normally by course work Credit Value: 2
This optional course will be offered in each of the four major areas of study of the History Programme (i.e. Medieval, Early Modern, Modern & Contemporary and Social & Economic). It is designed for the B.A. Third Year History and M.A. students only, and may be taken in not more than two of these areas after consultation with the Head of Department and the Lecturer responsible for that area. The course is based on an intensive programme of reading and written work on a specific historical theme that is not normally covered by the History syllabus. It is conducted on an individual basis; students work largely on their own, without the need to attend formal lectures, although occasional tutorials may be necessary, especially in the first few weeks of the course. The Tutor’s role is to (i) suggest methods of approaching the theme; (ii) direct the student as to which material he (or she) is expected to cover and which original texts and secondary works are essential reading; and (iii) determine what written work is to be completed by a target date. The theme is determined by the tutor.
HST 3007 Study of History I: The History Honours Dissertation: Introduction to Historical Method and Research Lecturer: Assessment: Prof. G. Wettinger Test
Credit Value: 2 This is addressed to the Honours History class, and will discuss the following themes: Value of original historical research. Types and grades of originality. Choice of subject. The role of the tutor. Amassing the sources. Organizing sources for feedback. The structure of the dissertation. Scholarly vs popular writing: use of manual and departmental style sheet. Early drafts of the dissertation. Introduction and conclusion. Bibliography Final proof-reading. HST 3008 Lecturer: Assessment: Credit Value: Study of History II: The Use of Oral History Dr. J. Chircop Short Essay & Practical 4
Oral History has become crucial for academics interested in the history of the daily lives of the people (their private/public life, work, leisure, family experience, individual and collective memories). OH is not only a new and sound method to tap difficult sources, but it has also created a new approach to history. OH considers the people as historical agents. This course attempts to initiate students in the practice of OH as well as in the theoretical debates initiated by oral historians. Following an introduction, this course is organised in two parts: A History of Oral History (Historiography) 1. Theoretical issues on OH The people as historical agents Memory (individual and collective) Evaluation The politics of OH 2. Techniques in Oral History Recording The interview Listening Skills Transcribing Bibliography: Vansina J., Oral Tradition as History,1954. Thompson P., A Voice of the Past, 1988.
History of International Relations International Relations between the World Wars Contemporary International Relations (Seminar)
Prerequisite: Students following this course are normally expected to have followed the first year of the History BA programme. Lecturer: Prof. D. Fenech Assessment: Test for (a); continuous assessment for (b)
Credit Value: 8 International Relations between the World Wars (2 credits) investigates the changing pattern of
international relations as a result of the radical changes that occurred after the First World War during a complex and fast-moving period of international history when European powers directed world affairs apparently for the last time before the emergence of superpowers. The central theme therefore is the unpreparedness of the big powers for a new international order and the implications of this to the outbreak of the next war.
Suggested Reading: E.H. Carr, International Relations between the Two World Wars, 1919-1939, London 1990. Charles H. Feinstein, et al., The European Economy between the Wars, Oxford 1997. Richard S. Grayson, Austen Chamberlain and the Commitment to Europe: British Foreign policy 1924-1929, London 1997. R.A.C. Parker, Chamberlain and Appeasement: British Policy and the coming of the Second World War, London 1993. Geoffrey C. Roberts, The Soviet Union and the Origins of the Second World War. Russo-German Relations and the Road to War, 1993-1941, London 1994. A.J.P. Taylor, The Origins of the Second World War, London 1961. Robert J. Young, France and the origins of the Second World War, London 1996 Contemporary International Relations (Seminar for History students only, 6 credits) investigates the main issues in post-war international relations in a transformed world when international history becomes really world history. Taking as a framework the themes that define the era of international history since the Second World War - the quest for a new post-war international order; the emergence of the superpowers and their alliances and alignments; decolonisation and the coming into being of the ‘Third World’; the East-West contest, nonalignment, and the North-South divide; the end of Euro-centric international relations and the eventual recovery of European ascendancy; the collapse of the post-war international order and the search once again for a new world order - these seminars investigate specific topics of current concern within this framework as well as more distant historical experience. The seminars aim at training students to apply historical knowledge to the understanding of current international problems and situations and, conversely, seek relevance in historical events by stressing historical continuity and the notion of the past defining the present. Suggested Reading: C.J. Bartlett, The Global Conflict, 1880-1970, London 1984. Peter Calvocoressi, World Politics since 1945, London 1997. Foreign Affairs (periodical). International Affairs (periodical). Keesing’s Record of World Events (periodical).
N.B. When the first part of the study-unit, with the special permission of the lecturer, is taken on its own, it shall be registered as:HST 3109 International Relations between the world wars (2 credits, assessed by test)
European Industrialisation and Mediterranean Underdevelopment History of Economic Thought The Industrialisation of Europe The Mediterranean from a Regional System into the World Economy
Lecturer: Dr. J. Chircop Assessment: Test Credit Value: 6
History of Economic Thought: The main objective of this course is to discuss the development of economic
ideas systematically and within a historical framework. The Mercantilists, Physiocrats, Utilitarians, the Classical School of Economics and the various shades in the Marxist economic dimension form the main bodies of economic thought dealt with in this programme.
Recommended Reading: Barber William J.: A History of Economic Thought, 1991 Staley Charles E.: A History of Economic Thought: From Aristotle to Arrow, 1989 Eric Roll, A History of Economic Thought, 1989
The Industrialisation of Europe focuses upon a number of key themes which are fundamental to an
understanding of the origins, development and spread of the industrial revolution. The teaching approach is overwhelmingly comparative. The fundamental themes which will be discussed during the course are: - From Feudalism to Capitalism: The Transition Debates. - The agricultural revolution. - Dynamics of industrial development. - Differential patterns of industrial growth in Europe. - Comparative socio-economic structures of the early industrial nations. - The industrial nations and the integration of the world economy.
Recommended Reading: The following books are recommended as general texts. Those marked with an asterisk are particularly important for our discussions. Crafts, N. F. R., British Economic Growth during the Industrial Revolution, Oxf. 1985. Gerschenkron, A., Economic Backwardness in Historical Perspective, Cam. 1969. Hobsbawm, E.J., Industry and Empire, L. 1969. Kemp, T., Historical Patterns of Industrialization, N.Y. 1978. * Kuznets, S., Modern Economic Growth in Britain and France, 1780-1914, L. 1978. * Mathias, P., The First Industrial Nation, L. 1983. * Rostow, W.W., The Stages of Economic Growth: A Non Communist Manifesto, Camb. 1960. Thompson, P. P., “Time, Work, discipline and Industrial Capitalism” in Flinn H. W. and Smout T.C. (eds.), Essays in Social History, L. 1974.
The Mediterranean: From a Regional System into the World Economy sets out to discuss the
transformation of the Mediterranean region from an autonomous economic system (self-sufficient in agricultural production), before the sixteenth century, into a periphery of industrial Europe in the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Via lectures and seminars, this programme also investigates the main economic causes which brought about economic underdevelopment and dependence in this specific region of the world. It then narrows its focus on specific case studies in order to compare the impact left by this transformation in different domestic economies. The key themes discussed in this course are: The Mediterranean economy: self Sufficiency? : The Debate goes on European Industrial Expansion : the development of underdevelopment The unification of regional markets into nations states: The Southern Question Modes of incorporation in the World Economy Economic structures of dependence in Southern Europe (historical lack of industrial growth) The regional pattern of uneven development Focus on specific historical case studies: Spain; Italy; Greece
Recommended Reading: R. Hudson and J. Lewis, Uneven Development in Southern Europe (L & N.Y., 1985) S. Amin, Imperialism and Unequal Development (N.Y., 1990)
Transition from Feudalism to Capitalism: Late Medieval to Early Modern Economic History (Seminar)
Lecturers: Dr. J. Chircop / Mr. C. Dalli Assessment: Test Credit Value: 4
The seminar is designed to raise an awareness of the problems and opportunities created in Western Europe and the Mediterranean world by the fundamental social, economic and political changes which occurred in the five hundred years or so before the Industrial Revolution; what is being termed here, the transition from feudalism to capitalism. The broad time-span of the seminar, as well as the variety of social, economic, political and cultural issues discussed, will enable participants to view major issues such as the development of a money economy in the West, or the late medieval crisis, in a wider context. It is the intention of the convenors to encourage discussions across the late medieval-early modern divide, in a framework of multidisciplinarity. Themes submitted for discussion include: the Commercial Revolution, high medieval urban expansion, the late medieval crisis, the demise of manorialism in the west, the consequences of the Atlantic world economy for the Mediterranean world. Recommended Reading: The following books are recommended as general texts. Books marked with an asterisk are particularly important. Braudel, F., The Wheels of Commerce, L. 1982. Cipolla, C., Before the Industrial Revolution, L. 1976. * Duby, G., The Early Growth of the European Economy, L. 1974. Hill, C., Reformation to Industrial Revolution: A Social and Economic History of Britain, 1530-1780, Harm. 1969. * Hilton, R., Transition from Feudalism to Capitalism, L. 1976. * Postan, M. M., The Medieval Economy and Society, Harm, 1975.
Late Medieval Mediterranean History Late Medieval States: Geo-political Development in the Late Medieval Mediterranean The Medieval Mediterranean Economy, 1000-1500 Merchants and Crusaders: Western Europe, the Levant and North Africa, 1000-1500
Lecturer: Mr. C. Dalli Assessment: Test Credit Value: 6 Late Medieval States: Geo-political Development in the Late Medieval Mediterranean studies the
evolution of government and political relationships in Western Europe from the twelfth to the fifteenth
centuries. The discussion proceeds through the presentation of a number of case-studies, including: the evolution of the Catalan-Aragonese confederation, from James the Conqueror to Alfonso the Magnanimous; the consolidation of the Kingdom of France in the thirteenth century; the Hundred Years War; the making and unmaking of the Angevin empire in the Mediterranean; the transition from city-republics to territorial states in Italy; the War of the Vespers and the southern Regno. A geopolitical approach is encouraged. Suggested Introductory Reading: D.Abulafia, The Western Mediterranean Kingdoms, 1200-1500 (Longman, 1997) T.N.Bisson, The Medieval Crown of Aragon (Oxford, 1986) J.Dunbabin, Charles I of Anjou. Power, Kingship and State-Making in Thirteenth-Century Europe (Longman, 1998) G.Tabacco, The struggle for power in medieval Italy (Cambridge, 1989)
The Medieval Mediterranean Economy, 1000-1500 discusses the principal aspects of economic life in the
Mediterranean world in the second half of the Middle Ages, in the light of recent interpretations. Topics covered include: the expansion of the High Middle Ages; the evolution of long-distance trade; the development of a market economy; urban centres in the Mediterranean economy; the late medieval crisis. An evaluation of different approaches, like the neo-Malthusian model and the Marxist model, is presented; students are also encouraged to test the validity of modern economic terminology in a medieval context.
Suggested Introductory Reading: D.Abulafia, Commerce and Conquest in the Mediterranean, 1100-1500 (Aldershot, 1993) N.J.G.Pounds, An Economic History of Medieval Europe (Longman, 1994) R.S.Lopez – R.W.Raymond, Medieval Trade in the Mediterranean World (New York, 1968)
Merchants and Crusaders: Western Europe, the Levant and North Africa, 1000-1500 discusses the
relationships established between Muslim North Africa, the Levant and Western Europe through the two major forces of crusading and commerce. It analyses the role of merchant communities from the Italian cityrepublics, southern France and Catalonia in developing vast trading networks around the Mediterranean and beyond, at the same time that Western Europe was sending crusading armies to the East. Students are encouraged to view the subject from the point of view of the individual players; use is also made of medieval travel accounts to reconstruct some of the physical and mental aspects of this Mediterranean setting.
D.Abulafia, Mediterranean Encounters (Aldershot, 2000) R.S.Lopez, The Commercial Revolution of the Middle Ages, 950-350 (Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1971) J.Riley-Smith, What were the Crusades? (London, 1977)
The Representation and Manifestation of Population Growth – the urban, demographic and religious implications.
Lecturer: Dr. S. Mercieca Assessment: Assignment Credit Value: 6 The Representation and Manifestation of Population Growth – the urban, demographic and religious implications is conducted in the form of three-hourly seminars. These will discuss different
aspects of society and family life in Malta and Europe. The demographic calculations and family reconstruction will help the student to better understand past society structures and preoccupation with after-life. The seminars will focus on different social, religious and urban aspects beginning with the study of (i) urban growth in the Mediterranean, (ii) population growth and urban development. (iii) the Maltese family households studied within an urban Mediterranean context, (iv) natal and parturition practices in Europe and Malta, (v) the Catholic Church’s marriage regulations, (vi) death representation: the real and the imaginary, (vii) food and diet in the seventeenth century.
Bibliography: E.A. Wrigley and R.S. Scholfield. The Population of England, 1541-1871. A Reconstruction. C.U.P. 1989. D.E.C. Eversley, P. Laslett and E.A. Wrigley, An Introduction to English Historical Demography. C.U.P. 1966. P.Laslett. Household and Family in Past Times. C.U.P. 1972.
T.R. Malthus, An Essay on the Principle of Population. Piero Camporesi, The Magic Harvest. 1989 Massimo Montanari, Nuovo Convivio: Storia e Culture dei piaceri della Tavola nell’ Età Moderna. Editori Laterza. General Editors: Philippe Ariès and George Duby: Histoire de La vie Privée. De la Renaissance aux Lumières Seuil.Vol.3. Massimo Levi-Bacci, Population and Nutrition. An Essay on European Demographic History. C.U.P., 1991.
Study of History III Maltese Historiography European Historiography
Prof. G. Wettinger / Prof. H. Frendo Test for (a); for (b) unless the group is too large (over 20) for seminars to be held, assessment will be mainly by a closed book test at the end, otherwise by assignment (40%), presentation (50%) and discussion (10%). Credit Value: 4
Maltese Historiography (Prof. G. Wettinger) Looks at the way Maltese history has been treated by historians, local and foreign. Mainstream developments: erudite historians of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, literary historians, mainly nineteenth century; academic historians from the late nineteenth century onwards to the present times. The institutionalisation of historical studies (private historical societies, the Italian Deputazione per la Storia, the setting up of the Department of History at the University of Malta, and historical courses in other branches of the University. Foreign influences on content and methodology. Popularisers. The study of local history. Religious history and other specialised themes (military, educational, etc.) Extracts and references will be provided during the course. European Historiography (Prof. H. Frendo) Begins with a discussion of the idea, meaning and purpose of
history, what history is or ought to be, and the challenges of understanding, recording and interpreting it. This course will then proceed to look at the trends in historical thinking as expressed by leading historians and thinkers over time. Individual historians or schools of thought will be grouped so far as possible chronologically and/or thematically from the earliest times to the present covering the main evolving traits in a history of historiography, with examples from the more seminal works along the way. A Bibliography will be given.
E.Breisach, Historiography: Ancient, Medieval and Modern (2nd.ed., 1994) M. Bentley, Modern Historiography: An Introduction (1999) D.Lowenthal, The Past is a Foreign Country (1985) R.J.Evans, In Defence of History (1997)
Lecturer: Prof. V. Mallia-Milanes Assessment: Test Credit Value: 4
The course is particularly designed to give a ‘total’ history of Malta under the Hospitallers (1530-1798) within its broader Mediterranean context. It will be taught by lectures and seminars and will introduce
students to the archival records of the period. Students will be assigned a fairly specialized topic to be studied in some detail from both secondary and original sources. Recommended Text: Hospitaller Malta 1530-1798: Studies on Early Modern Malta and the Order of St. John of Jerusalem, ed. V. MalliaMilanes (Malta, 1993).
History of Political Thought
Lecturers: Dr. A. Spiteri Assessment: Assignment Credit Value: 2
This is a survey of the main chapters of political philosophy from Plato and Aristotle to John Rawls and Robert Nozick. Topics to be dealt with will include: Human Rights, the nature and limits of Government, egalitarianism and distributive justice, the failure of Marxism, the economics of law and politics, and libertarianism and anarcho-capitalism.
Aspects of Medieval and Early Modern Mediterranean History Slavery in the Mediterranean The Jews in the Mediterranean and the Middle East)
Lecturer: Prof. G. Wettinger Assessment: Test Credit Value: 4 Slavery in the Mediterranean: Slavery in the Greek and Roman world; the origin of medieval serfdom; survival of slavery in Medieval Europe and the Mediterranean countries; decline of serfdom in the West; intensification of serfdom in the East of Europe; slavery in the Mediterranean in the Early Modern Times; slavery in Malta; slavery in Czarist Russia in early modern Times; the abolition of serfdom in Europe and the Mediterranean.
Suggested Reading: Keith Hopkins, Conquerors and Slaves, Cambridge, 1978, etc. James Walvin, Slavery and the Slave Trade, London, 1983 Peter Earle, Corsairs of Malta and Barbary, London, 1970 Daniel Pipes, Slave Soldiers and Islam, the Genesis of a Military System, Newhaven and London, 1981 John Francis Maxwell, Slavery and the Catholic Church, Chichester and London, 1975
The Jews in the Mediterranean and the Middle East: The Jews after their dispersion by the Romans; the
Sephardic Jews in the Muslim Empire; the Sephardic Jews in Spain and Portugal; the Jews of Italy and France; the Crusaders and Jews; Jewish literature and culture in the Middle Ages; the Jews of Malta during the Middle Ages; the expulsion of the Jews from the Spanish Empire and Portugal; the Jews in the Ottoman Empire; the captive Jews of Malta.
Suggested Reading: Cecil Roth, A History of the Jews from earliest times through the Six Days War, revised edition, New York, 1970 S.D. Goitein, Jews and Arabs: their contacts through the ages, New York, 1967 and later editions
Godfrey Wettinger, The Jews of Malta in the Late Middle Ages, Malta, 1986 H. Kamen, The Spanish Inquisition, New York, 1968 Walter Laqueur (ed.), The Israel-Arab Reader: a Documentary History of the Middle East conflict, a Pelican Book, Harmondsworth, 1969
N.B. When parts of the study-unit, with the special permission of the lecturer, are taken on their own, they shall be registered as: HST 3129 Slavery in the Mediterranean (2 credits, assessed by Test) HST 3229 The Jews in the Mediterranean and the Middle East (2 credits, assessed by Test)
Venice in Early Modern Times
Lecturer: Prof. V. Mallia-Milanes Assessment: Seminar Paper (50%) and Test (50%) Credit Value: 4
Venice is a microcosm in which many things of general importance to the understanding of early modern society, government, and religion can be studied in miniature. These include: the nature of urban aristocracies and their methods of maintaing order, by paternalism, persuasion, or force; the character of republican, as distinct from monarchic, rule; the problems of relations between the clergy and State, and of anticlericalism within the Catholic Church; the causes and effects of economic decline, in foreign competition, exhaustion of resources, or lack of adaptability. The subject will be approached through the study of documents, concentrating quite heavily on the later sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries. The course will be taught by lectures and seminars. Students will be asked to write one seminar paper and take a test at the end. Set Text: Venice: a Documentary History 1450-1630, ed. D. Chambers and B. Pullan. Oxford 1992.
Medieval Regions Medieval Sicily Medieval Sardinia Medieval Cities
Lecturer: Mr. C. Dalli Assessment: Test Credit Value: 6 Medieval Sicily discusses the political, social, cultural and economic evolution of Sicily from Muslim times
up to the early sixteenth century, in the light of wider central Mediterranean developments. Topics covered include: a discussion of the historiography; Sicily and North African Islam; the Norman conquest and the political evolution of the Kingdom of Sicily; the unmaking of Sicilian Islam; the social and cultural transformation of the island; economy and society in Sicily on the eve of the Vespers; Sicily in the CatalanAragonese orbit. Students are encouraged to evaluate contrasting interpretations of late medieval Sicilian history. A working knowledge of Italian is advised because sections of the secondary literature are in this language.
Suggested Introductory Reading: D.Abulafia, Italy, Sicily and the Mediterranean, 1100-1400 (Aldershot, 1987) S.R.Epstein, An Island for Itself. Economic development and social change in late medieval Sicily (Cambridge, 1992) J.J.Norwich, The Normans in Sicily (Penguin, 1992)
Medieval Sardinia presents a regional case-study in the wider Mediterranean context; Sardinia’s political
history, from the tenth to the fifteenth centuries, is studies in relation to the wider forces which were shaping Mediterranean history. Topics covered include: society and politics in eleventh century Sardinia; Genoese and Pisans in Sardinia down to 1323; commerce and colonisation; the Catalan-Aragonese take-over, 13231410; late medieval Sardinia: a colonial society? A working knowledge of Italian is advised because much of the secondary literature available is in this language.
Suggested Introductory Reading: J.Day, Uomini e terre nella Sardegna coloniale, XII-XVIII secolo (Turin, 1987) G.Meloni, Mediterraneo e Sardegna nel basso medioevo (Cagliari, 1988) M.Tangheroni, Medioevo tirrenico: Sardegna, Toscana e Pisa (Pisa, 1992)
Medieval Cities addresses the different forms of urban life which emerged in the medieval Mediterranean
world on both sides of the Christian-Muslim divide. It studies urban life within its physical, political, economic and cultural context; the making of urban societies is discussed in relation to the agrarian hinterlands studied in a number of case-studies. Other topics covered include: the recovery of urban life in the High Middle Ages; the evolution of urban institutions; city politics and urban elites; cities in late medieval regional economies; and, last but not least, medieval citizens. Suggested Introductory Reading: H.Pirenne, Medieval Cities (Princeton, 1925) D.Herlihy – C.Klapisch-Zuber, Tuscans and their families. A study of the Florentine catasto of 1427 (Yale, 1985) D.Nicholas, The Later Medieval City 1300-1500 (Addison Wesley, 1997)
Aspects of Maltese Social and Political History Maltese Migration and Overseas Settlements Historical Approaches to Maltese Journalism
Prof. H. Frendo 10% Participation, 40% written paper, and 50% presentation. If group is two unwieldy for seminars to be possible, assessment will be mainly by a closed book test at the end. Credit Value: 4
migrating and settling or repatriating, with special reference to the Maltese migrant experience world-wide. It explores the historical aspect but inter-relates this to ethnicity, self-identity and heritage, integration and assimilation, language retention, social mobility and other aspects of adjustment, physical and spiritual. Each researched presentation [which may include oral history] will take the form of a discussion. A focus on more specific areas or aspects within the field may be undertaken.
Maltese Migration and Overseas Settlements seeks to explore the push and pull factors of people
Some suggested reading: Charles Price, Malta and the Maltese: A study in Nineteenth-Century Migration ; James Jupp (ed.), The Australian People: An Encyclopaedia of the Nation, its People and their Origins . Proceedings and Report: Convention of Leaders of Associations of Maltese Abroad and of Maltese Origin (eds. G. N. Busuttil & V. Pace), . H.Frendo, ‘Is-Silta tan-Nisel: Maltin fid-Diaspora u l-Identita’ Etnika’, in D.Massa (Ed), Malta: Esplorazzjoni 
Historical Approaches to Maltese Journalism looks analytically at Maltese newspapers and other forms
of media communications especially from 1838 to the present. Maltese specimen will be seen contextually and in perspective as well as comparatively in terms of content, style and effect. Within the broader context and perspective of mainly Maltese journalistic variants, sessions concentrating on particular aspects may be undertaken allowing for greater concentration of focus.
Some suggested reading: Henry Frendo, Maltese Journalism 1838-1992: A Historical Overview .
H. Frendo, Mic-Censura ghall-Pluralizmu: Il-Gurnalizmu f’Malta, 1798-2002  Sergio Portelli, A Bibliography of Nineteenth Century Periodicals in the National Library of Malta Collection.
N.B. When parts of the study-unit, with the special permission of the lecturer, are taken on their own, they shall be registered as: HST 3138 Maltese Migration and Overseas Settlements (2 credits, assessed as in HST 3038) HST 3238 Historical Approaches to Maltese Journalism (2 credits, assessed as in HST 3038)
Labour, Class and Gender in Modern History Labour History in Modern Europe Gender, Class and Historical Identity
Lecturer: Dr. J. Chircop Assessment: Short essay or project (70%) + presentation (30%) Credit Value: 4 Labour History in Modern Europe: Labour has founded, sustained and transformed all civilizations in
history. The colossal significance of work as a primary human activity can only be appreciated if Labour and the labouring classes become the focus of our attention. More specifically, this course deals with the multifaceted dimension of labour in modern Europe. The approach taken, via lectures and seminars, is interdisciplinary: drawing from social, economic and cultural history.
The key themes to be discussed are: 1. Introduction: Definitions and historiography. 2. Class, gender and ethnicity. 3. Agricultural and Farm labour: the Peasantry (Rural work and the structure of daily life). 4. Artisans and handicrafts: the guild system. 5. A Focus on the origins and evolution of the Industrial Proletariat: wage-dependence; Production and Consumption; Industrial division of labour: Labour and industrial technology: the factory system; child work. 6. Class experiences: Collective identity and Class consciousness. 7. Working class Resistance, Rebellion and Revolution. 8. The Pub and the Party: a. working class leisure and play; b. literacy and education; c. voluntary/social organisations; d. labour and Art. 9. Working class ideologies: Syndicalism, Anarchism, Socialism, Communism and Social Democracy. Required Reading: On registering, students are provided with a set of primary published documents and articles. Nonetheless, they are also expected to read the following texts: H. Kaelble, Industrialization and social inequality in 19th century Europe. E. P. Thompson, The Making of the English Working Class. H.Hunt, British Labour History 1815-1914. A.J.P. Taylor, Revolutions and Revolutionaries. T. Parker, Red Hill A Mining Community
Gender, Class and Historical Identity: The relationship between gender, social class and identity has
become an exciting and innovative field of historical inquiry in Europe and the United States. This course focuses on the current debates and the various theoretical controversies making up this area of research.
Although the approach adopted is comparative, encompassing European societies, particular attention is put on Southern Europe during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The key topics to be discussed via lectures and seminars are: - Definition (1): Gender –sexuality – the body. - Definition (2): Class and Gender. - Historiography of the subject. The following themes are taken from a class-gender perspective: - Marriage, family, household and the life-cycle. - Upbringing and education. - The sexual division of labour. - Religion, health, fertility and contraception. - Production and Consumption. - Sex and gender: forms of representation. - Domestic and Public Dimensions. - The State and Legislation. This course encourages students to reflect on the relationship between issues of class and gender, from a broad interdisciplinary approach. Students are expected to actively participate in the discussions throughout the course and more so in the final seminar sessions. Required Reading: Students are provided with a set of papers during the first lecture sessions. However, participants should read the following basic texts: M.Perrot, Writing Women’s History. O.Hufton, The Prospect Before Her: A History of Women in Western Europe, 2 vols. R.Miles, The Women’s History of the World.
Social Welfare and Public Health in Mediterranean Europe 1700-1900
Lecturer: Dr. J. Chircop Assessment: Essay (70%) + Paper Presentation (30%) Credit Value: 6
This course offers an introduction to the comparative history of social welfare and public health in Southern Europe before the emergence of the Welfare State with distinctive reference to current historiography. At the centre of our concern are the poor and their strategies to obtain relief, social assistance and medical treatment from a variety of social bodies and institutions: informal (household); intermediate (confraternities; mutual aid societies); the formal/State institutions and poor relief. The key topics to be discussed are: Current historiography ; approaches ; sources: Methods, sources and approaches Charity and social assistance before the Welfare State The ‘Foucaultian Turn’ (Assistance or control of the Poor?) The Providers: The role of the household and the neighbourhood Community-based organisations and Church Charities Formal State institutions and relief services Self-help and views of the Poor: Daily self-help practices of the poor Views of the poor patients (e.g. the mentally sick, the elderly) Collective mentalities on Charity The social construction of Poverty, Charity and Relief.
While the themes above are introduced via lectures, students are expected to participate throughout the course and especially in the final seminar sessions. Readings 1.Abreu Laurinda (ed.), European Health and Social Welfare Policies (Compostela, 2004). 2.Barry J. and Jones C. (eds.) Medicine and Charity before the Welfare State (London 1991) 3.Chircop John, ‘Crises and the social desire for history’ in Malta University Report 2003 (Malta 2004). 4.Green David R. and Owens Alastair, Family Welfare. Gender, Property, and Inheritance since the Seventeenth Century (Oxford 2004) 5.Jones Colin and Porter Ray (eds.), Reassessing Foucault: Power, Medicine and the Body (London 1990) 6.Porter Dorothy (ed.), The History of Public Health and the Modern State (Amsterdam 1994) 7.Western Medicine: An Illustrated History (Oxford 1997) 8.Thane Pat, Foundations of the Welfare State (London 1996)
France in the Seventeenth Century
Lecturer: Prof. V. Mallia-Milanes Assessment: Written Test Credit Value: 4
France in the Seventeenth Century will focus essentially on the two worlds of Louis XIV – Versailles and France. The purpose of the course is twofold: (i) to place these two distinct realities within the wider context of the seventeenth century to be able to analyse them more maturely; and (ii) to trace the origins of the French Revolution back to Louis XIV’s reign. That would help to understand the eighteenth century better. The course will discuss, through documents or sets of documents, the following themes 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 French history and society from the Wars of Religion to the French Revolution: an overview French thought in the seventeenth century Louis XIV, the French Monarchy, and the Government of France Foreign Policy Church-State Relations in France under Louis XIV ‘A Soulless Elegance’: Language – Art – Literature – Architecture The long-term legacy of Louis XIV: How far can the Enlightenment and the French Revolution be traced back to Louis XIV’s reign ?
Recommended Reading • Voltaire, The Age of Louis XIV. Trans. M.P.Pollack. London, Dent, 1926. • Madame de Sevigne: Selected Letters. Trans. Leonard Tancock. Penguin Classics 1922. • Paul Hazard, The European Mind 1680-1715. Penguin 1963; 1st edn: Paris 1935. • Victor Mallia-Milanes, Louis XIV and France. London, Macmillan, 1986.
HST 3097 ♦ HST 3098 ♦
Synoptic Study-Unit (Maltese History) Synoptic Study-Unit (International History)
Co-ordinator: Prof Dominic Fenech Lecturers: All members of the Department Assessment: A written examination paper on each study-unit at the end of the course. Credit Value: 12 (6 for each study-unit)
In the light of the modular structure of the BA and BA (Hons) programmes of study, these study-units are designed to prepare and measure students’ ability to link and combine together, with a thematic approach, knowledge acquired in individual segments, with the object of assessing students’ overall level of maturity
and understanding at the end of the degree course. Preparatory seminars are conducted by two or more members of the Department.
History Honours Dissertation
Co-ordinator: Prof Dominic Fenech Lecturers: Individual members of the Department (in agreement with Head of Department) Assessment: The dissertation will be examined by two or more members of the History Department and defended by the student at the viva voce of the Final History Honours Examination. Credit Value: 12
By the end of the last semester of the B.A. (Hons) Course, every History Honours student is expected to have written, and submitted for examination, a dissertation of 15-18,000 words, exclusive of notes, bibliography, and appendices. (B.A. and M.A. Qualifying students may also opt to write a dissertation). Students should register for this study-unit during the final year of studies, but the topic must be chosen early in the second year of the Course, after consultation with the Head of Department, who will then assign a member of the academic staff to act as supervisor. All dissertations should follow the Departmental style-sheet, copies of which are available at the History Secretary’s office. Objectives: The dissertation is ultimately designed to apply and extend the knowledge and skills acquired during the Course. With this in mind, students will learn how • to research a topic from original sources and develop a thesis based on them • to evaluate original sources • to be more critical and creative thinkers • to acquire a deeper understanding of the professional historian’s craft The dissertation shall be either (i) a record of original work based on primary sources; or (ii) a critical reassessment of existing data with regard to the subject chosen. The choice of subject is up to the student. However, the department has research programmes within which students may choose their topic. As regards presentation, it should follow the MA Regulations, 1992, clause 8.1. Students who make use of oral history as part of their research are expected to hand in all tapes and transcripts to the Department and fill the appropriate forms. Tapes and transcripts will thereafter be deposited in the Oral History Centre.
Postgraduate Historical Studies
Course Organizer: Supervisor in consultation with Head of Department Assessment: Written Test Credit Value: 2
This study-unit is addressed to M.A. History students. Students shall be required to complete an intensive programme of studies, drawn up by their Tutor to meet their individual needs. The programme will take the form of tutorials, focusing primarily on essay writing and discussions with the Tutor on themes closely relating to the student’s wider field of research. Emphasis will be laid on the historiography of the period and the compilation of a sample bibliography.
M.A. History Research Methods
Dr. J. Chircop/Mr C. Dalli (i) by presentation of a Bibliographical/literature review essay and, (ii) participation in seminars. Credit Value: 4
The main purpose of this programme is to indicate and discuss the history research methods currently in use. The course is structured via lectures and guided seminars which deal with these specific issues: the research proposal; managing the research process; literature review; the use of sources; drawing conclusions and the actual writing of the thesis. Seminars will also revolve around the practical problems faced by the students themselves.
Directed Study (for postgraduate students)
Lecturer: Various Assessment: Assignment, Presentation/Presentations Credit Value: 2
The course is based on an intensive programme of reading and written work on a specific historical theme that is not normally covered by the History syllabus. It is conducted on an individual basis; students work largely on their own, without the need to attend formal lectures, although occasional tutorials may be necessary, especially in the first few weeks of the course.
Small Islands in Global History
Lecturer: Dr John Chircop Assessment: Presentation of paper (20 %) and final examination (80%). Credit Value: 4
This course provides students with the needed historical background and conceptual framework to be able to understand the position and roles played by small islands in the world economic system today. Using a wide comparative approach and taking a long-term historical perspective (from the sixteenth to the twentieth centuries), the process, which transformed selected islands and enclaves from their regionally-integrated locations into key geo-strategic Islands within the modern global economic system, is discussed.. The key topics covered are: Employing the comparative historical method to small islands Geo-historical and ecological history Insular or central ports on the maritime Cross-roads ? Islands in regional history (human, commercial and cultural exchange). Islands in the World capitalist system (16-20th centuries) Selected geo-strategic maritime zones Islands and enclaves in the building of colonial empires (ports and communication hubs) and the global economic system. Reading: Braudel F., The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Philip ll, (London 1972), vol.1.
Chircop J., ‘The Narrow Sea Complex: A Hidden Dimension in Mediterranean Maritime History’ in G. Boyce and R. Gorski, Resources and Infrastructures in the Maritime Economy, 1500-2000 (St. John’s Newfoundland 2000), 43-61. Christopher, A.J., The British Empire at its Zenith (London, 1988). Dietz, P. (ed.), Garrison: Ten British Military Towns (London, 1986) Fog Olwig, K. (ed.), Small Islands, Large Questions: Society, Culture and Resistance in the PostEmancipation Caribbean (London, 1995). Foreman-Peck, J., A History of the World Economy. International Economic Relations since 1850 (N. YorkLondon, 1995) Havinden, M & Meredith D., Colonialism and Development: Britain and its Tropical Colonies, 1850- 1960 (London-N.York, 1993). Morse, R., M., ‘The Caribbean: Geopolitics and Geohistory’ in S. Lewis and T.G. Matthew (eds.), Caribbean Integration. Papers on Social, Political and Economic Integration (Puerto Rico,1976), 155-173 Wallerstein, I., The Capitalist World Economy (Cambridge, 1979 or following editions)
Island Communities in Transition: From the Late Medieval to Modern Times
Lecturer: Dr John Chircop, Mr Charles Dalli Assessment: Written Essay (70%) + Seminar Presentation (30%) Credit Value: 4
The course will look into the main structural changes and continuities which defined island communities with a special emphasis on those in the Mediterranean Sea. The impact of the wider regional and transregional developments is studied using current approaches (social-cultural and ecological history) to identify and tackle some of the major problems faced by island communities from the late Middle Ages to the modern period. Key topics to be covered include: Late Medieval to Early Modern Times: The changing economies of island societies (a regional & transregional approach to the late medieval and early modern economic history of Mediterranean islands) Features of island societies: Factors at play in shaping and reshaping island societies Political contests and contexts Early Modern to Contemporary history: Social change and identity on island societies Human movement and networks Social and political strategies: Flexibility in Tradition Vulnerability and size: Climate and resources (Island eco-histories) The Socio- cultural construction of ‘Islanders’: a distinct people ? Readings: Students will be provided with a pack of articles. S.R. Epstein, An Island for itself. Economic development and social change in late medieval Sicily (Cambridge 1992)
D. Abulafia, A Mediterranean Emporium. The Catalan Kingdom of Majorca (Cambridge 1994) P. Edbury, The Kingdom of Cyprus and the Crusades, 1191-1374 (Cambridge 1991) O. Rackham & J.Moddy, The Making of the Cretan Landscape (Manchester 1997) F. Braudel, The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Philip 11 (London 1972), 2 vols. K. Olwig, Small Islands, Large Questions; Society, Culture and Resistance in the Post-Emancipation Carribean (London 1995).
♦ and BOLD TYPE DENOTES COMPULSORY UNIT FOR B.A. HONS. and BOLD TYPE DENOTES COMPULSORY UNIT FOR B.A.
DENOTES COMPULSORY UNIT FOR M.A.
PLAIN TYPE DENOTES OPTIONAL UNIT
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