Westford – Assignment Tasks Unit 3: Strategic Change Management - Unit code: J/602/2062 Semester: Sem 122: June

09, 2012 – August 2012

Instructor Information Name Phone Skype Email Ms Nora Bhatia +919821554396 (cell) norabhatia norabhatia@yahoo.com

LEARNER’S BRIEF- Front Cover sheet for BTEC – Level 7 Assessment in Business BTEC – Level -7: PGD in Developing Strategic Management & Leadership skills

Learner’s Name: Sumesh AV ID: DL12493 Class (Course): PBD in Developing strategic Management & Leadership Skills Section : Semester-122 June 09, 2012- August 2012 Unit title: Unit-3 Strategic Change Management Date assessment details issued: 30-June-2012 Date handed in: 14-July-2012 Word Count: 5200


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c .2.3 Assess the value of using strategic intervention techniques in organizations Task 1.1a 1.1b 1. Understand the background to organizational strategic change 1. Understand issues related to strategic organisation change in an 2.2.1 Discuss models of strategic change Task 1.3 Assess the resource implications of the organisation not responding to strategic change Task1.2 Assess the factors that are driving the need for strategic change in an organization Task 1.a 2.1 Examine the need for strategic change in an organisation Task 1.2 Evaluate the relevance of these models to organisations in the current economy Task 1.2.Learning Outcomes Assessment criteria (AC) Evidence for the criteria TASK 1 1.b 2.1c 2.

Models of Strategic Change There are many models for change management theories are available to describe change management process. The models for change management process are very useful in that they describe and simplify the process. Some of the change management models are. dis-benefits and cultural issues affecting the progress of the associated work. Effective Communications that informs various stakeholders of the reasons for the change. Monitoring of the implementation and fine-tuning as required.1a . Benefits management and realization to define measurable stakeholder aims. create a business case for their achievement and monitor assumptions. communicates. risks. dependencies. It is an organizational process aimed at helping change stakeholders to accept and embrace changes in their business environment. Provide personal counseling. As a visible track on transformation projects. but also deep social understanding about leadership’s styles and group dynamics. training and/or skills upgrading scheme for the organization. integrates teams and manages people training.Introduction to Change management Change management is an approach to shifting or transitioning individual. Change Management processes may include creative marketing to enable communication between change audiences. costs. Devise an effective education. kurt . if required to alleviate any change-related fears. Organizational Change Management aligns groups’ expectations. Task 1. Counter resistance from the employees of companies and align them to overall strategic direction of the organization. The change management process is the detailed activities or steps that a team which responsible for managing change would follow for implementing the change for an organization. teams and organizations from a current state to a desired future state. Successful change management is more likely to occur if the following are included. return on investment.

Source from: http://www. Also this stage of change involves preparing the organizations to accept the change is necessary this first part of the change process is usually the most difficult and stressful. reducing the force that are striving to maintain the status quo and dismantling the current mind set for the team need to change. Carnall Model etc. it may show management that moral is quite low and that as result of this low morale the risk to safety is quite high. ADKAR model. according to this model change is implementing though three phases that are unfreeze. The first step unfreezing step defined as.change-management-consultant.lewin model. The behaviors may initially . This may influence a manager who has been resisting change to begin to take action. Kurt Lewin’s 3 phase change Model Mr. Sometime through organizational structure. Bullock & Batten model. In this phase the team is preparing for change it includes developing new behaviors. Kurt Lewinx model suggest that one of the best way to motivate change is to first get people to see the needs for the change. There may be a period of some confusion for team move from the old way of doing things to new. For example by doing an attitude survey of staff.com/kurt-lewin. process change and development techniques. value and attitudes. Kotller 8 Steps.html According to this model the second phase is transition phase. transition and refreeze.Kurt Zadek Lewin introduced this change management concept. some the strategic change model as described below. Senge model. People are in this stage looking for a new and better ways to do the things.

Change can happen very quickly but transition usually occurs more slowly. they will begin to take ownership in the change and drive it. The final step is re-freezing. In summary the Kurt Lewin’s model demonstrate that to move an organization from particular strategic phase to its desired change to achieve objective. The organization may revert to former ways of doing things at this point unless the changes are reinforced through re-freezing. Then implement and install the necessary change. the natural zone and the new beginning. Once people began to see how the change is benefiting them. and helps them believes that future changes will be successful. thanks them for enduring a painful time. Then aim to stabilize the operations at a higher level of performance. ending-losing-letting go. Those are. structure and strategy elements are all seems okay. The main advantage of this model is that it focuses on transition rather than change. It means the change is something that happens to people. Whereas the transition is that what happens in people’s mind as they go through change. William Bridge. Bridge’s transition change model This type of change model was created by Mr. immediacy the thing should lock in other words freeze the changes.be mechanical and they are starting to perform and behave in the ways that support for new direction. As part of re-freezing process. For making easy this process first the organization should create a compelling and motivating reason for change. After implementing the change is the people. . it is necessary to celebrate the success of the change. There are mainly three stages of transition that people go through when they experience change. even if they don’t agree with it. It will help people to find closure. According to this step the peoples adapt the ownership of new change.

On this stage people may experience emotions such as. people affected by the change but often them getting confused. frustration. It very important that to accept the people’s resistance and understanding their emotions and feeling. Also it may chance to get heavy work load for the people as they get . If the organization is not acknowledging the emotions that people are going though. disorientation.Transition curve. denial. a sense of loss. anger.interactionassociates. and allow them the time to accept the change and let go The Neutral Zone In this stage. fear. sadness.com/node/681 Ending. source: http://www. the people may encounter resistance throughout change process. Losing and Letting Go People enter this initial stage of transition when organization first presentation with change. This stage is often marked with resistance and emotional upheaval. uncertainty. People have to accept that something is ending before they can begin to accept the new idea. Depending on how well organization managing the change. uncertain and impatient. because people are being forced to let go of something that they are comfortable with.

Neutral zone is the bridge between the old and new. skepticism about the change initiative. Ion this stage it is required to meet people frequently to give feedback on how they are performing. And take them to celebrate the success of change and for all their hard work. it is necessary that organization help them sustain it. Step 1 Create Urgency Organizations need to develop a sense of urgency around the need for change. especially with regards to change. According to his the process of change management as follows. People have begun to embrace the change intuitive. resentment towards the change initiative. anxiety about their role. status or identity. In this stage people are likely to experience. The New Beginning The last transition stage is a time of acceptance and energy. openness to learning and renewed commitment to the group or their role.used to new systems and new ways of working. He introduced his eight steps of change process. Kotter’s 8 step change model John Kotter. In this stage as the people begin to adopt the change. high energy. This may help organizations to spark the initial motivation to get thing moving. Creating an urgency includes an open convincing dialogue about the . a professor at Harvard business school and world removed change management experts. low morale and low productivity. innovation and renewal. also it is the great time to encourage people to try new ways of thinking. Despite these this stage can also be one of the great creativity. In this zone people might experience. The people are building the skill they need to work successfully in the new way and they are starting to see early wins from their efforts.

Organization should link these concepts to an overall vision that people can grasp easily. identify the true leaders within the organization. For making powerful coalition organization can do. examine opportunity and exploiting strategy. Once “change coalition” formed. A clear . check team weakness and ensure that the organization have a good mix of people from different department and different level.change needs to be done as per external situation for organizations.samsari. This often takes strong leadership and visible from key people within the organizations. Step 3 Create a Vision for Change Probably be many great ideas and solutions floating around during the initial change discussion within the organizations. Identifying potential threats and future trends.se/site/blog/?tag=/kotter Step 2 Form a Powerful Coalition In this stage management need to convince the people that change is necessary. ask for an emotional commitment from these key people. Kotter’s 8 step change model. work on team building within change coalition. Source: http://www. and then continue to build urgency and momentum around the need for change.

Terms Wins This step is meant that nothing motivate more than success. it required to check barriers continually. Every short term ‘win’ that organization produce can further motivate the entire peoples. It includes use the vision daily to make decisions and solve problems. Step-6 Create Short. Step -4 Communicate Vision Organization needs to communicate its vision and strategy well to the people for transmitting the exact message to people. review the organizational structure. look for sure fire projects that can implement without help . and perforce systems to ensure they are in line with organizations visions. identify the people who resist the change. For removing obstacle organization can do’. Create short term targets to be achieved with little room for failure. develop a future plan for organization. recognize and reward people for making change happen. job descriptions. Organization can use “walks the talk “strategy for communicating its vision to its people Step-5 Remove Obstacle Within the structure of change. For short term wins the organization can do.vision can help everyone understand about change requirement. determine the value that are central to change. identify or hire change leaders whose main roles to deliver the change. When management keep it fresh on everyone's minds. they'll remember it and respond to it. For making a vision organization can do. Removing obstacle can empower the people and it can help the change move forward. take action top quickly remove the barriers. create a strategy to execute that vision. The organizations celebrate the victory early in change process or within short time frame or else critics negative thinkers might hurt your progress.

It is also important that leaders who initiated for change continuously support for change. To build on change organization can do. Quick wins are only the beginning of what needs to be done to achieve long terms change. Step-7 Build on the Change Kotter argues that many change process fail because victory is declared too early. reward the people who help to meet the targets. make continuous effort to ensure that the change is seen in every aspect of the organizations. l tell success stories about the change process. sent goals to continue building on the momentum that organization achieved. Each success provides an opportunity to build on what went right and identify what organization can improve. includes change ideals and values when hiring and training new staff. Real change ruins deep. The organization needs to talk about progress of change. keep ideas fresh by bringing in new change agents and leaders for the change coalition. This will help ensure that their legacy is not lost or forgotten. don’t choose early targets that are expensive and organization want to be able to justify the investment each project. and create plans to replace key leaders of change as they move on. analyze what went right and what needs improving. after every wins.from any strong critics of the change. Step-8 Anchor the Change in Corporate Culture The final step is stick on change. thoroughly analyze the potential pros and cons of the targets. . That will help give that change a solid place in organizations culture.

especially in the city of Dubai. The main geographical area of ARE’s operation is United Arab Emirates. Many low and medium scale Organizations dealing into constructions and related industries confronted difficulties to generate new business opportunities and for their sustainability in market.Task 1. During the period of 2000-2007 there was a massive construction boom happed in United Arab Emirates. ARE’s main business operations are electromechanical solutions and engineering service for building construction.1 b – How Appropriate are These Models of Strategic Change to Organizations in the Current Economy? For evaluate the appropriateness for this strategic change model for organizations I can evaluate two case as mentioned below. Dubai's real estate market declined after this six-year boom and slows down this massive construction boom. In this scenario ARE’s management develop an alternative and innovative idea to generate new business opportunities to market sustainability. ARE) is a construction engineering services provider in UAE market since 2001. Almost all construction and constructions related industries within UAE enhance these opportunities and made tremendous business opportunities throughout this period including ARE. During this period ARE gone through a change . But with the onset of the financial crisis of 2007– 2010. Even bigger organizations are also insisting to take actions for downsizing including ARE. Facilities management is a term defined as managing and maintenance of properties which had been constructed earlier. which is to convert ARE’s core business operations into facilities management services from electromechanical constructions. Business diversion for Al Reyami Electromechanical Services Al Reyami electromechanical service (M/s.

Management keep updating all managerial decisions and it development to employees and conduct training program for them to move with new changed circum stances and business operations.V. Transition stage: in this stage ARE management formed a new registered firm Al Reyami Facilities Management Services LLC as per UAE federal low. This change process initiated by ARE’s management team and they are used Kurt Lewin’s 3 phase change Model for implement this change process. And they captured all new process and services procedure for new idea. Change management in ICICI Industrial credit and Investment Corporation of India-ICICI is leading private sector financial service institution in India. And they defined the services rage and process flows for each service. ARE management evaluated the capability for new team and allow them as an independed strategic business unit within the group of companies. Here we can analyze his change management initiative and change implementation with Kotter’s 8 step change model. Also they prepared an organizational structure for new team. Unfreeze stage: In this unfreeze stage ARE management team starts prepare to make change half of its resource as facilities management team. Kamath.process to divert their business and sustainability. K. ICICI implemented a large scale new business change in 1998 for tap new market and to become a financial power house in India under the leadership of its Managing Director & CEO. They called up an open discussion for all department heads and engineering staff for their suggestions about change also ask them to educate their team about future change is very necessary for market sustain for future. Since ICICI is a large and established private sector institution Kotter’s 8 step change model is very suitable for its change initiative because . For this transition stage ARE management planed a time span for 4 months Refreeze: After 4 months transition stage peoples adapted the new change and new ways for doing business. Mr.

and these specialist team known as ‘structured projects’. According to analysts. Step 3 Create a Vision for Change . with media reports frequently carrying quotes from disgruntled ICICI employees. Kammath announced the urgency around the needs for change for ICICI mainly changes in the organizational structure from a development bank mode to that of a market-driven financial conglomerate. Employees were finding the changes unacceptable as learning new skills and adapting to the process orientation was proving difficult. ‘infrastructure group’ as per the nature of their operations. Step 1 Create Urgency In this stage Mr. The 8 steps of ICICI’s change process as mentioned bellow. The changes also brought in a lot of confusion among the employees. The systems within the company soon were in a state of stress. But Mr. Also his aim is to develop ICICI is major financial powerhouse in India and increase its ability to respond to the market changes Step 2 Form a Powerful Coalition Obviously these large-scale changes accouchements caused enormous tension within the organization. a large section of employees began feeling alienated.the model describes detailed analysis for all change criteria. The new arranged team called specialist groups. Komath move forward with his decision and he formed powerful collation within the team after re arranging the exiting team to suit with new change.

' 'oil & gas group (O&G). Also he identified leaders for every key department for implementing process. As these new groups took on the key tasks. the customer talked only to . growth client group (GCG) and personal finance group. having seen the changes occurring in the financial sector abroad and in the early 1990s. 'infrastructure group (IIG). however. along with a lot of good talent. Now. However. this was just the beginning of change-resistance at ICICI. Mr. a majority of the work. Komath explained his clear vision and mission about ICICI and target needs to achieve though change process. Komath refuting this and he announced his opinion that.In this Mr. And he developed some key internal divisions to make communication effectively such as. His aim is to become ICICI is a financial powerhouse and one stop shop for all financial services and products. In the system prevailing. shifted to the corporate center. To tackle this problem. Komath developed a communication strategy and communication channel to distribute change management update to everybody in the organizations. While the zonal offices continued to do the same work . The approach towards creating these new skill sets. Also Kamath. Komath faces resistance for his change management process.' 'planning and treasury department (PTD)' and the 'structured products group (SPG)'. some of the people who did not fit in this set-up were quick to leave the organization.their importance within the organization seemed to have diminished. Step -4 Communicate Vision Mr. The process was time consuming. and there was a danger that the client would take a portion of that business elsewhere. led to one unintended consequence. Indian government allowed Indian corporate to raise long-term funds abroad. Step-5 Remove Obstacle As usual Mr. if a client had three different requirements from ICICI he had to approach the relevant departments separately. Another change management problem surfaced as a result of ICICI's decision to focus its operations much more sharply around its customers.disbursing loans to corporate in the same region . ICICI set up three new departments: major client group (MCG).

a 360-degree appraisal system was put in place. whereby an individual was assessed by his peers. Step-6 Create Short. the employee unrest gradually gave way to a much more relaxed atmosphere within the company. Komath ensured that rewards were related to group performance and not individual performances. Along with the training to the employees. Step-7 Build on the Change During change process it was reported that pressure on accountability triggered off some levels of anxiety within ICICI which resulted in a lot of stress in human relationships. 'much of the restructuring plan has come from the bottom.his representative in MCG or GCG.Terms Wins In this stage Mr. As a result of the above measures. Komath also took steps to set right the reward system. Dismissing reports of upsetting people. Komath offered training for very employees is associated with new change process especially for officers and junior management grades. To avoid the negative impact of profit center approach. Soon. Kamath accepted that ICICI had been a bit slow on completing the employee feedback process. Mr. To reward individual star performers. Two types of remuneration were considered . This made it clear. the method of selecting a star performer was made transparent. that there would be closer relationship between performance and reward. Mr. Step-8 Anchor the Change in Corporate Culture . And these representatives in turn found out which ICICI department could do the job. seniors and subordinates.' ICICI also reviewed the compensation structure in place. Kamath said. wherein pressure to show profits might affect standards of integrity within an organization.a contract basis which would attract risk-takers and a tenure-based compensation which would be appealing to employees who wanted security.

when what etc. system or subsystem. These changes are intended to ensure improvement in the functioning of the organization. Komath and his team had been made. The changes brought either internal or external agencies for organization. organization and the external environment. individual.1-C The Value of Using Strategic Intervention Techniques in an Organization Undergoing Change The strategic intervention refers to all the planned programmatic activities aimed at bringing changes in an organization. And make continuous effort to ensure that the change is seen in every aspect of the organizations to achieve its desired objective o become a financial powerhouse. Interventions are carried to improve an organization from its current position to a desired position and to achieve the desired change. team and other aspects of organizational dynamics. to carry out an intervention to improve their performance. Specific reasons for purpose of intervention could be to improve the process.The final step for change management process in ICICI is to stick on change. such as 'infrastructure group (IIG). to confront and deal with issues constructively • To develop positive attitudes openness and improve interaction among people.' 'planning and treasury department (PTD)' and the 'structured products group (SPG)'.' 'oil & gas group (O&G). Also it required to communicate department leaders about success about change process to their people within the department which Mr. intervention could be. A number of techniques are used for intervention . Task 1. The focus of intervention could be . interpersonal. Action. • To provide awareness of changing norms. or any staff within the organizations. individual. • To provide feedback about task. The and provide feedback. The intervention can also relate to whole organization as to how to achieve better vertical or horizontal integration among all level. . group or team. Organizations need to basically analyze where. how. what Mr. . Komath had made as part of change management process.

business relationship. And also they need to change and implement revised process and operational strategy for organization to stabilize its pre defined growth objective according to varying circumstances. transactional analysis. Operant Conditioning and behavior modification. People change: change in leadership. environmental and ethical reasons are also effect organizational strategy and trigger organizational change. improve their knowledge and skills • To bring constructive and desirable changes to improve individual and organizational performance. . Because this external and internal factors may change as per number of reasons. shift of power within the organization the internal factors which leads to organizational changes are re structuring or re engineering. Achievement Motivation. Most frequently used interventions in every organization are . political or legal. technological. role focused. Sensitivity analysis . technology. process feedback based and training based.• To educate employees. business environmental or competition. MBO etc. action research based. And theoretical basis of interventions could be Psychoanalytical. The team responsible for governing the organization must understand how to manage these varying circumstances and complexities to make positive and remarkable result for organizations. socio-psychological. person focused. forces field and group dynamics. Every organizations having their own growth objectives and it may varies subjected to internal and external circumstances for the organization.2-A why did ICICI need to plan for change? Examine why organisations need to plan for strategic change Change management is an approach to shifting or transitioning complexity of the process or project in an organization from current stage to desired future state. In addition to that there are some socio cultural. The reasons for changing external factors are . Task-1.

They should either change their business strategy to sustain in the market or just die. they are also technological. This strategic vision and changing business environment leads ICICI to further changes. reduced risk taking etc are also trigger organizational change because it may affect the organization exiting flow toward its strategically growth objective. Loss of public opinion can affect customer relationships. social. interviews. When an organizational system is disturbing with its internal or external force. mergers and acquisitions. legal. Komath make his decision to create new divisions to tap new markets and to introduce flexibility in the organization to increase its ability to respond to market changes. The forces which make the changes not only market sustainability. In today competitive business world.Internal resources and financial implications. necessitated because of the organization's new-found aim of becoming a financial powerhouse. And there was a positive announcement from Indian government in 1990 that to allow the Indian corporate to rise long term fund aboard. Negative effects of downsizing. There are number of factors both internal and external which affect . and human resource issues like. Loss of trust: lower productivity. Organizations that learn and cope with change can thrive and flourish and others who are not ready to cope with change will be wiped from market. strategic alliances. Costs of hiring. Redundancies. economic. Change is inevitable in the life of every organization. Task-1. New product development. Komath having a strategic plan to change its organizational structure from a development bank mode to that of a market driven financial conglomerate. Also as strategic leader of ICICI Mr. layoffs due to loss in business. most of the organizations facing dynamic and changing business environment.2-B what drives the need for strategic changes in organisations? Assess these factors. political. international and labour market environments. Loss of employees and customers. And change process help organization to modify of its structure or process of the systems as per changing or fluctuating internal or external forces. loss of interest. change frequently occurs. such as Cost of re-training. In the case of ICICI bank Mr. which drive the need for strategic change.

Any change in these factors necessitates changes in an organization. the needs. it is required to make adjustment in its working so that it matches with people. promotions. deficiency in existing organization. Competitor organizations are also exporting this same output or buyers are not buying this output. The major important external factors are. and feeling of autonomy. Political and legal changes: political and legal factors broadly define the activities which an organization can undertake and the methods which will be followed by it in accomplishing those activities. and nature of the work force. Changes in managerial personal: There may be some internal changes due to change in key managerial persons within the organizations. its work structure is affected and a new equilibrium has to be established. Some time old managers replaced by new managers because of retirement. Technology: when there is a change in technology in the organizational environment and competitive organizations adopt the new technology. The organizations under focus become less cost effective and its competitive position weakens. urbanization. Social conditions: Social changes reflect in terms of people’s aspirations. and their ways of working. technology. Social changes have taken place because of the several forces like level of education. Therefore. Such kind of scenario the change process may help organizations to change its products and services as suit with new marketing condition and its customer group. Any changes in these political and legal factors may affect the organizational operation. These social changes affect the behavior of people in the organization. And major internal factors are changes in managerial persons. . There. social changes.organizational functioning. Sometime organization faced the marketing issues that. economy & market condition. it has to adopt new technology. Economic and marketing conditions: in marketing every organization exports its output to the environment. political and legal changes.

Task-1. . But some organization is not bother about its environmental change may because of their fear for implementing change.e. The employee turnover is also very high which again put strain on the management. Deficiency in existing organization: deficiency in organization means. lack of uniformity in policy decisions. product. There are many real time examples such case in the present business world. large number of managerial levels. Eastman Kodak is the one of the biggest examples for such kind of organization which loses their market share and industry leading position.. if the organisation does not respond to strategic change As I mentioned earlier the organizational external and internal conditions are varying time to time.transfer or dismissal. Some kind of organization might loosing the market share and gradually and wiped off from market after some times. Each new person can implement their own ideas and way of doing the process. the group of 50 plus values and younger generation will be thinking extremely different. obstacles in communication.Implications on resources. Organization which cannot manage this changes atmosphere cannot sustain for a long with their existing service. multiplicity of committees. in the form of unmanageable span of management. Their behavior has also become very complex and leading them towards organizational goals is a challenge for the managers. lack of cooperation between the line and staff Nature of the work force: Different work values have been expressed by different generation. i. as well a proactive approaches dealing with change is at the core of all aspects. result in that the organization should according to the new ideas and process.2-C. lack in co-ordination between various departments.

Sony. Kodak failed to anticipate how fast these digital cameras sector is changing. But their core business. with low profit margins. In 2001 Kodak held no 2 spot in US digital camera sales just behind Sony.00 for 30 consecutive days and that over the next 6 months it must increase closing share price at least $1. Obviously the consumers whoever using conventional photographic technology gradually switched to the digital offering from Sony and other competitive organization. In the 1990’s Kodak planned a decade long journey to move to digital technology.00 on the last trading day of each calendar month and have an average closing price of at least $1 over than 30 trading days prior or it would be delisted from stock market. At the same time digital cameras became undercut by Asian competitors and they can able to offer very cheap rates. and as Kodak executives could not predict a world without traditional photographic film. Kodak received a warning from the New York stock exchange notifying it that its average closing price was below $1. In 2005 Kodak enjoyed high profit margin. But its competitors identify the future opportunity in digital world and digital camera business and start produce and market digital camera massively worldwide. product was dropped for fear it would threaten their exiting photographic film business. Kodak had 27 percentage market leading share in 1999. Consequently digital photography market is developed massively whereas sales of conventional photography dropped since 2001. Despite high growth . This resulted decrease in overall sales and a disappointed profit in 2005.Eastman Kodak. Nikon and others. the 131 year old film pioneer that has been struggling for years to sustain new digital driven market. fell 18% which is not apt for current changing market condition and competition with their rival products. convention al photographic film business faced no pressure from competing technology at beginning. And in 2007 Kodak was No-4 in US digital camera sales with 9. that decreased to 15 percentage by 2003.6 percentage market share and gradually by 2010 it held 7 percentage in seventh place behind Canon. Continuing with these strategic loses in recent 2012 February. Competitive organization like Sony and Fujifilm achieve a great share of digital photo graphic market with this new technological changes in digital photography. Earlier in . the first of its kind . many companied entered into the market in mid of 2000 with strong market competition. Although Kodak developed digital camera in 1975.

The company stock was delisted from New York stock exchange. But unfortunately the Kodak didn’t proactively respond this environment changes and losses their opportunity to sustain with other rival organizations. Also shut down the film factories and eliminated 27. but shares closed at 76 cents on January 3. In February 9. phasing out its production of digital cameras. 2012. From the above case for Kodak we can notice that there was a change management requirement according to the technological and external market change within the organization during early stage of digital camera era.1997 Kodak share price range was $90. In January19. 2012 Kodak announces it will exit from digital image capture business. . 2012 Kodak filed for bankruptcy.000 jobs as it outsourced fir its manufacturing.

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