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HABITAT -3-DIMENSIONAL SPACE (scale of space and time) -ADDRESS OF AN ORGANISM 2 levels: *MICROHABITAT *MACROHABITAT major habitat system:

water and land Different nutrients are distributed differently.

Aquatic - phytoplankton, zooplankton, benthos (bottom dwellers), nekton(active swimmers) fish, neuston surface dwellers water strider Gerris sp Pupa of dragonfly, damselfly found at boulder

Geographical Distribution Dispersal mechanism

1. Seed dispersal The movement or transport of seeds away from the parent plant Plants have limited mobility and consequently rely upon a variety of dispersal vectors to transport their propagules (seeds and pollen) Abiotic and biotic vectors Seeds can be dispersed away from the parent plant Individually Collectively, as as dispersed in both space and time five main modes of seed dispersal: gravity,wind, ballistic, water and by animals.

Patterns of seed dispersal Migration patterns and species interaction Genetic occurrence in places

The success to survive is not guaranteed. Examples: Taraxacum officinale (dandelion), Pheretima benguetensis(earthworm) local conditions matter... Climate, physical, chemical, biological aspects of 3-D space LIMITING FACTORS Factors that limit distributions of life on earth Any condition or factor that approaches or exceeds the limits of an organism's range of tolerance. physico-chemical limiting factors: temp, moisture, nutrients Biotic limiting factors: competition, predation pressure, food availability

Ophicephalus striatus(mudfish) Orchids Thrive and bloom in gardens with cool air, direct sunlight. In natural habitats, grow only in shaded areas, where radiation is not direct, hence temperature is cool. In water bodies from sea level to 3k feet above sea level pH range: 7.2-7.9

Corals Temp ranges 23-25 degrees centigrade But may be found in lower range of temp provided the water transparency is high

Trichogaster pectoralis (gurami) 5ppm oxygen in body of water, 6days/week On 7th day, factory effluents are released, decreasing the concentration of oxygen The fish do not survive here.

Liebig's law of Minimum

In 1840 , Justus von Liebig proposed that the single factor in shortest supply relative to demand is the critical determinant in the distribution of species. he studied domestic rops Crop yield: nutrients needed in large quantities carbon dioxide and nutrient Trace nutrients-- zinc important Conditions: 1. The Liebig law of minimum is strictly applicable only under relatively stable conditions. (steady state conditions) - Inflow approximatestheoutflow -Changing conditions would eventually cause different constituents to be used up hence, changes in the factor that is in shortest suppy. 2. The possibility of factor interaction. -The action of some factor other than the minimum constituent may modify the use of this limiting factor -Sr---> Ca -Zn interaction with light UNDER STEADY STATE CONDITIONS, THE ESSENTIAL CONSTITUENT AVAILABLE IS LIMITED Shelford's law of tolerance *EACH ENVIRONMENTAL FACTOR HAS BOTH MINIMUM AND MAXIMUM LEVELS CALLED TOLERANCE LIMITS BEYOND WHICH PARTICULAR SPECIES CANNOT SURVIVE! Introduced Stress ecology Tolerance limits can also be affected by biological interaction--> positive interactions Zone of physiological stress- low population Area ofgreatestabundance -range ofoptimum Zone of intolerance - species absence Subsidiary principles1. Organisms may have diff ranges of tolerance for diff factors.

2. Organism with wideranges of tolerance for limiting factors are likely to be the most well distributed. 3. When conditions are not optimal for a species one ecological factor, limits of tolerance for other factors may be reduced. 4. Frequently, organisms in nature are not actually living at the optimum range of aparticular factor, it shows importance of otherfactors such as biological interventions. ex. Spartina alterniflora 5. Reproduction is usually a critical period when environmental factors are most likely to be limiting. Reproductive individuals and propagules have narrower tolerance ranges. ex. Callinectes sp., Neritina natalensis Factor, narrow tolerance, wide tolerance table Temp, stenothermal ex. CORALS,BROOK TROUT, eurythermal(LEOPARD FROG) Water, stenohydric, euryhydric Salinity, stenohaline, euryhaline Food, stenophagic, euryphagic Habitat selection, stenoecious, euryecious Steno- narrow, eury- wide ----------------------------------------------FACTOR COMPENSATION AND ECOTYPES Factor compensation Ecotype Genetically differentiated subspecies Genetic varieties within a single species. (Reciprocal transplantation) organisms adapt to environment Modify physical environment Physiological or morphological changes ex. Pocillopora damicornis With or without genetic fixation (effective at the community level)

Organismal responses to physical environment

Options: 1. Avoidance- ex. Migration 2. Tolerance - They can tolerate it. They adapt to local conditions. They modify physical env to reduce limiting effects. ex. Aurelia aurita(moon jellies), Tithonia diversifolia Ecotypic variations in yellow, Achillea millefolium Regulatory factors Organisms not only adapt to the phy env but also use the natural periodicities in their locality to time their activities and program their life histories Physical factors are used as cue to regulate the activities of organims Organism become so adapted that they do not have cues.

Conditions of existence as regulatory factors Biological clocks 1. Circadian rhythm- ability to time and repeat functions at about 24-h intervals even in qbsence of conspicuos cues 2. Tidal rhythms- crabs 3. Photperiods- plants