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Mesopotamia I. Social A. Beginning of Social Classes 1. In Sumerian Society B. Slavery 1.

. Slaves were foreigners that were captured in war 2. Others were Sumerians who were sold into slavery as children to pay poor parents debts. C. Role of Women 1. Could work as Merchants, farmers, or atisans. 2. Could hold property in own name. 3. Could join priesthood. 4. Could obtain divorce 5. Had more rights than women in other civilizations. II. Political A. Type of government 1. Each city developed own government 2. Earliest controlled by temple priests/kings. 3. Some military leaders became full time rulers after they helped in ar. 4. After 2500 BC many city-states came under rule of dynsties. a. City-state: A self governing state consisting of a city and surrounding territory. 1. Examples: Ur, Sumer, Uruk, Kish, etc. B. Role of government 1. Priests managed irrigation system 2. Collected taxes 3. Connect people to the gods 4. Protected City-State III. Religion A. Polytheism 1. Believed various gods controlled forces in nature.

a. One of the powerful gods was Enlil, the god of storms and air. 1. People believed he was the flood. B. Role of Religion 1. Built Ziggurats 2. Offered sacrifices 3. Lives were a lot about religion C. Power of religious classes 1. Priests had much power in government. 2. Part of upperclass D. Believed in afterlife 1. It was unhappy a. believed demons controlled suffering IV. Intellectual A. Architecture 1. Arches 2. Columns 3. Ramps 4. Pyramid shape design of Ziggurat (In center of city) 5. City walls 6. Irrigation ditches 7. For buildings, they used mud dried bricks. B. Literature 1. Mesopotamian Myths and legends 2. Ex: Proverbs, Epic of Gilgamesh C. System of writing 1. Cuneiform a. Wedge-shaped symbols (pictograms) represent ideas or things. D. Tablets of Clay 1. Had one of the first known maps drawn on a. Most maps had trade routes

2. Held some of the oldest written records of scientific investigations in areas of astronomy, chemistry, medicine. E. Number system 1. Based of 60, 360 in circle etc. F. Calender V. Technology A. Advancements 1. Developed number system in base 60, from which tem modern units for measuring time (60 sec.=1 min.) and 360 degrees in a circle. 2. Cuneiform 3.Bronze 4. Wheel 5. Sail 6.Plow 7. Science investigations: astronomy, chemistry, medicine. 8. Irrigation ditches 9. Traded VI. Economy A. Trading 1. More complex economic system based off of trade 2. Along Tigres and Euphrates Rivers Development of Social Classes B. In order to have a civilization, you need a surplus. VII. Geography A. How It Impacts 1. Area didnt have stone for buildings, so they used dried mud. 2. Not many natural barriers, could be easily attacked.

3. Fertile crescent, so much agriculture.