Introduction The Apache helicopter is a revolutionary development in the history of war.
It is essentially a flying tank in which it is known as a helicopter designed to survive heavy attack and inflict massive damage. It can zero in on specific targets, day or night, even in terrible weather. As you might expect, it is a terrifying machine to ground forces. This helicopter is a military helicopter designed for use by the United States Army. In addition to being used by the American military, this design is also utilized by several other militaries, including those of Greece, Israel, and the Netherlands. The Apache design is revolutionary in the world of military helicopters, as the helicopter essentially acts as an airborne tank, with heavy weapons systems which are capable of targeting heavily-armored ground targets. The Apache helicopter is also one tough bird: it's extremely difficult to bring down an Apache. The design for the Apache was developed by Hughes Helicopters in the 1980s. The AH64 Apache, as it is formally known, is manufactured by Boeing Aircraft. However, the Apache twin-engine army attack helicopter is developed by McDonnell Douglas (Boeing). The helicopter's name reflects a longstanding military tradition of referencing Native American culture in the names for military helicopter, and “Apache” is an apt name for this aircraft, as this Native American tribe is famed for its militant nature and skilled performance in war. This helicopter is designed for offensive attack, and it can provide air support to the Army on the ground, or actively seek out and eliminate targets, depending on the mission. Each Apache helicopter has two cockpits, with a complete set of controls for both a pilot and a gunner
and more than 1. In this report. they make up an unbelievable fighting machine which can be described as the most lethal helicopter ever created. Individually. weapons systems. Combined together. we'll look at the Apache's amazing flight systems. the gunner sits in the forward cockpit and the pilot sits in the back.000 have been exported. Under normal conditions. It was used in Operation Desert Storm and has supported low intensity and peacekeeping operations worldwide including Turkey. these components are remarkable pieces of technology. The US Army has more than 800 Apaches in service. sensor systems and armor systems. but either officer can take over in the event that one is disabled. The Apache was first used in combat in 1989 in the US military action in Panama.
.in each cockpit. Bosnia and Kosovo.
forward and reverse. However. which controls the lateral direction of the helicopter (including forward. one hand grasps a control called the cyclic. The amazing flexibility of helicopters means that they can fly almost anywhere. left and right). This versatility gives the pilot complete access to three-dimensional space in away that no airplane can.Helicopter Basics Helicopters are the most versatile flying machines in existence today. The entire aircraft can rotate in the air. it is helpful to compare the abilities of a helicopter with those of trains. cars and airplanes. The pilot's feet rest on pedals
. the vehicle must be moving in order to turn. To understand how helicopters work and also why they are so complicated to fly. The other hand grasps a control called the collective. There are only two directions that a train can travel in -. HA helicopter can do three things that an airplane cannot: A helicopter can fly backwards. A helicopter can hover motionless in the air In a car or a plane. as well as continuous attention to the machine. To control a helicopter. it also means that flying the machines is complicated. While you are traveling in either direction you can also turn left or right: A plane can move forward and turn left or right. A car. The pilot has to think in three dimensions and must use both arms and both legs constantly to keep a helicopter in the air! Piloting a helicopter requires a great deal of training and skill. you can move laterally in any direction or you can rotate 360 degrees. It also adds the ability to go up and down. These extra degrees of freedom and the skill you must have to master them is what makes helicopters so exciting. of course. but it also makes them complex. backward. which controls the up and down motion of the helicopter (and also controls engine speed). can go forward and backward like a train. In a helicopter.
The engine's drive shaft can connect through a transmission to the main rotor shaft. the body will spin in an opposite direction to the main rotor. the tail rotor is driven by a long drive shaft that
. in the absence of anything to stop it. the wings start to develop lift. So you can mount two or more wings on a central shaft and spin the shaft. These wings are known as the tail rotor. If you are going to provide the upward force with a wing. The helicopter's rotating wing assembly is normally called the main rotor. It takes both hands and both feet to fly a helicopter! Imagine that we would like to create a machine that can simply fly straight upward. In order to spin the shaft with enough force to lift a human being and the vehicle. Wings create lift by deflecting air downward and benefiting from the equal and opposite reaction that result straight upward. So. The tail rotor produces thrust just like an airplane's propeller does. you need to apply a force to it. which allows the helicopter to rotate in either direction on its axis. If you give the main rotor wings a slight angle of attack on the shaft and spin the shaft. The rotating wings of a helicopter are shaped just like the airfoils of an airplane wing. but generally the wings on a helicopter's rotor are narrow and thin because they must spin so quickly. then the wing has to be in motion in order to create lift.that control the tail rotor. By producing thrust in a sideways direction. This arrangement works really well until the moment the vehicle leaves the ground. much like the blades on a ceiling fan. there is nothing to keep the engine (and therefore the body of the vehicle) from spinning just like the main rotor does. The usual way to provide a force to the body of the vehicle is to attach another set of rotating wings to a long boom. you need an engine of some sort. At that moment. Normally. To keep the body from spinning. the tail rotor keeps the body of the helicopter from spinning. counteracting the engine's desire to spin the body.up is all that matters. Let's not even worry about getting back down for the moment -. A rotary motion is the easiest way to keep a wing in continuous motion. Reciprocating gasoline engines and gas turbine engines are the most common types.
as well as the control that allows the helicopter to move laterally. the rotor must first be incredibly strong. including forward. The swash plate assembly is the component that provides the adjustability. It provides the lift that allows the helicopter to fly. has to be extremely strong as well as highly adjustable. where the rotor's drive shaft and blades connect.what you want is the ability to change the angle of attack on the tail rotor wings so that you can use the tail rotor to rotate the helicopter on the drive shaft's axis. What you end up with is a vehicle that looks something like this: A helicopter's main rotor is the most important part of the vehicle.
Under the direction of the cyclic control. backward. make turns and change altitude. The swash plate assembly has two primary roles: Under the direction of the collective control. To handle all of these tasks. This allows the helicopter to move in any direction around a 360degree circle.runs from the main rotor's transmission back through the tail boom to a small transmission at the tail rotor. Doing this increases or decreases the lift that the main rotor supplies to the vehicle. allowing the helicopter to gain or lose altitude. The main rotor hub. It must also be able to adjust the angle of the rotor blades with each revolution of the hub. the swash plate assembly can change the angle of the blades
individually as they revolve. The adjustability is provided by a device called the swash plate assembly. The adjustability of the tail rotor is straightforward -. the swash plate assembly can change the angle of both blades simultaneously. and right.
Basic Parts of a Helicopter
Power and Flight At its core. An Apache has double tail rotors. The gearbox shifts the angle of rotation about 90 degrees and passes the power on to the transmission. The core structure of each blade consists of five stainless steel arms. while the leading edge is made of titanium. which is helpful in "nap-of-the-earth" flying (zipping along just above the contours of
. Changing the pitch as the blades make their way around the rotation cycle creates uneven lift.they push the tail boom in the opposite direction. The pilot maneuvers the helicopter by adjusting a swash plate mechanism. it exerts a rotation force on the entire helicopter. By changing the pitch of the rear blades. which are surrounded by a fiberglass skeleton. As the main rotor spins. just like an airplane wing. spins four 20-foot(6-meter) blades. causing the helicopter to tilt and fly in a particular direction. Each engine turns a drive shaft. The newest Apache sports twin General Electric T700-GE-701Cturboshaft engines. which is connected to a simple gearbox. It has two rotors that spin several blades. The titanium is strong enough to withstand brushes with trees and other minor obstacles. The rotor is optimized to provide much greater agility than you find in a typical helicopter. The main rotor. The transmission transmits the power to the main rotor assembly and a long shaft leading to the tail rotor. an Apache works pretty much the same way as any other helicopter. each with two blades. boasting about 1. the pilot can rotate the helicopter in either direction or keep it from turning at all.700 horsepower each. The swash plate changes each blade's pitch (tilt) to increase lift. attached to the top of the helicopter. The rear rotor blades work against this force -. A blade is a tilted airfoil. each blade generates lift. Adjusting the pitch equally for all blades lifts the helicopter straight up and down. called spars. The trailing edge of each blade is covered with a sturdy graphite composite material. As it speeds through the air.
As we'll see in the next few sections. But that would be like calling James Bond's Aston Martin just a high-end car. You could say. The rear tail wing helps stabilize the helicopter during nap-of-the-earth flight as well as during hovering. based on all this information. Apaches need to fly this way to sneak up on targets and to avoid attack. that the Apache is just a high-end helicopter. the Apache's advanced weaponry puts it in an entirely different class.
Apache Helicopter Parts and Compenants
There are two pylons on each wing. and to do it from a helicopter. the Apache gunner aims a high-intensity laser beam at the target (in some situations. you need some heavy firepower. the guidance system moves the missile's flightfins. The missile has a laser seeker on its nose that detects the laser light reflecting off the target. Before giving the firing signal. The laser pulses on and off in a particular coded pattern. In this way. an impact sensor sets off the warhead. such as tanks and bunkers. When the missile makes contact with the target. the missile breaks free of the rail. The Apache's primary weapon. the force of acceleration triggers the arming mechanism. you need an extremely sophisticated targeting system. so the Apache can carry as many as 16 missiles at a time. each missile receives instructions directly from the helicopter's computer. The original Hellfire design uses a laser guidance system to hit its mark. but it has some significant drawbacks:
. Each missile is a miniature aircraft. complete with its own guidance computer. The payload is a highexplosive. The laser-guided Hellfire system is highly effective. the Apache computer tells the missile's control system the specific pulse pattern of the laser. copper-lined-charge warhead powerful enough to burn through the heaviest tank armor in existence. meets these demands. the Hellfire missile. This is basically the same way an airplane steers. the missile can see where the target is. To change course. steering control and propulsion system. and each pylon can support four missiles. As the missile speeds up. The guidance system calculates which way the missile needs to turn in order to head straight for the reflected laser light. Once the burning propellant generates about 500 pounds of force. ground forces might operate the laser instead).Hellfire Missiles The Apache's chief function is to take out heavily armored ground targets. The Apache carries the missiles on four firing rails attached to pylons mounted to its wings. Before launching. When the computer transmits the fire signal. To inflict this kind of damage. the missile sets off the propellant. In this system.
used in Apache Longbow helicopters. Cloud cover or obstacles can block the laser beam so it never makes it to the target. Since it doesn't have to keep the laser focused on the target.
Each rail set holds four Hellfire missiles.
. The helicopter's radar locates the target. the helicopter can fire the missile and immediately find cover. the missile is more likely to find its target.
The helicopter (or a ground targeting crew) has to keep the laser fixed on the target until the missile makes
contact. vulnerable to attack.
An Apache fires two Hellfire missiles in a training exercise. Instead of a laser-seeking system. the missile has a radar seeker. corrects these flaws. it can lose sight of the target. This means the helicopter has to be out in the open. Since radio waves aren't obscured by clouds or obstacles. and the missiles zero in on it.
If the missile passes through a cloud.
The Hellfire II.
which uses the force of the cartridge explosion or flying bullet to move the bolt. Each rocket launcher carries 19 folding-fin 2. and the gun can fire 600 to 650 rounds a minute.200 rounds. powered by an electric motor. In one configuration. secured in launching tubes.
. The cartridges travel from a magazine above the gun down a feed chute to the chamber. small bombs that separate from the rocket in the air and fall on targets below. The magazine holds a maximum of 1. The flight fins unfold to stabilize the rocket once it leaves the launcher. The cannon fires high-explosive rounds designed to pierce light armor. The gunner engages close-range targets with M230 30-mm automatic cannon attached to a turret under the helicopter's nose. fire. The computer controls hydraulics that swings the turret from side to side and up and down. To fire the rockets. The Apache gunner can fire one rocket at a time or launch them in groups. the launcher triggers an igniter at the rear end of the tube. extract and eject cartridges. they might be armed with high-power explosives or just smoke-producing materials.Rockets and Chain Guns Apaches usually fly with two Hydra rocket launchers in place of two of the Hellfire missile sets. For example. This is different from an ordinary machine gun. which slides the bolt assembly back and forth to load.75-inchaerial rockets. The motor rotates the chain. The automatic cannon is a chain gun design. The rockets work with a variety of warhead designs. the warhead delivers several sub munitions. The gunner aims the gun using a sophisticated computer system in the cockpit.
.The Hydra rocket launcher (right) and Hellfire missile rails (left) on an AH64A Apache helicopter
The M-230A1 30-mm automatic cannon on an AH-64A Apache.
The pilot sits in the rear section. The radar signal processor compares these shapes to a database of tanks. The digital stabilization system fine-tunes the powerful hydraulic system to keep the helicopter flying smoothly. which detects the infrared light released by heated objects. similar to ones you would find in any other helicopter. The pilot flies the Apache using collective and cyclic controls. The pilot's night vision sensor is attached to a rotating turret on top of the Apache's nose. one directly behind the other. the pilot maneuvers the helicopter and the gunner aims and fires the weapons. The gunner's night vision
. The radar dome uses millimeter radio waves that can make out the shape of anything in range. The pilot and the gunner both use night vision sensors for night operations. The stabilization system can also keep the helicopter in an automatic hovering position for short periods of time. The computer pinpoints these targets on the pilot's and gunner's display panels. The Longbow Apache detects surrounding ground forces.Controls and Sensors The Apache cockpit is divided into two sections. The controls manipulate the rotors using both a mechanical hydraulic system and a digital stabilization system. The pilot simply presses buttons on the side of the display to find the information he or she needs. One of the coolest things about the Apache is its sophisticated sensor equipment. As you might expect. other aircraft and equipment to identify the general class of each potential target. Both sections of the cockpit include flight and firing controls in case one pilot needs to take over full operation. trucks. The night vision sensors work on the forward-looking infrared (FLIR) system. On the Longbow Apache. and the co-pilot/gunner sits in the front section. These digital displays are much easier to read than traditional instrument dials. three display panels provide the pilot with most navigation and flight information. aircraft and buildings using a radar dome mounted to the mast.
Inside the Apache Longbow cockpit. The computer transmits the night vision or video picture to a small display unit in each pilot's helmet. The rear section is raised above the front section so the pilot can see clearly. The video display projects the image onto a monocular lens in front of the pilot's right eye.
The Apache has two cockpit sections: The pilot sits in the rear and the gunner sits in the front.
.sensor is attached to a separate turret on the underside of the nose. Each pilot can aim the sensors by simply moving his or her head! Manual controls are also available. Infrared sensors in the cockpit track how the pilot positions the helmet and relay this information to the turret control system. The lower turret also supports a normal video camera and a telescope. which the gunner uses during the day. of course.
According to Boeing.they absorb a lot of the impact force. Flying an Apache into battle is extremely dangerous. As we saw earlier. the crew has an excellent chance of surviving a crash. It is a deadly combination of strength. hiding behind cover whenever possible. they can activate a radar jammer to confuse the enemy. but the cockpit canopy is extremely rigid.
. The Longbow also has an infrared jammer. If the pilots pick up radar signals with the onboard scanner. which absorbs more heat. The pilot and gunner seats are outfitted with heavy Kevlar armor. The cooled exhaust then passes through a special filter. to be sure. agility and firepower. The cockpit is protected by layers of reinforced armor and bulletproof glass. so the collision isn't as hard on the crew. which generates infrared energy of varying frequencies to confuse heat-seeking missiles. armor and sensor equipment. the deformation areas work like the crumple zones in a car -. The Apache is also designed to evade enemy radar scanning. The Apache is heavily armored on all sides. The area surrounding the cockpit is designed to deform during collision.Evasion and Armour The Apache's first line of defense against attack is keeping out of range. In a crash. it is a formidable opponent to almost everything else on the battlefield. every part of the helicopter can survive 12. the helicopter is specifically designed to fly low to the ground. With these advanced systems. The Apache is also designed to evade heat-seeking missiles by reducing its infrared signature (the heat energy it releases). which also absorbs the force of impact. Some areas are also surrounded by Kevlar soft armor for extra protection. The Black Hole infrared suppression system dissipates the heat of the engine exhaust by mixing it with air flowing around the helicopter. but with all its weapons.7-mm rounds. and vital engine and rotor components can withstand 23-mm fire.
.The Apache Longbow has a distinctive radar dome mounted to its mast.
The sensor array on an Apache helicopter.
the plane will slow down. By increasing the lift. if the amount of lift drops below the weight of the airplane. the plane will speed up. If the thrust is increased so that it is greater than the drag. the pilot can make the airplane climb.Aerodynamic Forces We take a look at four basic aerodynamic forces: lift. the following relationships must be true: Thrust = Drag Lift = Weight
If. for any reason. Similarly. weight.
Straight and Level Flight In order for an airplane to fly straight and level. the plane will descend. the amount of drag becomes larger than the amount of thrust. thrust and drag.
most of the lift required to keep the plane aloft is created by the wings (although some is created by other parts of the structure).
Drag Drag is an aerodynamic force that resists the motion of an object moving through a fluid (air and water are both fluids). the thrust is being created with a propeller. Airplanes create thrust using propellers.
Lift Lift is the aerodynamic force that holds an airplane in the air. Every object on earth has weight (including air). pulling air past the blades.
Weight This one is the easiest. jet engines or rockets. On airplanes.
. and is probably the trickiest of the four aerodynamic forces to explain without using alot of math.Thrust Thrust is an aerodynamic force that must be created by an airplane in order to overcome the drag (notice that thrust and drag act in opposite directions in the figure above). It acts opposite to thrust. which acts like a very powerful version of a household fan. In the figure above.
They replaced the main drawbacks of apache.Conclusion With the design of the apache the very concept of helicopter itself has changed all over the world. Germany etc. But it can be surely emphasized that the Apache is the pioneer in the attack helicopter family. Many countries like Russia. In this seminar I’ve tried to put forward some of the design features of the same. have rolled over their versions of attack helicopters.
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1.References: www.com 6.helicopters.answers.apachehelicopters. 2.howstuffworks.