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SMOKING

Table of Contents
Table of Figures (Charts) ................................................................................ Error! Bookmark not defined. Background of the Study............................................................................................................................... 5 Introduction .................................................................................................................................................. 7 History of smoking ........................................................................................................................................ 8 Popularization ........................................................................................................................................... 9 Timeline of tobacco smoking ...................................................................................................................... 12 Smoking of Opium................................................................................................................................... 13 Social stigma ........................................................................................................................................... 14 Causes of smoking....................................................................................................................................... 16 Smoking Facts: ............................................................................................................................................ 17 IMPACT OF SMOKING ON HUMAN HEALTH ............................................................................................... 19 INTRODUCTION: ...................................................................................................................................... 19 Starting at the Top .................................................................................................................................. 19 Lungs and Bronchi ................................................................................................................................... 19 Smoking and Heart.................................................................................................................................. 19 Smoking and blood pressure .................................................................................................................. 20 Smoking and the Body's Organs ............................................................................................................. 20 Other risks caused by smoking ............................................................................................................... 20 The Results .............................................................................................................................................. 21 IMPACT OF SMOKING ON THE ENVIRONMENT .......................................................................................... 22 INTRODUCTION: ...................................................................................................................................... 22 Smoking and air pollution ....................................................................................................................... 22 Smoking and land pollution .................................................................................................................... 23 Destruction of Trees................................................................................................................................ 23 Quit smoking and Save Environment ...................................................................................................... 23 How to resolve smoking/ ways of dealing with it ....................................................................................... 24 Reasons to Quit Smoking ........................................................................................................................ 24 Islamic view point: .................................................................................................................................. 24 Nicotine replacement therapies: ............................................................................................................ 24 Prescription Medicine ............................................................................................................................. 25 Alternative Therapies .............................................................................................................................. 25 Hypnosis .................................................................................................................................................. 25 Support Therapies ................................................................................................................................... 25 Ways to reduce this problem:..................................................................................................................... 25

Measures Against Smoking Investigated ................................................................................................ 25 Increase in Smoking tax: ......................................................................................................................... 26 Public smoking prohibition: .................................................................................................................... 26 Commercial ban: ..................................................................................................................................... 26 Health warnings: ..................................................................................................................................... 26 NEWS: ..................................................................................................................................................... 26 Ending: .................................................................................................................................................... 27 Comparison of statistics with round the globe ........................................................................................... 27 Tobacco usage Statistics Pakistan ........................................................................................................... 27 Consumption ....................................................................................................................................... 27 Health consequences Each year, approximately 60,000 people die from tobacco-related diseases in Pakistan. Among youth (age 13-15), 34 percent report being exposed to secondhand smoke in public places and 27 percent report exposure at home. .................................................................... 28 Tobacco industry ................................................................................................................................. 28 FCTC status .......................................................................................................................................... 28 Tobacco control policy status ............................................................................................................. 28 Tobacco taxes: .................................................................................................................................... 29 28 May 2002 GLOBAL SMOKING STATISTICS .......................................................................................... 29 Youth ....................................................................................................................................................... 30 UK SMOKING STATISTICS ........................................................................................................................ 30 Number Of Cigaretters per adult per year .............................................................................................. 32 Legal smoking age ................................................................................................................................... 34 Asia..................................................................................................................................................... 34 Europe ............................................................................................................................................... 34 Smoking ban................................................................................................................................................ 35 Rationale ................................................................................................................................................. 35 Medical and scientific basis for bans ...................................................................................................... 36 History ..................................................................................................................................................... 37 Cigarette advertising ............................................................................................................................... 39 Public support for smoking bans ............................................................................................................ 39 Effects of bans ......................................................................................................................................... 40 Safety issues and effects on mental health ........................................................................................ 40 Effects on health ................................................................................................................................. 40 Effects on tobacco use ........................................................................................................................ 41 Effects on businesses .......................................................................................................................... 42

Our survey ...................................................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. Questionnaire for smokers ........................................................................ Error! Bookmark not defined. Resulting statistics ..................................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. Diseases caused by smoking (rounded figures) ..................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. Numbers of cigarettes per day by people of different age group ........ Error! Bookmark not defined. Statistics of people who stopped smoking ............................................ Error! Bookmark not defined. Questionnaire for general public ............................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. Resulting statistics ..................................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. Views of people about smoking ............................................................. Error! Bookmark not defined. Is smoking injurious to heath ................................................................. Error! Bookmark not defined. Is smoking a fashion ............................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. Do people want to smoke to look mature ............................................. Error! Bookmark not defined. Some suggestions................................................................................................................................ 43 Conclusion ................................................................................................................................................... 44 Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................ 46

Background of the Study

Smoking is a habit but curable. Considered as curable but few people try to control themselves from doing it. People, students and even professionals are often tempted to smoke. For some, smoking relieves tension; superiority among others, curiosity, satisfaction, and a form of self deception but the adverse consequences of smoking is one’s own health. Smoking exist everywhere even in school campuses that conclude to be huge problem. According to Toni Christopherson, a problem that everyone tries to eradicate but fails to act on it because they themselves cannot practice what they preach1. It is obvious that smoking is one of the major problems of every college student. Many college students are fond of smoking, it driven one self to heavenly feeling. But it is not an excuse to be free from any complication someday. Many people tried self discipline to control the temptation of smoking. Others would try re- lifestyle and refocus their attention just to stop themselves from doing it. But worse, others don’t know what to do and they simply give in. Others on the other hand, would smoke not because they don’t know what to do but simply because they won’t get belong to the “in group’. As mentioned earlier, smoking is curable; one always has the power to control one’s self. Because of smoking, few qualified people get to be successful. It's because of smoking is one of the reason that word's mortality rate. Smoking could never be

eradicated unless we try to start the battle against it and heart attack in those with heart disease. Studies have indicated that some student does smoking during their vacant time than studying their lessons. Smoking in college especially in nursing students is becoming popular substitute for learning. There are some factors of smoking which has the social approval from parents, faculty and friends. Some studies shows that student with low self – esteem is actually more likely to smoke than student with high self – esteem because of the negative evaluation that they might receive from the people around them

Introduction
Smoking is a practice in which a substance, most commonly tobacco or cannabis, is burned and the smoke is tasted or inhaled. This is primarily practiced as a route for recreational drug use, as combustion releases the active substances in drugs such as nicotine and makes them available for absorption through the lungs. It can also be done as a part of rituals, to induce trances and spiritual enlightenment. The most common method of smoking today is through cigarettes, primarily industrially manufactured but also hand-rolled from loose tobacco and rolling paper. Other smoking implements include pipes, cigars, bidis, hookahs, vaporizers and bongs. It has been suggested that smoking-related disease kills one half of all long term smokers but these diseases may also be contracted by non-smokers. A 2007 report states that about 4.9 million people worldwide each year die as a result of smoking.[1] Smoking is one of the most common forms of recreational drug use. Tobacco smoking is today by far the most popular form of smoking and is practiced by over one billion people in the majority of all human societies. Less common drugs for smoking include cannabis and opium. Some of the substances are classified as hard narcotics, like heroin, but the use of these is very limited as they are often not commercially available. The history of smoking can be dated to as early as 5000 BC, and has been recorded in many different cultures across the world. Early smoking evolved in association with religious ceremonies; as offerings to deities, in cleansing rituals or to allow shamans and priests to alter their minds for purposes of divination or spiritual enlightenment. After the European exploration and conquest of the Americans, the practice of smoking tobacco quickly spread to the rest of the world. In regions like India and Subsaharan Africa, it merged with existing practices of smoking (mostly of cannabis). In Europe, it introduced a new type of social activity and a form of drug intake which previously had been unknown. Perception surrounding smoking has varied over time and from one place to another; holy and sinful, sophisticated and vulgar, a panacea and deadly health hazard. Only relatively recently, and primarily in industrialized Western countries, has smoking come to be viewed in a decidedly negative light. Today medical studies have proven that

smoking tobacco is among the leading causes of many diseases such as lung cancer, heart attacks, COPD, erectile dysfunction and can also lead tobirth defects. The inherent health hazards of smoking have caused many countries to institute high taxes on tobacco products and anti-smoking campaigns are launched every year in an attempt to curb tobacco smoking.

History of smoking
The history of smoking dates back to as early as 5000 BC in shamanistic rituals.[2] Many ancient civilizations, such as the Babylonians, Indians and Chinese, burnt incense as a part of religious rituals, as did the Israelites and the later Catholic and Orthodox Christian churches. Smoking in the Americas probably had its origins in the incense-burning ceremonies of shamans but was later adopted for pleasure, or as a social tool.[3] The smoking of tobacco, as well as various hallucinogenic drugs was used to achieve trances and to come into contact with the spirit world. Substances such as Cannabis, clarified butter (ghee), fish offal, dried snake skins and various pastes molded around incense sticks dates back at least 2000 years. Fumigation (dhupa) and fire offerings (homa) are prescribed in the Ayurveda for medical purposes, and have been practiced for at least 3,000 years while smoking, dhumrapana (literally "drinking smoke"), has been practiced for at least 2,000 years. Before modern times these substances have been consumed through pipes, with stems of various lengths or chillums.[4] Cannabis smoking was common in the Middle East before the arrival of tobacco, and was early on a common social activity that centered around the type of water pipe called a hookah. Smoking, especially after the introduction of tobacco, was an essential component of Muslim society and culture and became integrated with important traditions such as weddings, funerals and was expressed in architecture, clothing, literature and poetry.[5] Cannabis smoking was introduced to Sub-Saharan Africa through Ethiopia and the east African coast by both Indian or Arab traders in the 13th century or earlier and spread on the same trade routes as those that carried coffee, which originated in the highlands of Ethiopia.[6] It was smoked in calabash water pipes with terra cotta smoking bowls, apparently an Ethiopian invention which was later conveyed to eastern, southern and central Africa.

At the time of the arrivals of Reports from the first European explorers and conquistadors to reach the Americas tell of rituals where native priests smoked themselves into such high degrees of intoxication that it is unlikely that the rituals were limited to just tobacco.[7]

Popularization
In 1612, six years after the settlement of Jamestown, John Rolfe was credited as the first settler to successfully raise tobacco as a cash crop. The demand quickly grew as tobacco, referred to as "golden weed", reviving the Virginia join stock company from its failed gold expeditions.[8] In order to meet demands from the old world, tobacco was grown in succession, quickly depleting the land. This became a motivator to settle west into the unknown continent, and likewise an expansion of tobacco production.[9] Indentured servitude became the primary labor force up until Bacon's Rebellion, from which the focus turned to slavery.[10] This trend abated following the American revolution as slavery became regarded as unprofitable. However the practice was revived in 1794 with the invention of the cotton gin.[11]

A Frenchman named Jean Nicot (from whose name the word nicotine is derived) introduced tobacco to France in 1560. From France tobacco spread to England. The first report of a smoking Englishman is of a sailor in Bristol in 1556, seen "emitting smoke from his nostrils".[12] Like tea, coffee and opium, tobacco was just one of many intoxicants that was originally used as a form of medicine.[13] Tobacco was introduced around 1600 by French merchants in what today is modern-day Gambia and Senegal. At the same time caravans from Morocco brought tobacco to the areas around Timbuktu and the Portuguese brought the commodity (and the plant) to southern Africa, establishing the popularity of tobacco throughout all of Africa by the 1650s. Soon after its introduction to the Old World, tobacco came under frequent criticism from state and religious leaders. Murad IV, sultan of the Ottoman Empire1623-40 was among the first to attempt a smoking ban by claiming it was a threat to public moral and health. The Chinese emperor Chongzhen issued an edict banning smoking two years before his death and the overthrow of the Ming dynasty. Later, the Manchu of the Qing dynasty, who were originally a tribe of nomadic horse warriors, would proclaim smoking "a more heinous crime than that even of neglecting archery". In Edo period Japan, some of the earliest tobacco plantations were scorned by the shogunate as being a threat to the military economy by letting valuable farmland go to waste for the use of a recreational drug instead of being used to plant food crops.[14] Religious leaders have often been prominent among those who considered smoking immoral or outright blasphemous. In 1634 the Patriarch of Moscow forbade the sale of tobacco and sentenced men and women who flouted the ban to have their nostrils slit and their backs whipped until skin came off their backs. The Western church leader Urban VII likewise condemned smoking in a papal bull of 1590. Despite many concerted efforts, restrictions and bans were almost universally ignored. When James I of England, a staunch antismoker and the author of a A Counterblaste to Tobacco, tried to curb the new trend by enforcing a whopping 4000% tax increase on tobacco in 1604, it proved a failure, as London had some 7,000 tobacco sellers by the early 17th century. Later, scrupulous rulers would realise the futility of smoking bans and instead turned tobacco trade and cultivation into lucrative government monopolies.[15]

By the mid-17th century every major civilization had been introduced to tobacco smoking and in many cases had already assimilated it into the native culture, despite the attempts of many rulers to stamp the practice out with harsh penalties or fines. Tobacco, both product and plant, followed the major trade routes to major ports and markets, and then on into the hinterlands. The English language term smoking was coined in the late 18th century, before then the practice was referred to as drinking smoke.[12] Tobacco and cannabis were used in Sub-Saharan Africa, much like elsewhere in the world, to confirm social relations, but also created entirely new ones. In what is today Congo, a society called Bena Diemba ("People of Cannabis") was organized in the late 19th century in Lubuko ("The Land of Friendship"). The Bena Diemba were collectivist pacifists that rejected alcohol and herbal medicines in favor of cannabis.[16] The growth remained stable until the American Civil War in 1860s, from which the primary labor force transition from slavery to share cropping. This compounded with a change in demand, lead to the industrialization of tobacco production with the cigarette. James Bonsack, a craftsman, in 1881 produce a machine to speed the production in cigarettes

Timeline of tobacco smoking
5000BC 1492 Early 1500s 1500 - 1600 1600 1614 7000 1650 1700 1761 1788 1828 1833 1840 1847 1858 1862 1871 1875 1881 1900 1901 America’s first cultivation of Tobacco plant Columbus discovers tobacco smoking & takes it to Europe First introduced to Egypt by Turks Tobacco introduced to China via Japan/Philippines Spaniards & Portuguese ships tobacco to East Africa Tobacco is first grown commercially in America tobacco shops open in Europe Europeans grow tobacco in S Africa & used as form of currency African slaves used to work in Tobacco plantations First study (John Hill), warns that snuff users risk nasal cancer Tobacco arrived in Australia with the first fleet In Spain, cigarette smoking becomes popular Phosphorus stricken matches introduced in UK commercially First woman to smoke publicly in France is Chopin’s mistress Phillip Morris opens shop in England & sells hand rolled cigs Treaty of Tianjin allows duty free cigs imports into China First federal tobacco tax introduced to help finance war R.A. Patterson founded "Lucky Strike", named for the 1849 California Gold Rush R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company founded Invention of the cigarette machine China almost entirely penetrated by foreign cigarettes UK Imperial Tobacco & British American Tobacco Founded

Smoking of Opium
In the 19th century the practice of smoking opium became common. Previously it had only been eaten, and then primarily for its medical properties. A massive increase in opium smoking in China was more or less directly instigated by the British trade deficit with Qing dynasty China. As a way to amend this problem, the British began exporting large amounts of opium grown in the Indian colonies. The social problems and the large net loss of currency led to several Chinese attempts to stop the imports which eventually culminated in the Opium Wars.[18] Opium smoking later spread with Chinese immigrants and spawned many infamous opium dens in China towns around South and Southeast Asia and Europe. In the latter half of the

19th century, opium smoking became popular in the artistic community in Europe, especially Paris; artists' neighborhoods such as Montparnasse and Montmartre became virtual "opium capitals". While opium dens that catered primarily to emigrant Chinese continued to exist in China Towns around the world, the trend among the European artists largely abated after the outbreak of World War I.[18] The consumption of Opium abated in China during the Cultural revolution in the 1960s and 1970s.

Social stigma
With the modernization of cigarette production compounded with the increased life expectancies during the 1920s, adverse health effects began to become more prevalent.[citation needed] In Germany, anti-smoking groups, often associated with anti-liquor groups,[19] first published advocacy against the consumption of tobacco in the journal Der Tabakgegner (The Tobacco Opponent) in 1912 and 1932. In 1929, Fritz Lickint of Dresden, Germany, published a paper containing formal statistical evidence of a lung cancer–tobacco link. During the Great depression Adolf Hitler condemned his earlier smoking habit as a waste of money,[20] and later with stronger assertions. This movement was further strengthened with Nazi reproductive policy as women who smoked were viewed as unsuitable to be wives and mothers in a German family.[21] The movement in Nazi Germany did reach across enemy lines during the Second World War, as anti-smoking groups quickly lost popular support. By the end of the Second World War, American cigarette manufactures quickly reentered the German black market. Illegal smuggling of tobacco became prevalent,[22] and leaders of the Nazi anti-smoking campaign were assassinated.[23] As part of the Marshall Plan, the United States shipped free tobacco to Germany; with 24,000 tons in 1948 and 69,000 tons in 1949.[22] Per capita yearly cigarette consumption in post-war Germany steadily rose from 460 in 1950 to 1,523 in 1963.[24] By the end of the 20th century, anti-smoking campaigns in Germany were unable to exceed the effectiveness of the Nazi-era climax in the years 1939–41 and German tobacco health research was described by Robert N. Proctor as "muted".[24] Richard Doll in 1950 published research in the British Medical Journal showing a close link between smoking and lung cancer.[25] Four years later, in 1954 the British Doctors Study, a study of some 40 thousand doctors over 20 years, confirmed the suggestion, based on which the government issued advice that smoking and lung cancer rates were related.[26][27] In 1964 the United States Surgeon General's Report on Smoking and Health likewise began suggesting the relationship between smoking and cancer, which confirmed its suggestions 20 years later in the 1980s.

As scientific evidence mounted in the 1980s, tobacco companies claimed contributory negligence as the adverse health effects were previously unknown or lacked substantial credibility. Health authorities sided with these claims up until 1998, from which they reversed their position. The Tobacco Master Settlement Agreement, originally between the four largest US tobacco companies and the Attorneys General of 46 states, restricted certain types of tobacco advertisement and required payments for health compensation; which later amounted to the largest civil settlement in United States history.[28] From 1965 to 2006, rates of smoking in the United States have declined from 42% to 20.8%.[29] A significant majority of those who quit were professional, affluent men. Despite this decrease in the prevalence of consumption, the average number of cigarettes consumed per person per day increased from 22 in 1954 to 30 in 1978. This paradoxical event suggests that those who quit smoked less, while those who continued to smoke moved to smoke more light cigarettes.[30] This trend has been paralleled by many industrialized nations as rates have either leveled-off or declined. In the developing world, however, tobacco consumption continues to rise at 3.4% in 2002.[31] In Africa, smoking is in most areas considered to be modern, and many of the strong adverse opinions that prevail in the West receive much less attention.[32] Today Russia leads as the top consumer of tobacco followed by Indonesia, Laos, Ukraine, Belarus, Greece, Jordan, and China.[33] The World Health Organization has begun a program known as the Tobacco Free Initiative (TFI) in order to reduce rates of consumption in the developing world.

Causes of smoking
In the following article, there is a precise discussion on why people like to smoke or what are the factors that trigger smoking in them.

Marijuana a smoking weed help in the treatment of pain in people who suffer from Multiple Sclerosis as it is a better choice than any other pain killers available in the market. It is equally effective in case of spinal injuries, nausea due to anti-cancer chemotherapy, epilepsy, appetite stimulator which may loss due to illness that resulted from AIDS. Marijuana is also a good sedative and provides relief from anxiety. Tobacco comes from a plant called Nicotinia Tabacum containing another drug called Nicotine. Nicotine is a neurotoxin which damage the nerve cells. By using tobacco a person would get addicted of nicotine. Nicotine a drug in tobacco is inhaled which is in cigars, cigarettes and pipes. Many people smoke as they claim smoking helps to relieve stress but the fact is that nicotine is itself a stimulator and it can’t help you to relax. People do smoke because of many personal reasons too as:
       

It has become a fashion to smoke A person want to look mature To be like friends of other who smoke To experiment smoking To impress someone Aping behavior-To copy movie actors Availability-as cigarettes are easily available everywhere and anybody has an access to get them. Cheap-Cigarettes are damn cheap so it’s easy for any one to purchase.

Adults smoke for many reasons. There are lots of responsibilities on adults, personal and economic problems that add stress and pressure to them. Unemployment and being homeless are other factors contributing to stress. Bad unwilling marriages or relationships which lead to physical or verbal abuse are the factors that have developed a smoking habit in our young generation. They want to feel relaxed and think it will give them the energy to work and sustain hardships. People do smoke to look thin and for weight loss.

Smoking Facts:

Tobacco was introduced to Europe from the New World at the end of the fifteenth century. Smoking spread rapidly and was long regarded as having medicinal value. It was not until the 20th century, however, that smoking became a mass habit and not until the 1950’s that the dangers of smoking were firmly established.  About 12 million adults in Great Britain smoke cigarettes - 26% of men and 23% of women. In 1974, 51% of men and 41% of women smoked cigarettes - nearly half the adult population of Britain. Now one-quarter smoke but the decline in recent years has been heavily concentrated in older age groups: i.e., almost as many young people are taking up smoking but more established smokers are quitting.  Adult smoking rates vary only slightly between different parts of the country, as defined by the Government Office Regions. For example, in the East of England 24% of people smoke, in the North West, 28%. In Scotland 25% of the population smokes; in Wales the prevalence is 23%.  Smoking is highest among those aged 20-24: 36% of men and 29% women in this age group smoke. Among older age groups prevalence gradually declines with the lowest smoking rate among people aged 60 and over: 14% smoke in this age group. This reflects the fact that many former smokers will have stopped in middle age and around one quarter of smokers die before reaching retirement age.  More than 80% of smokers take up the habit as teenagers.  In the United Kingdom about 450 children start smoking every day.  In England about one fifth of Britain's 15 year-olds – 16% of boys and 25% of girls are regular smokers - despite the fact that it is illegal to sell cigarettes to children aged under16.

 Men and women in manual socioeconomic groups are more likely to smoke than people in non-manual occupations. 20% of men and 17% of women in the professional and managerial groups smoke compared with 32% of men and 30% of women in routine and manual groups.  People do give up - 20% of women and 28% of men are ex-smokers.  Surveys show that about 70% of current smokers would like to give up altogether. Tobacco is the only legally available consumer product which kills people when it is used entirely as intended. Every year, around 114,000 smokers in the UK die as a result of their habit.  Deaths caused by smoking are five times higher than the 22,833 deaths arising from: road traffic accidents (3,439), other accidents (8,579), poisoning and overdose (881), alcoholic liver disease (5,121), murder and manslaughter (513), suicide (4,066), and HIV infection (234) in the UK during 2002. About half of all regular cigarette smokers will eventually be killed by their habit.  Smoking causes about thirty per cent of all cancer deaths (including around 84% of lung cancer deaths), 17% of all heart disease deaths and at least 80% of deaths from bronchitis and emphysema.  Polls show that people underestimate the health risks of smoking and the effects of passive smoking.  Tobacco smoke contains over 4,000 chemical compounds, which are present either as gases or as tiny particles. These include: Nicotine This is what is addictive. It stimulates the central nervous system, increasing the heartbeat rate and blood pressure. In large quantities nicotine is extremely poisonous. Tar Brown and treacle in appearance, tar consists of tiny particles and is formed when tobacco smoke condenses. Tar is deposited in the lungs and respiratory system and gradually absorbed. It is a mixture of many different chemicals, including: formaldehyde, arsenic, cyanide, benzo[a]pyrene, benzene, toluene, acrolein. Carbon monoxide This binds to hemoglobin in the bloodstream more easily than oxygen does, thus making the blood carry less oxygen round the body.

The UK government earned £8,103 million in revenue from tobacco duty excluding VAT in the financial year 2004-05. The Government currently spends around £25m on anti-smoking education campaigns. A further £50m is spent on measures to help people stop smoking.

IMPACT OF SMOKING ON HUMAN HEALTH
INTRODUCTION:
There's hardly a part of the human body that's not affected by the chemicals in the cigarettes you smoke. Let's take a tour of your body to look at how smoking affects it.

Starting at the Top
As a smoker, you're at risk for cancer of the mouth. Tobacco smoke can also cause gum disease, tooth decay and bad breath. The teeth become unsightly and yellow. Smokers may experience frequent headaches. And lack of oxygen and narrowed blood vessels to the brain can lead to strokes.

Lungs and Bronchi
Moving down to your chest, smoke passes through the bronchi, or breathing tubes. Hydrogen cyanide and other chemicals in the smoke attack the lining of the bronchi, inflaming them and causing that chronic smoker's cough. Because the bronchi are weakened, you're more likely to get bronchial infections. Mucus secretion in your lungs is impaired, also leading to chronic coughing. Smokers are 10 times as likely to get lung cancer.

Smoking and Heart

Smoking accelerates the process of atherosclerosis, or the buildup of fatty deposits and cholesterol in the arteries. Each time a person smokes a cigarette, the blood vessels become sticky from the chemicals in the tobacco smoke and this leads to fat collecting and sticking to the artery walls. Most of the other cardiovascular diseases and coronary heart diseases are caused by the progression of atherosclerosis.

Smoking and blood pressure
Likewise, smoking also increases blood pressure and the heart rate, which means that the body will need more oxygen. The heart will have to work faster to obtain the necessary oxygen, which is in poor supply due to the effects of the carbon monoxide from the tobacco smoke and this will therefore lead to stress on the heart, which could cause angina or a sudden heart attack.

Smoking and the Body's Organs
The digestive system is also affected. The tars in smoke can trigger cancer of the esophagus and throat. Smoking causes increased stomach acid secretion, leading to heartburn and ulcers. Smokers have higher rates of deadly pancreatic cancer. Many of the carcinogens from cigarettes are excreted in the urine where their presence can cause bladder cancer, which is often fatal. High blood pressure from smoking can damage the kidneys.

Other risks caused by smoking
         

Smoking raises blood pressure, which can cause hypertension (high blood pressure) - a risk factor for heart attacks and stroke. Couples who smoke are more likely to have fertility problems than couples who are nonsmokers. Smoking worsens asthma and counteracts asthma medication by worsening the inflammation of the airways that the medicine tries to ease. The blood vessels in the eye are sensitive and can be easily damaged by smoke, causing a bloodshot appearance and itchiness. Heavy smokers are twice as likely to get macular degeneration, resulting in the gradual loss of eyesight. Smokers run an increased risk of cataracts. Smokers take 25 per cent more sick days year than non-smokers. Smoking stains your teeth and gums. Smoking increases your risk of periodontal disease, which causes swollen gums, bad breath and teeth to fall out. Smoking causes an acid taste in the mouth and contributes to the development of ulcers.

Smoking also affects your looks: smokers have paler skin and more wrinkles. This is because smoking reduces the blood supply to the skin and lowers levels of vitamin A.

The Results
The health effects of smoking have results we can measure. Forty percent of men who are heavy smokers will die before they reach retirement age, as compared to only 18 percent of nonsmokers. Women who smoke face an increased risk of cervical cancer, and pregnant women who smoke take a chance with the health of their unborn babies. But the good news is that when you quit smoking your body begins to repair itself. Ten years after you quit, your body has repaired most of the damage smoking caused. Those who wait until cancer or emphysema has set in aren't so lucky—these conditions are usually fatal. It's one more reason to take the big step and quit now.

IMPACT OF SMOKING ON THE ENVIRONMENT
INTRODUCTION:
It is a common belief among cigarette smokers that they are only hurting themselves. In fact they are not only hurting themselves, but also the people who love them and the environment. These days everyone knows what smoking cigarettes does to our bodies, but the knowledge of what smoking does to the Earth is not as common. There are some things that every smoker who has any concern for environmental issues should know.

Smoking and air pollution
It is fairly obvious that smoking pollutes the air and quite often the ground. However, it is not always obvious how or how much smoking pollutes. Cigarettes contain over 4000 chemicals which are exhaled and released into the air and the atmosphere. Approximately 30% of North Americans are smokers, and the percentage goes much higher in developing countries, which means there is a massive amount of pollution being released into the air every day. Trees are often compared to the lungs in our bodies because they perform basically the same functions as our lungs do on a global scale. With all of the pollutants that the trees filter out for us already it seems almost crazy to add more to the air that doesn’t need to be added. We need to breathe, but no one needs to smoke.

Smoking and land pollution
The pollution caused by cigarettes does not stop in our bodies or the air; it also affects the land we live on and the water that we drink. Millions of cigarette butts are discarded onto the ground every day. Every year in California the state has a statewide cleanup and cigarette butts account for almost half of the waste that is collected. These are only the ones that are picked up in one state and millions more are never picked up. They end up in the rivers and lakes where fish and animals eat them by mistake and quite often die from it. The rest are left on the ground to decompose which will take an average of 25 years while all of the chemicals and additives leach into the ground and pollute the soil and the plants. If you are going to smoke please consider this information before your throw your cigarette butts on the ground. It looks unattractive, it is a major fire hazard in dry weather, and it is extremely harmful to the environment.

Destruction of Trees
Probably the most impacting aspect of cigarettes is actually producing them. There is the land used to grow the crops all over the world that could be put to better use by planting more trees or food for starving children in third world countries. These crops are also often sprayed with a lot of harmful pesticides and chemicals because tobacco is a very fragile plant and is likely to pick up disease. It also takes a lot of trees to produce and package cigarettes. Cigarette manufacturing uses four miles of paper an hour just for rolling and packaging cigarettes. One tree is wasted for every three hundred cigarettes produced. Those trees could be filtering out the pollutants already in the air instead of being chopped down for the cause of adding new ones. There is still the energy and water wasted in manufacturing cigarettes that needs to be considered and with soil depletion and chemical wastage added on top of that it becomes clear that manufacturing cigarettes has an enormous strain on the environment.

Quit smoking and Save Environment
The tobacco industry is quite unwilling to use better technology to reduce the impact they are having on the environment because it would take up too much of their billions of dollars in profit every year. They are often trying to have more trees planted, but since they use trees to dry the tobacco and for rolling and packaging it is probably not concern for the environment, but concern for losing their wood sources that encourage them to do this. They do not care about polluting our bodies so it seems unlikely that they would think twice about polluting our environment. The only way to stop them from harming the environment is to stop buying their products. Quitting smoking is hard, but it can be done and it’s not only about the harm smokers are doing to their own bodies, it’s also about the harm they are doing to the earth and the pain that they are causing their friends and families.

How to resolve smoking/ ways of dealing with it
Give up cigarette smoking. You’ve heard it from your doctors, your loved ones, your friend… it is a challenge that faces a lot of people each year.

Reasons to Quit Smoking
Millions of people will make the resolution to quit smoking— The first step to quitting smoking is coming up with motivating reasons to quit. Perhaps the smoker wishes to prevent any more harm to his family, or perhaps his health is deteriorating and he needs to quit to prevent any more damage to his health.

Islamic view point:
The holy book of Islam, the Qur'ān, does not specifically prohibit or denounce smoking, but gives behavioral guidance: “Don't throw yourself into danger by your own hands...” (el-Bakara 2/195) Smoking is both a psychological habit and a physical addiction. Smoking cessation is not an easy task as people are addicted to nicotine. And the nicotine in cigarettes is every bit as addictive as heroin or cocaine. If you're already a smoker and you want to stop, there is hope. Quitting is tough, but not impossible. Willpower and determination are the most important aspects when giving up smoking. Start your stop smoking plan with START S = Set a quit date. T = Tell family, friends, and co-workers that you plan to quit. A = Anticipate and plan for the challenges you'll face while quitting. R = Remove cigarettes and other tobacco products from your home, car, and work. T = Talk to your doctor about getting help to quit. there are some alternatives that help to prevent the craving symptoms and help your body re-adjust back to normal.

Nicotine replacement therapies:
The goal of all nicotine-replacement therapies is to provide the body with as pure a form of nicotine as possible and without all the carcinogenic additives found in cigarettes.  Nicotine Gum  Nicotine Inhaler Many smokers crave the feeling of having smoke in their mouths— they can use nicotine inhalers.

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Nicotine nasal spray nicotine Patch Electronic Cigarette Electronic cigarettes, also known as e-cigarettes, are battery-operated devices shaped like a traditional cigarette. Users inhale from e-cigarettes the same way they would traditional cigarettes, but instead of inhaling nicotine mixed with other potentially dangerous chemicals, the ecigarette turns a purer form of liquid nicotine into a vapor.

Prescription Medicine
A couple of drugs have been approved by the FDA for smoking cessation.Unlike nicotinereplacement therapies, prescription medicines like Zyban or(Chantix) do not provide your body with nicotine. Instead, they reduce cravings and lessen withdrawal symptoms by altering chemicals and nicotine receptors in your brain.

Alternative Therapies
Procedures like hypnosis, acupuncture,etc can address some of the mental and physical habits you have developed around cigarettes.

Hypnosis
Hypnosis works by getting you into a deeply relaxed state where you are open to suggestions that strengthen your negative feelings toward cigarettes.

Support Therapies
These include counseling and stop-smoking groups. Counseling provides you the opportunity to ask questions, learn from others’ experiences, and prepare for the next stage of your journey. Most patients who do quit smoking have to try several times. But each time you try to quit, you have another 5% chance. For example, say you're on your fourth try to quit smoking. This means you may have a 20% chance of really making it: 4 stop smoking tries X 5% chance = 20% chance of making it

Ways to reduce this problem:
Measures Against Smoking Investigated
Smoking contributes to an outbreak of diseases

which brings pain, suffering and death to millions every year. We should end this suffering by prohibiting smoking in all its forms. Smokers, non-smokers, and the environment are all adversely affected by smoking. Smoking can be reduced by:

Increase in Smoking tax:
The most effective measure is raising taxes on cigarettes and other smoking apparel. It affects mostly young smokers and people with lower incomes. In the chart u can see as the price increases, rate of smokers decreases.

Public smoking prohibition:
Prohibiting smoking in public places, on trains, at the job and in bars, is an efficient measure

Commercial ban:
Banning television commercials issued by tobacco companies could potentially be effective. The European Union and World Health Organization (WHO) have both specified that the advertising of tobacco should not be allowed.

Health warnings:
The basic thought here is to make cigarettes less attractive by adding horrible pictures to the package, such as lungs of a smoker, and so on. In Canada, Cards are also inserted into cigarette packs . There are sixteen of them, and only one comes in a pack. They explain different methods of quitting smoking.  Ban of smoking in movies and TV  Display of pictures and case study of people who suffered from effects at public places and forums.  In 2006 the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) began an extensive, television-based anti tobacco media campaign using graphic imagery of the health effects of smoking.  Health conferences at schools, colleges and offices for anti tobacco campaign informing about facts about tobacco.

NEWS:
(HealthDay News) -- President Barack Obama has kicked the smoking habit for almost one full year.According to the Associated Press, during conference the First Lady said that, "Yes, he has [quit]. It's been almost a year." She added that, "He's always wanted to stop."

Ending:
Smokers, non-smokers, and the environment are all adversely affected by smoking. Every single cigarette causes lasting damage and increases risk factors – now is always a good time to stop smoking. Keep trying. Many ex-smokers did not succeed at first, but they kept trying. The first few days after stopping will probably be the hardest. Show yourself and to the others who you are. Life's too good and too short to waste on that filthy habit.    The benefits begin straight away. You reduce your risk of getting Serious disease no matter what age you give up. However, the sooner you stop, the greater the reduction in your risk

Comparison of statistics with round the globe
Tobacco usage Statistics Pakistan
Consumption

In Pakistan, 19 percent of adults (age 18+) smoke tobacco. Almost one-third (32 percent of men and 6 percent of women smoke. Among youth (age 13-15) in Islamabad, 1 percent smoke cigarettes (boys 2 percent; girls 0.6 percent) and 9.5 percent use tobacco products other than cigarettes (boys 11 percent; girls 7 percent).

Health consequences
Each year, approximately 60,000 people die from tobacco-related diseases in Pakistan. Among youth (age 13-15), 34 percent report being exposed to secondhand smoke in public places and 27 percent report exposure at home.

Tobacco industry
Pakistan Tobacco Co Ltd, a subsidiary of British American Tobacco, held 51 percent of the cigarette market in 2008 and Lakson Tobacco Co Ltd, fully owned by Philip Morris International, held about 40 percent of the market. In Pakistan, more than 76 billion cigarettes were sold in 2008.

FCTC status
Pakistan ratified the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control on November 3, 2004.

Tobacco control policy status
Smoke-free environments: Pakistan has a national ban on smoking in public transportation and healthcare and

educational facilities. However the law does not include restaurants and government facilities. Advertising, promotion and sponsorship: Pakistan does not have a comprehensive ban on tobacco advertising and promotion.

Tobacco taxes:
Tobacco products are cheap and tobacco taxes in Pakistan are below the rate recommended by the World Bank (from 65 percent to 80 percent of retail price) that is commonly present in countries with effective tobacco control policies.

28 May 2002 GLOBAL SMOKING STATISTICS
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About a third of the male adult global population smokes. Smoking related-diseases kill one in 10 adults globally, or cause four million deaths. By 2030, if current trends continue, smoking will kill one in six people. Every eight seconds, someone dies from tobacco use. Smoking is on the rise in the developing world but falling in developed nations. Among Americans, smoking rates shrunk by nearly half in three decades (from the mid-1960s to mid-1990s), falling to 23% of adults by 1997. In the developing world, tobacco consumption is rising by 3.4% per year. About 15 billion cigarettes are sold daily - or 10 million every minute. About 12 times more British people have died from smoking than from World War II. Cigarettes cause more than one in five American deaths. Among WHO Regions, the Western Pacific Region - which covers East Asia and the Pacific

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- has the highest smoking rate, with nearly two-thirds of men smoking. About one in three cigarettes are consumed in the Western Pacific Region. The tobacco market is controlled by just a few corporations - namely American, British and Japanese multinational conglomerates.

Youth
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Among young teens (aged 13 to 15), about one in five smokes worldwide. Between 80,000 and 100,000 children worldwide start smoking every day - roughly half of whom live in Asia. Evidence shows that around 50% of those who start smoking in adolescent years go on to smoke for 15 to 20 years. Peer-reviewed studies show teenagers are heavily influenced by tobacco advertising. About a quarter of youth alive in the Western Pacific Region will die from smoking.

UK SMOKING STATISTICS
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About 13 million adults in the UK smoke cigarettes - 29% of men and 25% of women. In 1974, 51% of men and 41% of women smoked cigarettes nearly half the adult population of the UK. Now just over onequarter smoke, but the decline in recent years has been heavily concentrated in older age groups: i.e., almost as many young people are taking up smoking but more established smokers are quitting. • Smoking is highest among those aged 20-34: 35% of men and women in this age group smoke. Among older age groups prevalence gradually declines with the lowest smoking rate among people aged 60 and over: 16% smoke in this age group. • Men and women in the unskilled manual socio-economic group are more likely to smoke than people in the professional group. 15% of men and 13% of women in the professional group smoke compared with 39% of men and 34% of women in the unskilled manual group. • People do give up - 20% of women and 27% of men are ex-smokers. Surveys show that about 70% of current smokers would like to give up altogether. • Every year, around 120,000 smokers in the UK die as a result of their habit Smoking kills around six times more people in the UK than road traffic

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accidents (3,391), other accidents (8,933), poisoning and overdose (3157), murder and manslaughter (495), suicide (4,485), and HIV infection (180) all put together (20,641 in total 1999 figures). • Smoking causes thirty per cent of all cancer deaths (including at least 80% of lung cancer deaths), 17% of all heart disease deaths and at least 80% of deaths from bronchitis and emphysema. • Stopping smoking reduces this excess risk – stopping before age 35 can reduce a smoker’s health risks to the same as those of a life-long nonsmoker

Number Of Cigaretters per adult per year
Ranking 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 Country Greece Slovenia Ukraine Bulgaria Czech Republic Macedonia Russia Moldova Spain Armenia Japan Latvia Croatia Belarus Lebanon Cyprus Poland Kazakhstan Belgium South Korea Estonia Switzerland Austria China Hungary Italy Tunisia Number per adult per year 3,017 2,537 2,526 2,437 2,368 2,336 2,319 2,239 2,225 2,083 2,028 1,890 1,849 1,846 1,837 1,830 1,810 1,805 1,763 1,733 1,718 1,698 1,684 1,648 1,623 1,596 1,532 of cigarettes

Bosnia and Herzegovina 2,145

29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46

Kuwait Turkey Denmark Romania Slovakia Ireland Trinidad and Tobago Portugal Malta Albania United States Israel Australia Germany United Arab Emirates Azerbaijan Egypt Philippines

1,509 1,499 1,495 1,480 1,430 1,391 1,337 1,318 1,287 1,201 1,196 1,173 1,130 1,125 1,092 1,089 1,082 1,073

Legal smoking age
Asia

Country / Region Smoking Age Bangladesh Hong Kong India Japan Malaysia Pakistan Singapore Sri Lanka 15 18 18 20 18 18 18 21

Europe

Country / Region Smoking Age France 18

Ireland Italy Netherlands Spain United Kingdom

18 18 16 18 18

Smoking ban
Smoking bans are public policies, including criminal laws and occupational safety and health regulations, which prohibit tobacco smoking inworkplaces and/or other public spaces. Legislation may also define smoking as more generally being the carrying or possessing of any lit tobacco product

Rationale
The rationale for smoke-free laws is based on the fact that smoking is optional and breathing is not. Therefore, smoking bans exist to protect breathing people from the effects of second-hand smoke, which include an increased risk of heart disease, cancer, emphysema, and other diseases.[2][3] Laws implementing bans on indoor smoking have been introduced by many countries in various forms over the years, with some legislators citing scientific evidence that shows tobacco smoking is harmful to the smokers themselves and to those inhaling secondhand smoke. In addition, such laws may lower health care costs in the short term (but may actually increase them in the long term, since smokers who die sooner no longer use health care),[4]improve work productivity, and lower the overall cost of labor in a community, thus

making a community more attractive for employers. In Indiana, the state's economic development agency wrote into its 2006 plan for acceleration of economic growth an encouragement to cities and towns to adopt local smoke-free workplace laws as a means of promoting job growth in communities. Additional rationales for smoking restrictions include reduced risk of fire in areas with explosive hazards; cleanliness in places where food, pharmaceuticals, semiconductors, or precision instruments and machinery are produced; decreased legal liability; potentially reduced energy use via decreased ventilation needs; reduced quantities of litter; healthier environments; and giving smokers incentive to quit.[5] The World Health Organization considers smoke-free laws to have an influence to reduce demand for tobacco by creating an environment where smoking becomes increasingly more difficult and to help shift social norms away from the acceptance of smoking in everyday life. Along with tax measures, cessation measures, and education, smoking ban policy is currently viewed as an important element in lowering smoking rates and promoting public health. When correctly and strictly implemented it is seen as one important policy agenda goal to change human behavior away from unhealthy behavior and towards a healthy lifestyle

Medical and scientific basis for bans
Research has generated evidence that secondhand smoke causes the same problems as direct smoking, including lung cancer, cardiovascular disease, and lung ailments such asemphysema, bronchitis, and asthma.[7] Specifically, meta-analyses show that lifelong nonsmokers with partners who smoke in the home have a 20–30% greater risk of lung cancer than non-smokers who live with non-smokers. Non-smokers exposed to cigarette smoke in the workplace have an increased lung cancer risk of 16–19%.[8]

A study issued in 2002 by the International Agency for Research on Cancer of the World Health Organization concluded that non-smokers are exposed to the same carcinogens on account of tobacco smoke as active smokers.[9] Sidestream smoke[10] contains 69 known carcinogens, particularly benzopyrene[11] and other polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, and radioactive decay products, such as polonium 210.[12] Several well-established carcinogens have been shown by the tobacco companies' own research to be present at higher concentrations in secondhand smoke than in mainstream smoke.[13]

Scientific organizations confirming the effects of secondhand smoke include the U.S. National Cancer Institute,[14] the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC),[15] the U.S. National Institutes of Health,[16] the Surgeon General of the United States,[17] and the World Health Organization.

History
One of the world's earliest smoking bans was a 1575 Mexican ecclesiastical council ban that forbade the use of tobacco in any church in Mexico and Spanish colonies in the Caribbean, The Ottoman sultan Murad IV prohibited smoking in his empire in 1633.[24] The Pope also banned smoking in the Church, Pope Urban VII in 1590[25] and Urban VIII in 1624.[24] Pope Urban VII in particular threatened to excommunicate anyone who "took tobacco in the porchway of or inside a church, whether it be by chewing it, smoking it with a pipe or sniffing it in powdered form through the nose".[26] The earliest citywide European smoking bans were enacted shortly thereafter. Such bans were enacted in Bavaria, Kursachsen, and certain parts of Austria in the late 17th century. Smoking was banned in Berlin in 1723, in Königsberg in 1742, and in Stettin in 1744. These bans were repealed in the revolutions of 1848.[27] The first building in the world to have a smoke-free policy was the Old Government Building in Wellington, New Zealand in 1876. This was over concerns about the threat of fire, as it is the second largest wooden building in the world.[28] The first modern, nationwide tobacco ban was imposed by the Nazi Party in every German university, post office, military hospital, and Nazi Party office, under the auspices

of Karl Astel's Institute for Tobacco Hazards Research, created in 1941 under orders from Adolf Hitler.[29] Major anti-tobacco campaigns were widely broadcast by the Nazis until the demise of the regime in 1945.[30] In the latter part of the 20th century, as research on the risks of second-hand tobacco smoke became public, the tobacco industry launched "courtesy awareness" campaigns. Fearing reduced sales, the industry created a media and legislative program that focused on "accommodation". Tolerance and courtesy were encouraged as a way to ease heightened tensions between smokers and those around them, while avoiding smoking bans. In the USA, states were encouraged to pass laws providing separate smoking sections.[31] In 1975, the US state of Minnesota enacted the Minnesota Clean Indoor Air Act, making it the first state to ban smoking in most public spaces. At first, restaurants were required to have No Smoking sections, and bars were exempt from the Act. [32] As of 1 October 2007, Minnesota enacted a ban on smoking in all restaurants and bars statewide, called the Freedom to Breathe Act of 2007.[33] The resort town of Aspen, Colorado, became the first city in the country to ban smoking in restaurants, in 1985.[34] On April 3, 1987, the City of Beverly Hills, California, initiated an ordance to ban smoking in most restaurants, in retail stores and at public meetings. It exempted restaurants in hotels - City Council members reasoned that hotel restaurants catered to large numbers of visitors from abroad, where smoking is more acceptable than in the United States.

In 1990, the city of San Luis Obispo, California, became the first city in the world to ban indoor smoking at all public places, including bars and restaurants.[35] In America, the success of the ban enacted by the state of California in 1998 encouraged other states such as New York to implement bans. California's smoking ban included a controversial ban of smoking in bars, extending the statewide workplace

smoking ban enacted in 1994. As of April 2009 there were 37 states with some form of smoking ban.[36] Some areas in California began making entire cities smoke-free, which would include every place except residential homes. More than 20 cities in California enacted park and beach smoking bans. Since December 1993, in Peru, it is illegal to smoke in any public closed places and any public transportation vehicles. (according to Law 25357 issued on Nov 27, 1991 and its reglamentation issued on Nov 25, 1993 by decree D.S.983-93-PCM). There is also legislation regulation publicity, and it is also illegal (Law 26957 May 21, 1998) to sell tobacco to minors, and even directly advertising tobacco within 500m of schools (Law 26849 Jul 9, 1997). citation needed. On 3 December 2003, New Zealand passed legislation to progressively implement a smoking ban in schools, school grounds, and workplaces by December 2004. [37] On 29 March 2004, the Republic of Ireland implemented a ban on smoking in the workplace. In Norway similar legislation was put into force on 1 June the same year. The whole of the United Kingdom became subject to a ban on smoking in enclosed public places in 2007, when England became the final region to have the legislation come into effect. The age limit for buying tobacco was also raised from 16 to 18 on 1 October 2007. On July 15, 2007, Chandigarh became the first city in India to become 'smoke-free', however, the ban on smoking was implemented in rest of the country in mid 2009. Smoking was banned in public indoor venues in Victoria, Australia on 1 July 2007. Nepal announced a ban on smoking in public places, as well as by those under age 16 in June 2010.[38] On 31 May 2011 Venezuela introduced a ban on smoking in enclosed public and commercial spaces

Cigarette advertising
In one part of the world, tobacco advertising and sponsorship of sporting events is prohibited. The ban on tobacco advertising and sponsorship in the European Union in 2005 has prompted Formula One Management to look for venues that permit display of the livery of tobacco sponsors, and has led to some of the races on the calendar being canceled in favor of tobacco-friendly markets. As of 2008, only one Formula One team, Scuderia Ferrari, receives sponsorship from a tobacco company. Marlboro branding appears on its cars in two races; Monaco and China, as neither bans tobacco advertising. Despite the EU ban from 2005, advertising bill boards for tobacco is still in use in Germany as of 2011. MotoGP team Ducati Marlboro receives sponsorship from a Marlboro branding which appears at races in Qatar and China. On 1 July 2009 Ireland banned the advertising and display of tobacco products in all retail outlets. This means that shops will have to store cigarettes in closed containers out of sight of customers.

Public support for smoking bans
A 2007 Gallup poll found that 54% of Americans favored a complete ban inside of restaurants, 34% favored a ban in all hotel rooms, and 29% favored a ban inside of bars.[40]

Another Gallup poll, of over 26,500 Europeans, conducted in December 2008, found that "a majority of EU citizens support smoke-free public places, such as offices, restaurants and bars." The poll further found that "support for workplace smoking restrictions is slightly higher than support for such restrictions in restaurants (84% vs. 79%). Two-thirds support smoke-free bars, pubs and clubs." The support is highest in countries which have implemented strict smoking bans: "Citizens in Italy are the most prone to accept smoking restrictions in bars, pubs and clubs (93% – 87% “totally in favor”). Sweden and Ireland join Italy at the higher end of the scale with approximately eight out of 10 respondents supporting smoke-free bars, pubs and clubs (70% in both countries is totally in favor).

Effects of bans
Safety issues and effects on mental health
Enforcement of a ban can cause resentment among smokers, with potentially serious consequences. In July 2009, a Turkish restaurant owner was murdered by a customer after attempting to enforce the recently implemented smoking ban.[42] Resentment on the part of smokers over enforcement of a ban, or on the part of non-smokers over violation non-enforcement of a ban, is sometimes referred to as "smoke rage".

Effects on health
Several studies have documented health and economic benefits related to smoking bans. In the first 18 months after Pueblo, Colorado enacted a 2003 smoking ban, hospital admissions for heart attacks dropped by 27% while admissions in neighbouring towns without smoking bans showed no change. The decline in heart attacks was attributed to the smoking ban, which reduced exposure to secondhand smoke.[43] A similar study in Helena, Montana found a 40% reduction in heart attacks following the imposition of a smoking ban.[44] However, a larger and more recent study found that workplace bans in the USA are not associated with statistically significant short-term declines in mortality or hospital admissions for myocardial infarction or other diseases.[45] Researchers at the University of Dundee found significant improvements in bar workers' lung function and inflammatory markers attributed to a smoking ban; the benefits were particularly pronounced for bar workers with asthma.[46] The Bar Workers' Health and Environment Tobacco Smoke Exposure (BHETSE) study found the percentage of all workers reporting respiratory symptoms, such as wheezing, shortness of breath, cough and phlegm production, fell from 69% to 57%.[47] A group of researchers from Turin, Italy found that a smoking ban had significantly reduced heart attacks in the city, and attributed most of the reduction to decreased secondhand-smoke exposure.[48] A comprehensive smoking ban in New York was found to have prevented 3,813 hospital admissions for heart attacks in 2004, and to have saved $56 million in health-care costs for the year.[49] A study in England estimated a 2.4% reduction in heart attack emergency admissions to hospital (or 1,200 fewer admissions) in the 12 months following the ban.[50][51]

Effects on tobacco use
Smoking bans are generally acknowledged to reduce rates of smoking; workplace bans reduce smoking rates among workers,[52] and bans in public places reduce general smoking rates through a combination of stigmatization and reduction in the social cues for smoking.[53] However, reports in the popular press after smoking bans have been enacted often present conflicting evidence for the bans' effectiveness. One report stated that cigarette sales in Ireland and Scotland increased after a smoking ban.[54] In contrast, another report states that in Ireland, cigarette sales fell by 16% in the six months after the ban's introduction.[55] In the UK, cigarette sales fell by 11% during July 2007, the first month of the smoking ban in England, compared with July 2006.[56] A 1992 document from Phillip Morris summarized the tobacco industry's concern about the effects of a ban: "Total prohibition of smoking in the workplace strongly effects [sic] tobacco industry volume. Smokers facing these restrictions consume 11%–15% less than average and quit at a rate that is 84% higher than average."[57] In the United States, the CDC reported a leveling off of smoking rates in recent years despite a large number of ever more severe smoking bans and large tax increases. It has also been suggested that a "backstop" of hardcore smokers has been reached: those unmotivated and increasingly defiant in the face of further legislation.[58] In Sweden, use of snus, as an alternative to smoking, has risen steadily since the smoking ban.[59] Smoking bans may make it easier for smokers to quit. A survey suggests 22% of UK smokers may quit in response to a smoking ban in enclosed public places.[60] Restaurant smoking bans may help stop young people from becoming habitual smokers. A study of Massachusetts youths, found that those in towns with bans were 35 percent less likely to be habitual smokers.[61][62]

Effects on businesses
Smoking is prohibited on some streets in Japan. Smokers utilize smoking lounges, such as this one in Tokyo.A sign stating "No smoking while walking" in Taitō, Tokyo Many studies have been published in the health industry literature on the economic effect of smoke-free policies. The majority of these government and academic studies have found that there is no negative economic impact associated with bans and many findings that there may be a positive effect on local businesses.[63] A 2003 review of 97 such studies of the economic effects of a smoking ban on the hospitality industry found that the "bestdesigned" studies concluded that smoking bans did not harm businesses.[64]

Studies funded by the bar and restaurant associations often find that smoking legislation has a negative effect on restaurant and bar profits. Such associations have also criticized studies which found that such legislation had no impact.[65] The following are some examples: the Dallas Restaurant Association funded a study that showed a $11.8 million decline in alcohol sales ranging from 9 to 50% in Denton, Texas. A 2004 study by Ridgewood Economic Associates LTD funded by the Empire State Restaurant and Tavern Association found a loss of 2000 jobs, $28.5 million dollar loss in wages, and a loss of $37 million in New York State product.[66] A 2004 study for

the National Restaurant Association of the United States conducted by Deloitte and Touche found a significant negative impact. The restaurant Association of Maryland found sales tax receipts for establishments falling 11% in their study. Carroll and Associates found bars sales decreased by 18.7% to 24.3% in a number of Ontario markets following a bar smoking ban.[67] The Buckeye Liquor Permit Holders Association reported that liquor sales were down over $67 million dollars while sales for home consumption increased and asked for the bar smoking ban to be amended in Ohio.

Some suggestions
Suggestions from people were also taken and they are compiled as under: Detach smoking from common places. Many people smoke most in conjunction with other activities, such as at a coffee shop or a bar, while talking on the phone, or while driving in the car. Consider where these places are for you and then forbid yourself from smoking there or limit yourself to one cigarette. 2 Substitute other activities for smoking. Many people find that beyond the addiction to nicotine, the habit of smoking and the oral fixation of having a cigarette in their mouths can be a hard aspect of smoking to kick. Try and substitute a stick of gum for a cigarette. Chew for as long as you would be smoking a cigarette. Keep a toothpick in your mouth instead of a cigarette. Now there are even mock cigarettes available that light up and give you the sensation of smoking while dispensing a harmless vapor that looks like smoke. 3 Use quitting aids. There are many nicotine-replacement products--gum, patches, lozenges-that can ease the withdrawal symptoms and wean you off the addictive drug. These products come in steps to gradually reduce your nicotine intake. 4 Join a support group. The collective experience and support of a group of your peers might provide the encouragement you need to reduce and eventually quit smoking. Find out about such groups at local churches or community centers, or search on-line for in-person or on-line groups. There are also hotlines with counselors available to help you deal with smoking cessation. 5 Talk to your doctor. Your doctor can be a supportive partner in your quitting quest and can even prescribe medications to help you quit. If you feel that the basic methods and overthe-counter quitting products are not enough, make an appointment.

Conclusion
Smoking is a habit which individuals find difficult to quit. Many people make preparations for months in their effort to get rid of the habit, making painstaking plans to eliminate their dependence on nicotine. However making an effort to give up the habit of smoking all on a sudden is far more likely to yield satisfactory results. Spontaneous efforts to end the habit of smoking have a greater rate of success in comparison to planned attempts made by individuals to give up the habit. This can be attributed to the fact that prior planning gives rise to tension, making it difficult for smokers to kick the habit. Giving up the habit of smoking is one of the most crucial things that an individual can probably do. Quitting smoking ensures a longer and better life. People who quit smoking have reduced risks of suffering a heart attack, stroke or cancer. Pregnant women who give up smoking enhance the likelihood of having healthy baby. In order to quit smoking individuals should prepare themselves for the move. It is imperative that one should get support for their endeavor to quit smoking. One should learn new skills and behaviors in order to give up smoking for good. One should obtain medication and utilize it properly. A person should be ready to face tough situations or a relapse. With a view to quit smoking one should fix a quit date. An individual should also make an attempt to alter one’s surroundings by removing the entire stock of cigarettes along with ashtrays in the home. A person must also prohibit others from smoking in one’s home. It is advisable to assess past efforts in giving up smoking and take into consideration what worked and what did not.

Bibliography
   (n.d.). Retrieved from adamabout: http://adam.about.net/reports/Smoking.htm (n.d.). Retrieved from bettermedicine: http://www.bettermedicine.com/article/smoking (n.d.). Retrieved from cdc: http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/health_effects/tobacco_related_mort ality/ (n.d.). Retrieved from healthgiants: http://www.healthgiants.com/2009/12/11/why-do-peoplesmoke/ (n.d.). Retrieved from quitsmokingsupport: http://www.quitsmokingsupport.com/impact.htm (n.d.). Retrieved from resolve2stop: http://www.resolve2stop.com/us/faq.aspx (n.d.). Retrieved from http://ajph.aphapublications.org/cgi/reprint/81/11/1483.pdf (n.d.). Retrieved from Nation: http://www.nation.com.pk/pakistan-news-newspaper-dailyenglish-online/Regional/Karachi/30-Mar-2009/Pakistan-tops-South-Asian-countries-in-smoking (n.d.). Retrieved from tobaccofreekids: http://www.tobaccofreekids.org/ (n.d.). Retrieved from ash: http://www.ash.org/ (n.d.). Retrieved from antismoking: http://www.anti-smoking.org/ health story. (n.d.). Retrieved from cbc: http://www.cbc.ca/news/health/story/2007/07/30/resolve.html smoking. (n.d.). Retrieved from wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Smoking smoking. (n.d.). Retrieved from scribd: http://www.scribd.com/doc/1250415/Smokingpowerpoint smoking culture. (n.d.). Retrieved from scribd: http://www.scribd.com/doc/7456291/TheIntercultural-Study-on-Smoking-Presentation

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