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# Complex Numbers

## Mathematics Reference Handouts CE: 526

Prepared By: Engr. Krist Andrew E. Almario

For real numbers a and b, the number a + bi is a complex number, bi is an imaginary number. i2 = -1 Operations of complex numbers Addition Subtraction Multiplication Division

Algebra

Complex Numbers
Polar Form of Complex Numbers The polar form of a complex number can be determined using the Pythagorean theorem and arctangent function. The figure shown is the graphical representation of the function: a + bi The x-axis is the Real Axis, while the y-axis is the imaginary axis. As observed, the graph of the function can be treated as a triangle. The polar form of a function is given as: where r = Absolute Value where = Argument The absolute value can be taken using Pythagorean theorem, while the argument is taken using the arctangent function.

Significant Figures
The significant figures of a number are those digits that carry meaning contributing to its precision.

## Rules for Significant Figures

All non-zero digits are significant 234 = 3 significant figures 6889 = 4 significant figures All zeroes between non-zero numbers are significant 2304 = 4 significant figures 68089 = 5 significant figures Zeroes indicated after the right-most non-zero number are significant 23000 = 5 significant figures 23.000 = 5 significant figures Zeroes to the left of the left-most non-zero number are insignificant 00023 = 2 significant figures 0.0023 = 2 significant figures

## Permutations & Combinations

Permutations are definite arrangements of all parts of a set of objects where repetition is not allowed and order of elements matter. Combinations are arrangements of all or parts of a set of objects where repetition is not allowed and order of elements do not matter.

## Permutations & Combinations

The number of permutations of a number of objects, n, taken all at a time is given by: = ! The number of permutations of a number of objects, n, taken, r, at a time is given by:
= ! !

The Factorial
The factorial is symbolized by an exclamatory point ( ! ). This symbol represents the product of all positive integers less than or equal to the

The number of permutations of a number of objects, n, with identical objects taken all at a time is given by: = ! ! ! !

number.
5! = 5 4 3 2 1 n! = n (n-1) (n-2) (n-3) (n-n+1)

## Where r1, r2, r3 are the number of identical objects

The number of permutations taken by group is given by: = ! ! ! ! Where G is the number of groups and m1, m2, m3 are the number of members in the group

## Permutations & Combinations

Circular permutations are given by: = ! Circular permutations with some objects identical are given by: = ( )! ! ! !

Binomial Theorem
Expansion of (a + b)n
Properties:
o The number of terms in the expansion of (a + b)n is n + 1. o The first term is an , the last term is bn. o The exponent of a descends linearly from n to 0. o The exponent of b ascends linearly from 0 to n. o The sum of the exponents of a and b in any of the terms is equal to n. o The coefficient of the second term and the second to the last term is n.

## Where r1, r2, r3 are the number of identical objects

The number of combinations of a number of objects, n, taken all at a time is given by: = The number of combinations of a number of objects, n, taken, r, at a time is given by:
= ! = ! ! !

## rth term of (a + b)n

Any term within the expansion of (a + b)n is given by the formula: = ! = ! ! where: m = r - 1

The number of combinations taken one at a time, two at a time, three at a time time is given by: =

n at a

## Remainder & Factor Theorem

For real numbers a and b, the number a + bi is a complex number, bi is an imaginary number. i2 = -1 Operations of complex numbers Addition Subtraction Multiplication Division

Properties of Exponents
= = =

Logarithms
Base Logarithm
log (uv) = log u + log v log log

## Partial Fractions & Rationalization

Only applicable when the degree of the polynomial in the numerator is less than the degree of the polynomial in the denominator.
Given: + + = log u log v = n log u

un

loga a = 1 logu v =

Steps:
1. FACTOR the denominator

## loga m = n then an = m log m = log n then m = n

()()

Natural Logarithm
ln (uv) = ln u + ln v ln ln

## 2. SET the factors as the denominators of the partial fractions.

+ = + ( + )( ) ( + ) ( )

## = ln u ln v 3. FIND the numerators through ELIMINATION

= n ln u ln u = loge u , e = 2.718

un

## Descartes Rule of Signs

The number of positive real roots of a polynomial is bounded by the number of changes of sign in its coefficients. Conversely, the number of negative real roots of a polynomial is bounded by the number of changes of sign in its coefficients, given that f(-x). The number of roots are taken as an estimate with variation of even numbers on each estimate.

A quadratic equation is a second-order polynomial in a single variable.

+ + =
The roots of x can be found by completing the square: Steps 1. Using addition property of equality (APE), transfer all constants to the opposite side of the equation. 2. Divide all terms by a. 3. Square the half of the coefficient of x, and add it to both sides of the equation. 4. Factor the equation. + + = + = = + + = + +

= +

## Therefore, there are 4, 2, or 0 positive roots, and exactly 1 negative root.

5. Solve for x.

is called the quadratic equation. B2 4AC is called the discriminant

## Mathematical Word Problems

The most difficult part in Mathematical Word Problems is the formulation of the numeric equations that will be used in finding the answer. Following is a suggested work flow in order to make effective solutions: Read the problem entirely. Sometimes, the problem may initially give you an idea but after reading it would result in a different analysis than that of your first thought. List the information and variables that you identify. List down whatever is given and what are missing so as to help you determine what kind of problem and how to solve it. Also indicate the units of measure. Define what answer you need. To be certain of what kind of problem is being solved and the proper solution to be used, determine what kind of answer is needed and indicate the units. Work in an organized manner. Draw figures, plot charts etc. so that workflow will be smooth, organized and easy to understand. So that if a mistake occurs, it is easy to backtrack. Look for key words. Key words help determine the mathematical operations to be used, and the relationships between given data, so as to be able to form equations.

The expression

if B2 = 4AC , the roots are equal if B2 > 4AC , the roots are real, unequal if B2 < 4AC , the roots are imaginary

+ = =

## Mathematical Word Problems

KEY WORDS / PHRASES increased by more than combined together total or total of sum added to altogether both in all additional all another How many carrots does she have in all? If he had ten additional baseball cards, how many would he have in all? If you combined all of their earnings how much would they have? EXAMPLES The class was increased by 15 students. His collection had 10 cars more than before They combined their allowances to buy the present. Together they had 12 eggs. There were 8 roses, 12 carnations, and 2 daisies. How many flowers did they have total? The sum of their earnings was \$28. Her savings this week were added to her savings last week. How much money do they have altogether?

## Mathematical Word Problems

Important Key Words for Subtraction
KEY WORDS / PHRASES decreased by minus less difference between / difference of More than Less than Fewer than How many more How much more Left remain or remains Words ending in er Take away EXAMPLES The population of whales decreased by 400 in the last year. She had ten dollars, minus the amount she spent on the drink. How much did she have in all? She had five cards, less the two she gave her brother. How many did she have in all? What was the difference between their earnings last week? Jacob has 6 more marbles than Carlos. Carlos has 6 marbles less than Jacob. Jenny has six fewer cookies than Elizabeth How many more daisies does Kate have than Jacob? How much more money does Alex need to buy the computer? How many eggs are left? How many students remain on the bus? How much heavier is Jacks bag than Marks? If Elizabeth takes away 2 of Jaimes baseball cards, how many will he have?

## Mathematical Word Problems

Important Key Words for Multiplication
KEY WORDS / PHRASES of times multiplied by product of increased by decreased by EXAMPLES Grandpa gave half of his share to Johnny. (multiplication by ) John has 4 times as many jelly beans as Jake The population multiplied by 12 over the last year The product of four and seven The population of tigers in the wild increased by ten percent. (multiplication by 0.10 and then addition) The population of rhinoceros living in the wild decreased by twenty-five percent in the last ten years, (multiplication by 0.25 and then subtraction) The school population increased by a factor of 12 There are twelve rows with six plants in each row. How many plants are there in all? There are eight rows with 7 plants in each row. How many plants are there total? Each pair of socks cost \$1.50. How much will six pair cost? The population of rabbits tripled in two years

## Mathematical Word Problems

Important Key Words for Division
KEY WORDS / PHRASES each equal / equally per separate a ratio or ratio of quotient or quotient of percent (division by 100) What percent of the population was over 18? EXAMPLES Pens cost \$1 each. How many pens can you buy with \$6? The items were packed equally into three bags. How many items were in each bag? The car gets 23 miles per gallon. How many gallons will it take to go 470 miles? If the money was separated into equal shares, how much did each person get? Steak cost \$3.69 a pound. How many pounds can you buy for \$20? If the student to teacher ratio was 27 to 1, how many teachers are there for 756 students?

## factor of in all total each doubled, tripled, quadrupled etc.

Important Key Words for Equals is, are, was, were, will be, gives, yields