Budapest Univesity of Technology and Economics Department of Building Machines, Materials Handling Machines and Manufacturing Logistics and

Department of Construction Technology and Management

Construction Equipment
Concrete & Asphalt Works
Edited by: Translated by: József Károly Ph.D. student and Dr. Zoltán A.Vattai Dr. Zoltán A.Vattai

Budapest, 2009-2010

Concrete and asphalt works D Aggregate production (at pit or quarry): D Batching (mixing) at plant: Ö Receiving and storing rough material: Ö extraction (excavation) Ö processing – crushing – sizing – washing

– aggregates: by fractions, in open-air deposits or in chambered silos – fines (cement, (cement limestone dust): in silos (handled by compressed air) – bitumen: in tanks, as heated liquid

Ö Scaling and batching components:
– weight measuring measuring, batching according to mixing formulas – pan-, conveyor belt- or electronic scales

Ö Drying aggregates (asphalt only):
– intermittent mixer: in rotary dryer, dryer re re-sizing sizing (re (re-screening) screening) and scaling – continuous mixer: in dryer-mixer drum

Ö mixing: pug-pressure mixing (kneading) (asphalt, continuous: dryer-mixer drum) Ö transporting: dumper truck (asphalt), mixer truck (concrete) D Processing mixtures on site: Ö spreading, compacting: by asphaltasphalt or concrete finisher Ö heat-curing, aging (concrete) Ö curing (concrete)

At the gravel pit
metal
4

2 1

0/120

0/120

5

2

3

0/32

6

32/120
water

4/32
10 88

wood, etc.

13 2

7 7
0/4
11 99

wa aste water

12

0/1

2

2

0/4

4/8

2

2

8/16

2

16/32

1. dragline excavator 2. conveyor belt 3. tunnel conveyor

4. metal separator 5. feeder

6. screen 7. washer

8. crusher 9. screen

10. separator basin 11. hydraulic sizer

12. slurry pump 13. water pump

Crushers

breaker / mill jaw crusher cone crusher

impact crusher

Impact crusher „Mammut” (Krupp)
5
4 8 1

Dmax = 2500 mm dmax = 25 mm
4
6 8

Q = 2300 to/h P = 3500 kW

4 5

2

7

1

5

9

3

1. case 2. rotor 3. crushing piece 4. impact piece 5. impact piece cylinder li d 6. feeder 7. tiltable upper case 8. wear parts 9. tiltable upper case cylinder

36. 41. Bowl hopper 3. Pinion thrust washer 18. 33. 39. 43. 32. Cover plate 6. Socket seal ring 15. 25. Step bearing plate 24. Arm guard 17. U-shaped bolt and washer 10. Torch ring 7 Main shaft 7. Feed hopper 2. 27.Cone crusher 1. 29. 45. Main frame cap Feed plate Main shaft nut Adjustment cap Main frame pin Adjustment ring Upper spring segment Spring Spring bolt Socket liner Main frame liner Lower spring segment t Socket Countershaft box guard Oil flinger Crusher sheave Sheave taper sleeve Countershaft Outer countershaft bushing Oil flinger housing Countershaft box Inner countershaft bushing Countershaft box seal Main shaft . Mantle 13. 28. Pinion 19. Bowl liner 12. 35. 47. Outer eccentric bushing 22. 31. Eccentric 21. Adjustment ring d t collar dust ll 11. Head 14. 38. 30. 34. Main frame 23. Adjustment cap seal 4. sleeve 8. Bowl 9. 43 44. 46. 42. 37. 26. Feed cone 5. 40. Inner eccentric bushing 20. Gear 16.

Cone crusher Jaw crusher Impact crusher .

% hydraulic flat screen drum screen 100 80 60 40 20 0 Q sz Qr d grid size ( log d ).Gravel sizing (screening) mechanical amou unt of mate erial ( Q ). mm Q = Q r + Q sz Mechanical screening dmax Qr Q sz z Hydarulic sizing Ö settling velocity of grains heavier than water is function of their sizes Ö particles lighter than water are floating on the surface and let out to waste tanks (washing) Ö bigger grains (d > 4 mm) are separated to fractions by water on flat screens Ö slurry (water + d < 4 mm grains + pollutants) is further screened by hydraulic screens .

2.Water-content detection and measurement a.) Neutron radiation measurement c.) Electric resistance measurement (aggregate) b. mixer pan mixer shaft water inlet . 3.) Electric resistance measurement (mixture) 1.

Sector gate feeder Aggregate (batching-) feeders Delivery roller 1. pneumatic (hydraulic) cylinder 3. senzor roller 4. position sensors Vibratory feeder Conveyor scale bunker slide gate 1. manometer 5. display Belt feeder . sector gate 4. driving unit 6. bunker (silo) 2. bunker (silo) 2. conveyor belt 3. control track 5-6.

pneumatic lock and cylinder 4. baffle (spreader) 5. screw 3. gear (drive) 4. pneumatic lock and cylinder 2 4 3 5 6 to scale . cement bunker (silo) 2. steel tube 2. compressed air (P = 0.05 Bar) 6.Cement feeders Screw feeder Cellular wheel (drum) feeder 1. compressed air 3. engine (motor) Pneumatic feeder (aerator) A-A section air permeable layer 1 1.

revolver gear 15 planetary mixing 15.Vertical-axle (pan) concrete mixers 9 10 2 10 11 5 12 10 2 13 Agitator mixer 14 11 1 4 5 6 17 8 3 7 6 15 4 12 16 Pan mixer 3 1. geared transmission 7 8. clearing blade 5. engine 6. mixing blade 4. mixer pan 2. feeder 11 water inlet 11. agitator 3. V-belt drive 7. 12. discharge door 9. cylinder 17. wear lining 8 2 1 4 . driver 13. dead-axle (sun) gear 14. blades 16. discharge door drive 10.

Double engined 3 5 1 2 1 6 3 7 4 3 5 1. gear 4. synchronizer gears 3 5 5. charging 7. cardan gear 4 5. engine 2 V-belt drive 2. mixer shaft 6. bevel gear 6. V-belt drive 3. cardan axle 1. worm-gear 4.Horizontal axle (shaft) mixers Single-shaft Single shaft mixer. discharging . blades and material flow Twin shaft mixer drive Twin-shaft A. engine 2. Single engined 3 4 Continuous mixer 6 2 1 B. 3. blades Twin-shaft Twin shaft mixer.

cement scale 9. cement screw 4 8. Mobile ( star depo) (+ ) Vertical (tower) system 1. t scale l 6. 3. Portable (+ feeder line) 1 8 10 9 2 . tunnel conveyor 2 2 conveyor belt 2. control room 10. cement silo 7. mixer 6 7 5 B. rotatory chute 4. chambered aggregate silo 3 5 aggregate 5.Concrete batching plants Horizontal system A.

Continuous concrete mixing plant 1. cement scale 7. cement silo 5. concrete delivery belt 1 4 5 7 3 6 8 2 10 9 9 Concrete delivery (through collector basin) Mobile plant . charging belt 4. cement batcher screw 8. water batcher scale 9. conveyor belt 3. cement conveyor screw 6. continuous mixer 10. feeder line with batching belt scale 2.

water content measured and controlled .grain-size distribution composed and fit to concrete when batching Row storage plant .heating facilities for hot concrete (winter-time concreting) .Aggregate storage and batching Semicircular („star”) deposit G-H section E-F section .fractions of aggregate are separated .

Concrete (wet) hoppers and containers „Shoe”-Container On smaller hopper containers the sector gate is operated by simple levers (a) but on bigger ones segment gears and handwheels are provided (b) .

cross section Piston .Concrete pumps Rotary Truck mounted mobile mixer drum.

Truck mounted concrete pump and delivery boom Mobile concrete pump Mixer truck (charger chute open) Mixer truck with concrete pump and delivery boom (”pumix”) Concrete pump spare parts .

Mi Mixer truck t k with ith delivery d li conveyor (in (i action) ti ) Pump .mixer truck (”pumix”) Mixer truck and ”pumix” co-operating at the site Mixer truck with delivery conveyor (riding position) Mixer feeding the pump .

Concrete pump allocations and configurations (Concrete) pump directing hand signals .

Concrete work-in (booms and vibrators) Stationary concrete boom electromotor flexible shaft Immersible (poker) vibrators eccentric (a) and planetary system (b) A-A section vibrating cylinder rubber cover pipe „sword” head formwork vibrator head A-A section cable shaft self-aligning ball-bearing .

dry mix hopper 2. rotary feeder wheel 3. dry mix conveying by y compressed p air Free-form architecture . feeder pocket 4.Shotcrete (Gunite) pumps Structural maintenance 1.

Shotcrete (Gunite) applications Tunnel construction Dome construction .

landscaping . paving.Shotcrete (Gunite) applications Retaining R t i i wall ll construction t ti (permanent or temporary).

Ride-on typed double rotor power trowel p Power trowels (finishers) Power trowels in action Walk-by typed single rotor power trowel .

bogie track 1 2. power cable 10.Concrete paver (finisher) Immersible vibrator 12 11 10 9 1 3 4 5 2 6 7 8 1. Immersible vibrator 5. mould 3. plate spring Course spreading Kerb (curb) construction by concrete finisher . surface vibrator 6. hydraulic cylinder 11. exciter mass 9. distributor screw 4. tip shaft 12. floating trowel 7. motor 8.

distributor screw 7. joint-bar inserter 10. 9. level detectors 14. transversal screed 12 longitudinal 12. elevation control 5. bogie track 4. guide wire Longitudinal joint-bar inserter Transversal joint-bars inserted (for joining parallel lanes) .Concrete paver (finisher) with joint-bar inserter Joint bars: bond breaker coated steel bars inserted across the extension joints Joint-bars: Functions: retaining vertical dislocation of adjoining concrete panels 4 5 9 4 13 13 14 1 3 6 7 8 10 11 3 12 2 1. joint-bar vibrator 11. compacted concrete layer 3. loose concrete mix 2. immersible vibrators 8 screed (mould) 8. main frame 6. l it di l screed d 13.

Effect of weather conditions on concrete works Hardening time of concrete is effected by the temperature of the environment: Ö Final hardness of concrete is attained in 28 days at about +20 oC Ö At +5 oC to attain final hardness of concrete takes 35-50 days ÖIf water content of concrete mixture froze at beginning of hardening process. vapour-tight coating) Ö Using retarding admixtures or reducing water content (with admixtures) Ö Can change water content of the fresh concrete Ö Can corrupt the surface of the fresh concrete structure Limited applicability at road construction Precipitation: .45 oC) Ö Admixing „anti-freeze” agent (additive) H t summer: Hot Problem is the intensive evaporation of water (at the surface) Counter-action: Ö Using low heat-producing cements Ö Reducing R d i mixing i i t temperature t ( (pre-cooling li th the aggregate) t ) Ö Reducing evaporation (covering fresh concrete. it can not resist pressure of solidifying (extending) water (i ) it cracks (ice). before attaining it’s final hardness. k and d never reaches h th the i intended t d d (d (designed) i d) fi final l strength t th (h (hardness) d ) At about freezing-point: Ö „Hot Hot concrete concrete” production (delivery temperature: 40 .

bitumen tank 13. conveyor belt 4. wire rope 19. ready-mix container 12. mixer 11. fines elevator 10. limestone dust silo 9. scales 8. separator 7. control room 17. bitumen heater 14. hot elevator 6. transporter truck Chambered ready-mix container .Intermittent asphalt mixing plant 16 12 13 14 14 8 9 5 6 6 18 11 15 1 2 3 4 4 10 10 17 7 10 19 11 Horizontal system 1. conveyor belt scale 3. exhaust ventilator 16. feeder bunkers 2. dust collector 15. rotary dryer 5. elevator bucket 18.

dust collector 14. feeder screw scale 10. bitumen batcher pump 13. lifting g rope p ( (of hoist) ) 18. conveyor belt scale 4. bitumen tank 11. chambered asphalt bunkers 15. elevator bucket 8. belt scale (for recycled asphalt) 16. ready-mix bunker 19. limestone dust silo 9. waste material bunker 20. bitumen heater 12. control room . collector conveyor 3. feeder bunkers 2.Continuous asphalt mixing plant 8 9 20 13 13 11 10 14 15 4 12 17 16 1 2 3 7 19 18 5 5 6 4 1. batching g conveyor y 5. elevator line 17. pre-store basin 7. rotary dryer 6.

level mould 5.600 mm. dumper truck 2. vibro plate 7. low performance asphalt finisher 2 6 5 1 4 3 7 1. screed 4. tamper beam 6.300 mm. feeder bunker 3. single layer both preliminary and final by finisher (higher output vibrators) roughening and curing equipments can be attached behind the finisher Compacting Auxiliary units mechanical parts in direct contact with the asphalt can be heated Direct-feed. push idler Asphalt finisher in action . more layers.Pavers (Finishers) A h lt Asphalt Course thickness 30 . spread in layers preliminary Ø by the finisher final Ø by rollers C Concrete t 180 .

feeder bunker 7. push idler Feeding the finisher Finishers applied in groups . conveyor belt 8. delivery dumper truck 6. screed 9. distributor screw 3. tamper beam 4.Conveyor-belt asphalt finisher 2 6 5 1 9 8 7 3 4 10 1. vibro plate 5. main frame 2. level mould 10.

Conveyor-belt (scraper-chain) asphalt finisher control board seat exhauster cooler engine feeder bunker distributor panel (screw) tractor (crawler) conveyor belt .

Main parts of a conveyor-belt (scraper-chain) asphalt finisher independent p external screw drives nickel coated screw segments alloy-steel chain links and bars independent b lt ( belt (chain) h i )d drives i Feeder (bunker) Conveyor-belts and distributor screws Bogie types: •Track (caterpillar) •Rubber wheel •Rubber belt (track) Track (crawler) bogie Rubber wheel bogie .

.

Mastic asphalt mixers (boilers) Horizontal shaft Fix (batching plant) Mobile (masticator) V ti l shaft Vertical h ft Horizontal shaft mastic asphalt mixer Vertical shaft mastic asphalt mixer .

5 0.20 19 .0 1.5 0.5 0.75 Casting [h] 0.Effect of delivery time of mixtures on workability Workability time of asphalt in function of mix temperature and of layer thickness Asp phalt tempera ature [oC] Asphalt temperature in function of layer thickness and of cooling time tenvironment = 10 oC 6 cm 120 100 80 60 1 2 3 4 5 Cooling time [h] 9 cm 12 cm 18 cm Workability tim W me [min] 30 20 10 0 1 tenvironment = 10 oC 160 140 150 C 135 C 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Layer thicknes [cm] o o Maximum M i holding h ldi time ti of f concrete t in i function f ti of f means of transport and of temperature of the environment Transporter Mixer truck Temperature [oC] 30 .10 9-5 30 .5 0.50 0 50 0.10 9-5 Transport [h] 1.5 0 5 0.20 19 .75 0.5 0.5 Dumper truck .5 1.

Effect of weather conditions on asphalt works Temperature close to freezing-point: Ö Asphalt must not be laid on frozen base! Acceptable air temperature when spreading regarding the type of course Course Temperature Base course > . Ö Rubber-wheel rollers should not be favoured (due to segregation). Ö Rain-water collected on the surface must be removed after rainfall before going on.3 oC Bond course > 0 oC Wearing course > ( 3 … 6 ) oC according to thickness Ö Snow S and di ice must tb be removed df from th the surface f b before f spreading di any aphalt h lt course on it it. Ö Handover to traffic is allowed when asphalt temperature got less than 40 oC. . Hot summer: Ö Delivery temperature must be optimized regarding the temperature of the environment. Ö Roller compactors must work immediately after (behind) the finisher. Rainy weather: Ö Top (wearing) course must not be spread on wet base or in rainy weather .

weakly sparkling greyish ih easily castable adheres properly not steaming i lumpy crust on the surface browny. p . – wearther and temperature of the environment must be also regarded P Proper C l d Cooled B Burnt black. – quantity of mixture.). – schedule of delivery broken down to days and to hours. mat t tawny scattering low or no any . measuring g temperature. temperature. visual inspection) p ) Ö Before working Visual inspection of asphalt mixture F t Feature Colour St Steaming i Castability Adhesion Ö When working in: – advancing of the finisher must be adjusted to schedule of delivery and to performance capacity of roller-compactors. g y.. Ö When delivering unbroken telecommunication is essential between the place of use and the mixing plant g in q quality y control is evident ( (sampling p g regularly. location of use. transport route. etc.Managerial tasks of asphalt surfacing Ö When ordering asphalt expectations must be set clearly regarding: – quality and composition of mixture (grain-size number.

Lánczos Pál. 1987 .Soós László. Építéstechnológia I. 1985 . 1987 . Tankönyvkiadó.Dr.Sources of B&W pictures and drawings: . 1990 . Soós László. Építőipari gépek II. Tervezési segédlet. Budapest.Bacher Károly. Dr. Alaptechnológiák. Tervezési segédlet. Tankönyvkiadó. Dr. Tankönyvkiadó.. Épít É őoipari gépek I. Budapest. Nagy Pál. Építésgépesítés I. Budapest. Budapest.Soós László.. Tankönyvkiadó.

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