--: ABSTRACT :-Mechatronics, a concept of Japanese origin was first introduced during the early 1970's to qualify the dual alliance of electronics and computer technology to practical control application in Mechanical Engg. system. The Japanese were very quick to exploit the advantages of this integrated technology through their consumer products while other are yet adopting this concept to realize it's benefits. The combination of Mechanical, electronics and information technology is optimized to take full advantage of the ability of microelectronics to reduce the demand of mechanical system of a product. High technology CNC m/c, Robots, automated manufacturing systems are truly mechatronics product.



Introduction :-"Mechatronics is an aynergitics combination of precision

Definition :--

mechanical engg., electronics control and systems thinking in design of product and manufacturing process."

---- IEEE Spectrum ---It represents the next generation machine robots and smart mechanism for carrying out work in variety of environments,- predominantly factory automation, office automation and home automation as shown in fig.1.1






H.A. :- Home Automation F.A. :- Factory Automation O.A. :- Office Automation  Fig: DOMAINS OF MECHATRONICS


Computer Integrated Manufacturing This concept of mechatronics machines of next generation . • Use of mechanical in this field of electronics is to provide new functions and capabilities. Evolution of Mechatronics. Electrical Tech Mechanization Electro Mechanical System Electronics IT & software Mechatronics Fig. FMS 4.  Features : - 1. • is giving or representing the Use of electronics in this field of mechanical is to provide high level of precision and reliability. CAD/CAM 3. Automation 2. -4- .MECHATRONICS  Evolution of Mechatronics :-- Mechanical engg.

Electronics and computer field. Hence mechanical is having some limit . 4.  NEED OF INDUSTRILISTS :-To gain much money with short time and fulfilling customers need is : 1. The precision will not be there . 2. 5. 3. -5- .g. Just in time [JIT] concept is one of the principle of this mechatronics. total transport is the goal of each company which will help in achieving high benefits from a product everyone related with it. Low volume More variety High level of flexibility Reduced lead time in production Automation in office and work stations “In order to produce quality international standers .MECHATRONICS  What is it? IS it a need or development? It’s a need of today’s world . There are few advantages of mechanical which will gives us the service but the extent of fulfillment will not be there . high service. the industries must excel in this technology: MECHATRONICS. And training and basic knowledge of this is new to student and engg. field to get success. “Low cost. The same is with others e.

Fig: Fig : an example of measurement.MECHATRONICS In general in each field to achieve automation three things are used : 1. 2.“It is a block which is used to control its output to -6- . 3. 3.” Fig: An example of system 2. 1. CONTROL SYSTEM :-. MEASUREMENT:-- It has it’s I/p as the quantity being measured and output as measured. System Measurement Control SYSTEM : --“System is defined as part of universe which is taken under study or application .

2.which responds to the quantity being measured by giving as output a signal which is deleted to quantity . -7- . Signal Conditioner :-- Takes the signal from the sensor and manipulates it into a condition which is suitable for either display or in the exercise control.MECHATRONICS me particular value or Fig : Control system An electronics measurement system consists of 1. Sensor: -.

This is a microprocessor based controller which uses a programmable memory to store instruction and to implement functions such as logic. sequence. A more adoptable form is programmable logic controller. In many simple systems there might be just an embedded microcontroller. this being a microprocessor with memory all integrated on one cheep . A P -8- . timing counting and arithmetic to control events and can be rapidly reprogrammed for other task. which has been basically / specially programmed for the task concerned.MECHATRONICS  Microprocessor based controller :-Microprocessor is now rapidly replacing the mechanical cam operated controllers and being used in general to carry out control function . They have greatest advantage that a greater variety of programs become feasible.

This micro-controller uses from sensor to determine the engine momentary operating conditions. which are amplified by power o/p stages before being transmitted to final control elements used in this system.MECHATRONICS B C D PLC R S Q Control program Fig: 1.3 shows logic controller basic structure.  BASIC FUNCTIONS ::--9- .C. This information serves the basic for EUC command signal. Example of microprocessor based control system ::--  I. These signals are feed to the microcontrollers of Electronics Control Unit [ECU] Through analog to digital controllers. Engine mgmt using microprocessor::-Electronic engine mgmt is a new technology which is a part of mechatronics for efficient operation of ‘SPARK IGNITION ‘ particularly for four stroke passenger car. In this system many sensors are used to monitor various conditions of engine.

• Vehicle high speed governing to protect vehicle Fig.G. • • • • • • Idle speed control Lambda oxygen control Control of evaporative emission control system. This can be employed to satisfy • • Stringent emission control unit The requirement for an Onboard diagnosis system -10- . Knock system control Exhaust gas recirculation(E.4.) for reducing NOx emission Control of secondary air injection to reduce HC emission process is at the core of The system can also be expanded to meet special demands from automobile manufacturing by including the following :- • Open loop turbo charger controller as well as control of variable track intake manifold for increased power output.R. shows schematic configuration of electronic engine management system. 1.MECHATRONICS The control of ignition and fuel injection motronic system.

-11- . Condensation in induction manifold. Induction passage of carburetor is of unequal length and after different resistance to mix flow which varies mixture to cylinders in both quality and quantity.MECHATRONICS ELECTRONIC FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM FOR S.ENGINE Introduction:The function of the carburetor or fuel injection system is to supply with the optimum air fuel mixture for instantaneous operating conditions. 2. But it has few drawbacks as mentioned below::- 1.I.

Reduced fuel consumption Improved performances Immediate response of acceleration Improved cold starting and warm up behavior Low exhaust emission System and configuration and general working : -12- . Surging problem due to tilting. 7. 4. drivability and low exhaust emission. Problem of backfiring.MECHATRONICS 3. 3. It is a development accelerated by the advantages that inject in the fuel provides in the area of economy. 5. supplying exactly correct amount of fuel for given operating and load condition with minimum exhaust emission and fuel consumption. 5. They do not have free passage for mixture due to choke tube jet etc. sometimes. parts causing loss of volumetric efficiency. Fuel injection can be applied for extremely precise metering. 4. -: ADVANTAGES OF FUEL INJECTION :1. 2. To eliminate these problems and to achieve reduced fuel consumption as well as reduction exhaust emission Fuel injection system presents the preferred method. performance. Wearing parts affect efficiency. 6. Freezing problem in low temperature.

4. shows the electronic fuel injection system by Robert Booch Co.MECHATRONICS Fig. 2. 3. AIR INDUCTION SYSTEM :-The incoming air flows from air filter past in air flow meter designed to generate a voltage signal which is dependent on air flow. injection valve is controlled by a thermo switch to insure cold starting up to -33 C. A cold start magnetic injection valve just behind the throttle valve to inject additional fuel for cold start of the cold start. Fuel induction system Air induction system Sensors and air flow control system ECU 1. The fuel needed during warm up period is also supplied by this valve. The pressure regulator is connected to intake manifold . After cold start the extra air required for idling in additional to richer air fuel mixture is supplied by an auxiliary air valve which bypasses the -13- . The L-Jetronics package consists of mainly four units 1. The pressure difference between the fuel pressure and manifold is kept constant so that the quantity of fuel injected is dependent on injector open time. FUEL DELIVERY SYSTEM :-The fuel delivery system consists of an electrically driven fuel pump which draws fuel from the fuel tank and forces it through a filter in to a pressure line at the end of which is situated a pressure regulator. 2.

For engine cycle such a system simplifies triggering of injectors because no co-ordination between angular position of camshaft and start of injection is needed.) The operating data are measured at different locations of the engine by sensors and then transmitted electrically to the ECU which computes the amount of fuel injected during each cycle. -14- . The extra air needed to increase engine speed after cold start to acceptable idling speed. each injection contributing half of fuel quantity required.C. The voltage signals results in injection of additional fuel required for acceleration. The injectors are opened simultaneously although. ELECTRONIC CONTROL UNIT (E. • INJECTION TIME :-The fuel is injected for every revolution of camshaft. Attached to throttle valve is a throttle switch equipped with a set of contacts which generate a sequence of voltage signals during opening of throttle valve. with reference to individual cylinders.U.MECHATRONICS throttle valve. at different phase of operating cycle. The opening of air valve varies as a function of engine temperature.

a coil spring presses the valve needle against the seat to seal the flow of fuel through the outlet orifice and into the intake manifold. When the unit is at rest. the fuel can now flow through the calibrated orifice.8 ms at a control frequency 3-125 Hz. When the control transmits activation current to the solenoid winding in the valve housing the solenoid armature raises between 60-100 micron.MECHATRONICS • ELECTROMAGNETIC INJECTOR :-The electromagnetic injector consists of a solenoid armature mounted on a valve needle and travels through precise motions within the valve. The response time lies between 1. lifting the valve needle in the process. ENGINE LOAD :-. --: OPERATING DATA ACQUISITION :-- 1. 2.5-1. depending upon the type of injection and momentary engine speed and load condition.One of the most important variables used for determining injection quantity and ignition advance angle is the engine load state (Load Monitoring). • TYPES OF LOAD SENSORS :-Air flow sensor -15- .

4. air mass meter are both thermal load sensors. Reduced lead time. 3. AIR MASS METER ::. They are installed between air filter and throttle valve. 5. AIR FLOW SENSOR :. ADVANTAGES :-- 1. Reduced cost in maintenance and working. 2.The hot wire.MECHATRONICS • • • • Hot film air mass sensor Hot wire air mass sensor Intake manifold pressure sensor Throttle valve sensor 3. Accuracy of high level. Reliability in the work/production. 6. 4. -16- .-It is located between air filter and the throttle valve where it monitors volumetric flow rate(m3/hr) of the air being drawn into the engine. Increased productivity. Improved Quality .

High capital cost.1. High degree of flexibility. STORAGE DESIGN DRAFTING TESTING Fig. 3.5 Applications of Mechatronics Principle:-- -17- .MECHATRONICS 7. DISADVANTAGES :-- 1. Error due to sensors and electronic devices which are negligible.(some exceptional design could be there) RAW MTL. 2. Necessity of diagnosis system to prevent failure of this system during running condition as no standby system is available.

The amount of heating current required to maintain the temp. In this a series of piezo resistive resistor element is in response to changes in mechanical tension . • Intake manifold pressure sensor:-A pneumatic passage connects the intake manifold to this pressure sensor which monitors absolute pressure within the intake manifold. where it is cooled by the flow of incoming air at a constant level. A control modulates the flow of heating wire or film and the intake air constant level. within the cylinder is employed as a -18- . Dynamic functions like load range recognition idle.MECHATRONICS An electrically heated element is mounted in the intake air stream. Crank shaft and its position :The speed at which the crank shaft changes its position is the engine speed. Bridge voltage thus provides indication of intake manifold. Engine speed . These resistors are deflection at the diaphragm will lead to a change in bridge balance. The degree of piston travel . • Throttle valve sensor:-This sensor provides a secondary load condition based on the angle of part throttle valve . thus provide an index to air mass flow. full or part throttle are manifold by this sensor. A potentiometer evaluates the throttle valves deflection angle and transmits a voltage ratio to ECU via-resistance circuit.

# MIXTURE COMPOSITION:-Excess air factor :-.The engine temp. -19- . ECU prevents response delay caused by voltage fluctuation buy adjusting the duration of infection process. # Engine and intake air temp:. Also the right injection time. sensor incorporates a temp.The oxygen sensor monitors the excess air factor .An electromagnetic injector opening and closing timing are affected by batteries voltage. sensitive resistor which exchanges into the coolant cut whose temp. which are then transmitted to the electronics control unit. # Combustion Knock :-. it monitors. The intake and exhaust valves opening and closing timing respectively. We are able to select the required firing point.MECHATRONICS measured variable for determining the firing point . in the same fashion.A sensor at the crank shaft thus provides information on the location of the piston in the cylinder with the help of this sensor. The catalytic converter functions best at Lambda =1. as is care with sequential injection. A sensor in the intake tract registers the intake air temp.The characteristics vibration patterns generated by combustion knock can be monitored by knock sensor for conversion into electrical signals. # Battery voltage :-. can not be determined by crank shaft position and hence in order to manage these activities CCP sensor is utilized. The position of the crankshaft must also be monitored in those systems where separate injection timing is used for each individual cylinder. lambda defines the number for mixtures A/R ratio.

the mixture will cease to ignite . The individual operating ranges and conditions will be explained in more detail in following chapter. -20- . Restricting the injection time thus prevents. This constant thus varies according to injector design . Once cylinder filling drops below a certain level. # Effective injection time:-- The effective injection time results when the corrective factors are included in the calculations . a battery voltage correct compensates for the effects that fluctuation in battery voltage have on the injection openings and closing time. The corrections factors a used both individually and as combinations according to applicable parameter. This remains valid for as long as the pressure differential between fuel and manifold stays constant.3. The correction factor are determined in corresponding special functions and provides adjustment data for varying engine operating ranges and conditions . The information of unburned hydro-carbons in the exhaust gas. The process for calculatoing this injection time is illustrated in fig 1. When it varies a Lambda correction map compensates for the influence on injection times. Meanwhile. When the injection duration is muplied by the injector constant the result will be a fuel mass corresponding to a particular air mass for stroke.MECHATRONICS # Calculating injection timing:Basic injection timing :-The base injection timing is calculated directly from the load signal and from the injector constants and defines the relations between the duration of the activation signal and flow quantity at the injector. The base setting is selected for an excess air factor of Lambda =1.

-21- . the injection time is calculated separately using criteria independent of the load signals. Decisive Criteria:. 2. Special calculations are employed to determined injection quantity.Two options to increase exhaust temperature: 1. 3. to employ rich warm up mixture together with secondary air injection. retarding ignition timing.Drivability. Provision for special injection quantity for starting.  OPERATING CONDITIONS:Start:1. exhaust emission and fuel economy.MECHATRONICS For starting. Post start phase:1. increases this quantity is cut down accordingly. 2. WARM UP PHASE :-. these reduction depends upon a) b) c) engine in temperature time elapsed since the end of the starting phase. Injection advance is also adjusted to correspond I) reduced injection quantity ii) different operating condition Post start phase terminates with a smooth transition to the warm up phase. 2. Further reduction is supplementary injection quantity. As temp.

3. auto transmission. This supplements the effects of adjustment to ignition angle and timing. Ac.MECHATRONICS • Both the above measures help the catalytic converter to begin effective operation sooner. and rpm dynamics. 4. the injection is governed to Lambda=1. Substantial portion of emission is detected at idle.g. even under some additional loads e. electric equipment etc. Fuel consumption at idle is largely determined by I)Engine ii)idle speed 2. • Once the converter reaches operating temp.  IDLE SPEED CONTROL :-- -22- . Idle should so far rough running stage occur.  CLOSED LOOP IDLE SPEED CONTROL :-IDLE:1. Activation speed varies according to parameter such as engine temp. This is accompanied by a corresponding adjustment in ignition angle. Idle speed should be as low as possible. • Higher idle speeds are provided by a specially designed air injection unit and also result in shorter warm up times at the catalytic converter.

g. to allow advance compensation for the effect of temp. Throttle position in order to get required information to recognize idle stage. and target idle speed. Where present the external factors ( like AC auto X’ mission) also facilities the correction process. water pump) The idle speed control compensates for this load. which in turn changes the life of the engine. The lad from these external factors is subject to substantial variation as ancillary devices are switched on and off.MECHATRONICS Idle speed control must maintain a balance between torque generation and engine speed in order to ensure a constant idle speed. Air Control 2. External factors such as AC also the load on engine.  INPUT VARIEBLES :-1. The load on the idling engine is a combination of numerous elements including the int. Engine temp. Mixture composition -23- . 2. # Actuator adjustment :-There options are available for adjusting the idle speed by means of adjustment of final control elements: 1. this speed is corrected in close loop operation . These loads are extremely sensitive to temp. An air mass in specified with reference to engine temp. within engine crankshaft and valve train assemblies as well as ancillary drives (e. Adjustment to ignition advance angle 3.

the idle speed control increases the idle speed. # Adaptation to air temp:-Cold Start Enrichment :-When the engine is started additional fuel is injected for a limited period depending upon temp. and the electrical heating is mainly responsible for subsequently reducing the auxiliary air as a function of time. Precise adaptation is by means of the electrical heating facility. of the engine. In order to achieve smoother running even at idle. Depending upon engine temp. an electrically heated auxiliary air device in the form of a bypass allows the engine to draw in more air. then determines how much auxiliary air is fed in initially through the bypass. The injection duration of the cold start valve is limited by a thermo -24- . and lead to ECU providing the engine with more fuel. This extra fuel is injected by the cold start valve into the intake manifold. The engine temp. The idle mixture adjusting screw in the bypass permits a basic setting of fuel ratio or mixture enrichment by varying the bypass cross section .MECHATRONICS # AIR CONTROL:The air flow sensors contains an adjustable bypass via which a small quantity of air can bypass the sensor flap. This is carried out in order to compensation losses in the induced mixture and in order to facilitate starting the cold engine. This also leads to a more rapid warm up of engine. This auxiliary air is measured by the air flow sensor.

The information on load condition is supplied too the control unit by the throttle switch. How through the air flow sensor. If throttle is opened abruptly. -25- . when air fuel mixture must be enriched compared to that at part load. This enrichment is programmed in ECU specific to the particular engine. This over swing results in more fuel being metered to the engine and ensures good acceleration response.MECHATRONICS time switch depending upon the engine temp. With this abrupt opening of throttle valve. # FULL LOAD ENRICHMENT:-The engine delivers its maxim torque at full condition . This process is known as cold start enrichment and results in richer fuel air mixture i. the air fuel mixture is momentarily learned off and a short period of mixture enrichment is needed to ensure good transitional response. This causes the sensor plate to ‘ over swing’ part the wide open throttle point. plus the amount of air needed to bring the manifold pr. the amount of air which enters the combustion chamber. Lambda<1. Up to the new level. # ACCELERATION ENRICHMENT :-During acceleration the ECU meters additional fuel to the engine.e.

MECHATRONICS # Throttle valve switch:-Throttle valve switch communicated the ‘idle’ and ‘full load’ throttle position to the control unit. It is mounted on the throttle body and actuated by the throttle valve shaft. A contoured switching closed the ‘idle’ contact at one end of switch travel and the ‘full load’ contact at the other. -26- .

ignition coil. The amplifier and power output components for direct actuator control are installed on heat sink in the ECU. must also be of higher order. Operating range of ECU -30 C -27- . injectors) which it manages directly via power output stages. It employs stored functions and algorithms ( processing programe) to process the input signals transmitted by the sensors.  PHYSICAL DESIGN:-• The ECU is a metal housing containing a PCB with electronic componentry • A multiple terminal plug connector provides link between ECU and sensors.: ELECTRONICS CONTROL UNIT : FUNCTION:-The ECU is the computer and control center for the engine management system.g.  ENVIRONMENT CONDITIONS:-The ECU must withstand temp. actuators and power supply. extremes . moisture and mechanical loads with absolutely no impairment of operation. Resistance to electromagnetic interference and the ability to suppress radiation of high frequency static .MECHATRONICS . These signals serve as the basis for calculating the control signals to the actuators (e.

To get clear understanding of construction and working of a particular microprocessor we will take example of ECU designed by using 16 bit 8097 Controller . idle motor. 5. The ECU hardware is modular in structure and comprises of following sections:I. power amplification etc. 3. 4. The output drives forms interface between digital circuit and actuators by giving proper optimum isolation. 2. ignition coil and fuel pump receive control signals from micro-controller. The output stages are -28- .MECHATRONICS to 60 C at 6v (starting) to 15 v. Manifold Absolute Pressure [MAP] Sensor Throttle Angle Position [TAP] Sensor Engine Speed Sensor Engine Coolant Temperature [ECT] Sensor Air Charge Temperature [ACT] Sensor Crank Reference [TRIG] Sensor II. 6. OUTPUT DRIVE SECTION:-Different output devices like throttle body fuel injector. Signal Conditioning Section: provision of excitation signal to passive sensor  noise filtering on analog and digital inputs  optical isolation between signals input and processing stage The major sensors used are :-1.

Electronic Throttle Control (EMS.E-Gas drive by wire. This section provides resulted power supplies for analog and power circuits.MECHATRONICS protected against short circuit to ground. POWER SUPPLY SECTION:-The ECU receives its power from the vehicle battery. irregularities in battery voltage and electrical overload that could destroy them. -: INTERFACE TO OTHER SYSTEMS :Increased application of electronics control systems in vehicle areas such as: • • • • • Transmission Control Antilock Breaking system (ABS) Traction Control (ASR) On Board Computer etc. -29- . III.

corrections are applied. This control software along with the engine mapping data in the form of look up tables is programmed into EPROM. acceleration etc. Using this process data the mode scheduler identifies the engine operating conditions such as cranking idling. -30- . Finally control signals for actuator are given out. depending upon the control strategies built into the software. Once the engine mode is identified. The flow chart of control system is shown in fig. pulses width and ignition angle are accessed. proper look up tables for output parameters like fuel injector. cruising. Data communication between control system reduce the number of sensors and allow a better exploitation of the individual system potentials. Low level language software development in order to have optimized code generation. the software acquires data from sensors and processes it digitally.MECHATRONICS All this has made it necessary to combine the respective ECU’s in networks. Battery voltage and temp. For every half revolution of the engine.  ECU SOFTWARE :-Here also we will consider ECU control software developed using 8097 microprocessor assembly language. Softer is modular in structure giving full flexibility for future expansion.

Robotics and this microprocessor based control systems in -31- . a systematic programe to face this challenge becomes vital issue in any corporation sector.MECHATRONICS  CONCLUSIOIN :-In the increasingly computive environment by the mechatrioncs has become the key to industrial prosperity the rapid advancement in the field of industrial engineering information technology and system engg. CNC. have been responsible for evolving new concept aimed at developing highly sophisticated machine tools for enhanced productivity in such environment.

Thus in short mechatroincs revolutionalised the domain of “Machine Tools” and ultimately “Mechanical Engg. Flexibility of software enables the engineers / machincs working on this system to add special conditions that are arised in their experience to improve the effectively of the system.MECHATRONICS mechanical field is an outcome of “MECHATRONICS ” has been employed of the maximum for higher productivity and flexibility in the industrial sector. References:-32- .

4. Bolton 3. Chairman & m.MECHATRONICS 1. Auto India : Aug. Sharma. Mechatronics : [N. .1999 5.d. Engine : Mathur. www. 6. Motroinc Engine Mgmt. : .Bosch Fuel Injection Series.mechatronics. Robert Bosch Corp. HMT Ltd] 2. I.C. -33- . Mechatronics : By W.

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