car company BMW BMW car logo history The BMW roundel is a stylised, rotating airscrew - the blue

representing the sky. That's right Bayerische Motoren Werke built military aero engines for the planes that bombed the factories that they now own. It's a funny old world. BMW history The company traces its origins to 1913, when a Bavarian named Karl Rapp began an aircraft-engine shop in Munich named Rapp Motoren Werke. In 1917 Rapp resigned and the company, led by Austrian engineer Franz-Josef Popp, changed its name to Bayerische Motoren Werke. That same year chief engineer Max Friz designed the company's first aircraft engine, the six-cylinder Type IIIa, which created strong demand for BMW engines. When the 1919 Treaty of Versailles prohibited German companies from producing aircraft and aircraft engines, BMW switched to making air brakes for railway cars. In 1923 Friz developed the company's first motorcycle, the R32, a model that held world speed records for motorcycles during most of the 1930s. In 1928 the company entered the automobile business by acquiring Fahrzeugwerke Eisenach (Eisenach Vehicle Factory), a maker of small cars based in Eisenach, Germany. In the 1930s BMW began producing a line of larger touring cars and sports cars, introducing its highly successful model-the 328 sports car-in 1936. After World War II ended in 1945, Allied forces dismantled the company's main factories. BMW made kitchen and garden equipment before introducing a new, inexpensive motorcycle to the German market in 1948. The company's return to auto production in the 1950s resulted in poor sales. In the 1960s the company turned its fortunes around by focusing on sports sedans and compact touring cars, and it began to compete with Mercedes-Benz in the luxury-car markets of Europe and the United States. BMW's U.S. sales peaked in 1986 but then dropped steeply, partly due to competition from two new luxury cars-Lexus, made by Toyota Motor Corporation, and Infiniti, made by Nissan Motor Co., Ltd. The 1989 collapse of the Berlin Wall led to a boom in car sales in Europe, and in 1992 BMW outsold Mercedes-Benz in Europe for the first time. In 1990 BMW formed a joint venture with the British aerospace company Rolls-Royce PLC to produce aircraft engines for business jets. In 1992 BMW broke ground for a major automobile plant in Spartanburg, South Carolina, its first automobile plant in the United States. In 1994 BMW acquired 80 percent of the Rover Group-a British manufacturer of small cars, luxury cars, and Land Rover sport-utility

BMW logo icon

Logo Design: 2 color logo design Client: Bingara Bakehouse Logo Image: Image / Professional / Key Mark

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The Gibbs Aquada, a sports car that retracts its wheels and speeds up to 30 mph on water, is destined for U.S.shores within 18 months. New Zealand entrepreneur Alan Gibbs hopes to sell the amphibious vehicle for about $85,000. It seats three—the driver sits in the middle—and is powered by a V6 engine on land and a power take-off driving a compact jet on the water.

A showdown with the United Auto Workers is all but inevitable as Detroit's Big Three struggle to overcome the worst crisis they've seen since the early 1980s. Management insists that the $30-anhour wage disadvantage against rivals Honda and Toyota must come down. If not, all three have pledged to move jobs offshore where labor is cheaper. UAW's Ron Gettelfinger has responded that the union has already agreed to mass buyouts and cuts in retiree benefits. He points out that factory-floor wages are roughly the same as Toyota's and Honda's. But because the Japanese makers are relative newcomers to the U.S., they don't have the towering legacy costs from retirees--primarily

from soaring medical costs that affect every company in the country. Gettelfinger believes the Big Three should be pressuring Washington for relief. He contends that many of the Big Three's problems are from a slowness to respond to changing consumer tastes and a failure to invest in vehicle quality. Source: Wall Street Journal

The car company will contribute an in-car navigation system that works with the government's trial Intelligent Transport System (ITS), which is being tested around Hiroshima. ITS is a network that will help cars identify the extent of road congestion, a warning system to prevent speeding, a safety system that will prevent rear-end collisions at traffic signals, a support system to help prevent head-on collisions and right-turn accidents with light-rail vehicles and pedestrians and an in-transit information system.

“Time’s” Justin Fox looks at the various reasons that Exxon handed more in stock buybacks and dividends to investors last year than it spent in searching for oil. The company is gun shy, for starters. After a 35 percent increase in its capital investment and exploration on the heels of the 1980 oil embargo, oil prices collapsed, leaving Exxon holding the bag. Shell and other competitors have raised their investments in exploration with mixed results. Their return on capital is smaller than Exxon’s. Part of the problem is that only about 7 percent of the world’s reserves lie in countries that allow Exxon free reign. Most reserves are in the hands of state monopolies that are terribly inefficient at producing oil. It’s no wonder that the number of active oil rigs around the world peaked in 1981 at 6,227. Last year there were just 2,836 rigs in operation. So while oil production declines, Exxon’s profits rise. Get used to it.

Underinflated tires cause rollovers and spins. They reduce gas mileage, quite often when the car owner is unaware. These are a few reasons that all 2008 vehicles must include tire-pressure monitoring systems by federal mandate. A company called MAXAIR is offering a patented system that not only senses tire pressure, but that uses an onboard compressor to fill tires as needed. The technology costs roughly $200 per vehicle. Given that today’s car designs require ever less involvement from car owners, this device probably makes more sense than a dummy light that simply tells you a tire is going flat when you’re miles away from a service station. Illustration: Chris Woodward

Amid signs of a slowdown in the U.S. market, Honda is updating its lineup and introducing new models. Analysts have long believed the car maker is overdependent on U.S. sales for its profits. With aluminum and steel prices rising, these profits are softening. And sales for all automakers are lackluster in the States because of the soft housing market and high fuel prices. Honda has already grown more aggressive in its turf war against Toyota in India and China, where managers inside the company believe its best sales prospects lie.

A study released by the Natural Resources Defense Council showed that the quest for alternative fuels, including liquid coal, oil shale and tar sands could consume huge amounts of water and energy and could ultimately raise greenhouse gas emissions levels. The NRDC was joined by the Western Resources Advocates and by the Pembina Institute, a Canadian research organization for global warming. All three organizations called for greater fuel efficiency and the use of cleaner, renewable energy sources.

Mississippi State Wins Third Annual Challenge X

The competition, sponsored jointly by General Motors and the Department of Energy, attracted 17 entrants to convert an Equinox to an alternative fuel drivetrain. Engineering students from Mississippi State converted a 1.9 GM turbodiesel to a hybrid drivetrain running on B20 biodiesel fuel.

Is John Dingell Going Green?
By Marty Jerome June 08, 2007 | 7:12:00 AMCategories: Emissions

Asked how he feels about being called, “the meanest s.o.b. in Congress,” the 80-year-old quietly answers, “It’s very useful.” The Democrat from Detroit has defended carbon-spewing gas hogs for most of his career. But no one doubts how effective he is at moving legislation into law. And aside from his protective instincts for the car industry, his environmental record is surprisingly green. Now that he has been restored to chairman of the House Committee on Energy and Commerce, everyone fears him—not the least, automakers who want to thwart caps on energy emissions. Dingell supports mandatory caps. And few people doubt he will make them happen.

G8 Summit Ends With . . . Press Releases
By Marty Jerome June 08, 2007 | 6:58:00 AMCategories: Policy

Assemble a panoply of freely elected first-world leaders at a fancy resort, and you'll inevitably achieve some sort of "breakthrough." All participants at this week's G8 summit were under enormous pressure to take something back to their respective electorates. The "breakthrough" in this case, hammered out between President Bush and German Chancellor Angela Merkel, was that the United States would "seriously consider" the proposal to cut greenhouse gases 50 percent by 2050. Of course, no tangible commitments were made. Source: New York Times

CEOs from the Big Three Descend on Washington
By Marty Jerome June 08, 2007 | 6:20:00 AMCategories: Fuel Economy

GM's Rick Wagoner, Ford's Alan Mulally and Chrysler's Tom LaSorda are meeting with congressional leaders yesterday and today with a concerted message: the 35 mpg target in the new CAFE legislation isn't cost effective or technologically achievable. Instead, the government should invest in bio-fuels and advanced batteries. Spokespeople from Toyota joined the chorus, saying that the drastic increase could be costly to consumers and will force automakers to build cars Americans are unwilling to buy. Critics have pointed out that Toyota and Honda have increased their market share in the U.S. while achieving higher mileage standards. Source: Wall Street Journal

Lawmakers Move to Block California’s Carbon Limits
By Marty Jerome June 06, 2007 | 9:24:16 AMCategories: Emissions

Rep. Rick Boucher (D-Va) has put forward what is called a "discussion draft" which will be part of a comprehensive climate-change control legislation from leaders of the House Energy and Commerce Committee. A summary posted on the committee's Web site says the EPA would establish a new system of reporting carbon emissions from motor vehicles. The reporting requirement and traditional fuel economy standards "would be the exclusive regulatory regimes for governing new motor vehicle emissions of greenhouse gases.”

Toyota Ponders a Recall on Its Tundra
By Marty Jerome June 06, 2007 | 9:15:29 AMCategories: Manufacturing

Though it has much to crow about in both sales and quality, Toyota may be stretching itself, according to some analysts. Recalls have been on the rise. To date, Toyota has received 20 reports

of defects in the Tundra's 5.7-liter V8 due to a problem with the camshaft. This could be a blow to the company’s U.S. sales targets of some 200,000 trucks this year.

Camel logo design
This logo has changed significantly several times since its inception in 1913, when the tobacco company was first opened and operated by Richard Joshua Reynold. Reynold had previous experience in the industry as he had worked for some years on a tobacco farm owned by his father in Virginia between 1874 and 1895. As a lover and smoker of tobacco, and owner of the business, Reynold transported goods between two local towns, one of which regularly hosted a roaming circus Barum & Bailey. Hence the Camel logo was born, from Reynolds' love of the circus in the nearby town.

Carlsberg Company Logo
Carlsberg was established in 1847 by J. C. Jacobsen, a philanthropist and avid art collector. Jacobsen's brewery pioneered refrigeration techniques, steam brewing and the propagation of one single yeast strain. Carlsberg's original logos include the swastika and an elephant. Use of the former ceased in the 1930s because of being associated with German political parties. The world famous Carlsberg logo was introduced by Thorvald Bindesbøll in the year 1904, for the launch of Carlsberg pilsner. The crown on the logo stands for the company's association with the Royal Danish Court. Thorvald Bindesbøll (1846-1908) used to be Carlsberg's favorite designer at the time. Known as Denmark's first industrial designer, Thorvald was involved in the design of anniversary books,

exhibition catalogs and beer labels for New and Old Carlsberg. At the time, the company spent 500 kroner on designing the logo but the investment proved to be worthful. Since then, the hand-drawn logo remained mostly unchanged and continued to represent Carlsberg's distinctive emblem. Today, just over 100 years since its launching, back in 1904, the Carlsberg logo landed a design prize offered by the Danish Design Center. It's for the first time in history that a classic graphic design receives a prize.

CBS logo design
The Columbia Broadcasting system of New York City moved to the forefront of corporate identity design as a result of two vital assets: CBS president Frank Stanton, who understood art and design and their potential in corporate affairs, and William Golden (1911-1959). As CBS art director for almost two decades, Golden brought uncompromising visual standards and keen insight into the communications process. He designed one of the most successful trademarks of the twentieth century for CBS. When the pictographic CBS eye first appeared as an on-air logo on 16 November 1951, it was superimposed over a cloud-filled sky and projected an almost surreal sense of an eye in the sky. The efectiveness of the CBS logo design demonstrated to the larger management community that a contemporary graphic mark could compete successfully with traditional illustrative or alphabetic trademarks.

Centrino (Intel)
Intel uses the split design logo to show the convergence between information and technology. The two wings the designer used suggest a link between technology and lifestyle and the progression toward the future. The designer's use of the color Magenta for the lower of the two wings balances the out against the bright contrast of the contemporary Intel blue, offering high energy visual stimulation for the viewer. In this logo you can also see Intel's use of the "hanging e," which was used in the original iteration of their logo and is carried over today as an embodiment of their overall commitment to their original corporate philosophies.

Chanel logo design
The house of Chanel was founded by Gabrielle Bonheur "Coco" Chanel in 1910. Coco Chanel was one of the most significant fashion designers of all times. She revolutionizes women's wear and set new standards for the contemporary style. Coco got into fashion opening up a small shop which first sold ladies hats. Soon Coco and her house conquered not only Paris but the rest of the fashion world. The corporate name Chanel became an icon of elegance and from then on, the Chanel logo became synonymous to elegance, wealth, and elitism as well as a standard for international fashion. The Chanel logo design was designed in 1925 by Coco Chanel herself and remained unchanged ever since. It turned out to be one of the most recognizable symbols in the fashion world with its overlapping double 'C' - one facing forward and the other facing backward. Chanel's logo is frequently seen in perfumes, purses, shoes, and jewelry.

Chase Manhattan Bank corporate identity
Chermayeff & Geismar Associates moved to the forefronts of the corporate identification movement in 1960 with a comprehensive visual image program for The Chase Manhattan Bank of New York. Chase Manhattan's new logo design was composed of four geometric wedges rotating around a central square to form an external octagon. It was an abstract form unto itself, free from alphabetic, pictographic or figurative connotations. Although it does have general overtones of security or protection because the four elements confine the square, this trademark demonstrated that a completely abstract form could successfully function as a visual identifier for a large organization. A distinctive sans serif typefacewas designed for use with the logo design. The selection of an expanded letter grew out of Chermayeff & Geismar's study of the client's design and communication needs. Urban signage, for instance, is often seen by pedestrians at extreme angles, but an extended letterform retains its character recognition even when viewed under these conditions. The uncommon presence of the expanded sans serif form in the Chase Manhattan corporate design system launched a fashion for this kind of letterform during the first half of the 1960s. Consistency and uniformity in the application of both logo and letterform enabled redundancy, in a sense, to become a third identifying element. The Chase Manhattan corporate identification system became a prototype for the genre. It led many corporate managers to seriously evaluate their corporate image and the need for an effective and unique visual identifier. The rapid recognition value gained by the Chase Manhattan mark indicated that a successfull logo could, in effect, become an additional character in the inventory of symbolic forms that every person carries mentally. Tom Geismar observed that a symbol must be memorable and have ''some barb to it that will make it stick in your mind.'' At the same time, it must be ''attractive, pleasant and appropriate. The challenge is to combine all those things into something simple''.

Chevron logo
The logo of this iconic American company shows us two downward angles in a clipped and parallel manner. They originate directly from the name of the company Chevron, which means "angles" in terms of rank and badge rank, as one of the interpretations

Chiquita logo
The Chiquita Banana Company, also sometimes referred to colloquially as the "banana republic," dates back to the year 1870, when Captain Lorenzo Dow Baker transported a historically large batch of bananas from Jamaica to Massachusetts on his sailing boat. When those bananas arrived, they were spoilt and inedible, and he then committed to send another batch but this time of green bananas, so that by the time they arrived they would be suitable and perfect for eating. In 1885, in partnership with the then undertaker Andrew Woodbury, Preston set up the Boston Fruits company and then 1899 the United Fruits Company. This current day logo resurfaced in 1963 from the talents of a commercial artist. Initially it was derived from sketches of a half woman, half banana and was referred to as a Chiquita meaning "tiny or small girl" in Spanish.

Chupa Chups Company Logo
Chupa Chups was the first candy designed with children in mind. Back in 1958 Enric Bernat Fontlladosa launched the Chupa Chups hoping to create a more practical lollipop for kids. After the end of the Francisco Franco dictatorship the company's founder managed to make his sweets known worldwide. An innovative company as Chupa Chups needed an effective logo to represent it. Most people are quite surprised to find out that the Chupa Chups distinctive daisy logo was designed in 1969 by the famous surrealist Salvador Dali . It's all 100% fact. After Bernat introduced his idea of a more universal logo, Dali needed an hour only to draft on a newspaper what would become the basis for today's Chupa Chups logo. It actually makes sense. Salvador Dali throughout his later lifetime would lend his image to a variety of commercial interests, using himself as a brand. He was the ultimate self publicist, trait which led Breton to nickname him "Avida Dollars" when talking about Dali's later output. The Chupa Chups logo can currently be found on all kinds of lollipops and related items , and the company maintains its focus on creating new, exciting products.

Ciba Specialty Chemicals
The logo of the specialised chemistry section of Ciba depicts a pixilated and multicolored butterfly. This butterfly was used as a symbol for Ciba's transformation into the future of growth and expansion. The multiple colors used in the depiction of the butterfly are used to represent the many divisions that make up the company.

Cisco logo designs
In 1984 Len Bosack and Sandy Lerner, two computer science professionals based out of Stanford University, created the Cisco corporation. Cisco is currently ranked in the top few of the specialist routing and switching companies in the world and they have permeated technology sales across the globe. The Cisco logo is in keeping with the companies original formation, San Francisco - and close the Golden gate Bridge, which is also known as the "gate to the Pacific," in hope that this springs success eternal.

CitiBank Company Logo
Established in the year 1812 as the City Bank of New York, Citibank is known today as the corporate banking branch of financial services colossus Citigroup, one of the largest companies in the world. Paula Scher - the designer behind the recently re-branded Citibank logo, is a member of the Art Directors Club Hall of Fame and the first Pentagram partner to receive the Type Directors Club

Medal. Paula has developed environmental graphics, identity and branding systems,publication designs, packaging and promotional materials for a wide range of clients. Unveiled on February 13, 2007, the new logo is - as Paula has stated - a marriage of the the word Citi and the old Traveler’s insurance umbrella to create an umbrella in the middle of the word. The change took place mainly due to the transformation of Citibank from “Citigroup” to “Citi”. Scher cleverly used the "t" in Citi as the handle for the Traveler's umbrella making the resulting giant far more approachable. There were voices claiming that the previous emblem featuring a compass rose along the "Citibank" word mark is felt to be more confident in depicting stature and visual presence. However, the company's cards divisions and consumer banking operations responded to the new Citi logo with enthusiasm, and relaunched its consumer banking operations around the world.

Citroen
The company logo of the 1919-initiated company, by founder Andre Citroen, the French automaker, depicts two gear wheels as herring-bone teeth.

China Tops United States in Carbon Emissions
By Marty Jerome June 28, 2007 | 5:41:00 AMCategories: Emissions

China overtook the United States in carbon dioxide emissions by about 7.5 percent in 2006, according to the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency's report. While its emissions were slightly below the U.S. in 2005, widespread coal burning and mounting cement production pushed the country into the ignoble first-place spot last year. Chinese officials have called developed countries hypocritical for buying goods from its robust industry while chastising the nation for its emissions.

Too Few Gas Stations Offer Ethanol
By Marty Jerome June 21, 2007 | 6:03:00 AMCategories: Alt Fuel

Already there are about 5 million flexible fuel vehicles on U.S. roads. But there are only about 1,145 public gas stations that offer the E85 mixture, according to the National Ethanol Vehicle Coalition. While automakers have promised to double their production of flexible fuel vehicles by 2010, there’s still great resistance by those who own the pumps. Conversion costs run tens of thousands of dollars. And certification for the dispensers is currently in limbo. Market forces will eventually supply the incentive, but because ethanol delivers markedly lower mileage per gallon, its price must be significantly discounted.

Indy Racing Is Beginning to Look a Lot Like NASCAR
By Marty Jerome June 20, 2007 | 7:06:00 AMCategories: Auto Racing

In the current issue of “Autoweek,” Curt Cavin explores how tempers are flaring. Danika Patrick and Dan Wheldon continue to take public their private spat, which started when she confronted him by grabbing him by the shoulder then pushing him away in a pit-row confrontation after the Milwaukee race. Their cars had made tire contact, spinning Patrick. She continued to complain about the incident in the media. In turn, Wheldon called her “a spoiled brat.” When Marco Andretti forced Tomas Scheckter into a spin in Texas, Scheckter was so furious that he stormed to the front of the straightaway and threw his gloves in Andretti’s direction. He withheld foul language on television afterward, but his teammate, Ed Carpenter, dropped the F-word, live cameras beaming. Carpenter, by the way is the stepson of Indy Racing League founder, Tony George.

Vatican Issues 10 Commandments for Drivers
By Marty Jerome June 20, 2007 | 6:55:00 AMCategories: Car Culture

Acknowledging that driving can bring out "primitive" behavior in motorists, including "impoliteness, rude gestures, cursing, blasphemy, loss of sense of responsibility or deliberate infringement of the highway code," the Vatican issued a highly unusual document yesterday, directing Christians to a better form of motoring. It called for drivers to exercise a host of Christian virtues: charity to fellow drivers, prudence on the roads, hope of arriving safely and justice in the event of crashes. It suggested that prayer might come in handy--performing the sign of the cross before beginning a trip and reciting the Rosary along the way.

India’s largest bank, State Bank of India would now have the Government as its 59.73% shareholder, which it has bought from RBI for Rs.40,000 crore. The stake transfer primarily happened as it was inconsistent with RBI to play the role of being owner of a commercial bank and as a banking regulator. The government will value 31.43 crore SBI shares with face value of Rs 100 each, held by RBI, at the average closing price for the past six months and moving average for the previous fortnight. Once the SBI amendment Bill is passed in Parliament, it can reduce its holding from 59.73% to 51%. At present, Govt. stake in SBI cannot fall below 55%. There is also speculation that the government will bring a SBI public issue in the next three months and raise at least Rs.5,000 crore. The amount raised shall be used to expand

existing operations and enter venture capital, private equity and wealth management segments. The issue is small as compared to ICICI Bank FPO, but this is due to the restrictions imposed owing to the 55% government holding. The bank needs this money to widen its capital base and meet the Basel II guidelines on capital adequacy which come into effect from March 31, 2008. Also, there may be a possible merger of State Bank of India with its seven associate banks. But initially the seven banks may be merged to create the third largest bank in the country, after SBI and ICICI Bank, in terms of assets and the second-largest in terms of branch network. SBI has already integrated the treasury operations of the seven associate banks and created provisions for swapping non-performing assets collectively by the associate banks. SBI would transfer its stake in these banks to a separate holding company which will then absorb the seven associate banks. The merger would unlock value and remover geographical overlapping. It will help SBI to gain size and face competition post 2009 when foreign banks enter the markets. But the concern is the possibility of rift in case of layoff due to merger and difficulty in valuation as of the seven associate banks, only three are listed. India’s largest bank, State Bank of India would now have the Government as its 59.73% shareholder, which it has bought from RBI for Rs.40,000 crore. The stake transfer primarily happened as it was inconsistent with RBI to play the role of being owner of a commercial bank and as a banking regulator. The government will value 31.43 crore SBI shares with face value of Rs 100 each, held by RBI, at the average closing price for the past six months and moving average for the previous fortnight. Once the SBI amendment Bill is passed in Parliament, it can reduce its holding from 59.73% to 51%. At present, Govt. stake in SBI cannot fall below 55%. There is also speculation that the government will bring a SBI public issue in the next three months and raise at least Rs.5,000 crore. The amount raised shall be used to expand existing operations and enter venture capital, private equity and wealth management segments. The issue is small as compared to ICICI Bank FPO, but this is due to the restrictions imposed owing to the 55% government holding. The bank needs this money to widen its capital base and meet the Basel II guidelines on capital adequacy which come into effect from March 31, 2008. Also, there may be a possible merger of State Bank of India with its seven associate banks. But initially the seven banks may be merged to create the third largest bank in the

country, after SBI and ICICI Bank, in terms of assets and the second-largest in terms of branch network. SBI has already integrated the treasury operations of the seven associate banks and created provisions for swapping non-performing assets collectively by the associate banks. SBI would transfer its stake in these banks to a separate holding company which will then absorb the seven associate banks. The merger would unlock value and remover geographical overlapping. It will help SBI to gain size and face competition post 2009 when foreign banks enter the markets. But the concern is the possibility of rift in case of layoff due to merger and difficulty in valuation as of the seven associate banks, only three are listed. India’s largest bank, State Bank of India would now have the Government as its 59.73% shareholder, which it has bought from RBI for Rs.40,000 crore. The stake transfer primarily happened as it was inconsistent with RBI to play the role of being owner of a commercial bank and as a banking regulator. The government will value 31.43 crore SBI shares with face value of Rs 100 each, held by RBI, at the average closing price for the past six months and moving average for the previous fortnight. Once the SBI amendment Bill is passed in Parliament, it can reduce its holding from 59.73% to 51%. At present, Govt. stake in SBI cannot fall below 55%. There is also speculation that the government will bring a SBI public issue in the next three months and raise at least Rs.5,000 crore. The amount raised shall be used to expand existing operations and enter venture capital, private equity and wealth management segments. The issue is small as compared to ICICI Bank FPO, but this is due to the restrictions imposed owing to the 55% government holding. The bank needs this money to widen its capital base and meet the Basel II guidelines on capital adequacy which come into effect from March 31, 2008. Also, there may be a possible merger of State Bank of India with its seven associate banks. But initially the seven banks may be merged to create the third largest bank in the country, after SBI and ICICI Bank, in terms of assets and the second-largest in terms of branch network. SBI has already integrated the treasury operations of the seven associate banks and created provisions for swapping non-performing assets collectively by the associate banks. SBI would transfer its stake in these banks to a separate holding company which will then absorb the seven associate banks. The merger would unlock value and remover geographical overlapping. It will help SBI to gain size and face competition post 2009 when foreign banks enter the markets. But

the concern is the possibility of rift in case of layoff due to merger and difficulty in valuation as of the seven associate banks, only three are listed.