This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Multimeter - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A multimeter or a multitester, also known as a VOM (Volt-Ohm meter), is an electronic measuring instrument that combines several measurement functions in one unit. A typical multimeter would include basic features such as the ability to measure voltage, current, and resistance. Multimeters may use analog or digital circuits—analog multimeters (AMM) and digital multimeters (often abbreviated DMM or DVOM.) Analog instruments are usually based on a microammeter whose pointer moves over a scale calibrated for all the different measurements that can be made. Digital instruments usually display digits, A digital multimeter but may display a bar of a length proportional to the quantity being measured. Digital multimeters have all but replaced analog moving coil multimeters in most situations. Analog multimeters are still manufactured but by few manufacturers. A multimeter can be a hand-held device useful for basic fault finding and field service work, or a bench instrument which can measure to a very high degree of accuracy. They can be used to troubleshoot electrical problems in a wide array of industrial and household devices such as electronic equipment, motor controls, domestic appliances, power supplies, and wiring systems. Multimeters are available in a wide range of features and prices. Cheap multimeters can cost less than US$10, while the top of the line multimeters can cost more than US$5,000.
1 History 2 Operation 3 Quantities measured 4 Resolution
Multimeter - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
4.1 Resolution and accuracy 4.2 Digital 4.3 Analog 5 Accuracy 6 Sensitivity and input impedance 7 Burden voltage 8 Alternating current sensing 9 Digital multimeters (DMM or DVOM) 10 Analog multimeters 11 Probes 12 Safety 13 DMM alternatives 14 Power Supply 15 See also 16 References 17 External links
A popular high end 4 1/2 digit The first moving-pointer current-detecting device was digital multimeter, the Fluke the galvanometer in 1820. These were used to measure 87-V resistance and voltage by using a Wheatstone bridge, and comparing the unknown quantity to a reference voltage or resistance. While useful in the lab, the devices were very slow and impractical in the field. These galvanometers were bulky and delicate.
The D'Arsonval/Weston meter movement used a fine metal spring to give proportional measurement rather than just detection, and built-in permanent field magnets made deflection independent of the orientation of the meter. Instead of balancing a bridge, values could be directly read off the instruments's scale, which made measurement quick and easy. By adding a series or shunt resistor, more than one range of voltage or current could be measured with one movement. Multimeters were invented in the early 1920s as radio receivers and other vacuum tube electronic devices became more common. The invention of the first multimeter is attributed to British Post Office engineer, Donald Macadie, who became dissatisfied with having to carry many separate instruments required for the maintenance of the
the free encyclopedia telecommunications circuits. at much lower cost than Avometers. The VTVM had a fixed input impedance of typically 1 megohm or more. voltage and precision resistors. Before the introduction of digital electronic high-impedance analog transistor and field effect transistor (FETs) voltmeters were used.wikipedia. and switches and sockets to select the range. For example. Vacuum Tube Voltmeters or valve voltmeters (VTVM.3/15/13 Multimeter . volts and ohms. The technical specifications of these devices were often crude. The meter comprised a moving coil meter. Modern digital meters and some modern analog meters use electronic input circuitry to achieve high-input impedance—their voltage ranges are functionally equivalent to VTVMs. so the multifunctional meter was then named Avometer. usually through use of a cathode follower input circuit. Pocket watch style meters were in widespread use in the 1920s. The first AVO was put on sale in 1923. Macadie took his idea to the Automatic Coil Winder and Electrical Equipment Company (ACWEEC. The metal case was normally connected to the negative connection.Wikipedia. must draw at least 50 microamps from the circuit under test to deflect fully. VVM) were used for voltage measurements in electronic circuits where high impedance was necessary. and thus did not 1920s Pocket Multimeter significantly load the circuit being tested. Macadie invented an instrument which could measure amperes ( amps). a non-linear scale and no zero adjustment. for example the one illustrated has a resistance of just 33 ohms per volt. an arrangement that caused numerous electric shocks. Any meter will load the circuit under test to some extent.a microammeter with full-scale current of 50 microamps. en.org/wiki/Multimeter 3/20 . founded in ~1923). and many of its features remained almost unaltered through to the last Model 8. the highest sensitivity commonly available. and to give a low reading. This may load a high-impedance circuit so much as to affect the circuit.
transistor gain. gives the full-scale voltage of the range. the shunt resistance would be just over 0. simple rectifier-type circuits en. While multimeters may be supplemented by more specialized equipment in a technician's toolkit. The product of the basic fullscale deflection current of the movement. multirange ammeter.org/wiki/Multimeter 4/20 . To measure alternating current. An un-amplified analog multimeter combines a meter movement. Operation A multimeter is a combination of a multirange DC voltmeter. duty cycle.wikipedia. inductance. range resistors and switches.Wikipedia. For analog current ranges. As an example. display hold. some multimeters include additional functions for specialized applications (temperature with a thermocouple probe. a rectifier diode is inserted in the circuit so that the average value of current is non-zero. frequency. 500 ohm movement on a 1 Ampere range.). on a 10-volt range of the multimeter.3/15/13 Multimeter . Again for the case of a hypothetical 1 mA. and multirange ohmmeter. have 9. would. the free encyclopedia Additional scales such as decibels. a meter movement that required 1 milliampere for full scale deflection. etc. low-resistance shunts are connected in parallel with the meter movement to divert most of the current around the coil. For an analog meter movement. DC voltage is measured with a series resistor connected between the meter movement and the circuit under test. speaking measured value. and measurement functions such as capacitance. connectivity to a computer. with an internal resistance of 500 ohms.500 ohms of series resistance. Since the rectified average value and the rootmean-square value of a waveform need not be the same. A set of Avometer Model 8 switches allows greater resistance to be inserted for higher voltage ranges.5 ohms. and buzzers which sound when the measured resistance is small have been included on many multimeters. Moving coil instruments respond only to the average value of the current through them. and the sum of the series resistance and the movement's own resistance. multirange AC voltmeter.
the meter deflection is inversely proportional to the resistance. Digital instruments. For resistance measurements. in volts. The common ones are: Voltage. Amplified instruments simplify the design of the series and shunt resistor networks. which necessarily incorporate amplifiers. but requires a source of significant current. Since the current available depends on the state of charge of the battery. An autoranging digital multimeter can automatically adjust the scaling network so that the measurement uses the full precision of the A/D converter. the quality of the switching elements is critical to stable and accurate measurements. Quantities measured Contemporary multimeters can measure many quantities. en. The ohms scale is compressed.3/15/13 Multimeter . In all types of multimeters. the free encyclopedia may only be accurate for sinusoidal waveforms. this eliminates the scale compression found in analog meters. the series network becomes a voltage divider. a multimeter usually has an adjustment for the ohms scale to zero it.Wikipedia. improving precision at low range. alternating and direct.org/wiki/Multimeter 5/20 . In the usual circuit found in analog multimeters. Since practical rectifiers have nonzero voltage drop. The internal resistance of the coil is decoupled from the selection of the series and shunt range resistors. Stability of the resistors is a limiting factor in the long-term accuracy and precision of the instrument. accuracy and sensitivity is poor at low values. and high resistance corresponds to smaller deflections. use the same principles as analog instruments for range resistors. The frequency range for which AC measurements are accurate must be specified. so resolution is better at lower resistance values. alternating and direct. a small battery within the instrument passes a current through the device under test and the meter coil. the rectifier can be placed after the amplifier stage. Other wave shapes require a different calibration factor to relate RMS and average value. in amperes.wikipedia. Where AC measurements are required. so full-scale is 0 ohms. To measure resistance. usually a small constant current is passed through the device under test and the digital multimeter reads the resultant voltage drop. Resistance in ohms. Current.
Relative accuracy is the error of the measurement compared to the device used to calibrate the multimeter. Duty cycle as a percentage.Wikipedia. with higher resolution measurements taking longer to complete.5 volt and 9 volt batteries.wikipedia. Decibels. with an appropriate temperature test probe.3/15/13 Multimeter . This is a current loaded voltage scale which simulates in-use voltage measurement. Various sensors can be attached to multimeters to take measurements such as: Light level Acidity/Alkalinity(pH) Wind speed Relative humidity Resolution Resolution and accuracy The resolution of a multimeter is the smallest part of the scale which can be shown. To en. some multimeters measure: Capacitance in farads. Inductance in henrys.org/wiki/Multimeter 6/20 . Frequency in hertz. Absolute accuracy is the error of the measurement compared to a perfect measurement. The resolution is scale dependent. the free encyclopedia Additionally. Conductance in siemens. often a thermocouple. Most multimeter datasheets provide relative accuracy. and transistors (measuring current gain and other parameters) Battery checking for simple 1. Digital multimeters may also include circuits for: Continuity tester. sounds when a circuit conducts Diodes (measuring forward drop of diode junctions). a multimeter that has a 1mV resolution on a 10V scale can show changes in measurements in 1mV increments. On some digital multimeters it can be configured. For example. Temperature in degrees Celsius or Fahrenheit.
even if its resolution exceeds the accuracy. However.999. a multimeter which can read up to 19999 (plus an embedded decimal point) is said to read 4½ digits. A 3¾ digit meter can display a quantity from 0 to 3. Display counts give the largest number. Meaningful high-resolution measurements require a good understanding of the instrument specifications. Digital The resolution of a multimeter is often specified in the number of decimal digits resolved and displayed. it may be called threequarters of a digit. Such a meter could show positive or negative values from 0 to 199. By convention. a 5½ digit multimeter can also be specified as a 199999 display count or 200000 display count multimeter. or the largest number plus one (so the count number looks nicer) the multimeter's display can show. Often the display count is just called the count in multimeter specifications.05% of full-scale value. ignoring a decimal separator. followed by five digits taking all values from 0 to 9. the extra digits are of no value if not accompanied by care in the design and calibration of the analog portions of the multimeter. depending on the manufacturer. If the most significant digit cannot take all values from 0 to 9 is often termed a fractional digit. if it can take higher values without reaching 9 (often 3 or 5). For example.999 or 5. A 5½ digit multimeter would display one "half digit" that could only display 0 or 1. Analog en.2% of reading plus 0. For example.3/15/13 Multimeter . a meter can be useful for comparing measurements. a meter reading 5½ stable digits may indicate that one nominally 100. good control of the measurement conditions. the free encyclopedia compute the absolute accuracy from the relative accuracy of a multimeter add the absolute accuracy of the device used to calibrate the multimeter to the relative accuracy of the multimeter. if the most significant digit can be either 0 or 1. For example.999.000 ohm resistor is about 7 ohms greater than another. although the error of each measurement is 0.org/wiki/Multimeter 7/20 .wikipedia. While a digital display can easily be extended in precision. and traceability of the calibration of the instrument.Wikipedia. Specifying "display counts" is another way to specify the resolution. it is termed a half-digit.
parallax. seriously restricting the range of precise measurements. Laboratory grade instruments can have accuracies of a few parts per million. sometimes expressed in counts rather than percentage terms. Accuracy Digital multimeters generally take measurements with accuracy superior to their analog counterparts. and less than perfect eyesight. two Display face of an analog and a half to three digits equivalent resolution is usual multimeter (and is usually adequate for the limited precision needed for most measurements). Mainstream bench-top multimeters are available with specified accuracy of better than ±0. Inexpensive analog meters may have only a single resistance scale. errors in mental arithmetic. Resistance measurements. number of ranges. parallax observation errors. Mirrored scales and larger meter movements are used to improve resolution. Accuracy of readings obtained is also often compromised by miscounting division markings. to compensate for the varying voltage of the meter battery. in particular. The accuracy of an analog instrument usually refers to full-scale deflection. the free encyclopedia Resolution of analog multimeters is limited by the width of the scale pointer. zero calibration. vibration of the pointer. the accuracy of printing of scales.wikipedia. Standard analog multimeters measure with typically ±3% accuracy. though instruments of higher accuracy are made. Digital meters usually specify accuracy as a percentage of reading plus a percentage of full-scale value.Wikipedia. Typically an analog meter will have a panel adjustment to set the zero-ohms calibration of the meter. Accuracy figures need to be interpreted with care.01%.3/15/13 Multimeter .5% on the DC voltage ranges. en. 10% of the reading. Standard portable digital multimeters are specified to have an accuracy of typically 0. are of low precision due to the typical resistance measurement circuit which compresses the scale heavily at the higher resistance values. and errors due to non-horizontal use of the mechanical display.org/wiki/Multimeter 8/20 . a measurement of 30V on the 100V scale of a 3% meter is subject to an error of 3V.
Wikipedia. or other national standards organization. current. AC measurements only meet specified accuracy within a specified range of frequencies. The cost of such services is disproportionate for inexpensive equipment. however extreme accuracy is not required for most routine testing. For more expensive equipment. and is known as the "basic DC volts accuracy" figure.org/wiki/Multimeter 9/20 . A True RMS responding multimeter on the other hand will meet it's specified accuracy on AC volts and current with any waveform type up to a specified crest factor.wikipedia. the input impedance of the multimeter must be very high compared to the impedance of the circuit being measured. resistance. An average responding mulimeter will only meet it's specified accuracy on AC volts and amps for purely sinusoidal waveforms. otherwise circuit operation may be changed. Manufacturers can provide calibration services so that new meters may be purchased with a certificate of calibration indicating the meter has been adjusted to standards traceable to. and the reading will also be inaccurate. and the specified accuracy cannot be relied upon indefinitely. A meters AC voltage and current accuracy may have different specifications for different ranges of frequency. Meters with electronic amplifiers (all digital multimeters and some analog meters) have a fixed input impedance that is high enough not to disturb most circuits.3/15/13 Multimeter . AC and other ranges will usually have a lower accuracy than the basic DC volts figure. the US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Sensitivity and input impedance When used for measuring voltage. Multimeters used for critical measurements may be part of a metrology program to assure calibration. the free encyclopedia Quoted accuracy is specified as being that of the lower millivolt (mV) DC range. A multimeter can be assumed to be "average responding" to AC waveforms unless stated as being a "True RMS" type. manufacturers and third parties provide calibration services so that older equipment may be recalibrated and recertified. This is often either one or ten megohms. Test equipment tends to drift out of calibration over time. the standardization of the input resistance allows the use of external high-resistance probes which form a voltage divider with the input resistance en. Higher DC voltage ranges. for example.
Some measurements in signal circuits require higher sensitivity movements so as not to load the circuit under test with the meter impedance. the free encyclopedia to extend voltage range up to tens of thousands of volts.Wikipedia.org/wiki/Multimeter 10/20 . these meters are more rugged mechanically. Lower sensitivity meter movements are acceptable for testing in circuits where source impedances are low compared to the meter impedance. On every range. although instruments with greater current sensitivity are available.. which is defined as the lowest signal change (voltage.000 ohms). This can be done with the "delta". a meter with a typical 20. current. power circuits. "Zero". measurements over perhaps 600 volts. Most analog multimeters of the moving-pointer type are unbuffered. The impedance of the meter varies depending on the basic sensitivity of the meter movement and the range which is selected. Burden voltage en. and draw current from the circuit under test to deflect the meter pointer. or "null" feature of many digital multimeters.3/15/13 Multimeter . The upper end of multimeter measurement ranges varies considerably. For example.) that can change the observed reading. for example. but the lowest current range may be several hundred microamperes.000 ohms/volt sensitivity will have an input resistance of two million ohms on the 100 volt range (100 V * 20. at full scale voltage of the range. 10 amperes. Multimeters designed for (mains) "electrical" use instead of general electronics engineering use will typically forego the microamps current ranges. the full current required to deflect the meter movement is taken from the circuit under test. or 100 megohms may require a specialized test instrument..wikipedia. Measurement of low resistance requires lead resistance (measured by touching the test probes together) to be subtracted for best accuracy. Sensitivity should not be confused with resolution of a meter. Some high-end multimeters provide >10 Gigaohms of impedance to ranges greater than 10V.000 ohms/volt = 2. High-end multimeters generally provide an input impedance >10 Gigaohms for ranges less than or equal to 10V.000. For general-purpose digital multimeters. resistance. the lowest voltage range is typically several hundred millivolts AC or DC.
 The burden voltage can be significant in very low-voltage circuit areas. the current reading should be the same and circuit operation should not be affected if burden voltage is not a problem. specified in volts per ampere. measuring the voltage developed across it. Alternating current sensing Since the basic indicator system in either an analog or digital meter responds to DC only. has a certain resistance. The voltage drop is known as the burden voltage. To check for its effect on accuracy and on external circuit operation the meter can be switched to different ranges. Digital multimeters (DMM or DVOM) Modern multimeters are often digital due to their accuracy. If this voltage is significant it can be reduced (also reducing the inherent accuracy and precision of the measurement) by using a higher current range. Most multimeters inherently measure voltage. RMS sensing is necessary for measurements on non-sinusoidal periodic waveforms. More expensive multimeters include an AC to DC converter that measures the true RMS value of the waveform within certain limits. to allow the correct root mean square (RMS) equivalent value to be calculated. but are calibrated to show the calculated root mean square (RMS) value for a sinusoidal waveform. which eliminates parallax errors. In a digital multimeter the signal under test is converted to a voltage and an amplifier with electronically controlled gain preconditions the signal. and pass a current to be measured through a shunt resistance. a multimeter includes an AC to DC conversion circuit for making alternating current measurements.3/15/13 Multimeter . the user manual for the meter may indicate the limits of the crest factor and frequency for which the meter calibration is valid. User guides for some such meters give correction factors for some simple non-sinusoidal waveforms. such as found in audio signals and variable-frequency drives. The value can change depending on the range the meter selects. A digital multimeter displays the quantity measured as a number. the free encyclopedia Any ammeter. this will give correct readings for alternating current as used in power distribution.wikipedia. durability and extra features. en.org/wiki/Multimeter 11/20 . since different ranges usually use different shunt resistors.Wikipedia. Basic meters utilize a rectifier circuit to measure the average or peak absolute value of the voltage. including a multimeter in a current range.
which selects the correct range for the quantity under test so that the most significant digits are shown.wikipedia. Current-limited tests for voltage drop across semiconductor junctions. A graphic representation of the quantity under test. This makes go/no-go testing easy.012. For example. as a bar graph. and so will be more costly. which will latch the most recent reading for examination after the instrument is removed from the circuit under test. While not a replacement for a transistor tester. Auto-ranging meters usually include a facility to hold the meter to a particular range. shows if the applied voltage is positive (agrees with meter lead labels) or negative (opposite polarity to meter leads). Integration with tweezers for surface-mount technology.org/wiki/Multimeter 12/20 . but will be more convenient to use. because a measurement that causes frequent range changes can be distracting to the user. or to take a number of samples at fixed intervals.Wikipedia. a four-digit multimeter would automatically select an appropriate range to display 1. Hewlett-Packard. and also allows spotting of fast-moving trends. A combined LCR meter for small-size SMD and through-hole components. an auto-ranging meter will have more circuitry than an equivalent non-auto-ranging meter. Measurement enhancements available include: Auto-ranging. Sample and hold.234 instead of 0. or overloading. A bench-top multimeter from Auto-polarity for direct-current readings. this facilitates testing diodes and a variety of transistor types. Other factors being equal.3/15/13 Multimeter . en. Simple data acquisition features to record maximum and minimum readings over a given period. Automotive circuit testers. including tests for automotive timing and dwell signals. A low-bandwidth oscilloscope . the free encyclopedia Modern digital multimeters may have an embedded computer. which provides a wealth of convenience features.
Many analog meters have been instantly broken by connecting to the wrong point in a circuit. This can happen when accessing awkward locations. or an instrument bus such as IEEE-488. whereas digital meters present such data in a manner that's either hard to follow or more often incomprehensible. the free encyclopedia Modern meters may be interfaced with a personal computer by IrDA links. Analog multimeters A multimeter may be implemented with a galvanometer meter movement. and the swing of the pointer can be noticed without looking directly at it. Analog multimeters are common. resulting in dynamic braking. though the resolution of these is usually low. a quality analog instrument will cost about the same as a DMM. USB. or less often with a bargraph or simulated pointer such as an LCD or vacuum fluorescent display. Analog multimeters have the precision and reading accuracy limitations described above. Many analog multimeters feature a switch position marked "transit" to protect the meter movement during transportation. or by dropping onto the floor. Also an intelligible digital display follows changes in a circuit far more slowly than an analog movement. The first digital multimeter was manufactured in 1955 by Non Linear Systems. RS-232 connections.wikipedia. Analog meters are also useful in situations where it is necessary to pay attention to something other than the meter.Wikipedia. Analog meters are able to display a changing reading in real time. This feature works by placing a low resistance across the movement winding. or when working on cramped live circuitry. so often fails to show what's going on clearly.org/wiki/Multimeter 13/20 Inexpensive analog multimeter with a galvanometer needle display . Some DMMs can store measurements and upload them to a computer. Analog meter movements are inherently more fragile physically and electrically than digital meters. or while on the wrong range. The interface allows the computer to record measurements as they are made. and so are not built to provide the same accuracy as digital instruments.3/15/13 Multimeter . Some digital multimeters include a fast-responding bargraph display for this purpose. Sensitive meter movements may en.
retractable hook clips. it is usually an advantage to minimize the current drawn from the circuit. For example. the free encyclopedia be protected in the same manner by connecting a shorting or jumper wire between the terminals when not in use.3/15/13 Multimeter . Probes are connected to en. Tweezer probes are used for closely spaced test points.000 ohms per volt and sometimes higher. general purpose. The meter movement in a moving pointer analog multimeter is practically always a moving-coil galvanometer of the d'Arsonval type. with no electronic circuitry. a very low cost multimeter with a sensitivity of 1000 ohms per volt would draw 1 milliampere from a circuit at full scale deflection. Crocodile clips. In a basic analog multimeter the current to deflect the coil and pointer is drawn from the circuit being measured.org/wiki/Multimeter 14/20 .000 ohms per volt meter (drawing 20 microamperes at full scale) being about the upper limit for a portable. using either jeweled pivots or taut bands to support the moving coil.Wikipedia. and similar names. by use of vacuum tubes or field effect transistors the input resistance can be made very high and independent of the current required to operate the meter movement coil. Probes Main article: Test probe A multimeter can utilize a variety of test probes to connect to the circuit or device under test. More expensive. FET-VOMs. as in surface-mount devices. Meters which feature a shunt across the winding such as an ammeter may not require further resistance to arrest uncontrolled movements of the meter needle because of the low resistance of the shunt.wikipedia. are less susceptible to radio frequency interference. and pointed probes are the three most common attachments. with a 50. To avoid the loading of the measured circuit by the current drawn by the meter movement. some analog multimeters use an amplifier inserted between the measured circuit and the meter movement. The ARRL handbook also says that analog multimeters. (and mechanically more delicate) multimeters typically have sensitivities of 20. While this increased the expense and complexity of the meter. The connectors are attached to flexible. TVMs (transistor volt meters). non-amplified analog multimeter. The sensitivity of an analog multimeter is given in units of ohms per volt. thickly insulated leads that are terminated with connectors appropriate for the meter. Such amplified multimeters are called VTVMs (vacuum tube voltmeters).
clamp-on meters to measure small current or direct current require more complicated sensors.org/wiki/Multimeter 15/20 . such as supply service entrances. and 3 phase appliance outlets. Category I: used where equipment is not directly connected to the mains. Types to measure AC current use the transformer principle. fused meters often survive. Category III: used on permanently installed loads such as distribution panels. which will sometimes prevent damage to the multimeter from a current overload on the highest current range. Safety All but the most inexpensive multimeters include a fuse. 2mm plugs and binding posts have also been used at times. An example of best-practice input protection on the CATIV rated Fluke 28 Series II Multimeter Digital meters are rated into four categories based on their intended application. or make metallic contact at all. Meters with unsafe fusing are not uncommon. main panels. as set forth by IEC 61010 -1 and echoed by country and regional standards groups such as the CEN EN61010 standard.wikipedia. Category IV: used on locations where fault current levels can be very high. Category II: used on single phase mains final sub-circuits.3/15/13 Multimeter . but are intended to clear if operator error exposes the meter to a low-impedance fault. Fuses used in meters will carry the maximum measuring current of the instrument.Wikipedia. this situation has led to the creation of the IEC61010 categories. A common error when operating a multimeter is to set the meter to measure resistance or current and then connect it directly to a low-impedance voltage source. Unfused meters are often quickly destroyed by such errors. supply meters and primary over-voltage protection equipment. Clamp meters clamp around a conductor carrying a current to measure without the need to connect the meter in series with the circuit. while benchtop meters may use banana jacks or BNC connectors. but are less common today. or two fuses. en. the free encyclopedia portable meters typically by shrouded or recessed banana jacks. motors.
3/15/13 Multimeter . the free encyclopedia Each category also specifies maximum transient voltages for selected measuring ranges in the meter. or below about 100 megohms—levels far from the theoretical limits of sensitivity. Such testing requires that the component be isolated from the circuit as otherwise other current paths will most likely distort measurements.Wikipedia.wikipedia. Good quality mulitmeters designed to meet CAT II and above ratings will include High Rupture Capacity ceramic fuses typically rated at more the 20kA breaking capacity. These measurements are limited by available technology. but with higher sensitivity—are used for accurate measurements of very small or very large quantities. electronic meters always require an internal power supply. and voltages with very high source resistance.org/wiki/Multimeter 16/20 . optical isolation may protect attached equipment against high voltage in the measured circuit. They will also include high energy overvoltage MOV (Metal Oxide Varistor) protection. and ultimately by inherent thermal noise. Power Supply Analog meters can measure voltage and current using power from the test circuit but require internal power for resistance testing. On meters that allow interfacing with computers. These include nanovoltmeters. Category-rated meters also feature protections from over-current faults. DMM alternatives A general-purpose electronics DMM is generally considered adequate for measurements at signal levels greater than one millivolt or one microampere. electrometers (for very low currents. such as one teraohm) and picoammeters. Hand-held meters use batteries while bench meters usually use mains power allowing the meter to test devices not connected to a circuit. Meters intended for testing in hazardous locations or for use on blasting circuits may require use of a manufacturer-specified battery to maintain their safety rating. See also en. Other instruments—essentially similar. and circuit over-current protection in the form of a Polyswitch.
org/wiki/Multimeter 17/20 . http://www.alternatezone. How to Test Almost Everything Electronic.freeuk. "Testing a diode with a multimeter" (http://www.ni. 4–6.htm. Delton (1993). John. with explanation of burden voltage (Silicon Chip magazine April 2009)" (http://www.wikipedia.uk/news/237news.repairfaq. alternatezone.3/15/13 Multimeter . Rinehart and Winston. ^ "Digital Multimeter Measurement Fundamentals" (http://zone. ISBN 0-8306-4127-0. ^ "Explanation of burden voltage by multimeter manufacturer Fluke" (http://us. ^ "A Precision Current Adapter for Multimeters.org/sam/semitest. pp. Fluke. ^ a b "Model 2002 Multimeter Specifications" (http://www. http://www. Retrieved 2010-11-02.com/fluke/usen/community/fluke+plus/articlecategories/electrical/burdenvolt age. Retrieved 2010-11-02. gracesguide. Retrieved 2010-11-02. Holt. ^ Hewes.uk. glias. McGraw-Hill.com/electronics/ucurrent) .alternatezone.glias. ^ Goldwasser.keithley.com/electronics/ucurrent.htm#diode. Keithley Instruments. Retrieved 200909-22.htm#diode) .agilent. http://www.agilent. http://www.com/multimtr. Retrieved 2007-01-28.htm) .pdf. "Basic Testing of Semiconductor Devices" (http://www.co.uk/wiki/Avo. ^ Agilent Technologies. en.org. 12. 11. ^ Horn. Samuel. Barry Howarth Principles of modern instrumentation.Wikipedia. Retrieved 2007-01-28.literature.com/fluke/usen/community/fluke+plus/articlecategories/electrical/burdenvol tage. 9.ni.com/data?asset=5799) .org.literature. http://us. http://www.glias.html. 3. 2. 1972 ISBN 0-03-080208-3 pages 32-40 4.fluke.keithley.gracesguide.fluke. 10. McGraw-Hill/TAB Electronics.kpsec. ^ "Greater London Industrial Archaeology Society" (http://www.co.com/devzone/cda/tut/p/id/3295) . 8.freeuk. 7. National Instruments. 5. http://zone.org. ^ Frank Spitzer.uk. "Agilent 3458A Digital Multimeter Data Sheet" (http://cp. the free encyclopedia Ammeter Avometer Electronic test equipment Ohmmeter Voltmeter References 1. http://cp.uk/wiki/Avo) . 6.com/multimtr. ^ Milton Kaufman.gracesguide. Retrieved 2008-01-26.kpsec.com/data?asset=5799.html) .htm#stttm) .pdf) .co.uk/news/237news. ^ a b "AVO" (http://www. Handbook of electronics calculations for engineers and technicians.com/devzone/cda/tut/p/id/3295.com.com/litweb/pdf/5965-4971E.com/litweb/pdf/5965-4971E.
Library of Congress 72-77731. http://www.repairfaq.htm) .siborg. ^ Snap-on Incorporated. 23. http://www.siborg. 20. pp. Holt.asp? P65=&tool=all&item_ID=16710&group_ID=1367&store=snapon-store&dir=catalog) . 285. ^ Safety requirements for electrical equipment for measurement. Retrieved 2007-01-28. Retrieved 2007-01-28. 14.com/instrument/products/310_399/380900.gossenmetrawatt.com/VTVM. Stephen (2001). Rinehart and Winston Inc. Retrieved 2008-04-23.tone-lizard.com.fluke.com/instrument/products/310_399/380900. no ISBN. 24. 22. The ARRL Handbook For Radio Communications. http://buy1. ^ Siborg Systems Inc. ISBN 0471-39484-X. 21. control and laboratory use.htm#stttm. ^ Frank Spitzer and Barry Horwath Principles of Modern Instrumentation.com/english/seiten/newsafetystandardiec61010-1since0.htm. Retrieved 2008-01-26.pdf) . 286. ISBN 0-580-22433-3.html) . http://www. "MT596AK Automotive Digital Multimeter" (http://buy1.htm) . ^ "Safety Standard IEC 61010-1 since 1.com/smarttweezers) . 25. General requirements. Stephen (2001).com/catalog/item.htm.com/catalog/item. page 39 ^ "The Incomplete Idiot's Guide to VTVMs" (http://www.com/anniversary/designclassics/gauging. tone-lizard.org/wiki/Multimeter . ^ "Gauging the impact of DVMs" (http://www. Retrieved 2009-01-20.advancedevices. Retrieved 2007-01-28. ISBN 0471-39484-X. ^ Dyer. 1993.com.extech. "Smart Tweezers Digital Multimeter/LCR Meter" (http://www.com/VTVM.pdf.tone-lizard. the free encyclopedia 13.gossenmetrawatt.snapon. http://support.com/anniversary/designclassics/gauging.org/sam/semitest.html.com/english/seiten/newsafetystandardiec610101since0. ISBN 087259-101-8. 18. Retrieved 2007-0128.pdf. ^ Advance Devices Inc. Retrieved 2007-01-28. "Digital Multimeter Smart Tweezers from Siborg" (http://www.Wikipedia.com/find-sales/download/asset/2386842_a_w. Survey of Instrumentation and Measurement.extech.eetimes.html) .com/smarttweezers.asp? P65=&tool=all&item_ID=16710&group_ID=1367&store=snapon-store&dir=catalog. "Logging and analyzing events with FlukeView Forms Software" (http://support. 19.advancedevices. EETimes. Retrieved 2007-01-28. "Extech Dual Channel.eetimes.extech.extech. p.1.html) . New York 1972. "Extech 5 MHz Dual Channel Multiscope" (http://www.3/15/13 Multimeter .snapon. Survey of Instrumentation and Measurement.com/docs/SmartTweezersDs. 17.pdf) .com/find-sales/download/asset/2386842_a_w. 16.com/instrument/products/310_399/381295_381296.wikipedia.com/docs/SmartTweezersDs. ^ Dyer.fluke. ^ Extech Instruments. http://www. 18/20 en. http://www. Datalogging multimeter" (http://www. ^ Extech Instruments.. ^ Fluke Manufacturing. http://www.com/instrument/products/310_399/381295_381296.html.2004" (http://www. Mark (2008). ^ Wilson. 15.html. 26. http://www. http://www.
http://www. Retrieved 2008-01-26.asp? htmlfile=Anatomyofameter.com/techinfo/techinfo. 6.How to Determine Digital Multimeter Accuracy  (http://support.wikipedia. pp. Retrieved 28 December 2012.agilent. Ray (2005). Article (http://www. ^ "Anatomy of a high-quality meter" (http://www.html) . 30. ^ Mullin. Beginners' Guide to the 830B Multimeter (http://www. "Multimeter Input Protection Tutorial" (http://www.fluke.htm&ID=16.com/2012/10/26/eevblog-376-multimeter-fuse-diode-followup/) .com/2012/10/19/eevblog-373-multimeter-input-protection-tutorial/) .pdf) . David.php) .Discusses the many uses of a cheap digital multimeter in the home.radio-electronics. Retrieved 28 December 2012.eu/pages/DMM. EEVblog. http://www.com/2012/10/26/eevblog-376-multimeter-fuse-diodefollowup/.eevblog.wikipedia.com/articles/5416/260/How-toDetermine-Digital-Multimeter-Accuracy.com/findsales/download/asset/1263690_6116_eng_h_w.robotplatform.designworldonline. Multimeter Tutorial (http://www.pdf) .aspx) . EEVblog.coleparmer.From theory to use Retrieved from "http://en. ^ Jones.com/litweb/pdf/59905197EN.jbryant. ^ Jones.coleparmer.com/watch?v=BCd1nk1b5AY) Using a Multimeter Tutorial . ISBN 1-4018-5020-0.htm&ID=16) .asp? htmlfile=Anatomyofameter.Discusses the key considerations to select the right multimeter.eevblog.org/wiki/Multimeter 19/20 .literature.com/info/t_and_m/digitalmultimeter/dmm-basics-tutorial. http://www. External links How to select a Multimeter (http://cp.php? title=Multimeter&oldid=539509631" Categories: Electronic test equipment Electrical test equipment Electrical meters Electronics work tools Measuring instruments en. 28. 29.ABCs of Multimeter safety (PDF) How to use a Multimeter (http://www. "Multimeter Input Fuse Protection" (http://www.Lots of useful information on Digital multimeter usage.htm) .com/tools/multimeter/multimeter. Electrical Wiring: Residential.com/2012/10/19/eevblog-373-multimeter-input-protectiontutorial/.eevblog.youtube. the free encyclopedia 27.3/15/13 Multimeter .org/w/index.Wikipedia.eevblog. Thompson Delmar Learning. David.com/techinfo/techinfo.video Digital Multimeter (http://www.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.