Conjunctional Adverbs | Linguistics | Syntax

CONJUNCTIONAL ADVERBS Zarflar, fiilin nasıl yapıldığını belirtirler ve dolayısıyla fiilleri nitelerler.

Ayrıca, sıfatları ve yine bazı zarfları niteleyen zarflarda vardır. Burada, daha ziyade cümleleri bağlamakta kullanılan ve kendi kendilerine anlamları olan zarflar ele alınacaktır. Bu zarflar asla cümle başında kullanılmazlar.İlk cümle yazılır ve “nokta” veya “noktalı virgülle” noktalandıktan sonra ikinci cümlenin başında bu zarflar yer alır.İkinci cümlenin başında bu zarfları kullanıp yazdıktan sonra mutlaka “virgül” koymak gerekir.Sadece “Then” ve “Else” den sonra virgül gelmez.Koyulan bu virgülle zarfı ikinci cümleden ayırırız.Oysa bağlaçlar kullanıldığı cümleyle bir anlam kazanır.Bağlaçların anlamı “.........dığında” veya “..........den dolayı” gibi yarım kalır ve kendinden sonra gelen cümle Türkçede anlam olarak onlardan önce gelir ve anlamı tamamlar.Zarfları ise tek başına bir anlamları vardır. “Bu yüzden; aksi takdirde v.s” ve tek başına kullanılırlar. Tek bir kelime halinde olduğu gibi iki, üç kelime halinde öbekleşmiş grup halinde zarflarda olabilir. Bunlarda aynı kullanım kurallarına sahiptir. Zaman olarak ta ilk cümleyle ikinci cümle genelde uyuşur. Ama uyuşmadığında görülür; bu durumda cümlelerde olayın zamanını bildiren bir zaman zarfı kullanılır. Bağlacın kullanıldığı cümleye yan cümle denildiği halde zarf ile kullanılan cümleye yan cümle denmez ve yan cümle gibi muamele görmez. Zarfların görevi, ilk cümleye ve kendi anlamlarına göre ikinci cümleyi ilk cümleyle bağdaştırmaktır. Bu zarflar ikinci cümleye “And” bağlacı ile de bağlanabilir ve bu durumda ilk cümlenin sonunda “nokta” veya “ noktalı virgül” kullanılmaz.

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ADVERBS OF CONTRAST
HOWEVER :bununla beraber;yinede She felt ill yesterday morning. However, she went to work. My city is very small; however, it is very lovely.

NEVERTHELESS :yinede;ancak,bununla beraber;ama. There was no news about them; nevertheless, we went on hoping. He often breaks my heart. Nevertheless, I always try to be kind. NONETHELESS : yinede;ancak,bununla beraber;fakat There is a heavy rain outside; nonetheless, we will go out. I cannot follow your advice: Nonetheless, thank you for your advice. STILL :buna rağmen;yine de It is raining heavily; still, we must go out to look for her. He behaved you badly; still, you must help him. THOUGH :yine de (►cümle sonunda kullanılır.) She promised to phone me. I heard nothing, though. It is hard to work there. I enjoy my work, though. ALL THE SAME :yine de;buna rağmen. Erzurum is very cold in winters. All the same, I like that city. Nobody visited me when I was ill. All the same time, I will visit them. ON THE CONTRARY :tam tersine;aksine;bilakis. (Yeni bir söze tümüyle karşı çıkıldığında,kabul edilmediğinde) They say that it is very cold nowadays. On the contrary, it is hot. It does not seem ugly to me; on the contrary, I find it beautiful. IN CONTRAST :aksine;tam tersine;bilakis. (Her ikisi doğru olan farklı iki gerçeği belirtirken) It was cold yesterday, but in contrast, it is hot today. You are very beautiful. In contrast, your sister is ugly. IN FACT :aslında. Officially, he is in charge; in fact, his secretary does all the work. Nobody has seen him for a long time. In fact, he may have died. IN TRUTH :aslında. He wants to commit suicide, but in truth, he loves life. Though he felt cold, I did not feel so. In truth, the weather was not cold.

AS A MATTER OF FACT :aslında. I do not like him; as a matter of fact, I hate him. He is too old for the job. As a matter of fact, he is younger than I am.
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:aslında. I do not mind. Indeed, I am pleased to help you. He has felt sorry; indeed, he has been badly disappointed. OTHERWISE :aksi takdirde;yoksa. You had better go now; otherwise, you will miss the rain. We must run as fast as possible; otherwise, we will be late for the school. OR ELSE :yoksa;aksi takdirde. She must pay £ 100; or else, she will be imprisoned. Hands up! Do not move! Or else I will kill you. WHEREAS :halbuki,oysa. Ali leads a poor life; whereas, his father is a rich man. He loves all his friends; whereas, most of rich friends hate him. IN THAT CASE :o halde; öyleyse. You do not like your job; in that case why do you not leave it? She was talking about a party yesterday. In that case, she may be there. ON THE OTHER HAND :diğer yandan. (söylenmiş bir söze yeni ve başka,farklı bir şey eklerken) My job is not well paid; on the other hand, I do not have to work much Life is very expensive in Turkey; on the other hand, it is exciting. IN OTHER WORDS : bir başka deyişle; yani. ( söylenmiş bir sözü, bir başka yolla, farklı bir şekilde anlatırken) You did not do well, enough in the exam. In other words, you failed. I do not think you are trustworthy; in other words, I do not trust you. CONTRARIWISE : aksine, diğer yandan. He always gives permission; contrariwise, she never gives permission. I am huffy in daytime; contrariwise, I am unhappy at nights. IN SHORT : kısacası; uzun sözün kısası. Things could not be worse, financially; in short, we are bankrupt. I love everybody around me. In short, I like all the people. CONVERSELY : buna karşılık, öte yandan. This story may damage my reputation. Conversely, I may be more popular. You have killed three men so far; conversely, one day you may be killed. THAT IS TO SAY : yani, demek ki, şöyle ki. He is a local government administrator; that is to say, he is a civil Servant. The fare is recluses for children, that is, for anyone under 15 NAMELY : yani.( namely’ den sonra cümle gelmez) Only one person can do this, namely you We visited two cities, namely Nines and Arles

INDEED

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ADVERBS OF RESULT
THEREFORE : bu nedenle; bu yüzden; bundan dolayı. A sudden storm broke out yesterday. Therefore, we cancelled our picnic. I do not have enough money; therefore, I cannot buy a car. CONSEQUENTLY : sonuç olarak; bu yüzden. There was nothing to eat and consequently I went shuffling. My car broke down on the way to office. Consequently, I was late. ACCORDINGLY : bu nedenle; bundan dolayı. Only I did not go to the meeting; accordingly, they dismissed me. It will be midnight some minutes later and accordingly I have to go to bed. HENCE : bu nedenle I had a terrible accident yesterday; hence, these bruises occurred. He is planning to go abroad-hence, he will have to spend some money. THAT’S WHY : bu yüzden; bu nedenle; bunun için. The air is very dirty in Erzurum. That’s why, it is difficult to breathe. I love my girlfriend; that’s why, I will get married with her. FOR THIS REASON : bu nedenle; bundan dolayı. It was very cold out. For this reason, I wore a pullover before going. Nobody visited me at hospital; for this reason, I was offended. THUS : böylece; bu yüzden The new machines will work twice as fast and thus costs will reduce. The school will be over in June; thus, I’II be able to go abroad then. AS A RESULT : sonuç olarak All the passengers got off the bus in Bursa; as a result, we drove faster. Ayşe did not study at all. As a result, she failed in class last year IN CONCLUSION : sonuçta; sonuç olarak. It rained all the day yesterday. In conclusion, we did not go out. Ali has a very good skill; in conclusion, he will be the best in his field. IN CONSEGUENCE : sonuçta. Queen Victoria died in 1901. In consequence, her son replaced her Atatürk caught a terrible illness; in consequence, he died of it. AS A CONSEQUENCE : sonuç olarak. Shakespeare wrote many great plays. As a consequence, he is still the best playwright of the world. ADVERBS OF ADDITION BESIDES : ayrıca; üstelik. This hotel is expensive. Besides, it is close to the main road. I like playing football. Besides, I watch the football matches. FURTHERMORE : bundan başka; ayrıca.
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I donated E 100 to the floor. Furthermore, I sent medical supplies. We stayed home because it was cold. Furthermore, it was snowing yesterday. MOREOVER : bundan başka; ayrıca; üstelik. This firm work very well. Moreover, the cost was very lowly As they are willing, they always study. Moreover, they run after success. IN ADDITION : ayrıca; ilaveten. Ali is a very good guitarist. In addition, he plays the piano well. I know English very well. In addition, I have a good French. WHAT’S MORE : ilaveten; ayrıca. Germany is very modern and what’s more, it is pioneer in some fields. My son is blonde. What is more, he has yellow-brown eyes. LIKE WISE : aynı şekilde I respect m friends. Likewise, they respect me. My wife really loves me; likewise, I love her to distraction. EQUALLY : aynı şekilde. English is not so easy to learn and equally, French is difficult, too. There was a thick layer of snow in Kars. Equally, there was here.

ADVERBS OF TIME
PREVIOUSLY : önceden; daha önce. Nobody had previously called at this city. I did not see him but previously, I had seen his sister. BEFOREHAND : daha önceden; evvelden. Please, let me know of your plans beforehand. I am now living in Erzurum. Beforehand, I used to live in Ankara AFTERWARDS : ondan sonra; daha sonra. Let’s go to the theatre first and eat something afterwards. I saw my girlfriend off yesterday. Afterwards, I turned back home. LATER : daha sonra; sonra At first, she denied my invitation. Later, she accepted it. My sister promised to send me a good bike two years later. THEN : o zaman, o sıralarda; daha sonra. If you ask her about me, you will understand then how much I love you. There was a big war in this town in 1968. I was still unmarried then. We had a week in Rome and then went to Paris AFTER THAT : ondan sonra. We are planning to call at my friends. After that, well visit the museums. She had killed her husband cruelly. After that, she was imprisoned.
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LATTERLY : yakınlarda; geçenlerde; son zamanlardı. I cannot manage to get in contact with him latterly. Latterly, I saw your niece walking with a boy. FORMERLY : eskiden; bir zamanlar. The company formerly belonged to an international banking group Ottoman empire was formerly the dominating power over Europe RECENTLY : yakınlarda; son günlerde; geçenlerde. I have only recently begun to learn French. I have not heard from them recently LATELY : geçenlerde; son zamanlarda. We have been doing a lot of gardening lately. She has not been able to see her boy friend lately. PRESENTLY : birazdan; şimdilerde; şu sıralarda. I think the doctor will be here presently. My father is building a new and big house presently. CURRENTLY : şu anda; şimdi; halihazırda Our chief is wirently spending time at gambling saloons. They are currently in Europe to invest in something.

SHORTLY

: az sonra; kısa bir süre içinde; birazdan. I am sure that my parents will be here shortly. I was surprised at seeing that he came shortly after he went. SOON : yakında; birazdan; az sonra. You must fulfil all his orders and wishes as soon as possible. Although he had gone for a long interview, he soon came back. MEANWHILE : bu arada; bu süre içinde. They will be here soon. Meanwhile, I can drink a cup of coffee My parents went to Ankara last week. Meanwhile, I stayed home. IN THE MEANTIME : (iki olay) bu arada; bu esnada. She came here in June and left in July. In the meantime, she stayed near me. He will retire two months later. In the meantime, he will have a holiday. PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES BECAUSE OF : den dolayı We could not play football yesterday because of the rain She was sentenced to death penalty because of having killed a man. DUE TO : den dolayı He is now sleepy due to not having slept enough last night. I cannot lead a financially good life due to the unstable prices.
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OWING TO

: den dolayı Owing to a traffic accident, there was a traffic jam. It will be easy to teach her English owing to her willingness. BY RIGHT OF : den dolayı She killed her cruelly by right of her hatred. Nobody has seen him recently by right of not being hereabouts. BY REASON OF : den dolayı By reason of my friends, I was accustomed to drug My wife got angry with me by reason of the hair on my coat. ON ACCOUNT OF : den dolayı The road was out of control and order on account of flooding. He is never in time on account of forgetting frequently. ON THE GROUND OF :.. den dolayı On the ground of changes in climate, we have begun to feel suspicious. They are very successful on the ground of studying very hard. AS A RESULT OF : in sonucu olarak He is surrounded by many people as a result of his fame and wealth As a result of all my efforts, I finished the university in 3 years BY MEANS OF : in yüzünden; in sayesinde; aracılığıyla Many students graduated from this university by means of may help You can solve all those problems by means of a helping-book. THANKS TO : in sayesinde; in yüzünden They always confess that they are now here thanks to their parents A good translation can be made thanks to a good dictionary IN VIEW OF : göz önüne alarak In view of his youth, the judge has decided to acquit him of We are going to stay home all the day in view of the rain BY VIRTUE OF : den dolayı; nedeniyle She is leaving the city by virtue of her parent’s attitude. By virtue of my authority, my students are fearful for me. ON BEHALF OF : in adına, in namına My husband cannot be here today, so I m going to speak on behalf of him. One of my students came to talk about lesson on behalf of all students IN COMMON WITH : ile benzer; ile ortaklaşa In common with his friends, he wants to establish a company. Horses are fed with grass in common with all the other animals IN ACCORDANCE WITH : e göre; e uygun olarak I sold my car in accordance with your advice In accordance with their instructions, I will start the machine
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WITH RESPECT TO : ile ilgili olarak, hususunda With respect to your latest novel, I have not read it yes I have heard nothing important with respect to his personality. IN THE COURSE OF : in karşısında; e rağmen How could he win the election in the face of such united opposition? In the face of great hardship, she managed to keep her control IN CHARGE OF : in sorumluluğunda; le yükümlü I will be in charge of the whole factory as of next week. She has been in charge of tis scholl for a few yeras. IN CONSIDERATION OF : in karşılığında; den dolayı I paid a small amount of money in consideration of so much food. In consideration of being rich, he can buy whatever he likes to buy IN PLACE OF : in yerine I am coming with you today in place of my brother. In place of a documentary, I watched a TV serial last night. IN ADDITION TO : e ilaveten; e ek olarak In addition to my only son, a newly born child joined our family He needs money. In addition to money, he needs some help IN CASE OF : olması halinde In case of an accident, apply to the first aid Do not go out for making sport in case of raining. INSTEAD OF : in yerine I married Filiz instead of Meryem though they both loved me.x She prefers to stay home instead of going out. FOR THE SAKE OF : in uğruna Realist gave up imagination for the sake of realism. I do everything without twinkling an eye for the sake of my family IN THE NAME OF : in adına He is now speaking in a programme on TV in the name of prime Minister. While I am away, all my work is done by my son in the name of me. FROM THE ASPECT OF : in açısından This sentence is grammatically correct, but wrong from the aspect of meaning. I will study drama from the aspect of its content. WITH THE HOPE OF : umuduyla He has done anything he is told to do with the hope of promotion I am her now with the hope of seeing you FOR FEAR OF : korkusuyla We spoke in whispers for fear of waking the baby They told me to shut the windows before going out for fear of wind.
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AT THE EXPENSE OF : pahasında He worked till midnights to earn more at the expense of his health. I helped the drowning boy in the lake at the expense of my life. AT THE RISK OF : pahasına; tehlikesine rağmen At the risk of sounding ungrateful, I must refuse your offer He saved my life at the risk af losing his own. BY DINT OF : in yardımıyla; sayesinde He denied that he did his homework by dint of the others We have had a good time by dint of you and your staff. IN RETURN FOR : karşılığında In return for your kindness, I would like to give you this small present. They want to visit us in return for our visit. ON THE CHANCE OF : umuduyla; ihtimali ile We have decided to go there on the chance of finding him. They will leave for Istanbul on the chance of earning much money. TO THE POINT OF : derecesine varacak ölçüde His manner was abrupt to the point of rudeness. His happiness was great to the point of craziness. IN THE TEETH OF : gücütne rağmen; muhalefetine rağmen The government became successful in the teeth of the opposition We managed to do our duty in the teeth of others. THROUGH THE AGENCY OF : vasitasıyla, aracılığıyla I managed to graduate through the agency of my friends They could only contact me through the agency of my father IN ACKNOWLEDGEMENT OF : karşılığı olarak They awarded me in acknowledgement of all my studies She became the best of her class in acknowledgement of her patience BY COURTESY OF : in izniyle; in sayesinde We were able to enter the school by courtesy of him. It is by courtesy of them that I was elected the Prime Minister. IN CONSEQUENCE OF : in sonucunda; den dolayı They are late for the school in consequence of getting up late. In consequence of my hard studies, I became very successful IN WITH RELATION TO : hakkında He wrote a vast number of essays with relation to poetiy. I have not read anything with relation to Dostoyevski so far. ON THE OCCASION OF : esnasında; anında I always cried on the occasion of her wedding ceremony. All of the students kept silence on the occasion of exam.

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IN WITH RELATION TO : ile ilişkili olarak I have nothing to say in with relation to your complaints. He gave us no clue in with relation to what we are supposed to do IN LIEU OF : in yerine; in karşılığı bedeli olarak Would you accept cheque in lieu of cash? He paid 20 million liras in lieu of all his expenses. IN DEFIANCE OF : i hiçe sayarak He went on smoking in the class in defiance of my orders. They did not come to see me in defiance of the warnings OUT OF DEFERENCE TO : e uyarak, riayet ederek She immediately stopped smoking out of deference to the rules. They put their coats off out of deference to our warnings. IN TOKEN OF : in işareti olarak Please, accept this in token of affection for you. She smiled all the day in token of her happiness. UNDER THE AUSPICES OF : nin yardımı ve desteğiyle We managed to gain our independence under the auspices of them. Their aim is to be able to live under the auspices of nobody.

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