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Reviewers: Environmental Science Thermal Pollution is the increase of temperature caused by human activity.

. Cause: Use of water as coolant Nitrates - greatest use of nitrates is a fertilizer. Once taken into the body, nitrates are converted into nitrites. - infants below 6 months who drink water containing nitrates in excess of the maximum contaminant level (HCl) will become seriously ill. Symptoms: shortness of breath blue-baby syndrome Do not let infants drink water that exceeds 10mg/ l No3-N. Red Tide - Is a common name for a phenomenon called algal bloom. - is caused by a few species of dinoflagellates and the bloom takes on a red or brown color. When algae are present in higher concentration, water appear to be discolored or murky. Effects: - potentially harmful to human health when they intake contaminated shellfish. (PSP Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning) Can cause eye irritation and respiratory irritation (i.e. coughing, sneezing) to beachgoers and coastal residents Large fish kill/ death of manatees & dolphins

Causes of algal bloom: Increase nutrient loading from human activities Agricultural run-off Coastal upwelling Human sewage Rise in ocean temperature

Lead Poisoning is a medical condition caused by increased levels of heavy metal lead in the body. Sources of lead Exposure: Paint Dust Soil Water Tableware Hobbies Occupation Food supplies Cosmetics How does it happen? Breathing air containing lead dust from deteriorating lead-based paint; Drinking water if tap water flows through plumbing fixtures or pipes containing lead or lead solder; Contact with dust from deteriorating lead-based paint, lead-contaminated soil; imported cosmetics containing lead. Eating food without washing hand that may have been contaminated by lead Mercury Poisoning - is a disease caused by exposure to Mercury or its compounds. - is a heavy metal occurring in several forms all of which can produce toxic effects in high enough doses. Sources: (natural) > volcanoes > forest fires > cannabar > fossil fuels

(athropogenic) > discharge from hydroelectric, mining, pulp and paper industries > incineration of medical & municipal wastes > powerplants > mining How does this happen? Inhalation of contaminated air ( has mercury) Ingestion of mercury (eating fish w/ Hg) Skin contact with mercury Eye contact with mercury Airborne Hg can fall to the ground in raindrops, in dust, or simply due to gravity.

Air Pollution is a condition of which the quality of air is degraded due to presence of harmful substances, particulate matter, and biological agents. Nonpoint sources of air pollution are not easily identified as they are diffused and may not be constantly emitting pollutants. Examples of these Urban Runoff which includes volatile and hazardous substances. Mobile sources such as car exhaust which may emit harmful substances like carbon monoxide, and even lead. The extent and degree of air pollution in an area depends on several factors such as: Source of pollution Rate of emission Wind Topography or location

Thermal Inversion when cool air is not able to rise because it is trapped by warmer air. Air Pollutant
Dust mites Environmental Tobacco Smoke Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) Combustion Products Chlorinated Chemicals Asbestos

A tiny insect which feeds on skin shedding. Sidestream and mainstream smoke from burning tobacco and cigarettes. Hydrocarbon & organic compounds used as solvents, fuel & insecticides. Soot, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide

Health Risks
Triggers allergic reactions such as allergic rhinitis. Increases risk of lung cancer, respiratory disease & cardiovascular diseases. Causes headache, breathing problems and respiratory diseases and can be carcinoegenic fire hazards. Soot could cause lung problems because it absorbs on its surface more hazardous particulates. Carcinogens. Methylene chloride used in paint strippers and thinners causes nerve disorders. Causes asbestosis, a lung diseases in which asbestos fibers become embedded in the lungs.

Sodium hypochlorite, a bleaching agent with wide applications. Carbon tetrachloride, chloroform. Used as fire retardant in flooring, ceiling and wall materials

(ETS) Environmental Tobacco Smoke Is a prevalent indoor air pollutant. It is a combination of 2 smokes: mainstream smokewhich is inhaled directly by the smoker sidestream smoke which is emitted in between puffs of a burning tobacco. ETS containts about 4000 chemical compounds. It also contains ammonia, hydrogen cyanide, toluene, and even radioactive materials and other compounds which have been linked to lung cancer, emphysema, cardiovascular problems, and many other disease.

TYPES OF AIR POLLUTANTS Air Pollutants are substances whose concentrations in air are high enough to be considered hazardous to human health. May be solids, liquids or gases which are dissolved in air or are dispersed in minute forms. May come from natural or manmade sources. Ex. (natural) Pollen dust from plants Methane gas emitted from the anaerobic decay in swamps (manmade or athropogenic) smokestacks car tailpipes Substances that are released directly into the air by point and nonpoint sources are considered Primary Air Pollutants. Carbon Monoxide is directly introduced into the air by smokestacks of factories or tailpipes of vehicles. Sulfur Dioxide is also a primary pollutant produced from volcanic emissions. Other Primary Pollutants: Oxides of nitrogen Vapor of hydrocarbons and other organic compounds; Particulate matter, such as smoke and dust Oxides of lead, cadmium, copper and iron Toxic substances like chlorine gas, hydrogen sulfide gas; and

Foul odors produced from the decay of garbage and other things.

Secondary Air Pollutants are those from the chemical reactions of primary pollutants and other substances. They may be more harmful than primary pollutants. For example: sulfuric acid, H2SO4, which is a very corrosive acid, forms from reactions involving sulfuric dioxide, SO2. It makes rainwater more acidic. Ozone may be formed from the breakdown of nitrogen dioxide, NO2, by sunlight. O3 very important gas in the stratosphere. Pollutant in the troposphere.

Outdoor Air Pollution Common causes of outdoor air pollution: Combustion of fuels Airborne pathogens Particulate matter Photochemical smog Ozone depletion Acid desposition

An allotrope is a form of carbon; other allotropes of carbon are graphite and diamond. Asphyxiation is a condition in which oxygen does not circulate in our system.

Airborne Pathogens or disease-causing agents are very harmful air pollutants. Viruses that causes infection diseases such as the common colds, influenza, chicken pox, and physical contacts. Bacteria causing tuberculosis is also airborne. SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) can be contracted through the air. More than 8,000 cases with about 700 deaths were reported during a SARS epidemic in late 2002 to 2003.

Particulate Matter is a group of pollutants made up of very small solid or liquid droplets that remain suspended in the air. Includes: Soot Pollen Smoke particulates Dust

Oil droplets and pesticides may also become suspended in the air and be considered particulate matter.

Photochemical smog is formed from chemical reactions which are triggered by sunlight. Smog is coined from the words, smoke and fog. Main components of photochemical smog is ozone. Industrial smog which is formed from the carbon-filled smoke that is present due to the poor combustion of fuel is grayish black. Aside from containing hazardous substances, smog also reduces visibility therefore endangering motorists. Common Household Chemicals Chemicals released from modern buildings and furnishing materials Outdoor air pollutants Combustion of gases from LPG and wood burning stoves Animal hair and dander Chemical fumes from paints and solvents Molds and bacteria Chemicals from cleaning products Carbon monoxide fumes from attached garage Cigarette smoke contains 4000 chemicals Gases including radon seeping through foundation

Problems Involving Soil and Land Sedimentation is one of the leading cause of pollution of bodies of water. Overgrazing occurs when the livestock that graze in a grassland are beyond the carrying capacity. - Primary cause of desertification. Desertification condition in which the soil has become very dry and infertile due to the absence of plant nutrients and presence of too much salts. Salinization results when the concentration of salt ions build up in the soil. Water logging when the soil becomes oversaturated with H2O Leaching is the process of removing or extracting the components of a soluble material with H2O. Nutrients needed by plants: K (Potassium) Na (Sodium) NO3 (Nitrate) Cl (Chlorine) PO4 (Phosphate)

Nonpoint Sources: Oil, grease, chemicals Cleaners, detergent Sediments, Pesticides and fertilizers Eroded land, sediment Trash Paint Soap Animal waste Human waste Sediment, poorly managed construction

Land Pollution Sources: Non-biodegradable pollutants Industrial Pollution Domestic Pollution Agricultural Pollution Intensive husbandry Household waste Industrial waste Waste layers Authorized landfill site Intrusive filtration Fertilizer application (herbicide, pesticide, fungicide)

Types of Land Pollution: Solid waste Topsoil erosion (soil loose and desertification) Hazardous Waste: Reactive Waste Corrosive Waste Ignitable Waste Toxic Waste Radioactive Waste Medical Waste Home Waste Land pollution is the environmental contamination with man made waste.