# Centrifugal Pumps

Introduction
Centrifugal pumps are machines which converts mechanical energy into fluid energy (Pressure energy) using a rotating impeller, propeller or rotor. The centrifugal pump is the most common pump used for moving large volumes of liquids, slurries or high viscosity liquids. The centrifugal pump is simple in construction as it has no valves or tight clearances where materials might get jammed and build up to block the pump or reduce the flow. A centrifugal pump consists of: 1. One or more impellers mounted on a shaft. 2. A casing consisting of a suction eye, volute, and discharge.

Figure 1: Centrifugal Pump Volute type

and measured using a V-notch meter using the following relation: where hv = hv . Test rig: . an experiment is made in the Fluids laboratory to demonstrate the relation between the pump head and the RPM the shaft makes.Body of the Report As the pump head is function of the number of rounds per minutes the shaft makes.hvo in cm. *The pump head is measured using a pressure gage just after the pump exit (P2) *The flow is changed using a valve placed after the pump and the pressure gage (P2).

345 Hpump (m) 7.7 6.812 12.5384 Q (l/sec) 0.4 9.6 6.556 29.481 447.2110 0.9 6.2 3.3 Q (l/sec) 0.2 Hv (cm) Freq.1360 0.1602 2.015 17. Measure hv.811 2.750 170. Start the pump and wait till the flow becomes steady (the frequency is adjusted using VFD to control the shaft speed through the relation 4.3 5.518 15.472 280.9 Hv (cm) 6.5695 0.95 4.818 2.75 6.485 257.853 126.5 8 Hv-hvo (cm) 4.3 7.5222 Q (l/sec) 0.118 228.=60 Hz N=3600 rpm . P3 Change the valve position to change the flow amount Repeat step 4 Repeat steps 5&6 for different amount of flows Repeat the procedures for different amount of shaft speeds .319 2. 6.858 10.7 7.2989 0.4 6.6 4.2186 0.906 6.4 7 7.981 386.=30 Hz N=1800 rpm Freq.3448 0.2569 0.549 28.384 5.9 7.=50 Hz N=3000 rpm 7.3 8. 7.115 3.7079 1.717 V2 (m/s) (x10-3) 513.85 8.8 5.265 560.802 1252.6294 1. Using the relation 10.398 P2(KPa) 130 110 100 125 P2(KPa) 80 70 65 55 P2(KPa) 30 33 35 30 25 P2(KPa) 190 180 175 165 150 P2(KPa) 285 290 275 280 Hpump (m) 12.4 4.95 Hv (cm) Freq.35 Hv (cm) 5.9 9.5 10 20 22 P3(KPa) 25 50 65 90 115 P3(KPa) 50 70 150 160 Freq.3 4.644 V2 (m/s) (x10-3) 147.5377 0.5 8.462 716.01 Hpump (m) 28.05 6. P2. 8.399 V2 (m/s) (x10-3) 265. Plot a Curve between HPump and Q Conclusions and Results: Freq. 5.9 7.4531 1.967 1065.37 Hpump (m) 2.6896 1.982 V2 (m/s) (x10-3) 107.4 Hv-hvo (cm) 4.Experiment Procedure: 1.068 27.35 7.762 524.05 4.84 9.021 18.8 8.387 367.291 349.809 3.052 P3(KPa) 20 60 80 10 P3(KPa) 10 15 25 35 P3(KPa) 5 8. Fill the reservoir with water 2.=40 Hz N=2400 rpm Hv (cm) 6.8 5.932 896. Measure hvo 3.=20 Hz N=1200 rpm 5.9 Hv-hvo (cm) 5.9068 V2 (m/s) (x10-3) 340.8896 6.0407 1.52 16.4 5 5.7453 Q (l/sec) 1.25 Hv-hvo (cm) 3.65 Hv-hvo (cm) 3 3. Hpump could be calculated ) 9.4629 0.06405 Q (l/sec) 0.236 803.305 Hpump (m) 19.5 5.7839 1.916 597.7 5.

1. Leakages in the system 3.) 2 3 Figure 2: Characteristic curve Comparing the curve with the Ideal performance curve of a centrifugal pump we can notice the differences which is due to sources of errors. The hook was inclined.35 30 25 20 Hpump(m) 15 10 5 0 0 Characteristic curve N=1200rpm N=1800rpm N=2400rpm N=3000rpm N=3600rpm 1 Q (l/sec. so the readings weren’t accurate . The pressure gauge is fitted on the pipe in a turbulence region which makes it impossible to know the exact pressure reading 2. which is.