INTERNATIONAL TURKISH HOPE SCHOOL-CHITTAGONG BRANCH BIOLOGY HANDOUT – CLASS …… TOPIC: PLANT NUTRITION NAME:…………………………………….

DATE: ……………

Ø Nutrition in Plants:
a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j)

Photosynthesis. Factors affecting photosynthesis rate. Experiments to prove the factors affecting photosynthesis rate. Autotrophs vs. heterotrophs. Adaptation of a leaf for photosynthesis. Fate of glucose in a leaf. Importance of destarching a plant. Testing a leaf for starch. Mineral Nutrition in Plants. Limiting factors and control for experiments.

Teacher in Charge: ARIF ULLAH

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INTERNATIONAL TURKISH HOPE SCHOOL-CHITTAGONG BRANCH BIOLOGY HANDOUT – CLASS …… TOPIC: PLANT NUTRITION NAME:……………………………………. DATE: ……………

Ø Introduction to the topic:
Organisms obtain food in various ways to survive and carry out physiological processes like respiration, growth, and osmo-regulation. Organisms that have chlorophyll (green pigment) such as plants and protests (i.e. Euglena) make food by combining inorganic substances namely water and carbon dioxide to make carbohydrates in a process called photosynthesis. This process involves the use of energy (solar energy) from the sun. Some use energy from the oxidation of certain substances to make food in a process called chemosynthesis. Organisms that make their own food are referred to as autotrophs. Some organisms obtain complex food substances made by other organisms and break them down to simple substances while others make their own food from simple inorganic substances. Some organisms obtain food by breaking down dead organic substances. These are called saprophytes and the type of feeding is called saprophytism. For example, fungi feed on a dead decaying wood. Therefore, fungi are saprophytes. Some organisms obtain food by associating with other organisms in particular kinds of relationships. Organisms that obtain food by associating with others of not their own kind, is a relationship called parasitism. In this relationship, the organism that benefits is called a parasite while the other that does not benefit (may be harmed) is called a host e.g a tick on a cow. In other relationships, both organisms benefit from the relationship. This is called mutualism e.g the gut bacteria. In some relationships, one organism may benefit or not. This is called commensalism and the organisms involved are called commensals. All relationships where two organisms live together are called symbiosis. Organisms which obtain food by breaking down complex food substances to simple absorbable molecules are called heterotrophs.

Teacher in Charge: ARIF ULLAH

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Chemical equation of photosynthesis: Word equation for photosynthesis: Water + carbon dioxide Glucose + Oxygen Balanced chemical equation for photosynthesis: Photosynthesis is Anabolic (glucose is built) Respiration is Catabolic (glucose is broken down) Teacher in Charge: ARIF ULLAH 3 . DATE: …………… Ø Photosynthesis: The process by which plants make their own food (glucose) by combining carbon dioxide and water. giving oxygen as a bi product.INTERNATIONAL TURKISH HOPE SCHOOL-CHITTAGONG BRANCH BIOLOGY HANDOUT – CLASS …… TOPIC: PLANT NUTRITION NAME:……………………………………. in the presence of sunlight and chlorophyll.

INTERNATIONAL TURKISH HOPE SCHOOL-CHITTAGONG BRANCH BIOLOGY HANDOUT – CLASS …… TOPIC: PLANT NUTRITION NAME:……………………………………. DATE: …………… Teacher in Charge: ARIF ULLAH 4 .

and if its content was less than normal. photosynthesis is limited. When they have a deficiency of water. Teacher in Charge: ARIF ULLAH 5 . The rates of photosynthesis will always correspond to that factor which is in least supply. So fertilizers are good news for plants. and the air is saturated with water vapor. including: 1) Sunlight . and so any increase in light intensity will not affect the plant further. so CO2 cannot diffuse into the leaves. Factors affecting photosynthesis rate: Sunlight Generally the more light there is. as there isn't a concentration difference for it to diffuse across. enzymes. stopping photosynthesis.its Intensity & wavelength. Of course CO2 is taken in during the daytime. photosynthesis couldn't happen normally. So CO2 is also the limiting factor. thus increasing the levels of CO2 from their respiration and decomposition processes. 2) Temperature 3) CO2 and O2 – availability 4) Any factor that influences the production of chlorophyll.INTERNATIONAL TURKISH HOPE SCHOOL-CHITTAGONG BRANCH BIOLOGY HANDOUT – CLASS …… TOPIC: PLANT NUTRITION NAME:……………………………………. where the plant has reached maximum photosynthesis levels. Basically the more CO2 in the air. they wilt. Their rates will only increase when its supply is increased. or energy carriers (ATP and NADPH). the better the rate of photosynthesis. CO2 Water Plants need water for photosynthesis. So the water vapor sits in the leaf. the more photosynthesis occurs. This is because the water vapor being expelled cannot leave and go into the air. Fertilizers increase the number of soil fungi and bacteria. However if it is humid. This is true up to a point. although it is as a result of lack of water. DATE: …………… It can be affected by many things. If they lack it. their stomata close. Temperature Generally higher temperatures are better than cold temperatures for photosynthesis.

DATE: …………… Ø Experiments to prove the factors affecting photosynthesis rate: Teacher in Charge: ARIF ULLAH 6 .INTERNATIONAL TURKISH HOPE SCHOOL-CHITTAGONG BRANCH BIOLOGY HANDOUT – CLASS …… TOPIC: PLANT NUTRITION NAME:…………………………………….

. Diagram to show the set up. scissors / knife / scalpel.Fix the paper on one of the leaves as shown in the diagram below. Teacher in Charge: ARIF ULLAH 7 .INTERNATIONAL TURKISH HOPE SCHOOL-CHITTAGONG BRANCH BIOLOGY HANDOUT – CLASS …… TOPIC: PLANT NUTRITION NAME:……………………………………. pins/clips Method / procedure: The set up is as shown below: .The paper is removed and the leaf is tested for starch. Apparatus and Materials: well watered destarched potted plant. . dark paper. DATE: …………… Aim: To show that light is necessary for photosynthesis.The experimental set up is exposed to sunlight for 2-6 hours.

INTERNATIONAL TURKISH HOPE SCHOOL-CHITTAGONG BRANCH BIOLOGY HANDOUT – CLASS …… TOPIC: PLANT NUTRITION NAME:……………………………………. (the parts that were covered are stained brown. Diagram showing results. DATE: …………… Results. showing that light is necessary for photosynthesis. Starch is produced only in areas that received light. and the rest of the leaf turns blue or black) Conclusion. Teacher in Charge: ARIF ULLAH 8 .

DATE: …………… Teacher in Charge: ARIF ULLAH 9 .INTERNATIONAL TURKISH HOPE SCHOOL-CHITTAGONG BRANCH BIOLOGY HANDOUT – CLASS …… TOPIC: PLANT NUTRITION NAME:…………………………………….

DATE: …………… Teacher in Charge: ARIF ULLAH 10 .INTERNATIONAL TURKISH HOPE SCHOOL-CHITTAGONG BRANCH BIOLOGY HANDOUT – CLASS …… TOPIC: PLANT NUTRITION NAME:…………………………………….

water using a source of energy Autotrophic nutrition is a process where plants make food by combining large complex organic molecules such as starch. the swollen guard cells become more curved and pull the stoma open. Example: plants Heterotrophic nutrition is where organism feed on organic substances that have been made by other organisms. lipids and protein with simple inorganic molecules like water. water from other cells enters the guard cells by osmosis so they swell and become turgid. In this way. the sugar is used up and water leaves the guard cells. This. STOMATA (Space between two Guard Cells) Ø Guard cells are the only epidermal cells which can make sugar. In sunlight the concentration of potassium ions (k+) increases in the guard cells. DATE: …………… Autotrophs vs. carbon dioxide and minerals. i. so they become flaccid and the stomatal pore closes. they reduce the amount of water vapour escaping from the leaf.e. Heterotrophs: Heterotrophic means obtaining readymade organic food from the environment and Autotrophic means manufacturing food from inorganic compounds usually carbon dioxide. Examples are animals and fungi. lowers the water potential in the guard cells.INTERNATIONAL TURKISH HOPE SCHOOL-CHITTAGONG BRANCH BIOLOGY HANDOUT – CLASS …… TOPIC: PLANT NUTRITION NAME:……………………………………. As a result. Teacher in Charge: ARIF ULLAH 11 . together with the sugars formed. At night. Because the guard cells have a thicker cellulose wall on one side of the cell. the side around the stomatal pore.

Have large air spaces for fast diffusion of gases to and from the photosynthesizing cells. DATE: …………… Ø Adaptations of a leaf for photosynthesis: · Cuticle: . Carbon dioxide enters and oxygen leaves the leaf through stomata. The cells have large number of chloroplasts. · Veins (Vascular bundles): . · Palisade mesophyll .Is non-cellular. · Thin lamina: . · Chloroplasts: .They act as drain pipes distributing raw materials to the leaves and conducting away manufactured food to other parts of a plant.Provides a large surface area for absorbing sunlight energy.INTERNATIONAL TURKISH HOPE SCHOOL-CHITTAGONG BRANCH BIOLOGY HANDOUT – CLASS …… TOPIC: PLANT NUTRITION NAME:……………………………………. · Stoma: .contain chlorophyll for absorbing sunlight. Teacher in Charge: ARIF ULLAH 12 . · Spongy mesophyll: . · Broad lamina: . It allows light to pass through. The cells have few chloroplasts.Provides a short distance over which diffusion of gases take place. water proof and transparent.A pore that allows gaseous exchange to take place.Is a single layer of cells on the upper surface of a leaf.has cells vertically arranged such that many can fit into a small space. It allows light to pass to the cells below. · Upper epidermis: .

This prevents photosynthesis and uses up all the stored starch for respiration. such as sucrose for storing in fruits. Some of that is used straight away for respiration to get energy. Stored in seeds: Fats and oils commonly known as lipids found in seeds are made from glucose. If photosynthesis occurs. especially for ACTIVE UPTAKE of minerals in the roots. such as cellulose for making cell walls. which is required to transport substances around the plant. Used to make fruit: Glucose may be used to make other sugars. Required for transport: Glucose is used to make energy.INTERNATIONAL TURKISH HOPE SCHOOL-CHITTAGONG BRANCH BIOLOGY HANDOUT – CLASS …… TOPIC: PLANT NUTRITION NAME:……………………………………. DATE: …………… Ø Fate of glucose in green plants: Stored as starch: Glucose is converted into starch and is transported away to be stored in roots. Ø Importance of destarching a plant: A plant is placed in dark for 24 hours. which is then used to convert rest of the glucose together with minerals from the soil into many other useful substances. starch would be present at the end of the experiment. Teacher in Charge: ARIF ULLAH 13 . no starch will be present at the beginning of the experiment. Used to make proteins: Nitrates from the soil combine with glucose to make amino acids which are then put together to make proteins. Used to make cell walls: Glucose is used to make other organic substances. particularly in fast growing plants. Hence. stem and leaves. Used for respiration: Plants make glucose in the leaves.

DATE: …………… Teacher in Charge: ARIF ULLAH 14 .INTERNATIONAL TURKISH HOPE SCHOOL-CHITTAGONG BRANCH BIOLOGY HANDOUT – CLASS …… TOPIC: PLANT NUTRITION NAME:…………………………………….

DATE: …………… Ø Teacher in Charge: ARIF ULLAH 15 .INTERNATIONAL TURKISH HOPE SCHOOL-CHITTAGONG BRANCH BIOLOGY HANDOUT – CLASS …… TOPIC: PLANT NUTRITION NAME:…………………………………….

Sulphur. .Stunted growth . Chlorophyll formation. Copper. Calcium and Magnesium.Retarded growth.yellow patches on leaves Formation of cell wall (middle . DATE: …………… Mineral nutrition in plants: Table : Macro and micronutrients and their uses.Chlorosis of older enzyme activity. Zinc.Chlorosis with pale Required for the formation of leaves chlorophyll but not part of the molecule. Mineral salts are necessary for normal plant growth. leaves. .Poor development of lamella) leaves at shoot apex .Chlorosis. Facilitates .Chlorosis with purple colourings Protein formation . leaves. Macro nutrients Uses Nitrogen Phosphorus Sulphur Calcium Potassium Amino acid and protein synthesis Deficiency Magnesium Iron Micro nutrients Cobalt. . Several elements are known for normal plant growth and development. Potassium.INTERNATIONAL TURKISH HOPE SCHOOL-CHITTAGONG BRANCH BIOLOGY HANDOUT – CLASS …… TOPIC: PLANT NUTRITION NAME:……………………………………. and Concerned with synthesis of yellowing of leaves at carbohydrates and protein the margins. metabolism in young leaves. Some of these elements are Carbon. Manganese. Formation of certain amino acids . Other elements are Nitrogen. Phosphorus.Reddish purple leaves and stunted growth. They are necessary for the .Stunted growth of manufacture of enzymes. Boron . tips. Hydrogen and Oxygen. Teacher in Charge: ARIF ULLAH 16 .Stunted growth.

DATE: …………… Teacher in Charge: ARIF ULLAH 17 .INTERNATIONAL TURKISH HOPE SCHOOL-CHITTAGONG BRANCH BIOLOGY HANDOUT – CLASS …… TOPIC: PLANT NUTRITION NAME:…………………………………….

INTERNATIONAL TURKISH HOPE SCHOOL-CHITTAGONG BRANCH BIOLOGY HANDOUT – CLASS …… TOPIC: PLANT NUTRITION NAME:……………………………………. 2. i. CO2. Teacher in Charge: ARIF ULLAH 18 .e. Crop Rotation . for increasing crop yield: 1.Growing leguminous plants. Using Green houses i. H2O and Temperature. Glass Houses with appropriate conditions for plants growth with enough sunlight. Eg.e. Nitrogen Fixing bacteria residing in the root nodules of the roots. DATE: …………… Ø Alternative to Fertilizers.

INTERNATIONAL TURKISH HOPE SCHOOL-CHITTAGONG BRANCH BIOLOGY HANDOUT – CLASS …… TOPIC: PLANT NUTRITION NAME:……………………………………. the rate of photosynthesis increases. the rate of reaction becomes constant. 2) The rate of photosynthesis reaches its highest peak. 3) After that. Teacher in Charge: ARIF ULLAH 19 . DATE: …………… Ø Limiting factors for photosynthesis: 1) After increasing light intensity.

DATE: …………… Teacher in Charge: ARIF ULLAH 20 .INTERNATIONAL TURKISH HOPE SCHOOL-CHITTAGONG BRANCH BIOLOGY HANDOUT – CLASS …… TOPIC: PLANT NUTRITION NAME:…………………………………….

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