GREEN COMPUTING Green computing or green IT, refers to environmentally sustainable computing or IT.

It is "the study and practice of designing, manufacturing, using, and disposing of computers, servers, and associated subsystems—such as monitors, printers, storage devices, and networking and communications systems—efficiently and effectively with minimal or no impact on the environment. Green IT also strives to achieve economic viability and improved system performance and use, while abiding by our social and ethical responsibilities. Thus, green IT includes the dimensions of environmental sustainability, the economics of energy efficiency, and the total cost of ownership, which includes the cost of disposal and recycling. It is the study and practice of using computing resources efficiently."

With increasing recognition that man-made greenhouse gas emissions are a major contributing factor to global warming, enterprises, governments, and society at large now have an important new agenda: tackling environmental issues and adopting environmentally sound practices. Greening our IT products, applications, services, and practices is both an economic and an environmental imperative, as well as our social responsibility.Therefore, a growing number of IT vendors and users are moving toward green IT and thereby assisting in building a green society and economy.

The goals of green computing are similar to green chemistry; reduce the use of hazardous materials, maximize energy efficiency during the product's lifetime, and promote recyclability or biodegradability of defunct products and factory waste. Green computing researchers look at key issues and topics related to energy efficiency in computing and promoting environmentally friendlycomputer technologies and systems include energy-efficient use of computers, design of algorithms and systems for environmentally-friendly computer technologies, and wide range of related topics.

Roads to Green Computing To comprehensively and effectively address the environmental impacts of computing/IT, we must adopt a holistic approach and make the entire IT lifecycle greener by addressing environmental sustainability along the following four complementary paths: Green use — reducing the energy consumption of computers and other information systems as well as using them in an environmentally sound manner Green disposal — refurbishing and reusing old computers and properly recycling unwanted computers and other electronic equipment

The imperative for companies to take control of their power consumption. and location server virtualization responsible disposal and recycling regulatory compliance green metrics. management restructuring. and other technologies.Green design — designing energy-efficient and environmentally sound components. therefore remains acute. climate control equipment. and address increasingly sophisticated problems. including: design for environmental sustainability energy-efficient computing power management data center design. Environmental Protection Agency launched Energy Star. and methodology environment-related risk mitigation use of renewable energy sources and eco-labeling of IT products Modern IT systems rely upon a complicated mix of people. and other associated subsystems with minimal impact on the environment These four paths span a number of focus areas and activities. the U. servers. a green computing initiative must be systemic in nature.thin client solutions. networks and hardware. This resulted in the widespread adoption of sleep mode among consumer electronics. assessment tools. virtualization of server resources. Elements of such a solution may comprise items such as end user satisfaction. plain. there are several USENET posts dating back to 1992 which use the term in this manner. cooling equipment. Concurrently. computers.S. layout. for technology and more generally. common sense. Origins In 1992. as such. disposal of electronic waste. The term "green computing" was probably coined shortly after the Energy Star program began. One of the most effective power management tools available in 2009 may still be simple. and return on investment (ROI). the Swedish organization TCO Development launched the TCO Certification . energy use. and data centers Green manufacturing — manufacturing electronic components. a voluntary labeling program which is designed to promote and recognize energy-efficiency in monitors. regulatory compliance. telecommuting. computers.

and 2002/96/EC (WEEE) on waste electrical and electronic equipment required the substitution of heavy metals and flame retardants like PBBs and PBDEs in all electronic equipment put on the market starting on July 1. There are currently 26 US States that have established state-wide recycling programs for obsolete computers and consumer electronics equipment. Regulations and industry initiatives The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has published a survey of over 90 government and industry initiatives on "Green ICTs".program to promote low magnetic and electrical emissions from CRT-based computer displays. along with a tiered ranking system for approved products.e. cooperative programs and subsidized auditing services. TheEnergy Star program was revised in October 2006 to include stricter efficiency requirements for computer equipment. Members work to increase . or require the manufacturers to reclaim the equipment at disposal (Producer Responsibility model). and the use of hazardous materials in construction. resources. The report concludes that initiatives concentrate on greening ICTs rather than tackling global warming and environmental degradation through the use of ICT applications. In general. only 20% of initiatives have measurable targets. which was launched in 1999. on the reduction of hazardous substances. with government programmes including them more frequently than business associations. and buying power to educate. Government Many governmental agencies have continued to implement standards and regulations that encourage green computing. Green Computing Impact Organization.The CSCI provides a catalog of green products from its member organizations. i. green computing products and services. and information for reducing PC power consumption. The directives placed responsibility on manufacturers for the gathering and recycling of old equipment (the Producer Responsibility model). the environment and climate change. Inc. This mission is accomplished through educational events. 2006. information and communication technologies. The European Union's directives 2002/95/EC (RoHS). Industry Climate Savers Computing Initiative (CSCI) is an effort to reduce the electric power consumption of PCs in active and inactive states. and improve the efficiency of. (GCIO) is a non-profit organization dedicated to assisting the end-users of computing products in being environmentally responsible. a community of environmentally concerned IT leaders who pool their time. The WWF is also a member of the Computing Initiative. The heart of the group is based on the GCIO Cooperative. broaden the use. ergonomics. The name stems from the World Wildlife Fund's Climate Savers program. The statutes either impose a fee for each unit sold at retail (Advance Recovery Fee model). this program was later expanded to include criteria on energy consumption. It was started on 2007-06-12.

The Green Grid has since grown to hundreds of members. The program includes certification in Green ICT Strategies. Intel. It was founded in February 2007 by several key companies in the industry – AMD. IBM. and through group negotiation power. Bush issued Executive Order 13423. Sun Microsystems and VMware. President George W. Microsoft. a competitive America’s Cup boat. Dell. Approaches to green computing Algorithmic efficiency The efficiency of algorithms has an impact on the amount of computer resources required for any given computing function and there are many efficiency trade-offs in writing programs.2 grams of CO₂. Green Comm Challenge achieved worldwide notoriety in 2007. HP. when it enlisted as one of the challengers in the 33rd edition of the America's Cup. a physicist at Harvard. estimated that the average Google search released 7 grams of carbon dioxide (CO₂). Algorithms can also be . The Green Grid is a global consortium dedicated to advancing energy efficiency in data centers and business computing ecosystems. Rackable Systems. On 2007-01-24. technologists and entrepreneurs from around the world can be brought together by an exciting vision: building the ultimate renewable energy machine. The Council evaluates computing equipment on 28 criteria that measure a product's efficiency and sustainability attributes. an effort meant to show how researchers. Green Electronics Council-.the ROI of green computing products through a more thorough understanding of real measurable and sustainable savings incurred by peers. using a curriculum developed by theAustralian Computer Society. APC.SprayCool. including end users and government organizations. International Professional Practice Partnership (IP3) is a programme of the International Federation for Information Processing (IFIP) for global certification of ICT professionals. However. As computers have become more numerous and the cost of hardware has declined relative to the cost of energy. which requires all United States Federal agencies to use EPEAT when purchasing computer systems. Google disputes this figure. A study by Alex Wissner-Gross. the energy efficiency and environmental impact of computing systems and programs has received increased attention.The Green Electronics Council offers the Electronic Products Environmental Assessment Tool (EPEAT) to assist in the purchase of "green" computing systems. all focused on improving data center efficiency. encouraging a focus on efficiency rather than absolute performance. arguing instead that a typical search produces only 0. Green Comm Challenge is an organization that promotes the development of energy conservation technology and practices in the field of Information and Communications Technology (ICT). enforcing a greater drive toward efficiency of vendor products by keeping a community accounting of savings generated. The Green500 list rates supercomputers by energy efficiency (megaflops/watt.

Some CPUs can automatically undervolt the processor depending on the workload. With virtualization. a system may hibernate. an open industry standard. In addition. Several commercial companies and open-source projects now offer software packages to enable a transition to virtual computing. all of the computing is done at the server level but the end user experiences the operating system. users connect to a central server. Computer virtualization refers to the abstraction of computer resources. which reduces both the amount of heat produced and electricity consumed. where most components (including the CPU and the system RAM) are turned off. this technology is called "SpeedStep" on Intel processors. MIT. This allows a system to automatically turn off components such as monitors and hard drives after set periods of inactivity. such as the process of running two or more logical computer systems on one set of physical hardware. powerful system. Carnegie Mellon University.itpowersaving. and Akamai project up to a 40 percent savings on energy costs. and LongRunwith Transmeta processors. Intel Corporation andAMD have also built proprietary virtualization enhancements to the x86 instruction set into each of their CPU product lines. They are using a solution called Auto Shutdown Manager. Terminal Servers Terminal servers have also been used in green computing methods. There has been an increase in using terminal services with thin clients to create virtual labs. 1000 PC and more can be admisitered very easily resulting in energy consumption reduction of 40 . allows an operating system to directly control the power saving aspects of its underlying hardware. "PowerNow!"/"Cool'n'Quiet" on AMD chips.used to route data to data centers where electricity is less expensive. When using terminal servers.com. .[citation needed] Some programs allow the user to manually adjust the voltages supplied to the CPU. The concept originated with the IBM mainframe operating systems of the 1960s. University of Berkeley has started an initiative using Auto Shutdown Manager and wireless power meters to measure energy consumption and reduction in real time. Recently a computer activity and putting computers into power saving modes if they are idle. a system administrator could combine several physical systems into virtual machines on one single.http://www. which use up to 1/8 the amount of energy of a normal workstation. ACPI is a successor to an earlier Intel-Microsoft standard called Advanced Power Management. Examples of terminal server software include Terminal Services for Windows and the Linux Terminal Server Project (LTSP) for the Linux operating system.80%. in order to facilitate virtualized computing. which allows a computer's BIOS to control power management functions. This process is called undervolting. These can be combined with thin clients. LongHaul on VIA CPUs. Power management The Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (ACPI). resulting in a decrease of energy costs and consumption. thereby unplugging the original hardware and reducing power and cooling consumption. but was commercialized forx86compatible computers only in the 1990s.

is a subject of ongoing research.. Select a GPU based on average wattage or performance per watt. Reducing the power consumed by large storage arrays. MySpace was able to permanently retire several of their servers. further reducing their carbon footprint. Display LCD monitors typically use a cold-cathode fluorescent bulb to provide light for the display.g. 4GB i-RAM uses more power and space than laptop drives). The increase in online storage has increased power consumption.5 inch) hard disk drives often consume less power per gigabyte than physically larger drives. including all heavy-load servers. in a recent case study Fusion-io. This includes archival and backup data that would formerly have been saved on tape or other offline storage. 2007. less efficient PSUs of the same form factor. all new Energy Star 4. Use motherboard video output . shared thin client.As of July 20. dissipating the remaining energy as heat. manufacturers of the world's fastest Solid State Storage devices. In response. power consumption may be reduced somewhat for low capacity flash based devices. storage farms have tended to increase in capacity to make more data available online. An industry initiative called 80 PLUS certifies PSUs that are at least 80% efficient. Even at modest sizes. Energy efficient display options include: No video card . which reduces the amount of electricity used by the display. Unlike hard disk drives. Storage Smaller form factor (e. DRAM-based SSDs may use more power than hard disks. (e. while still providing the benefits of online storage. Video Card A fast GPU may be the largest power consumer in a computer. solid-state drives store data in flash memory or DRAM. typically these models are drop-in replacements for older.use a shared terminal. As hard drive prices have fallen.typically low 3D performance and low power.0-certified desktop PSUs must be at least 80% efficient.Power supply Desktop computer power supplies (PSUs) are generally 70–75% efficient. Some newer displays use an array of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) in place of the fluorescent bulb. With no moving parts.g. Though most flash based drives are generally slower for writing than hard disks. Operating system issues . 2. managed to reduce the carbon footprint and operating costs of MySpace data centers by 80% while increasing performance speeds beyond that which is was attainable by multiple hard disk drives in Raid 0. or desktop sharing software if display required.

WakeupOnStandBy (WOSB).Microsoft has been heavily critizied for producing operating systems that. Telecommuting Teleconferencing and telepresence technologies are often implemented in green computing initiatives. Verismic Power Manager. 1E NightWatchman. office buildings is over 23 kilowatt hours per square foot. field service – integrate well with this technique. Microsoft claim to have improved this in Vista. This problem has been compounded because Windows versions before Vista did not allow power management features to be configured centrally by a system administrator. Several software products have been developed to fill this gap including Auto Shutdown Manager. VoIP and phone extension mobility also made Hot desking and more practical. Microsoft Windows Vista has improved this by adding basic central power management configuration. Due to Microsoft's dominance of the huge desktop operating system market this may have resulted in more energy waste than any other initiative by other vendors. and hexavalent chromium out of landfills. Additionally. etc. Again. TOff and Greentrac (also promotes behavioral change) among others. Other related initiatives. though the claim is disputed. The Silicon Valley Toxics Coalition estimates that 80% of the post-consumer e-waste collected for recycling is shipped abroad to countries such as China and Pakistan. Voice over IP (VoIP) reduces the telephony wiring infrastructure by sharing the existing Ethernet copper. Verdiem Surveyor/Edison. the average annual energy consumption for U. and increased profit margins as a result of lower overhead costs for office space.S. and batteries may be recycled as well. Materials recycling Main articles: Electronic waste and computer recycling Computer systems that have outlived their particular function can be repurposed. mercury. Many types of jobs – sales. many charities have recently imposed minimum system requirements for donated equipment. Faronics Power Save. increased worker satisfaction. . However. Computing supplies. such ashotelling. paper.Data Synergy PowerMAN. are not energy efficient. air conditioning and lighting accounting for 70% of all energy consumed. The advantages are many. reduction of greenhouse gas emissions related to travel. lighting. Recycling computing equipment can keep harmful materials such as lead. The basic support offered has been unpopular with system administrators who want to change policy to meet changing user requirements or schedules. heat. such as printer cartridges. reduce the square footage per employee as workers reserve space only when they need it. out of the box. but often computers gathered through recycling drives are shipped to developing countries where environmental standards are less strict than in North America and Europe. with heat. or donated to various charities and non-profit organizations. parts from outdated systems may be salvaged and recycled through certain retail outlets and municipal or private recycling centers. consulting. This has meant that most organisations have been unable to improve this situation. The savings are significant.

In fact. Many business simply focus on a bottom line. and society. These days computer recycling is of more importance than ever and everyone should do their job to help keep the environment clean. the hardware's life is extended. When it comes to PC disposal you need to know everything there is to know in order to be involved in green computing For every action. The solution to green computing is to create an efficient system that implements these factors in an environmentally friendly way. These days computer recycling is of more importance than ever and everyone should do their job to help keep the environment clean. and makes recycling the computer easy once it is no longer necessary. Basically. Learning a little more about protecting the environment and computer disposal is important so you can do your part for the environment. The idea is to make the whole process surrounding computers more friendly to the environment.A Brief History of Green Computing Do you know how much energy your computer uses? Probably not but if you do a little research to find out then you will realize how important green computing is. the whole green aspect came about quite a few years back when the news that the environment was not a renewable resource really hit home and people started realizing that they had to do their part to protect the environment. economy. Datacenters use a large amount of power and consequently cooling energy is needed to counteract the power usage. Learning a little more about protecting the environment and computer disposal is important so you can do your part for the environment. If everyone takes into account green computing then our world of computers will have as little a negative impact on our physical world as possible and that is what green computing is all about.Caitlina Fuller is a freelance writer. the efficient use of computers and computing is what green computing is all about. rather than a green triple bottom line. It can be an endless circle of energy waste. Basically. . A good example would be IT managers purchasing hardware that has been EPEAT approved meaning that maintenance is reduced. there is an equal and opposite reaction. if you realize how much space old computers take up in landfills and haw difficult they are to dispose of then you would also appreciate the idea of green computing. Once computers are sold businesses or people use them in a green way by reducing power usage and disposing of them properly or recycling them. This means manufacturers create computers in a way that reflects the triple bottom line positively. The idea is to make computers from beginning to end a green product. of economic viability when it comes to computers. The triple bottom line is what is important when it comes to anything green and the same goes for green computing. When it comes to PC disposal you need to know everything there is to know in order to be involved in green computing. This considers social responsibility. economic viability and the impact on the environment. Newton’s Third Law of Motion Consumption of energy sources has a negative reaction on the environment.

Using servers to capacity cuts down on the energy needed. On-Demand Computing Instead of buying and running extra computing resources. grid computing provides businesses with extra capability when needed. grid computing uses multiple computers in a network at the same time. Our green computing solutions are the answer to reducing your carbon footprint and utilizing energy efficiently. Grid computing can utilize geographically dispersed resources to process a large amount of data. decreasing the amount of wasted energy. The cooling costs of datacenters are rising. applications bandwidth and storage are all available on an on-demand basis. Grid computing Grid computing is a cost effective way to acquire computer resources. . Server consolidation reduces the amount of servers needed by optimizing the available capacity of each server. all while diminishing computing costs. Used for large computing needs. Virtualization Virtualization allows networks and servers to be accessed and used independent of location. CPU. IPsoft expertly manages consolidation so that business processes are streamlined. Utility computing uses virtualization to enlarge the computing and storage capabilities. companies can keep energy expenditures and costs down. Providing scalable flexible computing usage. IPsoft focuses on streamlining your business applications and processes. IPsoft’s on-demand computing solutions allow businesses to allocate resources per specific needs and growth. saving energy resources. without consuming large amounts of energy. and smart companies are looking for ways to reduce the costs. IPsoft’s virtualization techniques utilize existing servers to the maximum output.Businesses are looking to minimize energy waste and reduce the carbon footprint of datacenters. IPsoft Green Computing Solutions: Consolidation Companies can maximize each server with server consolidation. making the most of data center investments. utility computing enhances productivity. By providing a quick solution to usage changes. Utility computing Utility computing is an on demand service which allows companies to pay for only needed computing resources. ensuring that the energy is used wisely and conservatively. By only investing in resources as they are needed. on demand computing provides computing resources as they are needed.

Businesses use SOA to lower IT costs and speed acceleration and security for web applications and datacenter management. the economics of energy efficiency. Thus. a growing number of IT vendors and users are moving toward green IT and thereby assisting in building a green society and economy. With increasing recognition that man-made greenhouse gas emissions are a major contributing factor to global warming. and introduce an organized. and practices is both an economic and an environmental imperative. Greening our IT products.Service Oriented Architecture Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) consolidates business processes. It is "the study and practice of designing. while abiding by our social and ethical responsibilities. computers. and disposing of computers. and associated subsystems—such as monitors. we must adopt a holistic approach and make the entire IT lifecycle greener by addressing environmental sustainability along the following four complementary paths: Green use — reducing the energy consumption of computers and other information systems as well as using them in an environmentally sound manner Green disposal — refurbishing and reusing old computers and properly recycling unwanted computers and other electronic equipment Green design — designing energy-efficient and environmentally sound components. computers. and the total cost of ownership. Green IT also strives to achieve economic viability and improved system performance and use. applications. IPsoft’s SOA solutions reduce superfluous application processes. manufacturing. refers to environmentally sustainable computing or IT. Therefore. as well as our social responsibility [2]. storage devices. order service and inventory service. and other associated subsystems with minimal impact on the environment . governments. using. and networking and communications systems—efficiently and effectively with minimal or no impact on the environment. and data centers Green manufacturing — manufacturing electronic components." [1]. With SOA’s multi-application and server monitoring and management. services. servers. Pathways to Green Computing To comprehensively and effectively address the environmental impacts of computing/IT. and society at large now have an important new agenda: tackling environmental issues and adopting environmentally sound practices. enterprises. such as: customer service. which includes the cost of disposal and recycling. combining business management services. streamlined method of application management. cooling equipment. green IT includes the dimensions of environmental sustainability. Green computing or green IT. servers. printers. It is the study and practice of using computing resources efficiently. businesses enhance business services and functions.

and bandwidth. There is software available that can help with this. time. Like the SimpleTech redrive. Print wisely . Use a Google alternative. or to use as simple add-on storage capacity. If your going to be away from it for a short time then turn off the monitor. saving energy. If you have a spare CD-ROM you use once in a blue moon unplug it. You can also adjust the power management using the control panel to turn off your hard drive and put your system into standby after a set amount of time. . Suggestions for Buying a New PC Buy a Laptop! Laptops use less power than a desktop. For more advanced users remove unnecessary fans and Drives. such as Smallest Google. Install Power management Programs like Local Cooling or Snap CO2 Saver. Especially over night and if you will be out for the day. Suggestions for your current PC Switch your computer off when you're not using it. Refill Ink-jet cartridges and laser toner.Reducing Energy Consumption The following are some of the ways to make your Computer more environmentally friendly. Routers and Wifi Access Points when not in use / overnight Replace your internal hard drive with a low energy solution such as Western Digital's Green Drive An exernal hard drive is also useful to backup your content. or simply use the "print preview" to see which pages you really need and only print those pages. look for one that is energy efficient and Energy Star qualified. These programs basically just adjust your Power management settings though so are pointless if you know how to do this. There are many things we can do to reduce the amount of power they use. Also if your computer is only used for office work or checking your email unplug excess devices you do not use. As a General rule laptops use less than Desktops.Only print what you really need to have a paper copy of and resist the urge to print 'all pages' when you only need what is on one particular page. Modern Computers are power hungry things. and LCD (Flat screens) Screens use less than CRT (big fat screens). its cheaper and doesn't add to landfill Switch off Cable Modems. is made from sustainable materials such as bamboo and aluminum and is conscious about its packaging.

Choose the latest Intel or VIA processors over AMD as they use less power. The following "green computing" habits can significantly reduce the amount of electricity and environmental waste for which PCs are responsible. In addition. Build the computer to your needs don't install unnecessary parts if you will never use them. Much of the paper used by PCs is wasted. This represents approximately 11 percent of the total amount spent by the U-M on electricity. If your only using it for simple tasks don't buy the most powerful available. solid waste. On the U-M Ann Arbor campus. National estimates indicate that most PCs are not being used most of the time they are on. VIA is the best for the environment although not as powerful. As a general rule ink-jet printers use much less energy than laser ones however the inks in inkjet printers spoil clean paper recycling processes. Overview of Procedure The increase in U-M consumption of electricity and paper causes an increase in air pollution. . Waste Minimization Procedure Electrical Conservation Tips: Turn the computer off overnight and on weekends. Wait until ready to use the PC before turning it on. buy one 2gb one. It is estimated that a PC system can easily consume 300 watts of electricity per hour ‚ the same amount of energy needed to operate three 100 watt light bulbs.8 million in energy costs each year. Also consider certified 80 plus energy efficient power supplies 80 PLUS Program If you are concerned about hazards chemicals used in pc components consult Greenpeace's Green Electronics Ranking orThe Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) in electrical and electronic equipment. If you are going to build your own PC pick the parts carefully. 30 . Instead of getting two 1gb chips. Choose Corded Keyboard and Mouse over wireless. PC operation alone may account for at least $1. and the burning of fossil fuels.Buy a computer according to your needs.40 percent of all PCs are left on overnight and on weekends.

Also. use double-sided copying. Only buy a monitor as large as you really need. A single high-density 3. even an idle printer consumes energy. Donate an old computer to a school or charity. or reformat to keep the document to as few pages as possible. Review documents on the screen instead of printing a draft. Use a printer that can print double-sided documents. Store information on diskettes rather than in "hard copy" format. The U-M buys and uses recycled-content paper when possible. Request recycled or recyclable packaging from your vendor. . if it is permanently out of order. rebuilt and reused. Do not turn on the printer until ready to print. be sure to reuse disks that contain outdated information. Try to schedule computer-related activities to do them all at once. This may improve cathode ray tube screen visibility as well as save energy. use the blank back side of used sheets. the energy needed to run the computer outweighs the start-up energy. they use 80-90 percent less energy. Use smaller font sizes and decrease the spacing between lines.5 inch floppy disk can hold the equivalent of 750 sheets of paper.If the computer is going to be inactive for more than 16 minutes. consider turning it off. Many manufacturers will take a spent cartridge. Also. about one and a half reams. do not print out copies of e-mail messages unless necessary. After this time. keeping the computer off at other times. recycle paper when done. refurbish it. Purchasing and Use of Equipment: Printer toner cartridges can be refilled. give it to a computer recycling facility instead of discarding in a landfill. refill it. Although they are a little slower. a 17 inch monitor uses 40 percent more energy than a 14-inch monitor. the higher the resolution. Determine whether you can upgrade your existing equipment rather than purchasing new equipment. and return it for about half the price of buying a new one. the more energy it needs. Look for papers with 50 . If spending a large amount of time at the computer. When making copies. Also. Paper Conservation Tips: Use "paperless" methods of communication such as electronic mail (e-mail) and fax modems. Also.100 percent post-consumer waste and non-chlorine bleached. consider reducing the light level in your office. Consider purchasing an ink jet printer instead of a laser printer. If you must print a draft.

The Energy Star Program was started by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to encourage the production and use of energy-efficient equipment. sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. coal. thereby reducing the amount of pollution generated. These gases. which translates to fewer air emissions. in turn. Some of the tips given above to reduce paper use and reuse of toner cartridge and diskettes will go a long way towards reducing the amount of solid waste that ultimately ends up in a landfill. burns oil. These printer inks are made from renewable resources. CO2 emissions equivalent to removing one average automobile from the road will be avoided. Benefits The production of electricity is the largest single source of air pollution. Try to buy energy efficient products such as those bearing the Energy Star Logo. and in many cases produce brighter.Buy soy or non-petroleum based inks. leading computer manufacturers are now producing equipment that can automatically power down to a "sleep mode" to save energy when not in use. In accordance with the EPA's voluntary guidelines. These added capabilities do not increase price or decrease performance. Known Limitations None known. smog and global warming. cause acid rain. Conserving energy reduces the amount of fuel that has to be consumed. General Facts about Computer Energy Use Computer technology use accounts for 2% of anthropogenic CO2 Roughly equivalent to aviation industry IT energy usage will double next 4 years For every 12 consumers who keep power settings enabled for their on their monitors and PCs. energy-efficiency is a positive step toward reducing air pollution. Safety & Health Precautions/Personal Protective Equipment Not applicable. or natural gas that emits gases such as carbon dioxide. require fewer hazardous solvents. A power plant used to generate electricity. . They also use up to 30 percent less energy when running than conventional equipment. cleaner colors. due to the burning of fossil fuels. Obviously.

and twice as much as they currently do on server management and administration costs. wireless." the group said in a Jan. Portugal Telecom. 11 news release. 2007) Data center power and cooling costs have increased 800% since 1996.270 kilowatt hours of electricity— that’s enough to release 1.886 miles in the average car! Datacenter energy use Power used by servers. the equivalent of being able to power the world's communications networks for three years using the same amount of energy that it currently takes to run them for a single day. China Mobile." the release said. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory) U. Stanford University's Wireless Systems Lab and the University of Melbourne's Institute for a BroadbandEnabled Society.715 pounds of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere and the equivalent of driving 1. cooling and ancillary infrastructure in 2005 accounted for about 1. August 2007) U. The Green Touch initiative sets a five-year goal of making communications networks 1000 times more energy-efficient than they are today.S. this same computer will consume 1. for three years using the same amount of energy that it currently takes to run them for a single day. (IBM/Consultant Studies) With annual energy costs per square foot that are 10 to 30 times that of a typical office building.A typical desktop PC with a 17-inch LCD monitor requires about 145 watts—110 watts for the computer and 35 watts for the monitor." The consortium is called the Green Touch initiative and founding members include service providers AT&T. routing and architecture) and studying their physical limits by applying established formulas.000 MW power plants (Jonathan Koomey. The target comes from "Bell Labs' analysis of the fundamental properties of ICT [Information and Communication Technology] networks and technologies (optical.S. EPA. government and nonprofit research institutes such as the CEA-LETI Applied . data centers will spend as much on energy costs as on hardware. A global consortium organized by Alcatel-Lucent's Bell Labs plans to "create the technologies needed to make communications networks 1000 times more energy-efficient than they are today. electronics.2 percent of the United States’ electrical usage—the equivalent in capacity terms of about five 1. It continued: "A thousand-fold reduction is roughly equivalent to being able to power the world's communications networks. research labs at MIT. processing. If left on 24x7 for one year. commercial electrical costs increased by 10% from 2005 to 2006 (EPA Monthly Forecast.S. Swisscom and Telefonica.S. energy consumption by data centers is expected to almost double in the next five years (U. (IBM/Consultant Studies) Over the next five years. including the Internet. data centers are an important target in energy-saving efforts. it is expected that most U.

Nanotechnology is also being used in an attempt to manipulate materials at the nanometer scale." the group said. the consortium also has issued an open invitation to all members of the [ICT] community to join forces in reaching this ambitious target. This initiative also offers the potential to generate new technologies and new areas of industry. "The first meeting of the consortium will take place in February and will be dedicated to establishing the organization's five-year plan. scientists are working on other aspects of the problem as well. . This article will take a look at several green initiatives currently under way in the computer industry. and industrial labs at Bell. but also businesses from other industries. Perhaps the most talked about aspect of green technology is the promise of alternative energy sources." Green computing. both in terms of public relations and reduced costs. scientists are hoping it can transform manufacturing on a global level. creative environment. This was what we used when putting a man on the moon and is the same approach we need to implement to address the global climate crisis. It has taken upon itself the goal to provide society’s needs in ways that do not damage or deplete natural resources. wind. The field of "green technology " encompasses a broad range of subjects — from new energygeneration techniques to the study of advanced materials to be used in our daily life. testing building materials and studying chemical processes to reduce the use and generation of hazardous substances. and creating a center of economic activity around technologies that benefit the environment. Mainly this means creating fully recyclable products. from government purchasing to a technological revolution. Sun. as well as issues that have been raised regarding these initiatives. is now under the attention of not only environmental organizations. According to Green Touch. Green technology focuses on reducing the environmental impact of industrial processes and innovative technologies caused by the Earth’s growing population.Research Institute for Microelectronics and the French National Institute for Research in Computer Science and Control. Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology and Freescale Semiconductor. In recent years." Secretary of Energy Steven Chu said in a statement. sugar — we’ve heard about them all. water. and member roles and responsibilities. first-year deliverables. However. the consortium "will deliver—within five years—a reference network architecture and demonstrations of the key components required to realize this improvement. "With its launch. reducing pollution. "Truly global challenges have always been best addressed by bringing together the brightest minds in an unconstrained. We will also have a talk with VIA to learn more about the future of green computing. the study and practice of efficient and eco-friendly computing resources. companies in the computer industry have come to realize that going green is in their best interest. proposing alternative technologies in various fields.

so power plants wouldn't need to burn as much fossil fuels. methane. The company works with environmental experts to calculate the electricity used by the device over its lifetime.” or offsetting. Offsetting carbon dioxide can be achieved in different ways. VIA Technologies Green Computing VIA Technologies. reducing the amount of energy used. introduced its initiative for "green computing" in 2001. rising sea levels. of the emissions. One way is to plant trees that absorb CO2 as they grow. with lower energy consumption and less wasted hardware. Wetlands also provide a great service in sequestering some of the carbon dioxide emitted into the atmosphere. The emissions are mainly a result of fossil-fuel-burning power plants. as well as productivity and overall user experience. taking responsibility for the amounts of CO2 they emit. and other environmental effects. wetlands are capable of absorbing 20 to 25 percent of the atmospheric carbon dioxide. such electricity generation is responsible for 38 percent of the country’s carbon dioxide emissions. and other computer hardware. one can conclude how much carbon dioxide the device will emit into the atmosphere during its operation. After the 1997 Kyoto Protocol for the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Its environmentally friendly products are manufactured using a range of clean-computing strategies. Carbon-free computing One of the VIA Technologies’ ideas is to reduce the "carbon footprint" of users — the amount of greenhouse gases produced. and fluorocarbons — is believed to be responsible for Earth's increasing temperature. In addition. and the company will pay regional organizations for the “sequestering. An increase in the concentration of the main greenhouse gases — carbon dioxide. Companies are addressing e-waste by offering take-back recycling programs and other solutions. The necessary amount of trees per processor is represented by VIA's TreeMark rating system. A central point of research is testing and applying alternative nonhazardous materials in the products’ manufacturing process. measured in units of carbon dioxide (CO2). which could lead to severe floods and droughts. and scientists are conducting numerous studies in order to reduce the negative impact of computing technology on our natural resources. the company has been focusing on power efficiency throughout the design and manufacturing process of its products. VIA is working closely with organizations responsible for preserving wetlands and other natural habitats. (In the United States. and others who . nitrous oxide. affecting both life and the world's economy. Although they make up only 4 to 6 percent of the Earth's landmass.The huge amount of computing manufactured worldwide has a direct impact on environment issues. generally three years. This estimate will serve as an indicator. the world has finally taken the first step in reducing emissions. From this data. in the region in which the processors were purchased. Greenhouse gases naturally blanket the Earth and are responsible for its more or less stable temperature. With this green vision. CPUs. a Taiwanese company that manufactures motherboard chipsets. and the company is striving to educate markets on the benefits of green computing for the sake of the environment. VIA promotes the use of such alternative energy sources as solar power.) VIA aims to offer the world's first PC products certified carbon free.

.support extensive recycling programs for ICT equipment. is also working toward reducing energy consumption in its products. cutting back on hazardous waste and reducing its eco-impact. Carbon-emissions control has been a key issue for many companies who have expressed a firm commitment to sustainability. The company’s use of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology in its manufacturing. Dell’s Plant a Tree for Me project allows customers to offset their carbon emissions by paying an extra $2 to $4. a global microprocessor manufacturer. Dell is a good example of a company with a green image. AMD. have contributed to reduced power consumption in its products. known for its free worldwide product-recycling program. depending on the product purchased. The amount paid to these organizations will be represented by a proportion of the carbon-free product’s price. and strained silicon capping films on transistors (known as “dual stress liner” technology).

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