United States History Final Exam Standard 11.

1 Discuss the significant events in the founding of the nation and its attempts to realize the philosophy of government described in the Declaration of Independence. The founders of the United States borrowed heavily from European Enlightenment ideas. Their belief that they had inalienable rights clearly led to the American Revolution when they were treated as second-class citizens by Great Britain. The swaying of the hearts and minds of the colonists was the first step in founding the nation. Worsening relations with Great Britain and written works such as Paine’s Common Sense convinced the majority of the colonists. The writing and adoption of the Declaration of Independence in 1776 was another significant step forward. The Declaration has four main sections consisting of philosophical idealism, a list of complaints about King George III, a justification for rebellion, and the concluding action statements. The first section is the most important when analyzing their reasoning. The Continental Congress and the majority of the colonists believed they were entitled to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. They essentially believed that government should work for the people, and that tyrannical governments were automatically entitled to be destroyed. This enlightened thinking was a clear departure from centuries of the acceptance of despotism in most of the world. These logical and liberating ideas helped create a sense of unity and helped the colonists win the war against Great Britain. This philosophy was also present in the early Constitution and the Bill of

and massive immigration from Southern and Eastern Europe? United States industrialization first trickled in from Europe and then expanded rapidly in the mid-1800s. such as Jurgis in The Jungle. Wars later in history redefined the United States. The eventual acceptance of federalism by the states finalized the realization of the government described in the Declaration of Independence. The Constitution never explicitly defined federalism.Rights. Industrialization and the expanding global economy also forced European immigrants to find work in the United States. Over thirty million immigrants arrived between 1815 and 1914 and secured jobs in factories or other industrial businesses. . but its governmental philosophy has remained the same. Most workers worked an average of 11 to 12 hours a day by 1865 and gave up most of their wages to live right next to the factory. yet few could find any work outside of industrialized cities.2 What was the relationship among the rise of industrialization. large-scale rural-to-urban migration. as people could not find jobs elsewhere. which both showed unprecedented amounts of foresight while remaining moderate enough to gain two-thirds ratification. Rural areas were sometimes stunning to year-long factory workers. This ratification was the last major hurdle as the essentially sovereign American states had to accept federalism. Standard 11. but rather assumed powers for the federal government. This led to a large-scale internal migration from rural to urban areas.

The Industrial Revolution also partly determined the outcome of the American Civil War. . The factory work helped the economy through dehumanizing methods. activists in the Progressive era increased industrial safety. Robert LaFollette. The major negative impacts of the Industrial Revolution were slowly replaced by more Progressive ideals while simultaneously ensuring more social justice and liberty.3 How was the American economy and the changing social and political conditions in the U. and Woodrow Wilson. To counter the worsening conditions. and curbed the amount of underhanded deals by corrupt politicians. industrialization helped to assert federal power and eliminate slavery. William Jennings Bryan. The North had industrialized far more than the South and secured a victory in four years. A system of piecework and the interchangeability of workers guaranteed that everyone was just a cog in the machine. transformed in response to the Industrial Revolution? The booming American industry rapidly expanded the economy and permanently altered social and political conditions. In short. Standard 11. lowered working hours. Some politicians that adhered to Progressive principles included Theodore Roosevelt. These social conditions eventually led to the Progressive era.This type of large-scale internal and external migration was unprecedented for the United States. repairing the damage caused by rapid industrialization.S. Journalists known as muckrakers who investigated corruptions and scandals during this era.

and the Pursuit of Happiness. there has been religious intolerance in the past (towards Mormons. sex education. by their Creator.4 What role did religion play in the founding of America. in either a covert or obvious manner. abortion. that they are endowed. social. history. Christian fundamentalism plays a large role in government. as well as a disregard for atheism as a viable option. Issues that are non-political are politicized by religious politicians who assert the importance of the Bible. science. the writers of the Declaration of Independence used God-given rights as the justification for rebellion: “We hold these Truths to be self-evident. and Jews) and continues today with our intolerance of Muslim society. that all Men are created equal. and political issues regarding religious liberty? Religion has played a major role throughout all of U. Today. . Catholics.Standard 11. that among these are Life. including the First Great Awakening and Second Great Awakening. and drugs are largely based on Christian fundamentalism in the United States. Today’s decisions on gay marriage.” The United States has had several religious revivals. During its founding. with certain unalienable Rights. and how has it affected moral. While the Constitution guarantees freedom of religion. Religion has often impacted the judgment of the United States people as we prioritize absolutist arguments and the word of God over thoughtful debate and consequence and risk analysis. Liberty.S.

The 1904 Roosevelt Corollary read: “We desire peace with all the world. The United States’ need to become selfsufficient was even emphasized by George Washington in his farewell address: “It is our true policy to steer clear of permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world…” By the late 1800s.S. but perhaps most of all with the other peoples of the American Continent. There are.S.5 Discuss the rise of the United States to its role as a world power in the twentieth century. It is always possible that wrong actions toward this Nation. lobbyists favored a strong U. unable to secure justice from outsiders. of course. to become a world power. The annexation of Hawaii and the islands of Samoa added to the United States’ territorial gains.S. Navy. foreign policy further helped it to become a world power.Standard 11. the United States had navy capable of winning in a time of war. U.S. in some State unable to keep order among its own people. and Puerto Rico. The Open Door Policy with China gave the U. may result in our having take action to protect our rights…” . or toward citizens of this Nation. Guam. and unwilling to do justice to those outsiders who treat it well. Imperialism and war were the driving forces that led the U. limits to the wrongs which any self-respecting nation can endure. and by the early 1900s. some degree of political and economic control. The Spanish-American War proved that the United States had a capable military while acquiring the Philippines.

and buyers piled on debt or paid in installment plans. as first described by President Eisenhower. The “Jazz Age” of the 1920s also brought along the mass media. technological. In society. social. and radio expanded beyond anyone’s expectations. the roles of women changed as they adopted new styles and were more rebellious than before. and vacuum cleaners all spurred the consumer economy. and when the leadership allows for it.Our endless desire to make the world “right” is the reason we are always fighting in some corner of the world. Standard 11. the amount of European immigrants decreased. toasters. Today. with more immigrants coming from Mexico and Canada. A peacetime economy meant a consumer economy. newspapers. economic. and cultural developments of the 1920s? The 1920s brought a conversion from a wartime economy to a peacetime economy. sewing machines. Many African Americans also migrated North but usually faced the same anger and hatred from whites. The Harlem Renaissance empowered African Americans as literature helped their culture become more recognized. Jazz became .6 What were the major political. Demographically. New products like the Ford Model T. and becoming more powerful because of it. this is aided further with the militaryindustrial complex. We can only wait so long to fight another war. Americans began to move to suburbs as automobiles were popularized. ovens. Women also began to vote but had more impact in local elections than national ones. with more technology than ever before. Movies. we invade as many countries as possible in a short timeframe.

While many protested. banks closed. The inauguration of President Roosevelt in 1933 was a turning point for recovery. the expansion was necessary to restore a functional economy.known as the “expression of the times” and “won over Americans who had been horrified by it at first. the government refused to lend excessive assistance. Roosevelt’s New Deal was proposed and implemented between 1933-37 and was a set of economic and social programs to aid economic recovery. For example. The plan included relief. President Hoover could not manage the crisis. small businesses closed. and few people could afford to buy any surplus products. The GNP halved from $103 billion. Before the Great Depression. Standard 11. Both plans were unsuccessful and his popularity sunk as more citizens blamed Hoover for their problems. then signed extremely high import taxes. even though it was passed twice by Congress.” The late 1920s would bring the start of the Great Depression. recovery. The Great Depression and the resultant New Deal forced the expansion of the federal government. Many public projects were constructed by new . He initially ignored it.7 Discuss the Great Depression and how the New Deal fundamentally changed the role of the federal government. The stock market crash of 1929 affected four million people directly and the rest of the United States people as well. and reform (Roosevelt’s three R’s). President Coolidge consistently vetoed the McNary-Haugen farm relief bill.

as well as other aid. economic and psychological effects as well as the major events.S. which led the United States cut off all trade with Japan. The United States came to Britain’s aid and loaned them weapons without payment. Americans generally did not want to fight another war in a distant part of the world. The demand for war supplies and workers grew rapidly. This employed workers while providing direct benefits for the U. German aggression alone could not push the United States to war. Be sure to include the social. 1941. Patriotism drove people to work overtime which further helped the economy. Standard 11. the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC).8 Discuss the timeline of America's participation in World War II and the effect of the war on the home front. Roosevelt adopted fiscal conservatism and spent and regulated the way to recovery. nearly eliminating unemployment. After the bombing and strafing of Pearl Harbor on December 7. as well as Social Security. Conflict with Japan increased by 1941 over territorial disputes. . but the more powerful national government was highly successful in controlling and restoring the national economy. The war spending doubled the GNP and ended the economic depression in the United States.organizations such as the Civilian Conservation Corps and Public Works Administration. the United States declared war on Japan. Important agencies established by the New Deal include the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). Some critics argued that the New Deal adopted fascist models for economic recovery.

gasoline. The draft was instated for the first time. The psychological effects on Japanese Americans were very visible. foreign policy since World War II. Truman. after the nuclear attack on Japan. Trace the origins and geopolitical consequences (foreign and domestic) of one of the following: • The Bay of Pigs invasion and the Cuban Missile Crisis . as all “aliens” on the west coast were relocated to internment camps. requiring all males aged 21 to 36 to register for the military. the United States had clearly established itself as a leading world power. Standard 11.” The end of the war marked the beginning of sustained economic expansion and the decades-long Cold War.S.9 What was post-World War II America like and how had America changed? The post-World War II United States was led by President Harry S. 1945. The United States also became a member of the United Nations. I can’t get Americans to see it. World War II ended on August 14. Standard 11. as Winston Churchill said. “The real problem is Russia. and clothing.Many commodities were rationed to support the war. Russia soon became the focus of foreign policy. turning towards more international involvement. sugar.10 Students analyze U. After the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. including meat.

The agreed-upon deal removed the Soviet missiles in Cuba with a secret term that the U. Castro became more popular and became more wary of future U. Domestically. so they shipped over twelve nuclear warheads for offensive use. The invasion took place on April 17. A second consequence was embarrassment for Khrushchev and the Soviet Union because the planned removal of the missiles from Turkey was not made public at the time. In Cuba. would also remove its missiles in Turkey within six months. causing international embarrassment.The origins of the Bay of Pigs invasion were rooted in the United States’ anti-communist agenda. help. 1961 and failed miserably. Kennedy responded with a naval blockade and negotiations in the Soviet embassy. but Kennedy believed there was no chance of success without U. . the consequences were the resignation of three CIA directors and embarrassment for the United States. The origin of the crisis was nuclear stockpiling between the Soviet Union and the United States.S. Cuba was a perfect location for the Soviet Union to regain a nuclear advantage. The USSR support provided to Cuba during the Bay of Pigs Invasion also sparked the Cuban Missile Crisis.S. The Eisenhower and Kennedy administrations could not tolerate what they saw as Castro’s shift to the Communist Party.S. The original plan was to have Cuban exiles remove Castro from power. intervention. The domestic and geopolitical consequences of this crisis was the avoidance of global nuclear warfare.

Women’s rights pioneers such as Elizabeth Stanton and Susan Anthony launched a life-long campaign for gaining women’s suffrage. the Constitution avoided explicitly granting rights to blacks or women. religion. or national origin. This guaranteed the elimination of blocked registrations and literacy tests. However. civil rights and poverty. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 also banned employment discrimination on the basis of race. education. economics. To guarantee passage and avoid controversy. .13 Discuss the major social problems and domestic policy issues in contemporary American society in terms of immigration. Nonviolent activism by Martin Luther King. Standard 11. sex.11 Discuss the development of federal civil rights and voting rights in the United States. the five options below cover it mostly) Standard 11. The African American rights movement progressed with the abolition of slavery during the end of the American Civil War. eventually ratified in 1920. Jr. but at a federal level. Suffragists gained voting rights in specific states. and others led to the passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965.12 What are the major social problems and domestic policy issues in contemporary American society? (same question twice?.Standard 11. it took the 19th Amendment to the Constitution. Some of the first civil rights were granted by the Bill of Rights. These battles came later in U.S. abolition never came close to ending racial discrimination. history.

Our economic policies on federal spending are out of control. Fortunately. The United States’ border walls and patrols only increase the effort to enter while killing thousands of trespassers. especially science. Current trends show that just four years from now. yet the United States federal government refuses to acknowledge the necessity of these workers.One of the most important domestic policy issues today is illegal immigration from Mexico to the United States.S. A lack of emphasis on science and math is proving harmful in a technologybased world. Congress sets a new Federal Debt Limit. insisting no access to work permits or temporary residency. Education in the United States. However. 90 percent of all scientists and engineers will live in Asia. Whenever the debt hits a new record. Some progress towards acceptance of illegal immigrants is being made. it still isn’t too late for the United States to fix its K-12 and higher-level education. national debt.4 trillion as of June 2006. the current one is $9 trillion. dollar miraculously holds most of its value. There seems to be a huge disconnect between business owners that need cheap labor and the federal government. However. is falling rapidly behind. and it will become the major campaign issue for politicians in the next few years. and increases almost $2 billion per day.S. Most immigration is driven by market forces. It stands at $8. other countries continue to buy our debt as our U. One proposed solution is to require cuts to funding somewhere in order to approve . we might soon have to trade oil and other commodities in euros because of our economic policies. One of the largest economic policy issues is the U.

attacks on gay marriage. An extra 5. Nothing short of a regime change will set us on a path to restoring full and absolute civil rights for all Americans.4 million citizens have slipped into poverty in the last six years. and over 46 million people have no health insurance. 25. indefinite detainment as an “enemy combatant”. state.spending elsewhere. no fly lists. Civil rights have been under assault since 9/11 mostly due to the Bush Administration and a Congress that cares little about the average person. . The president has stated his opinion on free speech: “there ought to be limits to freedom. This might not work for the federal government at this time. but federal. to illegal wiretapping. because it has too many intelligence agencies with undisclosed budgets. and other secret war contracts. The United States has 269 billionaires.” From the USA PATRIOT act. and local governments could do more to improve conditions. and a general disregard for the Constitution and checks and balances. civil rights have been moving backwards. Poverty is immensely difficult to tackle in a paragraph.000 private contractors in Iraq. The gap between rich and poor has been widening in the United States. yet more than 10% of citizens live below the poverty line.

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