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7.42

Let Y denote the sample mean strength of 100 random selected pieces of glass. Thus, the quantity ( Y – 14.5)/.2 has an approximate standard normal distribution.

a. b.

P( Y > 14) ≈ P(Z > 2.5) = .0062. We have that P(–1.96 < Z < 1.96) = .95. So, denoting the required interval as (a, b) such that P(a < Y < b) = .95, we have that –1.96 = (a – 14)/.2 and 1.96 = (b – 14)/.2. Thus, a = 13.608, b = 14.392.

7.43

Let Y denote the mean height and σ = 2.5 inches. By the Central Limit Theorem, (10 ) −5(10 ) P(| Y − µ | ≤ .5) = P( −.5 ≤ Y − µ ≤ .5) ≈ P( −.5 2.5 ≤ Z ≤ 2.5 ) = P ( −2 ≤ Z ≤ 2 ) = .9544. 7.44 Following Ex. 7.43, we now require 5 n P(| Y − µ | ≤ .4) = P ( −.4 ≤ Y − µ ≤ .4) ≈ P ( −.2 .5 ≤ Z ≤ Thus, it must be true that

7.45

5 n 2.5

5 n 2.5

) = .95.

= 1.96, or n = 150.0625. So, 151 men should be sampled.

Let Y denote the mean wage calculated from a sample of 64 workers. Then, −7.00 ) P(Y ≤ 6.90) ≈ P( Z ≤ 8 ( 6.90 ) = P ( Z ≤ −1.60) = .0548 . .5 With n = 40 and σ ≈ (range)/4 = (8 – 5)/4 = .75, the approximation is (.2 ) P(| Y − µ | ≤ .2) ≈ P(| Z | ≤ 40 .75 ) = P ( −1.69 ≤ Z ≤ 1.69) = .9090. (Similar to Ex. 7.44). Following Ex. 7.47, we require (.1) P(| Y − µ | ≤ .1) ≈ P(| Z | ≤ n .75 ) = .90. Thus, we have that taken.

n (.1) .75

7.46

7.47

= 1.645, so n = 152.21. Therefore, 153 core samples should be

7.48

a. Although the population is not normally distributed, with n = 35 the sampling distribution of Y will be approximately normal. The probability of interest is P(| Y − µ | ≤ 1) = P( −1 ≤ Y − µ ≤ 1) . In order to evaluate this probability, the population standard deviation σ is needed. Since it is unknown, we will estimate its value by using the sample standard deviation s = 12 so that the estimated standard deviation of Y is 12/ 35 = 2.028. Thus, 1 1 P(| Y − µ | ≤ 1) = P( −1 ≤ Y − µ ≤ 1) ≈ P( − 2.028 ≤ Z ≤ 2.028 ) = P( −.49 ≤ Z ≤ .49) = .3758. b. No, the measurements are still only estimates.

7.49

With μ = 1.4 hours, σ = .7 hour, let Y = mean service time for n = 50 cars. Then,

75 ) = P( Z > −1. Thus. 14 −12 ) b. note that the value 0 has a z–score of (0 – 12)/9 = 1.005 = 2. We assume that we have a random sample ii.14) = .05 7.7) ≈ P ( Z > . We require 50 50 ( 4−µ ) P( ∑i =1Yi > 200) = P(Y − µ < 200 ) = . and the mean and standard deviation are given as 50 and 4. We have P(| Y − µ |< 1) = P(| Z |< true that 1 10 / n 1 σ/ n ) = P( −1 < Z < 1) = .3−1. Let Yi denote the downtime for day i.51 50 (16 −14 ) .6) ≈ P( Z > 7. 7.3) ≈ P( Z < 25 (1.55 ) = P( Z < −10) ≈ 0 . 25 P( ∑i =1Yi ≥ 1300) = P( Y ≥ 52) ≈ P( Z ≥ 25 ( 52 −50 ) 4 7. So. 2. The random variable of interest is which is the lifetime of the lamp system. P(X ≤ 5100) = P( Y ≤ 204) ≈ P(Z ≤ 2) = .8/ 30 = . so it is very unlikely. 50 − µ ) ≈ P ( Z < 2 Thus. So.5 ≤ Z ≤ 1) = . Then.0062.99. a normal distribution is not possible for these measurements. i = 1. 50 (24−µ ) = − z. n = 663.7 −. 30. Note that the standard deviation for the sample mean is . Let Yi denote the lifetime of the ith lamp.7 ) = P( Z > 2.95 .56 Let Yi denote the volume for sample i.52 Let Y denote the average resistance for the 25 resistors. i = 1.1271.0217. ) = P ( Z ≥ 2. the probability is approximately 1. and then μ = 4. So. the Central Limit Theorem. Y is approximately normal: P(Y > 14) ≈ P( Z > 100 (9 ) = P( Z > 2. 7. ) = P( − 10 /1 n We require P(| Y − µ |< 1) = P(| Z |< 1 σ/ n < Z < 10 /1 n ) = . By . a. a.57 ∑ 25 i =1 i Y .645. ….4 ) . b.0132.96 Note that Y has a beta distribution with α = 3 and β = 1. 25. This is not considered extreme. With these given values for μ and σ. i = 1.54 7. 5) are substantially beyond 3 standard deviations from the mean.P(Y > 1.5328.05 = –1.57. and yet this is the smallest possible value for CO concentration in air.33. i. 30 833− 4 ) P( ∑i =1Yi < 115) = P(Y < 3.146. The endpoints of the interval (1. or 664 measurements should be taken.63) = . 7. ….833) ≈ P ( Z < 30 ( 3. respectively.53 7.9484.0375 / 40 . μ = 3/4 and σ2 = 3/80. Thus it must be = z.6826. 30.9772. P(Y > . b.47. 2. P(199 ≤ Y ≤ 202) ≈ P(–. Then. 2. P(Y < 1. a. Let X = total resistance of the 25 resistors.22) = . So.50 7. With μ = 200 and σ = 10 ohms.5) = .576.8 ) = P( Z < −1.02) = .. ….

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