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Switching device Not as fast to operate or as easy to manufacture as conventional gates Limited usefulness Ckt. consists of fewer components & simpler interconnections

Threshold element/Gate has n, 2-valued I/Ps -(x1,x2,..,xn) & single, 2-valued O/P -- y Its internal parameters are threshold (T) & weights (w1,w2,..,wn) where each weight wi is associated with a particular I/P variable xi [ T & W are any real, finite, +ve or ve no.s ] Input Output relation & Symbol are shown :

------- (1)


From defn. of threshold element they are more powerful than conventional gates Ability of single threshold elements to realize a larger class of func.s Any type of conventional gate can be realized by a single threshold element Ex : 2 i/p NAND gate with weights -1, -1 & threshold T = -(3/2)

But, every switching element cannot be realized by one threshold element refer page 2 example A switching func. that can be realized by a single threshold element is called Threshold func.

How to identify the Threshold func.?

By deriving a set of (2^n) linear simultaneous inequalities from truth table & solve them i.e., from I/P combinations for f=1, derive all weighted sums that exceed or equal to T & for f=0, derive all weighted sums that is less than T if a soln. to the above inequalities exists, it gives the values for W & T. if no soln. then (f) is not Threshold func.

For a n-variable switching func. there are 2^n inequalities Realization of non-threshold, switching func.s using AND-OR n/w can be complex. But, by using threshold elements may result in reduction in size, due to reduction in no. of gates & I/Ps


Sensitivity to variations in the ckt. parameters i.e., I/P & supply vtg. results in change weighted sum for a particular combination (especially for large no. of I/Ps) causes ckt. malfunction So, restriction has to be made on max. no. of I/Ps ,T & increase the difference between values of weighted sums for which f=1 & f=0 refer page 4

Another major problem :- lack of effective synthesis procedures i.e., outward appearance of switching func. gives no idea on how it may be expressed , enable designer about required no. of W , T & their interconnections


Threshold element will be specified by its I/P variables & weight threshold vector V = { w1,w2,..,wn :T} refer page 4 This leads to several conclusions:

If a func. Is realizable by a single threshold element, then it can be realized by an element with only +ve weights i.e., by appropriate selection of complemented and uncomplemented I/P variables, it is possible to obtain realization by an element whose weights have any desired Sign distribution refer page 5


In this section we have to identify, realize & synthesize the threshold networks Before proceeding , we shall present a number of properties of threshold functions that provide the theoretical background necessary for the development of simpler and more effective synthesis methods


A func. f(x1,x2,,xn) said to be +ve in a variable xi, if there exists a disjunctive or conjunctive expression for the func. in which (xi) appears only in uncomplemented form / or f(x1,x2,xn) is ve if (xi) appears only in complemented form. If (f) is either +ve/-ve in (xi), then it is said to be Unate in (xi)

If a func. f(x1,x2,.xn) is unate in each of its variable, then it is called Unate Therefore a func is unate if it can be expressed by a disjunctive or conjunctive expression in which no variable appears in both complemented & uncomplemented forms

refer page 7


Properties of Unate func.s can be illustrated by Geometrical representation An n-cube contains 2^n vertices, each vertices corresponds to Minterm SOP form A line is drawn b/n every pair of vertices that differ in just one variable Vertices corresponds to True minterms i.e., (f=1) are called True vertices |||ly False minterms func (f=0) called False vertices

If we define partial ordering relation b/n vertices of n-cube as (a1,a2,.an) (b1,b2,.bn) i.e., for all i ; ai bi Where (0,0,0) is Least vertex (1,1,1) is Greatest vertex Since every complemented variable in a unate func. may be relabeled i.e., xi ' yi and resulting func. is unate, we shall consider unate func.s as +ve unate func.s in all variables

Ex: Unate func. x1 ' x2 x3 ' + x2 x3 ' x4 can be converted to x1 x2 x3 + x2 x3 x4 ( i.e., +ve unate func. in all variables ) using the relabelings x1 ' x1 & x3 ' x3 for theorem refer page 9