13 views

Uploaded by Akash Hulkod

seminar

- Chapter 7
- cc nice
- 106A - Computer Organization and Architecture
- 5varKM
- 3_booleanAlgebra
- Lesson Plan De
- Computer Science 37 Hw 1
- Hardware Lecture 04
- Question Bank Xii
- Adic Assignment - 3 Without Wm
- CDA3101 F13 HW1 Assignment
- Boolean Algebra And Karnaugh Map Simplification
- Programmable Logic Array.docx
- MELJUN CORTES HANDOUTS_Combinational Logic (Part 2)
- Solution Manual for Digital Systems Design Using VHDL 3rd Edition by Roth
- mechanical_unit_manager_3HAC028797-001_revA_en.pdf
- Digital Design Fundamentals (Ch.3 - Gate Level Minimization)
- 07-Chapter 7 - Logic Circuits
- Using Workflow and Session Parameter File Simultaneously
- Paper

You are on page 1of 20

By : AKASH V HULKOD

THRESHOLD ELEMENT

Switching device Not as fast to operate or as easy to manufacture as conventional gates Limited usefulness Ckt. consists of fewer components & simpler interconnections

Threshold element/Gate has n, 2-valued I/Ps -(x1,x2,..,xn) & single, 2-valued O/P -- y Its internal parameters are threshold (T) & weights (w1,w2,..,wn) where each weight wi is associated with a particular I/P variable xi [ T & W are any real, finite, +ve or ve no.s ] Input Output relation & Symbol are shown :

------- (1)

From defn. of threshold element they are more powerful than conventional gates Ability of single threshold elements to realize a larger class of func.s Any type of conventional gate can be realized by a single threshold element Ex : 2 i/p NAND gate with weights -1, -1 & threshold T = -(3/2)

But, every switching element cannot be realized by one threshold element refer page 2 example A switching func. that can be realized by a single threshold element is called Threshold func.

By deriving a set of (2^n) linear simultaneous inequalities from truth table & solve them i.e., from I/P combinations for f=1, derive all weighted sums that exceed or equal to T & for f=0, derive all weighted sums that is less than T if a soln. to the above inequalities exists, it gives the values for W & T. if no soln. then (f) is not Threshold func.

For a n-variable switching func. there are 2^n inequalities Realization of non-threshold, switching func.s using AND-OR n/w can be complex. But, by using threshold elements may result in reduction in size, due to reduction in no. of gates & I/Ps

Sensitivity to variations in the ckt. parameters i.e., I/P & supply vtg. results in change weighted sum for a particular combination (especially for large no. of I/Ps) causes ckt. malfunction So, restriction has to be made on max. no. of I/Ps ,T & increase the difference between values of weighted sums for which f=1 & f=0 refer page 4

Another major problem :- lack of effective synthesis procedures i.e., outward appearance of switching func. gives no idea on how it may be expressed , enable designer about required no. of W , T & their interconnections

ELEMENTARY PROPERTIES

Threshold element will be specified by its I/P variables & weight threshold vector V = { w1,w2,..,wn :T} refer page 4 This leads to several conclusions:

If a func. Is realizable by a single threshold element, then it can be realized by an element with only +ve weights i.e., by appropriate selection of complemented and uncomplemented I/P variables, it is possible to obtain realization by an element whose weights have any desired Sign distribution refer page 5

In this section we have to identify, realize & synthesize the threshold networks Before proceeding , we shall present a number of properties of threshold functions that provide the theoretical background necessary for the development of simpler and more effective synthesis methods

UNATE FUNCTIONS

A func. f(x1,x2,,xn) said to be +ve in a variable xi, if there exists a disjunctive or conjunctive expression for the func. in which (xi) appears only in uncomplemented form / or f(x1,x2,xn) is ve if (xi) appears only in complemented form. If (f) is either +ve/-ve in (xi), then it is said to be Unate in (xi)

If a func. f(x1,x2,.xn) is unate in each of its variable, then it is called Unate Therefore a func is unate if it can be expressed by a disjunctive or conjunctive expression in which no variable appears in both complemented & uncomplemented forms

refer page 7

GEOMETRIC REPRESENTATION

Properties of Unate func.s can be illustrated by Geometrical representation An n-cube contains 2^n vertices, each vertices corresponds to Minterm SOP form A line is drawn b/n every pair of vertices that differ in just one variable Vertices corresponds to True minterms i.e., (f=1) are called True vertices |||ly False minterms func (f=0) called False vertices

If we define partial ordering relation b/n vertices of n-cube as (a1,a2,.an) (b1,b2,.bn) i.e., for all i ; ai bi Where (0,0,0) is Least vertex (1,1,1) is Greatest vertex Since every complemented variable in a unate func. may be relabeled i.e., xi ' yi and resulting func. is unate, we shall consider unate func.s as +ve unate func.s in all variables

Ex: Unate func. x1 ' x2 x3 ' + x2 x3 ' x4 can be converted to x1 x2 x3 + x2 x3 x4 ( i.e., +ve unate func. in all variables ) using the relabelings x1 ' x1 & x3 ' x3 for theorem refer page 9

- Chapter 7Uploaded bymansour
- cc niceUploaded bySaira Ginu
- 106A - Computer Organization and ArchitectureUploaded bySohail Khan
- 5varKMUploaded byPutut Kriswanto
- 3_booleanAlgebraUploaded byAndrew Kisch
- Lesson Plan DeUploaded byPrasanna Bandaru
- Computer Science 37 Hw 1Uploaded byAlexander Taylor
- Hardware Lecture 04Uploaded byTaqi Shah
- Question Bank XiiUploaded byVIKAS AGNIHOTRI
- Adic Assignment - 3 Without WmUploaded byMATHANKUMAR.S
- CDA3101 F13 HW1 AssignmentUploaded bysome_donkus
- Boolean Algebra And Karnaugh Map SimplificationUploaded bydigitales
- Programmable Logic Array.docxUploaded bysrividya0444
- MELJUN CORTES HANDOUTS_Combinational Logic (Part 2)Uploaded byMELJUN CORTES, MBA,MPA
- Solution Manual for Digital Systems Design Using VHDL 3rd Edition by RothUploaded bya193972639
- mechanical_unit_manager_3HAC028797-001_revA_en.pdfUploaded byGokerAkgun
- Digital Design Fundamentals (Ch.3 - Gate Level Minimization)Uploaded byAnonymous U9IGEgIh7V
- 07-Chapter 7 - Logic CircuitsUploaded byJagadeesh Kumar
- Using Workflow and Session Parameter File SimultaneouslyUploaded bysaggitarian
- PaperUploaded byAftab Rasool Bhatti
- EKOP (1996) PIN.pdfUploaded byUsman Arief
- Logic Circuits and Switching Theory CPE 004 (TIP Reviewer)Uploaded byJames Lindo
- Optimization of the Quine-McCluskey MethodUploaded byAli Ahmad
- Parametric ReleaseUploaded byshdph
- Get PDF 3Uploaded byKavin Kumar J
- EEM16 Lecture 2 UCLAUploaded byDustin Rudiger
- unit1 qpUploaded bygokila_dr9897
- minterms.pdfUploaded byoszem
- 39. COPA PlanningUploaded bypmenocha8799
- Tema_6Uploaded bySergio Valverde Parra

- Instructions to Candidates_2Uploaded byAkash Hulkod
- Karnataka Public Service Commission Recruitment - Official Notification for Assistants 2017Uploaded byKshitija
- LetterUploaded byAkash Hulkod
- 95th to 113 AmendmentUploaded byramumarada
- Train TicktUploaded byAkash Hulkod
- Syllabus Excise InspectUploaded byAkash Hulkod
- CSUploaded byAkash Hulkod
- CSUploaded byAkash Hulkod
- K-SET_Notification-2017-Eng.pdfUploaded byChristy Kuruvilla Thomas Malathettu
- rUploaded byAkash Hulkod
- Dry Dehusking Machine 50Uploaded byAkash Hulkod
- Arecanut Cutter SynopsisUploaded byAkash Hulkod
- Instructions to CandidatesUploaded byAkash Hulkod
- 05211084Uploaded byAkash Hulkod
- Telephone ForestsUploaded byrnkaushal
- prasarbhartiUploaded byAkash Hulkod
- Shannon 2Uploaded byAkash Hulkod
- 06334165Uploaded byAkash Hulkod
- CSUploaded byAjaysn
- KEY_ECUploaded byAkash Hulkod
- BadgerUploaded byAkash Hulkod
- Pgcet Note of 2012Uploaded byAkash Hulkod
- SA ConferenceUploaded byAkash Hulkod
- M Tech Dec09 Jan10Uploaded byAkash Hulkod
- Hoffman Update - The Ethics of CryonicsUploaded byAkash Hulkod
- Digital Electronics Scheme for M.Tech courseUploaded byAkash Hulkod
- prasar bharthiUploaded byAkash Hulkod
- Avlsi q PapersUploaded byAkash Hulkod
- Mtech Ext Open 2012Uploaded byAkash Hulkod

- Outline(1)Uploaded byPerry Lam
- Lecture 41-42 Quadratic Optimal ControlUploaded byVeena Divya Krishnappa
- 4Uploaded byArnav Guddu
- Algebra_IUploaded byCorey Wilds
- simulationUploaded byaows
- Mathematical symbols list (+,-,x,_,=,_,_,..Uploaded byVinoth S
- [International Journal of Electronics and Telecommunications] Synthesis of the Magnetic Field Using Transversal 3D Coil System.pdfUploaded byOlga Blagojevic
- W4 Revision Maths F4Uploaded bybidarihassan
- 3 Analytical kinematics.pdfUploaded by27AlokKumar
- 14-2Uploaded byksr131
- fortranUploaded byjimusos
- h2 Mathematics Practice Paper 1 for Prelim Exam 2011Uploaded byAugustine Ng
- Normal DistributionUploaded byMohamed Abd El-Moniem
- Algorith Analysis - TSP with backtrackingUploaded byall4downloads
- Fuzzy SetsUploaded byaryo_el06
- New Results for Sorli’s Conjecture on Odd Perfect Numbers - Part IIIUploaded byBebita-Dris Jose Arnaldo
- Newmarks Method Script1Uploaded byKintu Joel
- DrakeUploaded byRobin Chicaiza
- 2010 TPJC Prelim Paper 2Uploaded bycjcsucks
- Optimization of Blended Composite Wing Panels Using Smeared Stiffness Technique and Lamination ParametersUploaded byAltairEnlighten
- CosineUploaded bySohaib Aslam
- subtitulo.srtUploaded byrichard
- 21 Syllabus M.sc Mathematics SyllabusUploaded byShubham
- Bounds on the Metric Dimension of GraphsUploaded byIJRASETPublications
- Force AnalysisUploaded byHoozefa J. Shaikh
- CalcI CompleteUploaded byAnthony Loriem
- Divisibility SolutionsUploaded byMehwish Ali
- FEM Imperial college.pdfUploaded bythadikkaran
- Mathematical Model.pdfUploaded byCasey Long
- Vectors,the Scalar Product,algebra notes from A-level Maths Tutor.comUploaded byA-level Maths Tutor