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PETRONAS Research Sdn. Bhd.

What is Mercury
Mercury In The Oil and Gas Industry Managing Mercury in PETRONAS PRSB Hg Research Team

What is Mercury
Mercury occurs in hydrocarbons as a natural occurring geological contaminant Distribution of mercury species depends on the type of medium.

A toxic contaminant, dangerous to personnel, can affect HSE and also the integrity of plant equipments Harmful to health, process equipment and environment

Types of Mercury Species

HgCl2 CH3Hg CH3 HgR2 HgS HgI2 Hgo Hg2+ Hgo CH3HgC2H5 C2H5HgC2H5


Elemental Mercury (Hg) - Vapor and Metallic Liquid - Natural Gas and Air

Inorganic Mercury (HgCl2, HgS) - Soil, Sludge and Water - Solid and Ionic Liquid

Organic Mercury (R2Hg) - Natural Gas, Air, Liquid Hydrocarbon - Water and Biomasses - Vapour and Organic Liquid

Sources of Mercury
Natural sources Anthropogenic sources


Combustion point sources.

Weathering of rocks.

Industrial and domestic discharge.

Industrial Sources of Mercury

Paints industries

Coal fired power plants

Electrical industries

Chlorine and caustic soda plants

Petroleum industries

Broad Spectrum Impact of Mercury

Bio Accumulates

Harmful to Health

Harmful to Process Equipment

Harmful to Environment

Hg accumulation

Minamata Incident

Al Heat Exchanger

Global Hg dispersion (weather)

[Hg] increases higher the food chain

Work - PPE Liq. Metal Embrittlement (LME)

Environ. Hg Cycle

Health Effects Mercury

Brain neuron Degeneration

(Study by Uni. Of Calgary)

Birth defects/retardation
(Minamata Children)

Excessive body tremors

Memory Loss

Mood swings Uncontrollable nervousness

Source: USEPA Health Effects of Mercury DISCLAIMER: Symptoms not solely caused by Hg poisoning. May also be caused by other toxic substances/diseases. Symptoms of Hg posoning may also display in other forms.

What is Mercury Mercury In The Oil and Gas Industry
Managing Mercury in PETRONAS PRSB Hg Research Team

Mercury In The Oil & Gas Industry

Hg exist in trace levels in natural gas, condensate and crude oil as natural non hydrocarbon contaminant. Oil and gas contributed about 16% of total Hg contamination (1986). Harmful to hydrocarbon processing plants. Can accumulate / deposit inside process units / metals. Health hazards / exposure to workers.

Explosion at Sonatrachs -Skikda (Algeria) LNG Plant

Men at work

Elemental Mercury

Mercury In The Oil & Gas Industry

Different concentration of Hg depending on the geographic locations.
Location Mercury Concentration Gas (g m -3) Europe South America Gulf of Thailand Africa Gulf of Mexico USA) Overthrust Belt (USA) North Africa Malaysia Indonesia 100 - 150 50 - 120 100 - 400 80 - 100 0.02 - 0.4 5 - 15 50 - 80 1- 200 200 - 300 Liquids (g kg-1) 50 - 100 400 - 1200 500 - 1000 15 20 50 10- 100 10 - 500

Estimated world levels of Mercury in natural gas and condensate

Bigham, M.D., " Field Detection and Implications of Mercury in Natural Gas", SPE Prod. Eng., May 1990, 120-124. Wilhelm, S.M., and McArthur, A., "Removal and Treatment of Mercury Contamination at Gas Processing Plant", Soc. of Pet. Eng., (SPE No. 29721).

Mercury In The Oil & Gas Industry

Equipment corrosion (aluminum and welded area) Stress cracking Liquid metal enbrittlement Aluminum oxidation Catalyst Poisoning Deactivation of active sites Hydrogenation catalyst Contaminated spent catalyst / adsorbent Contaminated process units and products Decontamination process Health and safety concerns Lower product value / Off spect Possible explosion Formation of Hg-N and Hg-N-O in ammonia plant
Aluminum Heat Exchanger

Catalyst deactivation

Filter change out

Mercury In Malaysia



Hg Concern



Guntong D


Bekok C
Sotong Collector


Trend on mercury concentration from offshore hydrocarbon is increasing.

Distribution of Mercury in PETRONAS facilities





Gas Processing Plants Petrochemical Refineries Plants & Export

End User

Mercury is being distributed along our pipelines, process units and final products

What is Mercury
Mercury In The Oil and Gas Industry

Managing Mercury in PETRONAS

PRSB Hg Research Team

Mercury Management is the Niche Technology as in PETRONAS Technology Agenda approved by PETRONAS MC
Aspiration/ Vision A Leading Oil & Gas Multinational of Choice by Businesses Technology Vision E&P Integrated Seismic Technology Integrated Basin Analysis Reservoir Characterisation Focus Areas & Modeling for Future Oil Positioning Enhanced Recovery (Water Alternating Gas) CO2 Management GAS Leadership in selective technology; leveraging new technology for future positioning OIL PETCHEM NEW ENERGY RESOURCE Unconventional Hydrocarbons Heavy Oil Oil Shale Methane Hydrates Oil Sands Solar Biomass Clean Coal Technology New Energy Resources FRONTIER TECHNOLOGY Nanotechnology Hydrogen Green Technologies

Mercury Management Stranded Gas Monetisation with Floating Facilities

Refining Catalysis Technology Development of Top Tier/ OEM Lubes Treatment of Low Quality Crudes Biofuels Biolubes

Bio-Polymers Nano Polymer Compounds Alternative Feedstock Technology New Value Added Derivatives

Develop highly qualified technical leaders to spearhead development of key, pacing and emerging technologies by driving technology initiatives from concept until implementation Triple Plus Targets Build strong capabilities in technology focus areas in E&P, Gas, Oil and Petchem in line with the Corporate Agenda as well as to position PETRONAS for future competitive advantage Build conviction that Technology creates Value
Ver 3 - approved on 3 March 2008

Revised as key technology under the E & P

PETRONAS Mercury Management Roadmap

Hg HgComprehensive ComprehensiveStudy Study Develop Hg Database (Hg level for current, new Develop Hg Database (Hg level for current, new and future fields) and future fields) Assess Current Available Technologies Assess Current Available Technologies Formulate and research priorities for Formulate andset set research priorities for mercury mitigation program mercury mitigation program Enhance Enhance Hg Hg Mitigation Mitigation Program Program and and Hg Hg Risk Risk Assessment Assessment Identify Identify Future Future Requirements Requirements

Niche player in Hg Management



2008 2007

Operate Hg removal technologies Operate Hg removal technologies Bench-scale Task Specific Ionic Bench-scale Task Specific Ionic Liquids developed Liquids developed

M ER T 2005 RT O SH

Short-listing Short-listingviable viabletechnologies technologiesand and development of new technologies development of new technologies Piloting of new technologies Piloting of new technologies Embark on research Embark on researchprojects: projects:Removal Removal Ionic Ionic Liquids, Measurement OMMS Liquids, Measurement OMMS Setting Settingup upHg HgManagement Management Committee Committee Preliminary Study Preliminary Study Baseline BaselineStudy Study& &Mercury MercuryMapping Mapping Control Diagnostic Control Diagnostic

PRSB Journey in Mercury Studies

Over 15 years experience

1999 1997 1993 1989
y Received first Hg Analyser (PSA) y Establish anal. method for gas and water sample y Initiate Hg Analytical & Monitoring Program y Hg removal pilot plant study at GPP1 y Hg Assessment for 8 OPUs y Performance Evaluation of MRU (PGB) y Establish sampling and AnalMethod for C3 & C4 y Study the effects of Hg on process units
COALESCER PERFORMANCE-JDS (30/04/06 - 18/10/06)


y First research project on Hg for PGB y Develop anal. technique Conventional & Unconventional

y Most comprehensive Hg analytical facilities in Malaysia y Develop inhouse methods: - Total Hg y New Hg analyser Analyzer* & Hg y Provide support & Speciation (PhD) technical consultancy y Evaluation of MRU services for OPUs & Adsorbent third parties y Establish anal. & y Establish linkage with monitoring Prog for other lab & OPUs & third parties companies outside Malaysia y Provide technical support for OPUs

BEFORE coalescer
AFTER coalescer







Ti me ( d a t e : hr s)

*Technique has won the first prize: Innovative Category by Royal Society of Chemistry (RIC), UK (March 2000) & technique is adopted by PSA latest analyser.

PRSB Journey in Mercury Studies

Over 15 years experience
2006 2005 2004
y Hg bed performance and verification for PGB y Develop Hg Bed Profile study for MLNG y Develop and implement Hg Handling procedure for PMO y Complete Hg Baseline study for GPP A and B facilities y Evaluation of Hg removal technology for raw natural gas condensate y Pilot study for removal for produced water y Hg Assessment for resak y Development of online production facilities mercury measurement y Hg Assessment for system for High Pressure Yetagun and Kambauk, liquid Hydrocarbon Myanmar. y Development of ionic liquid y First Hg Removal for for Hg removal in various Raw Condensate project hydrocarbon streams. executed y Development of PETRONAS y Hg Performance study (in-house ) Hg management for Raw Condensate procedure and guideline Removal Installation y Evaluation of potential technology for Hg removal for produced water y Pilot study for removal for produced water

2007 - beyond

y Hg bed performance and verification for PGB Miri y Development of Hg Mgmt precedure for Peninsular Malaysia Operation(PMO) begain y Develop Hg Hazmat handling for PMO y Hg awareness for PGB and PCSB y Develop Hg Hazmat procedure for Pigging and cleaning y Develop Hg Specific Health Risk assessment for PMO

Mercury Niche Technology in PETRONAS Hg Niche Technology

Removal & Disposal



Hg removal from raw condensate Online Hg Measurement Hg removal from produced water: System 9 SAAMS filters 9 Bentonite based adsorbent

Task Specific Ionic Liqs

Mercury Niche Technology in PETRONAS

Removal & Disposal
1. Hg Removal From Raw Condensate at OGT Kertih (MRU) Worlds first mercury removal unit for liquid hydrocarbon application (NG condensate). Installed at RDS and JDS (OGT).

C A B Colour of condensate before and after MRU

JDS Mercury Removal System Onshore Gas Terminal, Kerteh

JDS Mercury Removal System Fully Installed and Completed

The JDS MRU successfully removed Mercury with a removal efficiency of > 96%

RDS Mercury Removal System Onshore Gas Terminal, Kerteh

RDS Mercury Removal System Fully Installed and Completed

The RDS MRU successfully removed Mercury with a removal efficiency of > 99%

Mercury Niche Technology in PETRONAS

Removal & Disposal
2. Hg Removal in Produce Water (RESAK Platform) - SAAMS SAMMS ~ Self-Assembled Monolayers on Mesoporous Supports. Created by attaching a monolayer of molecules to mesoporous ceramic supports. A thiol-functional group attached at the each free end of the monolayer is designed to selectively bind mercury molecules.

Self-assembled monolayers on mesoporous supports (SAMMS)

Self-assembled monolayers

Mercury Niche Technology in PETRONAS Test Results for SAAMS

Above chart indicate the performance of the adsorbent. Testing lasted > 25 days. As the throughput (flowrate) into the test skid increased, the mercury concentration at the outlet test skid will increased. The lowest concentration (0-2 ppb) was achieved at 4.8 GPM (series), while the highest concentration (18-25 ppb) was achieved at 9.7 GPM.

Mercury Removal from Produced Water Resak Platform (SAAMS)

Test rig

SAMMS filters


Filter change out



Removal & Disposal

Mercury Removal from Produced Water Resak Platform (Bentonite based adsorbent)

3. Hg Removal in Produce Water (RESAK Platform) Bentonite (organoclay) MR Media Ability to remove organic and elemental mercury. Carrier: Sodium Bentonite coated with Quaternary Amine (avoid swelling due to H2O). Impregnated with sulfur.

MR (+) Media Ability to remove all types of mercury compounds. Carrier: Sodium Bentonite coated with Quaternary Amine Made utilizing silane (silicone + alkane) chemistry. Impregnated with sulfur.

Mercury Removal from Produced Water Resak Platform (Bentonite based adsorbent)

Tie in location of MercSorb adsorbent rig on Mercury Removal Test Skid.

Although operating at high flow rate, the adsorbent is still able to remove Hg effectively (< 2ppb).

Mercury Niche Technology in PETRONAS

Development of Online Mercury Measurement System for High Pressure Liquid Hydrocarbon
Hg monitoring of MRU is conducted manually (sampling and analysis).

Current practice

Laborious & may lead to personnel exposure as well as inaccurate results. Hg monitoring is expensive.

Automates entire monitoring process Acquisition of real-time mercury levels Minimizes, if not eliminates personnel exposure during monitoring Will be the first online Hg measurement system for high pressure liq. hydrocarbons


Mercury Niche Technology in PETRONAS

Process Streams (e.g. MRU)

Manual Sampling

Manual Analysis

Manual approach

Sample Introduction System

Sample Treatment

Detection System

Data Logging System

A fully Automated System


Mercury Niche Technology in PETRONAS

Development of Task Specific Ionic Liquids for Mercury Removal for applications in the Petroleum Industry Allows for custom designed IL that exhibit the necessary chemical, physical and toxicological attributes needed to remove mercury.
Task Specific ILs

Removal of various species of mercury from various hydrocarbon streams. Portrays PETRONAS as being distinctive in the area of mercury management.



Heavy Metals Removal Studies (Bioremediation)

Heavy Metals


Hg Removal (PPMSB)


Screen various plants

Land farm Mercury Arsenic

Sludge farm

Sampling Lab analysis

*Treatment or removal of heavy metals utilizing plants.

PETRONAS Mercury Management Guideline (PHgMG)

8 Chapter collection

The Mercury Management Committee (away-day)

Worlds first Mercury Management Guideline. Championed by GBU. Contains 8 Chapters. Covers everything from sampling, analysis, engineering, HSE, waste handling, and more.

Handover ceremony to GTS completed

PETRONAS Mercury Management Guideline (PHgMG) Area Coverage in PHgMG CHAPTER 0 CHAPTER 1 CHAPTER 2 CHAPTER 3 CHAPTER 4 CHAPTER 5 CHAPTER 6 CHAPTER 7 CHAPTER 8 Preface Background Hg Sampling in Various Mediums Hg Measurement Hg Risk Management Hg Removal System Hg Decontamination Guidelines Hg Waste Management Hg Emergency Response Plan (ERP) AREA COVERAGE

PETRONAS Mercury Management CoP on AXIS

Mercury Management Community of Practice

PETRONAS Mercury Management Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow

Development of task specific ionic liquid mercury removal for various streams 2007-2010 On-line mercury measurement system for high pressure condensate 2007-2010 Jointly developed PETRONAS first guideline Hg on management 2007-2008 Mercury removal for produced water 2006-2007 Mercury speciation study for GPP including flaring system 2006 Mercury speciation study for Resak 2006 Mercury removal project for high pressure raw NG condensate 2005-2006 Mercury removal for naphtha stream (PPMSB) 2002 Development of mercury management procedure 2004 Mercury removal Bed Profiling 2003-2005 Development of Mercury Speciation for light liquid hydrocarbon 1998-1999 Development of Rapid method for total mercury for NG condensate 1996-1999 Mercury base line study for various PETRONAS OPUs 1997, 2002, 2004, 2005, 2006 Mercury Removal in Malaysian Natural Gas pilot plant study 1989 Achievements Ongoing project/s

What is Mercury
Mercury In The Oil and Gas Industry Managing Mercury in PETRONAS

PRSB Hg Research Team


PETRONAS Research SDN. BHD. 2006 Petroleum Research & Scientific Services 1992 Petroleum Research Institute 1988 Laboratory Service Dept. 1978

Hg Research Team Members

Dr. Azman Bin Shafawi

Tg M Uzaini Bin Tg Mat

Mahpuzah Bt Abai

Sharizal Bin M Azam Shah Wong

M Hanif Bin M Halim

M Faizal Bin Taha

Mercury Testing Facilities at PRSB

Portable Hg Analyser Merlin - Cold Vapour Atomic Flouresence Spectrometry

Total Mercury Analyser - Vaporiser-AFS

PSA Sir Galahad - Mercury vapour analyser FIMS - Cold Vapour Atomic Adsorption Spectrometry Mercury Speciation -GC-AFS

Adsorption Rig for Hg Adsorbent Test

PRSB Hg Research Team Community Linkages


Service Entities

Technology Entities


Working together directly and/or indirectly with selected entities.

Thank You