The L-293D is quadruple high-current half-H drivers.

The L-293D is mainframe to provide bidirectional drive currents of up 600mA at voltages from 4.5V to 36V. Both devices are designs to drive inductive load such as relays, solenoids, DC and bipolar servo motor. For examples as an L-293D is used for power supply both servo motor operated. Programmable Interface Controller (PIC) Microcontroller is a computer control system on a single chip. It has many electronic built into it, which can decode written instructions and convert it to electrical signals. For example like PIC16F84 used for control machine type signal receiver and operated in specified action when the signal received. In the end of this project, the line follower robot should be able to drive autonomously to finish the whole route without any control by human being.

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METHODOLOGY

A. Introduction Assembly Component We need combining a lot of circuits to make a line follower robot; infrared sensor is control for direction turning, LM7805 voltage regulator to convert a constant 5V output from high voltage, Quadruple Half-H driver L-293D connect to power supply both of the servo motor and etc. The below is shown what the function of all the components we have been using during the experiment.

1. Electronics Components 1.1. LM7805 Voltage Regulator The LM7805 voltage regulators of three terminal positive regulators are available in the TO-220 package and with several fixed output voltage, making them useful in a wide range of application. Each type employs internal current limiting, thermal shut down and safe operating area protection, making it essentially indestructible. Figure 1.1a is proving the graphical diagram of LM7805 voltage regulator. Figure 1.1b is proving the schematic diagram of LM7805 voltage regulator.

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Figure 1.1a: The graphical diagram of LM7805 voltage regulator.

Figure 1.1b: The schematic diagram of LM7805 voltage regulator.

1.2. Infrared Sensor (IR Sensor) An infrared sensor is an electronic device that transmitter (white) and receiver (black) infrared radiation in order to sense some aspect of its surroundings. Infrared sensors can measure the heat of an object, as well as detect motion. The function of infrared sensor in the robot is corrected move on the route when the routes are curved. Figure 1.2a is showing graphical diagram of infrared sensor; figure 1.2b is showing schematic diagram of infrared sensor.

Figure 1.2a: The graphical diagram of infrared sensor.

Figure 1.2b: The schematic diagram of infrared sensor.

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3b: The schematic diagram of Polarized Capacitors. Capacitors Capacitors store electric change. usually 250V or so. to supply small value and up to 1µF only. Unpolarized Capacitors and Variable Capacitors.3. 5 . to supply large values and up to 1µF ++. Figure 1. figure 1. Figure 1.3a is showing the graphical diagram of Polarized Capacitors.1. There have three type capacitor are Polarized Capacitors. Figure 1. Unpolarized Capacitors is small value capacitors and connected either way round.3b is showing the schematic diagram of Polarized Capacitors. because a leads have separated two part are „‟+‟‟ and „‟-„‟. figure 1. Polarized Capacitors are polarize and must be connected in the correct way. Figure 1. But it has high voltage ratings of at least 50V.3c is showing the graphical diagram of Unpolarized Capacitors.3a: The graphical diagram of Polarized Capacitors. Basically. capacitors easily pass AC (changing) signals but they block DC (constant) signals. The voltage rating of polarized capacitors can supply minimum 25V. They are used to smooth varying DC power supplies by acting as a reservoir of charge.3d is showing the schematic diagram of Unpolarized Capacitors.

3e is showing the graphical diagram of Variable Capacitors.3d: The schematic diagram of Unpolarized Capacitors. Figure 1.3c: The graphical diagram of Unpolarized Capacitors.Figure 1.3f: The schematic diagram of Variable Capacitors. . figure 1. The type illustrated usually has trimmers built in as well as the main variable capacitor.3f is showing the schematic diagram of Variable Capacitors. 6 . Figure 1. generally between 100pF and 500pF. Figure 1. It has very small capacitance values. Figure 1.3e: The graphical diagram of Variable Capacitors. Variable capacitors are mostly used in radio tuning circuit.

4b: The schematic diagram of diode.1. figure 1. Diode Diodes allow electricity to flow in only one direction. figure 1.4c: The graphical diagram of Figure 1.4d is showing the schematic diagram of zener diode. the diagram may be labeled either + for anode and k or – for cathode.4d: The schematic diagram of zener diode. Figure 1. Zener diodes also one of the diode and used to maintain a fixed voltage.4a: The graphical diagram of diode. diode must be connected the correct way round.4. Besides that. They are designed to “breakdown” in a reliable and non-destructive way so that they can be used in reverse to maintain a fixed voltage across their terminal. zener diode. Figure 1. Figure 1.4a is showing the graphical diagram of diode. Figure 1. 7 .4b is showing the schematic diagram of diode. Figure 1. The arrow of the circuit symbol show the direction in which the current can flow.4c is showing the graphical diagram of zener diode.

normally close (NC) and normally open (NO).6a: The graphical diagram of relays. Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) LED when an electric current flow through them. The application of LED is indicating what frequency signal transmit out. Figure 1. figure 1. Figure 1. figure 1.6. LED is same as diode‟s connection.5b is showing the schematic diagram of LED.6b: The schematic diagram of relays.1. Figure 1.5a is showing the graphical diagram of LED. .6b is showing the schematic diagram of relays.6a is showing the graphical diagram of relays. Figure 1. 1. Current flowing through the coil of the relay creates a magnetic field which attracts a lever and changes the switch contact. 8 .5a: The graphical diagram of LED. There are two type of contact. Figure 1. Relays A relay is an electrically operated switch.5. Used the relay to switch on the directional signal LED for specified turn left or turn right of line follower robot. Figure 1.5b: The schematic diagram of LED.

Figure 1. figure 1.7a is showing the graphical diagram of resistors.7b: The schematic diagram of resistors. for example a resistor is places in series with a light-emitting diode (LED) to limit the current flowing through the LED.7. Figure 1.7a: The graphical diagram of resistors.7b is showing the schematic diagram of resistors. The Resistor Colour Code Colour Number Black 0 Brown 1 Red 2 Orange 3 Yellow 4 Green 5 Blue 6 Violet 7 Grey 8 White 9 Figure 1.1. resistor values are normally shown using color bands. In addition. Resistors Resistors restrict the flow of electric current. The following below is a table of each colour represents a number. 9 .

Besides that. However.1. variable resistors have separated two type are potentiometer and preset variable resistors. presets are much cheaper than potentiometer so we are used this preset in our project. Variable Resistors Variable resistors consist of a resistance track with connect at both ends and a wiper which moves along the track as you turn the spindle.8c: The schematic diagram type of variable resistors.8. Figure 1.8b is showing the graphical diagram type of variable resistors. The potentiometer and preset variable resistors have all three terminals connected.8c is showing the schematic diagram type of variable resistors. 10 . The track may be made from carbon. The Figure 1. Figure 1.8b: The graphical diagram type of variable resistors.8a: Terminal diagram of variable resistors. figure 1.8a is a terminal diagram of variable resistors. Figure 1. Figure 1. ceramic and metal mixture or a coil of wire.

9a is showing the graphical diagram type of transistor. single throw) switch. with different circuit symbols.10. the transistors can be used as a switch and as an amplifier. Figure 1. relay or other high current devices. collector (C) and emitter (E). There are much type of switch like SPST (single pole.9a: The graphical diagram type of transistor. for example like can be used to amplify the small output current from a logic IC so that it can operate a lamp. Line follower robot have used two types of switches. Switches In electronics. DPST (double pole. Push-button switch and etc.9. The NPN transistor is the easiest type to produce from silicon. There are two types of standard transistor. We are used this switch to contact with the battery 11 . figure 1.9b is showing the schematic diagram type of transistor. SPDT (single pole.9b: The schematic diagram type of transistor. Transistor Transistors amplify current. Figure 1. 1. DPDT (double pole. double throw) switch. a switch is an electrical component that can terminate an electrical. Figure 1. single throw) switch. double throw). switching on a separate device in each case. stop the current or contact with one conductor to another. In addition.1. there are SPDT switch and Pushbutton switch. The SPDT Switch can be on in both positions. NPN and PNP. It is often called changeover switch. The transistors have three leads are labeled base (B).

10c: The graphical diagram of Push-button Switch. Figure 1. A push-button switch is a simple switch mechanism for controlling some aspect of a machine or a process.11a is showing the graphical diagram of crystal oscillator.5V.6V and 6.11b is showing the schematic diagram of crystal oscillator. Figure 1.11. Figure 1.10a: The graphical diagram of SPDT Switch.10d is showing the schematic diagram of Push-button Switch. We use the push-button to control line follower robot on remote control circuit. 12 .10b is showing the schematic diagram of SPDT Switch. Crystal Oscillator A crystal oscillator is an electronic that uses the mechanical resonance of a vibrating crystal of piezoelectric material to create an electrical signal with a very accuracy frequency.9.10d: The schematic diagram of Push-button Switch. figure 1. Figure 1.10a is showing the graphical diagram of SPDT Switch. Figure 1.10b: The schematic diagram of SPDT Switch. figure 1. figure 1. 1. Figure 1. Figure 1.10c is showing the graphical diagram of Push-button Switch.

Figure 1.11a: The graphical diagram of crystal oscillator.

Figure 1.11b: The schematic diagram of crystal oscillator.

1.12. LED Arrow Display LED Arrow Display is used to indicate direction of turning in the line follower robot (I-Car). Figure 1.12a is showing the graphical diagram of LED Arrow Display.

Figure 1.12a: The graphical diagram of LED Arrow Display.

2. Integrated Circuits (IC) 2.1. LM393 Dual Differential Comparator LM393 consist of two independent voltage comparators designed to operate from a single power supply over a wide voltage range. There are two inputs, labelled inverting and noninverting because of the phase relation of the input and output signals. So we used inverting amplifier connected with infrared sensor. When non- detect object the infrared sensor the
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input is 1 (high) then inverting the signal of infrared sensor become 0 (low); the input is 0 (low) when the infrared sensor is touched, the voltage regulator will invert the signal become 1 (high). Operation from split power is also possible and the low power supply current drain is in dependent of the magnitude of the power supply voltage. The LM393 series is available in standard DIP-8, SOP-8 and TSSOP-8 packages. Figure 2.1a is showing LM393 series standard‟s graphical diagram. Figure 2.1b is showing schematic diagram of LM393.

Figure 2.1a: The LM393 series standard‟s graphical diagram.

Figure 2.1b: The schematic diagram of LM393

2.2. 74LS04 Hex Inverters 74LS04 hex inverter is a device contains six independent Input 0 1 0 = low, 1 = high Output positive inverters. Pins 14 and 7 provide power for all six 1 logic gates. Inverter is a logic gate which operated logical 0 negation. The truth table is shown on the left. The 7404 is an inverting buffer, especially useful when the output of

one circuit cannot sink much current. Used this logic gate is getting signal from LM393
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Dual Differential Comparator then transfer to Quadruple Half-H driver L-293D to make the servo changed direction when touched the infrared sensor. Figures 2.2a is showing graphical diagram of 74LS04 Hex Inverters; figure 2.2b is showing schematic diagram of 74LS04 Hex Inverters.

Figure 2.2a: The graphical diagram of 74LS04 Hex inverters.

Figure 2.2b: The schematic diagram of 74LS04 Hex Inverters.

2.3. Quadruple Half-H driver L-293D The L-293D is quadruple high-current half-H drivers. The L-293D is designed to provide bidirectional drive current of up to 600-mA at voltages from 4.5V to 36V. Both devices are designed to drive inductive loads such as relays, solenoids, DC and bipolar servo motor, as well as other high-current/high-voltage loads in positive supply applications. If want to drive 1 and 2 channels, the 1,2EN must enabled by 5V or OV. In same driver, want to drive 3 and 4 channels, make sure the 3,4EN have been enabled. This device is enabled in pairs. Figure 2.3a is showing graphical diagram of Quadruple Half-H driver L-293D; figure 2.3b is showing schematic diagram of Quadruple Half-H driver L-293D.

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Figure 2. PT2262 is a transmitter for sent signal to receiver PT2272.4a is showing the graphical diagram of Multiplexer IC PT2262.3a: The graphical diagram of Quadruple Half-H driver L-293D. Figure 2. 16 .4b: The schematic diagram of DeMultiplexer IC PT2262. Figure 2.4a: The graphical diagram of De-Multiplexer IC PT2262. Figure 2. It encodes data and address pins into a serial coded waveform suitable for RF or IR modulation.4b is showing the schematic diagram of De-Multiplexer IC PT2262. Multiplexer IC PT2262 PT2262 is a remote control encoder paired with PT2272.4.Figure 2. PT2262 has a maximum of 12 bits of tri-state address pins providing up to 312 address codes. figure 2.3b: The schematic diagram of Quadruple Half-H driver L-293D. 2.

Figure 2. The microcontroller will then step through these instructions and execute them one by one.5.5a is showing the graphical diagram of De-Multiplexer IC PT2272. it has 18 pins to control system and provided 64-bytes of data EEPROM memory have the address range 0h-3Fh. 68 bytes of RAM data memory. It has 12-bit of tri-state address pins providing a maximum of 312 address codes.5a: The graphical diagram of DeMultiplexer IC PT2272. Figure 2. 8-bit timer with pre-scaler. external 17 .5b: The schematic diagram of DeMultiplexer IC PT2272. latch or momentary output type. figure 2. De-Multiplexer PT2272 PT2272 is a remote control decoder paired with PT2262. 2. It has many electronic circuits built into it. variable number of data output pins. Figure 2. It offer 1024 x 14 flash program memory.6.2. PIC16F84A Microcontroller A microcontroller is a computer control system on a single chip. PT2272 is available in several options to suitable each application need. The PIC16F84A can operate at up to 20MHz clock speed. 13 I/O pins. PIC16F84A Microcontroller is one of PIC microcontroller used into our project. which can decode written instructions and convert them to electrical signal.5b is showing the schematic diagram of De-Multiplexer IC PT2272.

It is supported 8 bit. Figure 2.6b: The schematic diagram of PIC16F84A Microcontroller. and large current sink and source capability. ICSP Programmer Socket is an optional socket that can be used with USB ICSP PIC Programmer to program several types of 18/28/40 pins PIC microcontroller. Figure 2.and internal interrupt sources. figure 2. 16 bit and 32 bit PIC microcontroller.6a is showing the graphical diagram of PIC16F84A Microcontroller.7a is showing the graphical diagram of USB ICSP PIC Programmer & ICSP Programmer Socket. 18 .6b is showing the schematic diagram of PIC16F84A Microcontroller. Figure 2.7a: The graphical diagram of USB ICSP PIC Programmer & ICSP Programmer Socket.7. 2.6a: The graphical diagram of PIC16F84A Microcontroller. Figure 2. USB ICSP PIC Programmer & ICSP Programmer Socket USB ICSP PIC Programmer is designed to program popular Flash PIC microcontroller. Figure 2.

1b: The schematic diagram of single core equipment wire. Figure 3.1.1a is showing the graphical diagram of single core equipment wire.1a: The graphical diagram of single core equipment wire. A wire is one of cable that is a single conductor which may have an outer layer of insulation usually plastic. Use it for connection which will not be disturbed external elements. This is one solid wire with a plastic coating available in a wide variety of colors. Cables and Connectors A cable is an assembly of one or more conductors with some flexible. figure 3.2a is showing the graphical diagram of heat sinks. Transistor and voltage regulators are becoming hot to touch it certainly needs a heat sink! The heat sink helps to remove the heat by transferring it to surrounding air. Figure 3.3. Heat Sinks Release heat is produced in transistors and voltage regulator due to current flowing through it.1b is showing the schematic diagram of single core equipment wire. Hardware Equipment 3. Figure 3. 19 . 3. Figure 3.2. We use single core equipment wire to links between points of a circuit board.

Multimeter Multimeter are very useful test instruments.3a: The graphical diagram of Multimeter.3a is showing the graphical diagram of Multimeter. 20 .3. 3. Figure 3. an ammeter or an ohmmeter.Figure 3. This is most important to test instrument and component of line follower robot. By operating a multi-position switch on the meter it can be quickly and easily set to be a voltmeter.2a: The graphical diagram of heat sinks. it consist of “+” (Red) and “–” (Black). This also have two probes for testing components. Figure 3. They have several settings called range for each type of meter and the choice of AC and DC.

4. Breadboard A breadboard is used to build up temporary circuits for testing or try out an idea.5.4a is showing the graphical diagram of Breadboard.3. it is cheaper than PCB. Figure 3.5a is showing the graphical diagram of Stripboard. Figure 3.5a: The graphical diagram of Stripboard. 21 . Figure 3. soldered circuits. Figure 3. (Right Hand Side = Behind View). No soldering required so it is easy to change connection and replace components. It is ideal for small circuits with one or two ICs (chips) but with large number of holes it is very easy to connect a component in the wrong place. 3. We used breadboard to make up some basic circuit to be available re-use afterwards.4a: The graphical diagram of Breadboard. However. (Left Hand Side = Front View). Stripboard Stripboard is used to hope up permanent.

They are design especially for each circuit and make construction very easy. For electronics work the best type is one powered by mains electricity‟s 230V in the Malaysia.3.7.6. Figure 3.7a: The graphical diagram of Soldering Iron.6a is showing the graphical diagram of Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs). Figure 3.7a is showing the graphical diagram of Soldering Iron. 22 . Figure 3. Figure 3. Soldering Iron Equipments Soldering Iron Equipment help us to build up a circuit on fixed position.6a: The graphical diagram of Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs). 3. it should be a heatproof cable for safety. Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs) Printed Circuit Boards have copper tracks connecting the holes where the components are placed.

Figure 3. Reel of solder is the most important to melt into the circuit.7b: The graphical diagram of Soldering Iron Stand. must used a tool for removing solder is called Solder Sucker (Desoldering Pump). ). typically 60% tin and 40% lead.7b is showing the graphical diagram of Soldering Iron Stand.Besides that. Solder is allowing of tin and lead. Figure 3. 23 . make it fixed position. Figure 3. It melts at a temperature of about 200° C. When we are desoldering a joint to correct a mistake or replace a component. soldering iron stand give a safe place to put the iron when not holding it.7d is showing the graphical diagram of Reel of Solder.7c is showing the graphical diagram of Solder Sucker (Desoldering Pump). Figure 3.7c: The graphical diagram of Solder Sucker (Desoldering Pump). Figure 3.

Solder paste also known as solder cream is used connecting the termination of integrated chip packages with land patterns on the printed circuit board. 3.7e is showing the graphical diagram of Solder paste. Figure 3. Figure 3. 24 .8a is showing the graphical diagram of Side Cutters. Figure 3.8. Side Cutter A side cutter is for trimming component leads close to the circuit board.Figure 24d: The graphical diagram of Reel of solder.7e is showing the graphical diagram of Solder paste.

3. but it‟s not suitable for trimming component leads.Figure 3. Small Pliers (Snipe Nose) A small plier is usually called „snipe nose‟ pliers.10a is showing the graphical diagram of Wire Strippers.9a: The graphical diagram of Small Pliers. 25 . Figure 3. 3. Figure 3. those are for bending component leads etc. Wire Stripper Besides that.8a: The graphical diagram of Side Cutters. wire strippers are the most designs include a cutter as well.9a is showing the graphical diagram of Small Pliers.9.10. Figure 3.

Figure 3.13a is showing the graphical diagram of Portable Mini Torque Electric Drill. This is more convenience than small electric drill machine with stand. Figure 3.10a: The graphical diagram of Wire Strippers. Figure 3.12a is showing the graphical diagram of Slip Knife.Figure 3.13. Slip Knife Slip knife is useful for cut the wrong connected terminal with each other components on the PCB and Stripboard.12a: The graphical diagram of Slip Knife. 3. Portable Mini Torque Electric Drill Portable mini torque electric drill is used to drill holes on Print Circuit Board when want to insert component on the Print Circuit Board. 3.12. It also can be drilling holes to prevent shock circuit on the Stripboard. 26 .

we have been using sandpaper to remove the mask of PCB.14a: The graphical diagram of Sandpaper. Figure 3. Figure 3. 3.Figure 3. 27 .13a: The graphical diagram of Portable Mini Torque Electric Drill. Screw Driver Set Screw driver set have much type screw driver to help adjust and open something in ours project.14.15.14a is showing the graphical diagram of Sandpaper. Sandpaper Sandpaper is a form of paper to sharpen materials and fixed to its surface.15a is showing the graphical diagram of Screw Driver Set. 3. Purposely. Figure 3.

Battery An electrical battery is one or more electrochemical cells that convert stored chemical energy into electrical energy.16b: The graphical diagram of Disposable Battery. 3.16a: The graphical diagram of Rechargeable Battery Figure 3.15a: The graphical diagram of Screw Driver Set.16. The rechargeable battery designed to use repeatedly and to be recharged.16a is showing the graphical diagram of Rechargeable Battery. Figure 3.16b is showing the graphical diagram of Disposable Battery. However. the disposable battery is designed to use each time. It also portable power supplier to the circuit and become common power source for many household and industrial applications. Figure 3. 28 . figure 3. There have two type of battery are rechargeable and disposable battery.Figure 3.

3. 29 .17. Black Carpet We are used a black carpet become line follower robot‟s route. Figure 3. Figure 3.17a is showing the graphical diagram of Black Carpet. Servo motor A servo motor is an electromechanical device in which an electrical input determines the position of the armature of a motor.18. Figure 3. Wherefore. 3.18a is showing the graphical diagram of Servo Motor. the infrared sensor couldn‟t detect black colour surface. this will cause the line follower robot can‟t turn to others side and just follow the black line to move.17a is showing the graphical diagram of Black Carpet. Servo motor is used to drive the line follower robot because it can stop immediately without slip.

also known as hot glue that is melt a solid cylindrical sticks paste the components on the fixed place.20a is showing the graphical diagram of Battery Charger.18a: The graphical diagram of Servo Motor. Battery Charger A battery charger is a device used to charge up energy into rechargeable battery by forcing an electric current flow through it. 3. Figure 3.19a is showing the graphical diagram of Hot Melt Adhesive.19a: The graphical diagram of Hot Melt Adhesive. Figure 3.Figure 3.19. 3. Figure 3. 30 . Hot Melt Adhesive Hot melt adhesive (HMA).20.

Y Glue The D. Mahjong Paper Mahjong paper is drawn and designed the specified route on the paper.21.I.Y Glue. Figure 3.Y Glue.21a: The graphical diagram of D. this is for save cost and paste the route on the Mahjong Paper.22.22a is showing the graphical diagram of Manjong Paper. 31 . 3.I. Figure 3.21a is showing the graphical diagram of D.20a is showing the graphical diagram of Battery Charger.Figure 3. D.Y Glue is made from potato starch and water. Figure 3. 3.I.I.

32 .23a is showing the graphical diagram of Welding Power Supply.22a: The graphical diagram of Manjong Paper. Figure 3. Welding Power Supply A welding power supply is a device that provides an electric current to perform welding.23. Figure 3.24.23a: The graphical diagram of Welding Power Supply. 3. Figure 3.Figure 3. Stick Welding A stick welding is a manual arc welding process that used a consumable electrode coated in flux to lay the weld. 3.24a is showing the graphical diagram of Stick Welding.

25. 33 .26a is showing the graphical diagram of Ironing. Figure 3. 3.Figure 3. Sticker Paper This is a white matter paper for use paste on the PCB surface. Ironing Ironing is the work of using a heated tool and used it to heat sticker paper involved route paste into the PCB surface. Figure 3.25a: The graphical diagram of Sticker Paper. Figure 3. 3.24a is showing the graphical diagram of Stick Welding.25a is showing the graphical diagram of Sticker Paper.26.

Figure 3.27a: The graphical diagram of Maker Pen.26a: The graphical diagram of Ironing.27a is showing the graphical diagram of Maker Pen. Figure 3. 3.27. Maker Pen Maker Pen is used for modify and redesigns the circuit on the Printed Circuit Board surface. Figure 3. 34 .

29.3. Figure 3. Figure 3.28a is showing the graphical diagram of Iron Robot Chasis. Figure 3. 3. Iron Robot Chasis Iron Robot Chasis is used to platform of several circuits and protect them from damage.28. Screw A screw is type of fastener to fix some component in the fixed place.29a is showing the graphical diagram of Screw. Figure 3.28a: The graphical diagram of Iron Robot Chasis.29a is showing the graphical diagram of Screw 35 .

31a is showing the graphical diagram of Ink-Jet Printer.30a is showing the graphical diagram of Laser Printer.30a: The graphical diagram of Laser Printer. Figure 3.31.3. 3. Ink-Jet Printer Ink-Jet Printer is used to print out the Final Year Project Report on A4 paper. Laser Printer Laser Printer is used to print out the PCB diagram on sticker paper for make the Printed Circuit Board. 36 . Figure 3. Figure 3.31a: The graphical diagram of Ink-Jet Printer.30. Figure 3.

2a is showing the graphical diagram of 40-Pin Header Single Row. 4.1. Molex 2-Pin Power Connector Molex 2-Pin Power Connector is a battery cable‟s are available at the positive (+) and negative (-). Figure 4. Socket 4.1a is showing the graphical diagram of Molex 2-Pin Power Connector. Figure 4.1a: The graphical diagram of Molex 2-Pin Power Connector. Figure 4. Figure 4. 40-Pin Header Single Row 40-pin header single row is using for easy clip between headers and hard to plug off. This is easier to fix the wire of power supply to circuit and no need connected with many crocodile clip.4.2a: The graphical diagram of 40Pin Header Single Row. 37 .2.

3a is showing the graphical diagram of 2-Pin PSU Connector. 2-Pin PSU Connector These connectors are come with set of 40-pin header single row and also clip many wires in the fixed place. Figure 4.3a: The graphical diagram of 2-Pin PSU Connector.4. 38 .3. Figure 4.

microchip. Software We have been using many type of software to design layout our final year project such as Paint. Microsoft Word. The following below is how to test each circuit and what are functions of it. The following below is shown the table of software used in final year project: No. it can be learned how to operate for each components and which one have spoiled or not. 3. Presentation slide 5. PIC Kit. Burning conversion PIC burning set 6. Eagle Software. 39 . Microsoft Power Point.eagle. 1. MPLAB.com 4.com 2. Eagle Microsoft Word Microsoft PowerPoint PIC Kit www. Purposely. Testing assembly component Testing assembly component is most important to build up the circuit in the line follower robot. Paint Draw and repair the circuit diagram B. Software MPLAB Description Writing and coding the programming part Design PCB diagram Writing report Logo Destination www.5.

and then connected LM7805‟s pin no.02 to ground for activated the LM7805.1. the ohmmeter will give the stability result is 5V output voltage. Figure 1a: The graphical diagram of LM7805 voltage regulator. The pin no. 40 . the black probe of ohmmeter connects back to the ground. Figure 1b is showing the schematic diagram of LM7805 voltage regulator. Figure 1a is showing the graphical diagram of LM7805 voltage regulator.03 has been connected with ohmmeter red probe on voltage‟s range 10V.01. used a wire connection link to 9V power supply to LM7805‟s pin no. After that. LM7805 Voltage Regulator Firstly.

the infrared sensor connected to one resistor 330Ω for prevent damage by over voltage 5V. used a digital camera or mobile phone camera to open snap mode of camera sighted the transmitter. Infrared Sensor This stage is known as the function of infrared sensor and the way to test it. The purple light will come out from the transmitter when camera sighted it. 2. After that. Figure 2a is showing the graphical diagram of Infrared Sensor Circuit.Figure 1b: The schematic diagram of LM7805 voltage regulator. Figure 2b is showing the schematic diagram of Infrared Sensor Circuit. 41 . Firstly. This is to prove the transmitter functioning.

Figure 2b: The schematic diagram of Infrared Sensor Circuit.Figure 2a: The graphical diagram of Infrared Sensor Circuit. 42 .

How to adjust the voltage in and voltage reference by multimeter? Firstly. Figure 3a: Differential of the voltage in and voltage reference.3. the output signal will become 1 (high).1 10KΩ (VR1) between infrared sensors – Receiver and the black probe connected to the ground. labelled inverting and noninverting because of the phase relation of the input and output signals. LM393 Voltage Comparator LM393 consist of two independent voltage comparators designed to operate from a single power supply over a wide voltage range. Besides that. There are two inputs. the voltage reference is lowest than voltage in. the multimeter red probe is connected with variable resistor no. Figure 3a is showing differential of the input voltage and voltage reference. The 43 . the input is 0 (low) when the infrared sensor is touched. In the opposite case. the voltage regulator will invert the signal become 1 (high). So we used inverting amplifier connected with infrared sensor. When voltage reference is highest than input voltage.touch the infrared sensor the input is 1 (high) then inverting the signal of infrared sensor become 0 (low). there are two type voltage will influence the result of circuit are voltage reference and voltage in. When non. the output signal will become 0 (low).

44 . the red probe of multimeter connected with LM393 pin no.multimeter range must be 10Vfor measure value of voltage in.1 10KΩ (VR1) adjusted to voltage value 3V following by multimeter. In the same way. Figure 3b is showing the schematic diagram how to test and adjusted the voltage in. After that. Figure 3c is showing the schematic diagram how to test and adjusted the voltage reference.3 between the variable resistor no. Figure 3b: The schematic diagram how to test and adjusted the voltage in.4V between 2. The value of voltage reference is 2.2 10KΩ (VR2) and black probe connected to the ground. When touched the transmitter will affect the voltage in and the value will be down depended on sensitive transmitter.8V adjusted by variable resistor‟s wiper. the wiper of variable resistor no.

It allows a low current control circuit to make or break an electrically isolated high current circuit path. 45 . the relay will return back previous condition and will come out the same voice. In addition. The relay pin no.Figure 3c: The schematic diagram how to test and adjusted the voltage reference. The relay used to control direction turn of the F1 line follower robot.1. 4. testing relay is most important and know about how function of them. When push down the push-button connected with relay and then you will hear the voice of “Dip Dap” that means the relay of coil is operated by 5V power supply. Relays A relay is used to isolate one electrical circuit from another. Firstly. One of the lead on push-button connected to 5V power supply. and another lead connected to the relay pin no. the current will cut off on normally close.16 connected to the ground. Figure 4a is showing the schematic diagram of completed circuit of line follower robot using by relay control. L7805 voltage regulator. then the current will switch on normally open. battery 9V and relays. Figure 4b is showing schematic diagram of how to test the relay. When release the push-button. prepare one push-button switch (NO).

Figure 4b: The schematic diagram of how to test the relay.Figure 4a: The schematic diagram of completed circuit of line follower robot using by relay control. 46 .

7. Making PCB Steps Involved 1. Carefully take out the sticker paper from bare board and fixer the back line is not clear.2. 1.8. Ironing the circuit diagram pasted on the bare board (coated with a thin layer of copper) from sticker paper and 1. This stage is removing all non-masked copper using by Etching Powder and give the board a good wash under boiling water to remove all trances of the etchant. 1. 1. drill holes on the specified places using by Portable Mini Torque Electric Drill. Cut the board to final size and shape using by handsaw or jet saw. 1.9. Procedures of Assembly Components 1. 1. Prepare the required circuit diagram. List out the components in the eagle software. Carefully scrub off the mask with sandpaper on PCB.3. 1.10.4.5. After that.6. Finish the drawn connection of circuit diagram then print out the circuit diagram on sticker paper using by laser printer. Drawn the connection of circuit diagram in PCB format.C.1. 47 . 1. 1.

48 .11. Complete the PCB in this stage.12.1. Used soldering iron to solder each component into PCB and test each soldering point have short the circuit or not using by multimeter. 1.

Purposely. 1. The robot can be used in the rescue operation. The toy racing car cannot turn to less than 90º . 2. We have made two type of line follower robot are toy racing car without remote control and Intelligence Car known as I-Car. 4.1 Components List No 1.RESULTS & DISCUSSION The result to make the line follower robot have been learned some skill and how to co-operation with group mate in this project. 1. The following below is showing information about full complete set of toy racing car. this make for maintain balance of toy racing car and avoid out of the route.6V 4. Name of Item Battery Battery SPDT Switch Voltage Regulator Heat Sink Range / Value 9. 3. Toy Racing Car Toy racing car have a high speed motion in the specified route.8V PCS LM7805 PCS Quantity 1 1 2 1 1 49 . 5. toy racing car is drive in high speed to become fast line traffic in public and can be also extinguish fire on the path.

14. 15 16. Relay Transistor Diode DC Motor IR Sensor 4 LM393 1 5VDC C9013 IN4001 5VDC Set 2 2 10 2 2 50 . 9. Comparator 12. 8. (Preset) Dual-Voltage 11.No 6. 13. Name of Item Capacitor Resistor Resistor Resistor Variable Resistor Range / Value 0. 7.1µF 330Ω 1KΩ 470Ω 10KΩ Quantity 2 2 4 2 10.

3 The PCB diagram of Full Complete Set of Toy Racing Car 51 . 1.1.2 The schematic diagram of Full Complete Set of Toy Racing Car.

4 The graphical diagram of Full Complete Set of Toy Racing Car (Please Refer to Appendix No.) Bottom View Top View Front View Behind View Left View Right View 52 .1.1.4.

4. this will drop the voltage from 4. In the same way. Switch on the SPDT switch 02 (turn to the right from left). (cannot over 5V) 5. Switch on the SPDT switch 01 (turn to the right from left).8V but the SPDT switch 02 is off (on the left side).5 Procedures of Operate Toy Racing Car 1. 9. When the infrared sensors detected black surface materials will not reaction. The current will flow through four diodes (for decrease the speed of motor). The infrared sensors have a reaction when detected the non black surface materials. The battery to be charged at least 2 hours. Whenever. 8. The transistor (signal to the base. Single pole double throw (SPDT) switch 02 must connecting with battery 4. LM7805 voltage regulator can direct convert 9V became to 5V. 10. then the collector connected to emitter) will trigger relay (from normally close to normally open) when touched the infrared sensor. 2. Single pole double throw (SPDT) switch 01 must connect with battery 9V but the SPDT switch 01 is off (on the left side). in the front of a pair wheels will turn to right. the whole circuit can support 5V only.8V to 2V. 7. 53 . 11. The battery life can consume less than 15 minutes (in the process). However. touched the right infrared sensor then the pair of wheels will turn to left.1. 6. 3. the two sensors detected the non black surface materials at the same time then will dysfunction and forward. Touched the left infrared sensor.

this can be turned to any degree point and have some detectors for automotive drive without any control by human being. We made line follower robot have been used PIC16F84 microcontroller to control I-Car.6V PCS LM7805 PCS 0. 3. The aim of the I-Car is to reduce accident in the highway because have much detector to sense the surrounding area of barrier and can help disabled people go to another place with safe. motor rotate direction. 6. 5. infrared sensor circuit. 2. 2. Wireless (Receiver) Remote Control Set 1 Remote Control Name of Item Range/ Value 9.1µF Set Quantity 2 2 2 2 4 1 54 . Battery SPDT Switch Voltage Regulator Heat Sink Capacitor Wireless (Transmitter) 7.2. 1. In the future.1 Components List No. The PIC16F84 to control whole circuit such as signal light. 4. Besides that. and wireless remote control circuit. Intelligence Car (I-Car) Intelligence car also known as I-Car. the line follower robot able saves natural resources in our earth such as petrol and natural gas. the line follower robot drive in the magnetic technology and the power supply turn the robot into unlimited.

25. 21. 12. 15. 17. 24.No. 14. 27. 22. 8. 19. 23. 28. 9. 16. Resistor Resistor Resistor Name of Item Range/ Value 330Ω 470 Ω 1K Ω 10K Ω LM393 Set PCS C9013 74LS04 L-293D IN4001 16F84A 104 32KHz 5VDC PCS PCS PCS PCS A4 Set Quantity 5 5 10 10 3 5 3 4 1 1 8 1 3 1 2 1 2 2 2 2 20 Variable Resistor (Preset) Dual-Voltage Regulator IR Sensor LED Transistor Hex Inverter Quadruple Half-H Driver Diode PIC Microcontroller Capacitor Crystal Relay LED Arrow Display Servo Motor Wheels Castor Printed Circuit Board Screw & Nut 55 . 20. 18. 11. 26. 10. 13.

40. 32. 31. 44. 30. 37. Mahjong Paper Poster Color Poster Color Maker Pen Poster Color Pen* Hot Glue Iron Robot Chasis Sticker Paper Jumper Wire ( Red. 36. Grey) PCS Black White Black PCS PCS PCS A4 3 meter 10 1 1 1 1 1 1 10 8 43. 41. 42.No. Name of Item 40-Pin Header Single Row 2-Pin PSU Connector Molex 2-Pin Power Connector Socket* USB ICSP PIC Programmer & ICSP Programmer Socket Range/ Value PCS PCS Set PCS Set Quantity 2 40 2 1 1 34. Orange. 35. Violet. 33. 38. 29. Black. Blue. Yellow. 45. 8-pins Socket 14-pins Socket 16-pins Socket 18-pins Socket Sand Paper 56 PCS PCS PCS PCS A4 3 1 4 1 3 . 47. 46. 39. White.

1 The schematic diagram of Wireless Remote Control (Transmitter) Circuit 57 . 48.No. 49.2.2 The Wireless Remote Control (Transmitter) 2. Acid* Name of Item Range/ Value 3KG PCS SET Quantity 1 6 2 Breadboard Mini Jumper* 2. 50.

2.2.2.3 The graphical diagram of Wireless Remote Control (Transmitter) Circuit 58 .2 The PCB diagram of Wireless Remote Control (Transmitter) Circuit 2.

10. pin no. then the antenna pin . Capacitor is used to maintain DC voltage because it is like a filter for current. Heat sink is for protect the Voltage Regulator LM7805 and decrease its temperature. When press the push-button K1 that signal will sent to Multiplexer IC PT2262 pin no.2. The distance of transmitter module depended on battery life. 2. and pin no. Single pole double throw (SPDT) switch 01 must connect with battery 9V but the SPDT switch 01 is off (on the left side). The signal will come out from Multiplexer IC PT2262 pin no. The input signal is pin no. pin no. 11.17 to transmitter module pin no. 5. 3. When the both direction signal send frequency it will get the signal output. An address code is a password for the transmitter module. 4. 12. 14. 6. Voltage Regulator LM7805 is converted 9V became to 5V.10. 13.03 9. Turn on the SPDT switch 01(turn to right from left). 8. The zener diode connected with push-button for amplifier high-speed signal.12. 59 .11. The frequency value of transmitter module is 315MHz.2 The PCB diagram of Wireless Remote Control (Transmitter) Circuit 1.2. The transmitter module will receive the signal. The indicate light (green) will light up. 7.13.no 01 sent signal to receiver module.

3.3.2 The PCB diagram of Wireless Remote Control (Receiver) Circuit 60 .1 The schematic diagram of Wireless Remote Control (Receiver) Circuit 2.2.3 The Wireless Remote Control (Receiver) 2.

11. This means receiver module is functioning. 7. pin no.13. 3.10. When the receiver module receives the signal that indicates light (yellow) will flash. 2.3.4 Procedures of Wireless Remote Control (Receiver) 1. The output signal are pin no.12.14.04. An address code is a password for the receiver module. A receiver module switches on from PIC microcontroller‟s power supply. When the both direction signal send frequency it will get the signal output. The receiver module will receive the signal from the transmitter module (antenna) pin no.03 will sent signal to the De-Multiplexer IC PT2272 pin no. and pin no. 61 . 5. 6. pin no.3 The graphical diagram of Wireless Remote Control (Receiver) Circuit 2.2.3. The receiver module pin no.02 and pin no. 4.

2.4.1. The PCB diagram of PIC Microcontroller Circuit 62 . 9. The frequency value of receiver module is 315MHz. The distance of receiver module depended on battery life. PIC Microcontroller Circuit 2.8. The schematic diagram of PIC Microcontroller Circuit 2.4.4.2.

pin no. 2. 8. The graphical diagram of PIC Microcontroller Circuit 2. Heat sink is for protect the Voltage Regulator LM7805 and decrease its temperature.04 is a Master Clear that will clear all previously file in the PIC16F84A while the 5V voltage flow in. Single pole double throw (SPDT) switch 01 must connect with battery 9V but the SPDT switch 01 is off (on the left side). The indicate light (green) will light up.17. pin no. 3.16 is clock pulse for PIC16F84 because a clock frequency to orchestrate the movement of the data around its electronic circuit. and pin no.4 Procedures of PIC Microcontroller Circuit 1.3.4. Voltage Regulator LM7805 is converting from 9V to 5V. 6.4.02.03 and pin no. (Please refer to appendices about assembly language) 7. 5. 4.01.18 63 . Port of input signals are pin no.2.15 and pin no. Capacitor is used to maintain DC voltage because it is like a filter for current. Turn on the SPDT switch 01(turn to right from left). PIC16F84A pin no. PIC16F84A pin no.

02 receives the signal from wireless remote control then the PIC16F84A pin no. The motive is sensor barrier.8 will operated. 18 and pin no. 11. When signal send to PIC16F84A pin no.1 The schematic diagram of Sensor Barrier Circuit 64 . The PIC16F84A pin no. This is control by wireless remote control.17 link to pin no. The PIC16F84A pin no. 10.07 for direction of turning by infrared sensors.9. 01 connected by infrared sensors then the pin no.5.5.06 and pin no. Sensor Barrier Circuit 2.09 will operate. 2.

3. The PCB diagram of Sensor Barrier Circuit 2.5.2.5. The graphical diagram of Sensor Barrier Circuit 65 .2.

The sensitive of IR sensor is depended on value between of input voltage and voltage reference.4. 7.08.07 connected by PIC16F84A pin no. 4.05 and pin no. 66 . Voltage in is represented R3 then the value of voltage in between 2. so the value of voltage references between 2. Procedures of Sensor Barrier Circuit 1. In the opposite case.8V and 3V.06 to pin no. IR sensor is most sensitive because nearly value of voltage in between voltage reference.2. IR sensors touched by any non-black materials then will send signal from pin no. 2. Voltage references are R5. If the value of input voltage is far away with voltage reference‟s value then sensitive of IR sensor will be less. The sensor barrier circuit will switch on from 5V power supply.4V and 2. When IR sensor detect some barrier then will trigger transistor (base) connected by PIC16F84A pin no.6V.01 and call the function in the I-Car. 3. Two of IR sensor (transmitter) will come out the purple beam capture by camera. 6. Used screw driver to adjust the value of voltage in and voltage reference. 5.5.

The schematic diagram of Infrared Sensor Circuit 2. The graphical diagram of Infrared Sensor Circuit 67 .2.1.6 Infrared Sensor Circuit 2.3.6.2.6. The PCB diagram of Infrared Sensor Circuit 2.6.

2. 5. The sensitive of IR sensor is depended on value between of voltage in and voltage reference. In the opposite case. Two of IR sensor (transmitter) will come out the purple beam capture by camera. so the value of voltage references between 2.4. touched the right infrared sensor then the left wheels will operate to anti-clockwise and turn to right. right wheels will operate to anti-clockwise and turn to right. Two of infrared sensors touched by any non-black materials then will send signal to PIC16F84A and call the function in the I-Car. 7. Procedures of Infrared (IR) Sensor Circuit 1.8V and 3V.6V. 6. 2. Voltage references are R4 and R8. The infrared sensor circuit will switch on from PIC16F84 for trigger the transistor then the power supply will flow the circuit. In the same way. Whenever. 4. Touched the left infrared sensor. the two sensors detected the non black surface materials at the same time then turn to behind. Used screw driver to adjust the value of input voltage and voltage reference.4V and 2. If the value of voltage in is far away with voltage reference‟s value then sensitive of IR sensor will be less. 68 . 3. IR sensor is most sensitive because nearly value of voltage in between voltage reference. Voltage in is represented R3 and R7 then the value of voltage in between 2. The infrared sensors have a reaction when detected the non black surface materials. When two of the infrared sensors detected black surface materials will forward.6.

2.2 The PCB diagram of Motor Drive Circuit 69 .7.1 The schematic diagram of Motor Drive Circuit 2.7 Motor Drive Circuit 2.7.

pin no.14 is connected to 5V power supply and pin no. pin no.10 is connected to L293D pin no.05 connected to right motor and variable resistor 10KΩ pin no.07.03 connected with variable resistor 10KΩ pin no. pin no.2.02. 3.15. pin no. LM393 dual voltage comparator pin no.02 and left motor. pin no.12 is connected to L293D pin no.17.10 and PIC16F84A pin no.18 and resistor 420Ω.02 and PIC 16F84A pin no. 74LS04 hex inverter pin no.7.7.3 Procedures of Motor Drive Circuit 1.13 is connected with L293D pin no.01 connected with 420Ω and to PIC16F84A pin no.07 is connected with PIC16F84A pin no.3 The graphical diagram of Motor Drive Circuit 2.11 is connected to L293D pin no.06 is connected with right motor and IR sensor (receiver). pin no. pin no.04 connected to the ground.07.02 is connected with the left motor and IR sensor (receiver). pin no. pin no.06.07 is connected to group.08 is connected to 5V power supply. The whole circuit will switch on from PIC16F84A transistor T2. 2. pin no. pin no. 70 .

4. L293D Quadruple Half-H Driver pin no.01, pin no.08 and pin no.16 are connected to 5V power supply; pin no.04, pin no.05, pin no.12 and pin no.13 is connected to the ground; pin no. 03 and pin no.07 are connected with one motor and between two diode; pin no.11 and pin no.14 are connected to the one motor and between two diode. 5. Cathode of diode IN4001 is connected to 5V power supply and anode of diode IN4001 is connected to the ground.

2.8 LED Arrow Display

2.8.1 The schematic diagram of LED Arrow Display

71

2.8.2 The PCB diagram of LED Arrow Display

2.8.3 The graphical diagram of LED Arrow Display

72

2.8.4 Procedures of LED Arrow Display 1. The infrared sensor circuit will switch on using by 5V power supply. 2. Two of IR sensor (transmitter) will come out the purple beam capture by camera. 3. Used screw driver to adjust the value of voltage in and voltage reference. 4. Voltage in is represented R3 and R9 the value of voltage in between 2.8V and 3V; Voltage references are R6 and R12, so the value of voltage references between 2.4V and 2.6V. 5. Two of infrared sensors touched by any non-black materials will send signal to two piece of 5VDC relay through LM393. 6. The IR sensor will trigger relay, when touched the IR sensor the relay will cut off current of normally close then current pass to normally open. 7. When two of the infrared sensors detected black surface materials will not show any indicate light. Touched the left infrared sensor, left indicate light will light up. In the same way, touched the right position of infrared sensor then the right indicate light will light up. Whenever, the two sensors detected the non black surface materials at the same time then two direction of indicated light will light up. 8. The sensitive of IR sensor is depended on value between of input voltage and voltage reference. If the value of voltage in is far away with voltage reference‟s value then sensitive of IR sensor will be less. In the opposite case, IR sensor is most sensitive because nearly value of voltage in between voltage reference.

73

2.2.9) Bottom View Top View Front View Behind View Left View Right View 74 .9 The graphical diagram of Full Complete Set of Toy Racing Car (Please Refer to Appendix No.

Then this will transfer to specified location and automatically put down the iron box.10 Modified and Added Some Application into I–Car The application of I–Car is using to transportation something else to another place. and we have been used iron box to store something link with behind I–Car. In addition. Iron Stand Iron Box DEE 0508 ^U ^ YST 75 KI . we have been adding some LED into shell of I–Car.2. The below following is a graphical of application and modified with I–Car.

11 Programming Assembly Language into I–Car We have been using assembly language for coding to control our I–Car and few step to programming (Please refer appendices No.ZEROBIT GOTO LOOPA RETLW 0 START BSF STATUS.5 MOVLW B'00011111' MOVWF TRISA MOVLW B'00000000' MOVWF TRISB MOVLW B'00000111' MOVWF OPTION_R 76 .11). I–Car Coding TMR0 EQU 1 STATUS EQU 3 PORTA EQU 5 PORTB EQU 6 TRISA EQU 85H TRISB EQU 86H OPTION_R EQU 81H ZEROBIT EQU 2 COUNT EQU 0CH .2.=================================================== LIST P=16F84 ORG 0 GOTO START __CONFIG H'3FF0' .W SUBLW .1 BTFSS STATUS. 2. The following below shown assembly language coding I–Car Coding .=================================================== DELAY5 CLRF TMR0 LOOPA MOVF TMR0.

2 GOTO SW3 TURNON3 BSF PORTB.1 BSF PORTB.0 BSF PORTB.=================================================== 77 .2 TURNON2 PORTB.1 PORTA.3 GOTO SW0 END .6 GOTO SW1 TURNON1 BSF PORTB.=================================================== SW0 BTFSS GOTO BCF BTFSS GOTO BCF BTFSS GOTO BCF BTFSC GOTO BCF GOTO PORTA.0 PORTA.2 PORTA.7 GOTO SW2 TURNON2 BSF PORTB.0 TURNON0 PORTB.5 CLRF PORTA CLRF PORTB CLRF COUNT .1 TURNON1 PORTB.BCF STATUS.3 TURNON3 PORTB.3 SW0 SW1 SW2 SW3 TURNON0 BSF PORTB.

5 PORTA PORTB COUNT START ON BSF BSF PORTB.W .Running Light Coding .5 B'00011111' TRISA B'00000000' TRISB B'00000111' OPTION_R STATUS.=================================================== DELAY1 LOOPA CLRF MOVF SUBLW BTFSS GOTO RETLW BSF MOVLW MOVWF MOVLW MOVWF MOVLW MOVWF BCF CLRF CLRF CLRF TMR0 TMR0.0 PORTB.5 78 . Running Light Coding TMR0 STATUS PORTA PORTB TRISA TRISB OPTION_R ZEROBIT COUNT EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU LIST ORG GOTO 1 3 5 6 85H 86H 81H 2 0CH P=16F84 0 START __CONFIG H'3FF0' .ZEROBIT LOOPA 0 STATUS.10 STATUS.

7 PORTB.BSF CALL BSF BSF BCF BSF BCF CALL BSF BSF BSF BSF BCF CALL BCF BCF BSF BCF CALL BSF BCF BCF BSF BCF CALL BCF BCF BCF BSF BCF CALL BSF BSF BSF BSF BCF PORTB.4 PORTB.6 DELAY1 PORTB.7 79 .3 PORTB.6 PORTB.3 PORTB.5 PORTB.6 PORTB.5 PORTB.5 PORTB.5 PORTB.4 PORTB.7 DELAY1 PORTB.1 PORTB.4 PORTB.6 DELAY1 PORTB.3 PORTB.2 PORTB.6 PORTB.1 PORTB.6 DELAY1 PORTB.7 PORTB.0 PORTB.6 DELAY1 PORTB.2 PORTB.7 PORTB.5 PORTB.5 PORTB.7 DELAY1 PORTB.

4 PORTB.7 PORTB.7 PORTB.0 PORTB.CALL BCF BSF BSF BSF BCF CALL BSF BSF BSF BCF CALL BCF BCF BCF BSF BCF CALL BSF BCF BCF BSF BCF CALL BCF BCF BSF BCF CALL GOTO END DELAY1 PORTB.5 PORTB.3 PORTB.7 DELAY1 PORTB.2 PORTB.1 PORTB.5 PORTB.5 PORTB.2 PORTB.6 DELAY1 PORTB.5 PORTB.6 PORTB.5 PORTB.6 DELAY1 ON 80 .7 PORTB.1 PORTB.0 PORTB.7 DELAY1 PORTB.6 PORTB.6 DELAY1 PORTB.

Check TIME-W ? 0 LOOPC 0 .the start address in memory is 0 START .****************************************************************** __CONFIG H'3FF0'.return after TMR0 ? 96 .3 .selects LP oscillator.Read TMR0 into W .Start TMR0 TMR0.goto start! . . .we are using the 16F84. Alpha Numeric Displays Coding TMR0 STATUS PORTA PORTB TRISA TRISB OPTION_R ZEROBIT COUNT EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU EQU 1 3 5 6 85H 86H 81H 2 0CH .Read TMR0 into W SUBLW .****************************************************************** .ZEROBIT .ZEROBIT . SUBROUTINE SECTION.Alpha Numeric Displays Coding .96 .W STATUS.****************************************************************** LIST ORG GOTO P=16F84 .Check TIME-W ? 0 GOTO LOOPA RETLW 0 .P1 SECOND DELAY DELAYP1 LOOPC CLRF MOVF SUBLW BTFSS GOTO RETLW BSF NOP TMR0 .TIME .W . PUT on. 0 .2 81 CLOCK .3 SECOND DELAY DELAY3 CLRF TMR0 .TIME .Start TMR0 LOOPA MOVF TMR0.return after TMR0 ? 3 PORTA.W .W BTFSS STATUS. . WDT off.

enables the display PORTA 4H PORTB CLOCK 4H PORTB CLOCK .enables the display PORTA 4H PORTB CLOCK 3H PORTB CLOCK .clock character onto display.41 is code for A MOVWF PORTB CALL CLOCK .42 is code for B PORTB CLOCK .enables the display PORTA 4H 82 C D E .*************************************************************** A MOVLW 2 . 0 2 .clock character onto display.enables the display MOVWF PORTA MOVLW 4H MOVWF PORTB CALL CLOCK MOVLW 1H .clock character onto display.enables the display PORTA 4H PORTB CLOCK 2H . 0 2 . RETLW 0 BB MOVLW MOVWF MOVLW MOVWF CALL MOVLW MOVWF CALL RETLW MOVLW MOVWF MOVLW MOVWF CALL MOVLW MOVWF CALL RETLW MOVLW MOVWF MOVLW MOVWF CALL MOVLW MOVWF CALL RETLW MOVLW MOVWF MOVLW 2 . 0 2 .clock character onto display.BCF PORTA.2 NOP RETLW 0 .

enables the display PORTA 4H PORTB CLOCK 6H PORTB CLOCK . 0 2 .enables the display PORTA 4H PORTB CLOCK 9H PORTB CLOCK .MOVWF CALL MOVLW MOVWF CALL RETLW F MOVLW MOVWF MOVLW MOVWF CALL MOVLW MOVWF CALL RETLW MOVLW MOVWF MOVLW MOVWF CALL MOVLW MOVWF CALL RETLW MOVLW MOVWF MOVLW MOVWF CALL MOVLW MOVWF CALL RETLW MOVLW MOVWF MOVLW MOVWF CALL MOVLW MOVWF CALL RETLW PORTB CLOCK 5H PORTB CLOCK . 0 83 G H I . 0 2 .clock character onto display.clock character onto display.enables the display PORTA 4H PORTB CLOCK 7H PORTB CLOCK .clock character onto display.enables the display PORTA 4H PORTB CLOCK 8H PORTB CLOCK .clock character onto display. 0 2 .clock character onto display. 0 2 .

J MOVLW MOVWF MOVLW MOVWF CALL MOVLW MOVWF CALL RETLW MOVLW MOVWF MOVLW MOVWF CALL MOVLW MOVWF CALL RETLW MOVLW MOVWF MOVLW MOVWF CALL MOVLW MOVWF CALL RETLW MOVLW MOVWF MOVLW MOVWF CALL MOVLW MOVWF CALL RETLW MOVLW MOVWF MOVLW MOVWF CALL MOVLW MOVWF 2 . 0 2 .clock character onto display. 0 2 .enables the display PORTA 4H PORTB CLOCK 0AH PORTB CLOCK .clock character onto display. 0 2 .clock character onto display.enables the display PORTA 4H PORTB CLOCK 0BH PORTB CLOCK .enables the display PORTA 4H PORTB CLOCK . 0 2 .clock character onto display. 0EH PORTB 84 K L M N .clock character onto display.enables the display PORTA 4H PORTB CLOCK 0DH PORTB CLOCK .enables the display PORTA 4H PORTB CLOCK 0CH PORTB CLOCK .

clock character onto display. 0 2 PORTA 5H PORTB CLOCK 0H PORTB CLOCK .clock character onto display.CALL RETLW O MOVLW MOVWF MOVLW MOVWF CALL MOVLW MOVWF CALL RETLW MOVLW MOVWF MOVLW MOVWF CALL MOVLW MOVWF CALL RETLW MOVLW MOVWF MOVLW MOVWF CALL MOVLW MOVWF CALL RETLW MOVLW MOVWF MOVLW MOVWF CALL MOVLW MOVWF CALL RETLW MOVLW MOVWF MOVLW MOVWF CLOCK . 0 2 .enables the display PORTA 4H PORTB CLOCK 0FH PORTB CLOCK .clock character onto display. 0 2 PORTA 5H PORTB CLOCK 2H PORTB CLOCK . 0 2 PORTA 5H PORTB CLOCK 1H PORTB CLOCK .clock character onto display.clock character onto display. 0 2 PORTA 5H PORTB 85 P Q R S .

clock character onto display.clock character onto display.clock character onto display. 0 2 86 U V WW X .clock character onto display. 0 2 PORTA 5H PORTB CLOCK 7H PORTB CLOCK . 0 2 PORTA 5H PORTB CLOCK 5H PORTB CLOCK . 0 2 PORTA 5H PORTB CLOCK 6H PORTB CLOCK .clock character onto display.CALL MOVLW MOVWF CALL RETLW T MOVLW MOVWF MOVLW MOVWF CALL MOVLW MOVWF CALL RETLW MOVLW MOVWF MOVLW MOVWF CALL MOVLW MOVWF CALL RETLW MOVLW MOVWF MOVLW MOVWF CALL MOVLW MOVWF CALL RETLW MOVLW MOVWF MOVLW MOVWF CALL MOVLW MOVWF CALL RETLW MOVLW CLOCK 3H PORTB CLOCK . 0 2 PORTA 5H PORTB CLOCK 4H PORTB CLOCK .

0 2 PORTA 5H PORTB CLOCK 9H PORTB CLOCK . 0 2 . 0 87 Z NUM0 NUM1 .enables the display PORTA 3H PORTB CLOCK 0H PORTB CLOCK . 0 2 .MOVWF MOVLW MOVWF CALL MOVLW MOVWF CALL RETLW Y MOVLW MOVWF MOVLW MOVWF CALL MOVLW MOVWF CALL RETLW MOVLW MOVWF MOVLW MOVWF CALL MOVLW MOVWF CALL RETLW MOVLW MOVWF MOVLW MOVWF CALL MOVLW MOVWF CALL RETLW MOVLW MOVWF MOVLW MOVWF CALL MOVLW MOVWF CALL RETLW PORTA 5H PORTB CLOCK 8H PORTB CLOCK .clock character onto display.clock character onto display.clock character onto display. 0 2 PORTA 5H PORTB CLOCK 0AH PORTB CLOCK .clock character onto display.enables the display PORTA 3H PORTB CLOCK 1H PORTB CLOCK .clock character onto display.

clock character onto display.clock character onto display.clock character onto display. 0 2 . 0 2 .NUM2 MOVLW MOVWF MOVLW MOVWF CALL MOVLW MOVWF CALL RETLW MOVLW MOVWF MOVLW MOVWF CALL MOVLW MOVWF CALL RETLW MOVLW MOVWF MOVLW MOVWF CALL MOVLW MOVWF CALL RETLW MOVLW MOVWF MOVLW MOVWF CALL MOVLW MOVWF CALL RETLW MOVLW MOVWF MOVLW MOVWF CALL MOVLW 2 .enables the display PORTA 3H PORTB CLOCK .enables the display PORTA 3H PORTB CLOCK 2H PORTB CLOCK .enables the display PORTA 3H PORTB CLOCK 6H 88 NUM3 NUM4 NUM5 NUM6 . 0 2 .clock character onto display.enables the display PORTA 3H PORTB CLOCK 5H PORTB CLOCK . 4H PORTB CLOCK .clock character onto display.enables the display PORTA 3H PORTB CLOCK 3H PORTB CLOCK . 0 2 .

clock character onto display. 0 2 PORTA 2H PORTB CLOCK 0H PORTB CLOCK . 0 2 . 0 2 PORTA 2H 89 NUM8 NUM9 GAP DOT .clock character onto display. 0 2 .MOVWF CALL RETLW NUM7 MOVLW MOVWF MOVLW MOVWF CALL MOVLW MOVWF CALL RETLW MOVLW MOVWF MOVLW MOVWF CALL MOVLW MOVWF CALL RETLW MOVLW MOVWF MOVLW MOVWF CALL MOVLW MOVWF CALL RETLW MOVLW MOVWF MOVLW MOVWF CALL MOVLW MOVWF CALL RETLW MOVLW MOVWF MOVLW PORTB CLOCK .enables the display PORTA 3H PORTB CLOCK 7H PORTB CLOCK .clock character onto display. 0 2 .enables the display PORTA 3H PORTB CLOCK 8H PORTB CLOCK .clock character onto display.clock character onto display.enables the display PORTA 3H PORTB CLOCK 9H PORTB CLOCK .

MOVWF CALL MOVLW MOVWF CALL RETLW CLRDISP CLRF MOVLW MOVWF CALL MOVLW MOVWF CALL CALL RETLW

PORTB CLOCK 0EH PORTB CLOCK ;clock character onto display. 0 PORTA 0H PORTB CLOCK ;clock character onto display. 1 PORTB CLOCK DELAYP1 0

;********************************************************* ; CONFIGURATION SECTION. START BSF MOVLW MOVWF MOVLW MOVWF MOVLW MOVWF BCF CLRF CLRF STATUS,5 ;Turns to Bank1. B'00000000' ;PORTA is O/P TRISA B'00000000' TRISB ;PORTB is OUTPUT B'00000111' ;Prescaler is /256 OPTION_R ;TIMER is 1/32 secs. STATUS,5 ;Return to Bank0. PORTA ;Clears PortA. PORTB ;Clears PortB.

;Display Configuration MOVLW MOVWF CALL CALL MOVLW MOVWF CALL CALL MOVLW MOVWF CALL CALL MOVLW 03H ;FUNCTION SET PORTB ;8bit data (default) CLOCK DELAYP1 ;wait for display 02H ;FUNCTION SET PORTB ;change to 4bit CLOCK ;clock in data DELAYP1 ;wait for display 02H ;FUNCTION SET PORTB ;must repeat command CLOCK ;clock in data DELAYP1 ;wait for display 08H ;4 bit micro
90

MOVWF CALL CALL MOVLW MOVWF CALL MOVLW MOVWF CALL CALL MOVLW MOVWF CALL MOVLW MOVWF CALL

PORTB ;using 2 line display. CLOCK ;clock in data DELAYP1 0H ;Display on, cursor off PORTB ;0CH CLOCK 0CH PORTB CLOCK DELAYP1 0H ;Increment cursor, 06H PORTB CLOCK 6H PORTB CLOCK

;******************************************************** BEGIN CALL CLRF MOVLW MOVWF CALL MOVLW MOVWF CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CLRDISP PORTA 8H ;Cursor at top left, 80H PORTB CLOCK 0H PORTB CLOCK GAP GAP G;display M DELAYP1 ;wait 0.1 seconds O ;display I DELAYP1 ;wait 0.1 seconds O ;Etc. DELAYP1 D DELAYP1 GAP DELAYP1 M DELAYP1 O DELAYP1 R DELAYP1 N
91

CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CLRF MOVLW MOVWF CALL MOVLW MOVWF CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL

DELAYP1 I DELAYP1 N DELAYP1 G DELAYP1 PORTA 0CH ;Cursor on 2nd line PORTB CLOCK 3H PORTB CLOCK GAP L DELAYP1 E DELAYP1 C DELAYP1 T DELAYP1 U DELAYP1 R DELAYP1 E DELAYP1 S DELAY3 ;wait 3 seconds

CALL MOVLW MOVWF CALL MOVLW MOVWF CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL

CLRDISP 8H ;Cursor at top left, 80H PORTB CLOCK 0H PORTB CLOCK P DELAYP1 R DELAYP1
92

CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CLRF MOVLW MOVWF CALL MOVLW MOVWF CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CLRF MOVLW MOVWF CALL MOVLW E DELAYP1 S DELAYP1 E DELAYP1 N DELAYP1 T DELAYP1 E DELAYP1 D DELAYP1 GAP GAP GAP BB DELAYP1 Y PORTA 0CH .wait 3 seconds CLRDISP PORTA 8H .Cursor on 2nd line PORTB CLOCK 3H PORTB CLOCK GAP GAP GAP S DELAYP1 GAP T DELAYP1 GAP Y DELAY3 . 80H PORTB CLOCK 0H 93 .Cursor at top left.

Cursor on 2nd line PORTB CLOCK 3H PORTB CLOCK GAP GAP GAP T DELAYP1 A 94 .MOVWF CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL PORTB CLOCK WW DELAYP1 E DELAYP1 L DELAYP1 C DELAYP1 O DELAYP1 M DELAYP1 E GAP DELAYP1 GAP T DELAYP1 O DELAYP1 GAP GAP O DELAYP1 U DELAYP1 R DELAYP1 CLRF MOVLW MOVWF CALL MOVLW MOVWF CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL PORTA 0CH .

Cursor at top left.Cursor on 2nd line 95 .CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CLRF MOVLW MOVWF CALL MOVLW MOVWF CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CLRF MOVLW DELAYP1 L DELAYP1 K DELAYP1 S DELAY3 . 80H PORTB CLOCK 0H PORTB CLOCK GAP GAP L DELAYP1 I DELAYP1 N DELAYP1 E GAP DELAYP1 F DELAYP1 O DELAYP1 L DELAYP1 L DELAYP1 O DELAYP1 WW DELAYP1 E DELAYP1 R DELAYP1 PORTA 0CH .wait 3 seconds CLRDISP PORTA 8H .

MOVWF CALL MOVLW MOVWF CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL CALL PORTB CLOCK 3H PORTB CLOCK GAP GAP R DELAYP1 O DELAYP1 BB DELAYP1 O DELAYP1 T DELAYP1 I DELAYP1 C DELAY3 GOTO END BEGIN 96 .

12 Alpha Numeric Displays We used LCD Display to show greet message and 16F84A Microcontroller control whole the circuit. 2.12.1 The schematic diagram of Alpha Numeric Display 97 .2.

12.2 The graphical diagram of Alpha Numeric Display 98 .2.

The following below is showing list of the troubleshooting to build line follower robot. the infrared sensor is the good condition when the LED is lighted up. interrupt of infrared sensor circuit. Make sure the voltage regulator LM7805 convert largest voltage like 30V to 5V. for example like line tracking of line follower robot must know how to calculate the degree of turning. Infrared sensor (transmitter and detector) must give some distance and cannot too close together. 1. This is test for infrared sensor functioning or not. 99 . wire socket‟s connection problem. In opposite case.FINDINGS / PROBLEM This is intended as a step-by step guide to what to do when things go wrong. Used camera and mobile phone camera to capture the infrared sensor. and used the multimeter for measure voltage output of LM7805. Used a black tape put on the infrared sensor – transmitter and detector surface and observed a LED is lighted or not. One of the projects successful is debug the solution from failure. 4. front motor of racing toy car spoiled and etc. 2. 3. (please refer to appendix figure 3c) If the LED is lighted that means the infrared sensor – transmitter in the bad condition because infrared sensor cannot detect any black colour surface. This is a good condition of infrared sensor. if the purple light will come out from the transmitter when camera sighted it. when it connected with 5V power supply.

The large number of wire connection in the circuit made it too difficult to solder. An infrared sensor place in the correct side. 9. Please double check the soldering point in Printed Circuit Board (PCB) for confirm all soldering point on the Printed Circuit Board (PCB) are corrected and without short circuit. 100 . In the sunshine condition. All wire must keep into fixed place for avoid any blocking example like wheel of racing toy car. Make sure all IC chip pins not spoiled. 11. this will affect the operated of line follower robot. base racing toy car and etc. if not there will be burn off the servo motor. A variable resistor must connect with one resistor before to 5V power supply because protection and prevent burn off the variable resistor. 10. Make sure wire connected with the Printed Circuit Board (PCB) are not loose for dysfunction. 8. 12. Insert and pull out all IC chip from breadboard with carefully to avoid IC chip pin spoiled. the infrared sensor will be dysfunction because ultraviolet light affect the infrared sensor and always detected ultraviolet light to make the reflection to infrared sensor. for example such as left infrared sensor detect the white surface 7. A servo motor cannot support over 5V.5. Soldering iron/gun place in the safety area when soldering component into the Printed Circuit Board (PCB). 6. 10.

the path for line follower robot must be over 2cm. if wrongly cut then will make racing toy car out of the route. Make sure connection of the PIC16F84 in the correct position. Used the screw to fix the position of motor and wheel for prevent the wheel loose and lost when line follower robot operated. 15. 13. because this will make the strip board shock circuits.11. 14. if not there will spoil the microcontroller. Make sure drill holes on strip boards with carefully. 12. 20. this will affect result of operated. 16. Cut the black carpet must careful because route have a turning point. 101 . 17. The surface of route without any white dot or else. DC motor should be decreased high voltage by diode and should draw less current otherwise high motor current will damage the entire circuit. 18. The program was difficult to implement as it was our first time encounter with microcontroller programming in assembly language. The distance between two pair of infrared sensors is 2cm. Connected the diode with DC Motor (toy racing car) for avoid feedback current spoiled the whole circuit. Wrongly wire connection on PLC to make the project application. 19. In the model designed to show line follower robot (toy racing car).

The result to make the line follower robot have been learned some skill and how to co-operation with group mate in this project. for example such as LM7805 voltage regulator. We have been facing a lot of problem about this project and used what method solved it.SUMMARY This chapter is introduced what is the line follower robot. 102 . One of the projects successful is debug the solution from failure. explain each circuit how to function and basic structure. Infrared Sensor (IR Sensor). We have made two type line follower robot are racing toy car without wireless remote control and Intelligence Car known as I-Car. Quadruple Half-H driver L-293D and etc. We have been using a lot of components to make a line follower robot. LM393 Dual Differential Comparator. 74LS04 Hex Inverters.

Not enough money budget to spend. poor PCB design will be produced and it will cause future problems like hardware problems. programming part can be done rapidly unless there are fatal bugs that needed to be solved. Hardware problems are hard to be debugged and solved. PCB design will wasting a lot of time for the project. features of the project will be limited and sometimes it will make the working process become longer because the lack of money. When hardware part had no problem. Some problem like burned of components that will be let us bought back new one component. To solve programming problems. helps will be needed among course mate or get advises from lecturer. a lot of tries are needed and it is quite time consuming if problem cannot be solved after few tries. which mean it is quite a time consuming problem that will slow down the whole working process for this project. Besides that. Besides that. 103 . monetary problem is also main problem occur in this project which it limiting the growth of the project. When stuck on some problems without solution. Some problems like sensor not functioning and burned of components are met. if not.CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATION There are a lot of problems met along the whole trimester for this project. A lot of hard works need to be done to complete the schematic. designing the schematic of the project is quite time consuming for a beginner who never design one before. Firstly. more time will be spend and more hard works needed to done the PCB design. If want to design a good and efficient PCB trace.

After solving all those problems. After the project. the line follower robot can work very smoothly. Further study is needed to improve one‟s knowledge and experiences. research on line follower robot will be continued to add in more features and making this project to be more advanced. Features like line tracking and barrier sensing will be progress in smoothly. 104 .

D. published by National Semiconductor Corporation. 1998. Essential Grammar in Use Second Edition.org/datasheet2/8/0ishsf7y9sp31h690e60g8gclc3y.com/ds/LM/LM193.REFERENCES 1. 3. 2004.taitroncomponents. 04 July 2008. website: http://www. website: http://www. published by the McGraw-Hill Companies. published by ST.datasheetcatalog. website: http://www.freeuk. Al Williams. LM193/LM293/LM393/LM2903 Low Power Low Offset Voltage Dual Comparator Datasheet. published by Taitron Compenents Incorporated.pdf.national. Build Your Own Printed Circuit Board. 4. 2. Welcome to the Electronics Club.pdf 8. Robot Building for Beginners.pdf 105 . website: http://www. Raymond Murphy. 2006. 2009.com/catalog/Datasheet/LM393. W. PIC in Pratice A Project-Based Approach.com/index.htm 6. 23 August 2010.Mircoelectronics.pdf. published by Newnes. published by Apress.kpsec. L7800 series Positive Voltage Regulators Datasheet. published by the press syndicate of the University of Cambridge 5. Smith.pdf 7.pdf. David Cook. LM393 Low Power Low Offset Voltage Dual Comparator Datasheet. November 2004.

AB. website: http://en.org/wiki/Liquid_crystal_display 106 . March 2010.pdf.pdf 13. Liquid Crystal Display from Wikipedia.uiuc.wikipedia. Aidil Bin. Jaseung Ku.jvmbots. September 1986. August 1999.spelektroniikka.physics. 01 January 2009. website: http://online.com/ 15. Remote Control Decoded PT2262 Datasheet.Gani.pdf 11.wikipedia.wikipedia. Mr.webs.pdf 10.pdf. August 1999. published by Princeton Technology Corp. Push-button from Wikipedia. website: http://en. New Reseach.spelektroniikka.com/2009/01/httpacademic. Published by Texas Instruments.fi/kuvat/PT2272. website: http://aidiel. website: http://www.org/wiki/Push-button 17. ** Welcome to Aidil Home Page **.blogspot. L293. Basic Component Reference Website. Remote Control Decoded PT2272 Datasheet.edu/courses/phys405/P405_Projects/Fall2005/Robot_project_jase ung_. 17 December 2005.9.pdf 12. the free encyclopedia. L293D Quadruple Half-H Drivers Datasheet. the free encyclopedia.pdf. A Line Follower Robot. website: http://www.html 14. website: http://www.pdf. Switch from Wikipedia. the free encyclopedia.org/wiki/Switch 16. website: http://e3novice.com/pafiledb/uploads/2094d75f6b33202ecab8d50ccbc2c639.fi/kuvat/PT2262. website: http://en. published by Princeton Technology Corp.

wikipedia.com. website: http://en. 1998.net/library/techniques/buildpcb.ee. website: http://www. PIC Microcontroller.18. published by Cytron Technologies Sdn.wikipedia.com 23.solarbotics. Published by HubPages. 10 July 2003. the free encyclopedia. Basic Car Audio Electronics. the free encyclopedia.bcae1. Step In PCB Fabrication Process.org/wiki/Battery_%28electricity%29 19. Sandpaper from Wikipedia.com/hub/Steps-In-PCB-Fabrication-Technique 22. 2010.my 107 .html 24. Head To Toe: PIC Training Malaysia. website: http://www. website: http://hubpages.cytron. website: http://www.edu/~cec/final/node59.duke. Bhd. Servomotor.org/wiki/Sandpaper 20. website: http://people. Eric Seale. Ayur Veda.html 21. Welcome to Cytron Technologies – Robot. website: http://en. 2006. Perry Babin. Battery from Wikipedia. Make a PCB.

1 Making PCB Steps Involved 1. Prepare the required circuit diagram. software. List out the components in the eagle 1.2.APPENDICES METHODOLOGY 1.4. Procedures of Assembly Components 1.3. 1.1. Drawn the connection of circuit diagram in PCB format. 1. Finish the drawn connection of circuit diagram then print out the circuit diagram on sticker paper using by laser printer. 108 .

1. copper) from sticker paper and 1.6.8. Cut 1. Carefully take out the sticker paper from bare board and fixer the back line is not clear. Ironing the circuit diagram pasted on the board to final size and shape using by handsaw or the bare board (coated with a thin layer of jet saw.5. drill holes on the specified places using by Portable Mini Torque Electric Drill. 109 . After that.1.7.

into PCB and test each soldering point have short the circuit or not using by multimeter. Used soldering iron to solder each component 1. Complete the PCB in this stage.11.9. Carefully scrub off the mask with sandpaper on PCB. 1.12. 110 .10. This stage is removing all non-masked copper using by Etching Powder and give the board a good wash under boiling water to remove all trances of the etchant. 1.1.

13. Toy Racing Car 1. 4.6V 4. 5.1µF 330Ω 1KΩ 470Ω Quantity 1 1 2 1 1 2 2 4 2 111 .RESULTS & DISCUSSION 1.1 Components List No 1. 2. 7. (Preset) Dual-Voltage 11. 15 16. 14. 8. Name of Item Battery Battery SPDT Switch Voltage Regulator Heat Sink Capacitor Resistor Resistor Resistor Variable Resistor 10. 3. Comparator 12. 9. 6. Relay Transistor Diode DC Motor IR Sensor 5VDC C9013 IN4001 5VDC Set 2 2 10 2 2 LM393 1 10KΩ 4 Range / Value 9.8V PCS LM7805 PCS 0.

1.3 The PCB diagram of Full Complete Set of Toy Racing Car 1.4 The graphical diagram of Full Complete Set of Toy Racing Car Bottom View Top View 112 .

Front View Behind View Left View Right View 113 .

Resistor Resistor Resistor Variable Resistor (Preset) Dual-Voltage Regulator IR Sensor LED Transistor Hex Inverter Quadruple Half-H Driver Name of Item 114 Name of Item Range/ Value 9. 4. 5. 3.1µF Quantity 2 2 2 2 4 1 Remote Control Set Remote Control Set 1 330Ω 470 Ω 1K Ω 10K Ω LM393 Set PCS C9013 74LS04 L-293D Range/ Value 5 5 10 10 3 5 3 4 1 1 Quantity . 1.2.6V PCS LM7805 PCS 0. 2. 16. Battery SPDT Switch Voltage Regulator Heat Sink Capacitor Wireless (Transmitter) 7. 13. 15.1 Components List No. Intelligence Car (I-Car) 2. No. Wireless (Receiver) 8. 6. 14. 11. 17. 10. 9. 12.

26.No. 21. 33. 27. 29. 25. 18. 36. 22. Mahjong Paper Poster Color Poster Color Maker Pen PCS Black White Black 10 1 1 1 115 . 23. 32. 31. 20. 30. Diode Name of Item Range/ Value IN4001 16F84A 104 32KHz 5VDC PCS PCS PCS PCS A4 Set PCS PCS Set PCS Set Quantity 8 1 3 1 2 1 2 2 2 2 20 2 40 2 1 1 PIC Microcontroller Capacitor Crystal Relay LED Arrow Display Servo Motor Wheels Castor Printed Circuit Board Screw & Nut 40-Pin Header Single Row 2-Pin PSU Connector Molex 2-Pin Power Connector Socket* USB ICSP PIC Programmer & ICSP Programmer Socket 34. 19. 24. 28. 35. 37.

39. Blue. Name of Item Poster Color Pen* Hot Glue Iron Robot Chasis Sticker Paper Jumper Wire ( Red. 48. 38. 45. 40. 49. 8-pins Socket 14-pins Socket 16-pins Socket 18-pins Socket Sand Paper Acid* Breadboard Mini Jumper* PCS PCS PCS PCS A4 3KG PCS SET 3 1 4 1 3 1 6 2 116 . 50. 42. 41. Grey) Range/ Value PCS PCS PCS A4 3 meter Quantity 1 1 1 10 8 43. Black. 47. Yellow. Orange. 46.No. 44. Violet. White.

2 The PCB diagram of Wireless Remote Control (Receiver) Circuit 117 .2 The PCB diagram of Wireless Remote Control (Transmitter) Circuit 2.2.3.2.

2. The PCB diagram of Sensor Barrier Circuit 118 .2. The PCB diagram of PIC Microcontroller Circuit 2.4.5.2.

The PCB diagram of Infrared Sensor Circuit 2.2.2 The PCB diagram of Motor Drive Circuit 119 .7.2.6.

2.8.2 The PCB diagram of LED Arrow Display 120 .

2.9 The Graphical Diagram of I-Car Bottom View Top View Front View Behind View Left View Right View 121 .

122 .11 Programming Assembly Language into I–Car 1. 5.46. 2.46. 4. When opened the MPLAB v8. Click a new file. will shown below 3.2. Appear a new page. Press the MPLAB IDE v8. 6. Type the coding at the page. Click the highlight shown below.