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Circuit Simulator
The Ansoft Designer® Circuit simulator offers full linear, nonlinear and transient analysis for
microwave and RF circuit design. The circuit simulator runs seamlessly within the Designer desk
top, a Windowsstandard schematic capture, layout, and simulation environment. A library of over
100,000 active and passive devices supports linear and nonlinear simulations with unparalleled
accuracy and reliability. This intuitive tool enables key decisions and tradeoffs to be made up
front, allowing designers to make creative, effective, and responsible circuit level decisions that
speed timetomarket and reduce costs.
Features and Capabilities of the Circuit Simulator
Designer offers a powerful range of circuit, system, and electromagnetic simulation tools for the
modern RF and microwave designer. Our user interface provides an intuitive, easytouse environ
ment that allows the user to maximize productivity and facilitates data transfer between the simula
tor and other tools, such as word processors and presentation software.
Circuit offers full linear, nonlinear and transient analysis features, including integrated schematic
capture, tuning and optimization. Libraries of commercial components feature over 100,000 active
and passive devices, allowing easy access to standard transistors, diodes, resistors, capacitors, and
inductors from major manufacturers. In addition, utilities are included to speed the process of trans
mission line design, matching network extraction, and filter synthesis for both lumped and distrib
uted designs. An integrated layout editor automates the artwork generation process.
Nonlinear Analysis
Designer’s circuit simulator was the first harmonicbalance nonlinear circuit simulator (brought to
market over 10 years ago). Today Ansoft offers the latest enhancements, including Krylov meth
ods, to reduce analysis time and memory requirements.
In addition to efficiency, Circuit offers the most robust nonlinear simulation capability available.
Time after time, designers have demonstrated that Circuit offers the best convergence of any tool in
its class while achieving the most accurate simulation results.
Features and Capabilities of the Circuit Simulator
Circuit Simulator2
Linear Analysis
For smallsignal and passive circuits, the circuit simulator includes a full set of linear analysis tools
for tuning and optimization. The software includes an extensive library of distributed elements. The
unique Multiple Coupled Line (MCPL) model allows for analysis of up to 20 simultaneously cou
pled lines, while the device library contains models for popular chip components, such as resistors,
capacitors, and inductors.
Nonlinear Features
Circuit’s nonlinear analysis capabilities are suitable for a wide range of applications including:
• Amplifiers that model both the linear region and IMD created by the nonlinear transfer charac
teristic
• Power amplifiers
• Digitally modulated amplifiers
• Oscillators and VCOs, including industryleading phase noise features
• Mixers, including noise
• Limiters
• Detectors
Available outputs include:
• Spectral plots
• Waveforms
• Eye diagrams/constellations
• ACPR plots
• Spectral regrowth
• Multidimensional sweeps, including gain, power, conversion loss, frequency v voltage, and
any variables in an analysis
• Dynamic load lines
• Phase noise and mixer noise figure
• 2D and 3D graphs, and tabular data
• Subset of PSpice® syntax
Modulation analysis permits circuits to be simulated using digital modulation schemes. Available
sources include GMSK, Pi/4DQPSK, PSK, QASK/QAM, and CDMA. Although these sources are
fully userdefinable, they are configured by default to represent common commercial standards
such as IS54, IS95, and GSM.
Full tuning and optimization capabilities are available with nonlinear analysis, including optimiza
tion of phase noise for oscillators. Circuit also supports the widest range of nonlinear device models
for active devices, allowing the strengths of each model to be exploited for appropriate applica
tions.
Circuit Simulator Options
Circuit Simulator3
Nonlinear stability analysis is available, allowing wideband determination of circuit stability. Using
DC Nyquist criteria, Circuit can predict outofband resonances and determine the correct solution
for oscillators that exhibit bifurcation properties (that is, it can determine the dominant frequency
for multistable circuits).
HFSS Integration
HFSS designs become integrated components in Designer. When Designer integrates HFSS
designs, terminal data from the HFSS model is used, if it is available. Otherwise, modal data is
used. You can interpolate between HFSS design variations in the Designer circuit or simulate miss
ing variations using HFSS. For more information about integrating HFSS designs into Designer,
see Adding an HFSS Circuit to a Design.
Circuit Simulator Options
When you select Circuit Options from the Tools > Options submenu, the following dialog is
displayed:
The following controls are available:
• Show details for every analysis specifies that the Design icon in the Message window
will expand to show all messages from the simulation as it runs. The default is not to
expand the Design icon unless there are warnings.
• Use circuit Sparameter definition controls the definition for port impedances. For Cir
cuit designs, this option should typically be selected (checkbox checked).
The definition of a “matched port” depends on the application. In applications that deal
mostly with circuit quantities (including the Nexxim, Circuit, and System simulators), a
“matched port” has a characteristic impedance that maximizes the power transfer. This is
also called a “conjugate match.” In applications that deal mostly with electromagnetic
quantities (including HFSS and Planar EM), a “matched port” has a characteristic imped
ance that maximizes the transfer of the voltage wave. The two definitions differ only by
the conjugate of the characteristic impedance of the port. For real port impedances, there
is no difference.
Inserting a Circuit Design into a Project21
2
Inserting a Circuit Design into a Project
To insert a Circuit design into a project:
1. Do either of the following:
• a. In the project tree, select the project into which you want to insert the design.
b. On the Project menu, click Insert Circuit Design.
• In the project tree, rightclick the icon for the project into which you want to insert a Circuit
design, point to Insert, and then click Insert Circuit Design.
The Choose Layout Technology dialog box opens.
2. In the Choose Layout Technology dialog box, do one of the following:
• Click a technology, and then click Open;
• Click Browse, browse to (or manually type the name of) a technology file, and click OK; or
• Click None.
A blank Circuit schematic opens in the schematic editor.
Warning Pathnames to technology files must be less than 128 characters in length. Pathnames
longer than 128 characters may render technology files inaccessible and require Designer to be
restarted.
Title
Linear Network Analysis 11
1
Linear Network Analysis
Title
12 Linear Network Analysis
Linear Analysis is used for simulation of all passive circuits, as well as active circuits that operate
under small signal conditions. In linear analysis the signal level and termination values do not
influence the operation of circuit components, and the superposition principle holds true.
Linear analysis requires at least one circuit design, and a sweepparameter definition for either fre
quency or time. Any nonlinear devices are linearized at the bias point, so a biaspoint solution is
also possible.
Following a successful linearcircuit analysis, Designer automatically updates and displays the sim
ulated electrical characteristics of the circuit under smallsignal conditions. The basic output results
include scattering, impedance and admittance parameters; for twoport networks, the possible
results include stability, noise, gain (voltage and power), and matching parameters.
Linear Analysis: Frequency Domain
In this case the Linear Network Analysis command (.NWA) performs a linear frequencydomain
analysis. Circuit components are analyzed using a modified Ymatrix analysis, and any nonlinear
devices are linearized around their bias points when computing the bias values. (The analysis is
identical to smallsignal analysis, but no AC signals need be applied, so the method is exact.)
The basic outputs of the analysis are the linear network parameters (S, Y, and Z) and port parameters
(RHO, VSWR). Additional results are available for the following cases:
• If the circuit is a twoport, then the possible outputs include gain and noise figure.
• If a biaspoint analysis is specified, the DC currents and voltages are available as out
puts.
To Set Up a Basic FrequencyDomain Analysis
1. On the Circuit menu, click Add Solution Setup. .
2. The Solution Setup dialog box opens, and Linear Network Analysis is, already selected in
the Analysis Type list.
3. Type an Analysis Name (or accept the default name, for example “NWA1”). Make sure that
Frequency Domain is selected in the Category list.
4. For most simulations, leave the Disable this analysis unselected (the default setting). But
depending on the needs of a particular project, selecting this box lets you store multiple analy
sissetups for later use. (Note that if this feature is used, any changes made to the design will
invalidate the simulation results.)
5. Click Next, and the Linear Network Analysis, Frequency Domain dialog box appears.
6. Depending on the requirements of the project, you can select Enable Group Delay Calcula
tions (for aditional details, see Group Delay Analysis, later in this topic).
7. To add a basic frequency sweep do either of the following:
• In Linear Network Analysis, Frequency Domain,
a. Click Add, and the Add/Edit Sweep dialog box appears.
b. In the Variable list, make sure that F is selected (default value), and then select
one of the following: Single value, Linear step, Linear count, Decade count,
Title
Linear Network Analysis 13
Octave count, or Exponential count.
c. Type the sweep values into the Start, Stop, and Step text boxes, and make sure
that the appropriate units (GHz, MHz, kHz) are selected for each.
d. Click Add, and then click OK to close the Add/Edit Sweep dialog box.
e. When Linear Network Analysis, Frequency Domain reappears.
• Or, in Linear Network Analysis, Frequency Domain:
a. Click anywhere in the area under Name and Sweep Value.
b. Type the sweep parameters and netlist syntax directly into the text box.
8. For a basic frequencydomain analysis, click Finish.
9. Optional: To customize the analysis (for example, to add Verbose mode):
a. Click Solution Options, and the Solution Options dialog box appears.
b. Make the appropriate selections, click OK, and return to the Linear Network
Analysis, Frequency Domain dialog box.
c. For more information, see Solution Optionssolution options in Designer Help.
10. To set up an advanced sweep (for example, to sweep a circuit parameter or a bias source), see
Advanced Sweep Options in Designer Help.
11. Run the simulation:
a. On Circuit menu, click Start Analysis. If the circuit is set up correctly, the analysis
begins immediately and a red progress bar appears.
b. If the analysis is not successful, check the Message Window for an explanation, and
then take corrective action.
12. Display results:
a. On the menu bar, click Circuit and then click Create Report. The Create Report
dialog box appears.
b. When the Traces dialog box appears, make the appropriate selections, click Add
Trace, and then click Done.
c. For more information, see Generating Reports and PostProcessing in Designer
Help.
Netlist Parameters and Syntax
.NWA[:name] F = SwpDef [GD = ON  OFF] [PERT = cval]
+ [anaSwpDef]
+ [SWPORD = {anaSwpOrderDef}]
Parameter Description Default Comments
Title
14 Linear Network Analysis
Netlist Examples
• The following linear analysis takes place from 1 GHz to 10 GHz in steps of 1 GHz. If there are
any nonlinear models present, the bias point is analyzed and the devices will be linearized:
.NWA:1 F=LIN 1GHz 10GHz 1GHz
• Similar to above, but finer frequency steps of 100 MHz are taken between 5 GHz and 6 GHz:
.NWA:2 F=LIN 1GHz 10GHz 1GHz LIN 5GHz 6GHz 100MHz
• This analysis takes place from 1 kHz to 1 GHz with a logarithmic sweep and 9 analysis points
for each decade of frequency. Between 100 MHz and 1 GHz, additional frequencies are added
every 50 MHz:
.NWA:3 F=DEC 1kHz 1GHz 9 LIN 100MHz 1GHz 50MHz
• The sweep specifications used for F can be arbitrarily mixed with any number of different
sweeps or discrete points given. The frequency list is sorted for monotonically increasing fre
quency, and any duplicate frequency points are removed.
Notes
1. Parameter keyword values in the Linear Network Analysis command (.NWA) can be algebraic
expressions or simple parameters. But an expression must be evaluated prior to analysis. (In
other words, the keyword parameter cannot be dependent on an analysis variable, for example,
F
One or more frequencies (or
a sweep specification of
frequencies for analysis)
GD
Toggles group delay
calculations
OFF
PERT
Perturbation for GD analysis 0.001
anaSwpDef
The actual valus that define
swept parameters.
none When sweeping bias
sources, the only
parameters that can be
swept are voltage (V)
and current (I) for the
DC sources
anaSwpOrderDef
The values that define the
order in which the
parameters get swept.
SWPORD
Defines ordered sweep The first entry defines
the innermost loop
Title
Linear Network Analysis 15
"F.")
2. If a value is assigned by a parameter which is swept, only the original value of the parameters
is used (in other words, the sweep values will be ignored).
GroupDelay Analysis
Group delay analysis determines the delay of the propagation of energy at a given frequency point.
This analysis is defined as the derivative of the phase of a network parameter with respect to fre
quency. Since we are interested in power propagation, S parameters are commonly used:
GD
ij
= dS
ij
/ dω
To compute group delay, numerical perturbation is used to compute the derivative. At each fre
quency, two analyses are computed (one at the nominal frequency, and a second at the perturbed
frequency). The perturbed frequency is:
F' = F × (1.0 + PERT)
The offset between the nominal and perturbed frequencies can be modified from their default val
ues to avoid problems caused by the computer’s precision limitations.
The default for PERT is 0.001 (0.1%) which is acceptable for most circuits. However, smaller val
ues may yield more accurate results for circuits with highQ components, or those with sharp pass
bandsstopbands. Larger values may yield more accurate results for large circuits that use very
numerically complex models (such as the Tee or MCPL components), where truncation errors can
accumulate.
The typical range for PERT is 0.1 to 1.0E7. Negative values for PERT will use a perturbed fre
quency less than the nominal frequency. (If very fine frequency steps are used, care should be taken
to make sure the perturbation is less than the frequency step.)
Title
16 Linear Network Analysis
Linear Analysis: SteadyState TimeDomain
In this case the frequencydomain results from linearnetwork (.NWA) analysis are transformed
into the time domain via the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), which presents steadystate (periodic)
information about network parameters in the time domain. The response of a circuit to a periodic
excitation of impulses or steps can be computed if the time interval between impulses (or between
leading edges of a step) is sufficiently long, i.e., the transient must die out, thus eliminating aliasing
error.
In general, the Fourier transform is not frequency limited, but the discrete FFT uses a Fourier series
expansion to make a periodic extension of the frequency data. The real part of the computed fre
quency response is extended as an even function of frequency, and the imaginary part is extended
as an odd function of frequency.
Additionally, the timedomain response to an arbitrary userdefined waveform can be computed
using the data points of the waveform that are specified in an .NPORTDATA statement (where each
sample value is identified by a time value and a voltage magnitude). The first and last sample
points must have the same value so the sequence is periodic and discontinuities are avoided, and
linear interpolation is used to change the input data to the time samples of the analysis. The Nport
component is included in the circuit and references the .NPORTDATA statement. (See Creating
and Placing NPorts for details.)
If there are nonlinear devices in the circuit, a biaspoint analysis is performed, each device is linear
ized at its bias point, and linear analysis in the frequency domain proceeds.
After analysis, linear network parameters (S, Y, and Z) are available as outputs. The DC currents
and voltages are also available, if a biaspoint analysis was done.
The bias sources (current and voltage) and circuit parameters can be swept (same as Frequency
Domain Analysis, above). A separate analysis will be conducted at each source and parameter
value. For additional information, see Advanced Sweep Options in Designer Help.
To Set Up a SteadyState Time Domain Analysis
1. On the Circuit menu, click Add Solution Setup. .
2. The Solution Setup dialog box opens, and Linear Network Analysis is, already selected in
the Analysis Type list.
3. Type an Analysis Name (or accept the default name, for example “NWA1”). In the Category
list, select SteadyState Time Domain.
4. For most simulations, leave the Disable this analysis unselected (the default setting). But
depending on the needs of a particular project, selecting this box lets you store multiple analy
sissetups for later use. (Note that if this feature is used, any changes made to the design will
invalidate the simulation results.)
5. Click Next, and the Linear Network Analysis, SteadyState Time Domain dialog box
appears.
6. Enter the basic timedomain parameters:
Title
Linear Network Analysis 17
a. In the Period text box, type the time duration (“time window”) for the simulation.
b. In the Time Step text box, type the time increment to be used for analysis.
c. Make sure that the correct units are selected for each parameter.
7. For a basic analysis, click Finish and run the analysis (step 10).
8. Optional: To customize the analysis (for example, to add Verbose mode):
a. Click Solution Options, and the Solution Options dialog box appears. Select
Default Options and then click Edit.
b. Make the appropriate selections, click OK, and return to the Linear Network
Analysis, SteadyState Time Domain dialog box.
c. For more information, see Solution Options in Designer Help.
9. Optional: To sweep a predefined variable, do either of the following:
• In Linear Network Analysis, SteadyState TimeDomain,
a. Click Add, and the Add/Edit Sweep dialog box appears.
b. In the Variable list, make sure that F is selected (default value), and then select
one of the following: Single value, Linear step, Linear count, Decade count,
Octave count, or Exponential count.
c. Type the sweep values into the Start, Stop, and Step text boxes, and make sure
that the appropriate units (GHz, MHz, kHz) are selected for each.
d. Click Add, and then click OK to close the Add/Edit Sweep dialog box.
e. When Linear Network Analysis, SteadyState Time Domain reappears, click
Finish.
f. Click Finish to close the Linear Network Analysis, SteadyState Time
Domain dialog box.
• Or, in Linear Network Analysis, SteadyState Time Domain:
a. Click anywhere in the area under Name and Sweep Value.
b. Type the sweep parameters and netlist syntax directly into the text box, and then
click Finish.
• For more information, see Advanced Sweep Options in Designer Help.
10. Run the simulation:
a. On Circuit menu, click Start Analysis. If the circuit is set up correctly, the analysis
begins immediately and a red progress bar appears.
b. If the analysis is not successful, check the Message Window for an explanation, and
then take corrective action.
11. Display results:
a. On the menu bar, click Circuit and then click Create Report. The Create Report
dialog box appears.
b. When the Traces dialog box appears, make the appropriate selections, click Add
Trace, and then click Done.
Title
18 Linear Network Analysis
c. For more information, see Generating Reports and PostProcessing in Designer
Help.
Netlist Syntax and Parameters
.NWA[:name] TIME Window Increment
+ [anaSwpDef]
+ [SWPORD = {anaSwpOrderDef}]
Parameter Description Default Comments
TIME
The TIME keyword
takes two real
values: Window and
Increment
Window
Time window of
analysis ("period"):
The period between
impulses or step
leading edges.
Increment
Time increment of
analysis ("sample
rate"): The lowest
frequency in the
analysis is
determined by
Window and the
highest frequency is
determined by
Increment.
anaSwpDef
Definition of swept
parameters
none When sweeping bias
sources, the only
parameters that can be
swept are voltage (V)
and current (I) for the
DC sources
Title
Linear Network Analysis 19
Netlist Example
The following example takes place over a time interval of 10 ns using a sampling rate of 0.1
ns. The lowest frequency of the analysis (besides DC) is 100 MHz and the highest is 10 GHz.
If there are any nonlinear models present, the bias point is analyzed and the devices are
linearized.
NWA:1 TIME 10ns 0.1ns
Notes
1. Parameter keyword values in the Linear Network Analysis command (.NWA) can be alge
braic expressions or simple parameters. But an expressions must be evaluated prior to analysis
(in other words, the keyword parameter cannot be dependent on an analysis variable, for exam
ple, "F").
2. If a value is assigned by a parameter which is swept, only the original value is used (in other
words, the sweep values will be ignored).
Responses to an Arbitrary Time Signal
The shape of an arbitrary time signal is defined by an external timedata file, specified by sample
values at each time step within the time window. Each sample value is a voltage magnitude pre
ceded by a time value.
The first and last sample points must have the same value for the signal to be expandable to peri
odic form without any discontinuities. Linear interpolation is used to fill in any sample values
which are omitted. The time data is defined in a black box two port component and in this way is
included in the simulation of all the circuits.
anaSwpOrderDef
The values that
define the order in
which the
parameters get
swept.
SWPORD
Defines ordered
sweep
The first entry defines
the innermost loop
Title
110 Linear Network Analysis
Linear Analysis: Pulse Modulated Carrier
In this case, the timedomain response of the circuit for a pulsemodulated carrier is computed: The
frequencydomain results from linear network analysis are transformed into the time domain by
applying the FFT, which yields steadystate (periodic) information of network parameters in the
time domain.
The analysis parameters are used to compute a frequencylist that is centered at the carrier, includ
ing the lower and upper spectrum. For these lower and upper spectra, the number of frequency
components is equal to the specified number of sidebands.
If there are nonlinear devices in the circuit, a biaspoint analysis is performed, each device is linear
ized at its bias point, and linear analysis in the frequency domain proceeds.
After analysis, linear network parameters (S, Y, and Z) are available as outputs. The DC currents
and voltages are also available, if a biaspoint analysis was done.
The bias sources (I and V) and circuit parameters can be swept (same as Frequency Domain Analy
sis, above). A separate analysis will be conducted at each source and parameter value. See the
Advanced Options, below, for details.
To Set Up a SteadyState Pulsed Carrier Time Domain Analysis
1. On the Circuit menu, click Add Solution Setup. .
2. The Solution Setup dialog box opens, and Linear Network Analysis is, already selected in
the Analysis Type list.
3. Type an Analysis Name (or accept the default name, for example “NWA1”). In the Category
list, select SteadyState Pulsed Carrier Time Domain.
4. For most simulations, leave the Disable this analysis unselected (the default setting). But
depending on the needs of a particular project, selecting this box lets you store multiple analy
sissetups for later use. (Note that if this feature is used, any changes made to the design will
invalidate the simulation results.)
5. Click Next, and the Linear Network Analysis, SteadyState Pulsed Carrier Time Domain
dialog box appears.
6. Enter the basic analysis parameters:
a. In the Carrier Frequency text box, enter the RF frequency.
b. Under Pulse Repetition, select either Pulse Rate or Pulse Repetition Period and enter
the appropriate value.
c. Enter the appropriate value for Modulating Pulse Width.
d. In the Sideband Limits text box, enter either the No. of Sidebands (an integer) or the
Max. Envelop Amplitue (a percentage, in decimal).
e. Make sure that the correct units (GHz, MHz, kHz) are selected for each parameter.
7. For a basic analysis, click Finish and run the analysis (step 10).
Title
Linear Network Analysis 111
8. Optional: To customize the analysis (for example, to add Verbose mode):
a. Click Solution Options, and the Solution Options dialog box appears. Select
Default Options and click Edit.
b. Make the appropriate selections, click OK, and return to the Linear Network
Analysis, SteadyState Pulsed Carrier Time Domain dialog box.
c. For more information, see Solution Options in Designer Help.
9. Optional: To sweep a predefined variable, do either of the following:
• In Linear Network Analysis, SteadyState Pulsed Carrier TimeDomain,
a. Click Add, and the Add/Edit Sweep dialog box appears.
b. In the Variable list, make sure that F is selected (default value), and then select
one of the following: Single value, Linear step, Linear count, Decade count,
Octave count, or Exponential count.
c. Type the sweep values into the Start, Stop, and Step text boxes, and make sure
that the appropriate units (GHz, MHz, kHz) are selected for each.
d. Click Add, and then click OK to close the Add/Edit Sweep dialog box.
e. When Linear Network Analysis, SteadyState Pulsed Carrier Time Domain
reappears, click Finish.
f. Click Finish to close the Linear Network Analysis, SteadyState Time
Domain dialog box.
• Or, in Linear Network Analysis, SteadyState Time Domain:
a. Click anywhere in the area under Name and Sweep Value.
b. Type the sweep parameters and netlist syntax directly into the text box, and then
click Finish.
• For more information, see Advanced Sweep Options in Designer Help.
10. Run the simulation:
a. On Circuit menu, click Start Analysis. If the circuit is set up correctly, the analysis
begins immediately and a red progress bar appears.
b. If the analysis is not successful, check the Message Window for an explanation, and
then take corrective action.
11. Display the results:
a. On the menu bar, click Circuit and then click Create Report. The Create Report
dialog box appears.
b. When the Traces dialog box appears, make the appropriate selections, click Add
Trace, and then click Done.
c. For more information, see Generating Reports and PostProcessing in Designer
Help.
Title
112 Linear Network Analysis
Netlist Syntax and Parameters
Netlist Example
The following analysis takes place with a center frequency of 5 GHz, a pulse repetition rate of 100
ns, a pulse width of 20 ns and the number of sidebands includes are those whose envelope value is
greater than 0.01.
NWA:1 PULSE 5GHz 100ns 20ns 0.01
Notes
1. Parameter keyword values in the Linear Network Analysis command (.NWA) can be algebraic
expressions or simple parameters. But an expressions must be evaluated prior to analysis (in
other words, the keyword parameter cannot be dependent on an analysis variable, for example,
"F").
2. If a value is assigned by a parameter which is swept, only the original value is used (in other
words, the sweep values will be ignored).
Parameter Description
PULSE
The PULSE keyword takes four real
values: Fcarrier RatePeriod Width
Sideband
Fcarrier
Frequency of the carrier
RatePeriod
For values > 1.0
Pulse rate in Hertz
For values < 1.0
Pulse repetition period in seconds
Width
Modulating pulse width in seconds
Sideband
For values > 1.0
Number of single sidebands used for
the calculation
For values < 1.0
Sidebands are included until the
sin(x)/x envelope is < Sideband
The default value for Sideband is
0.01.
Circuit Response Definitions261
26
Circuit Response Definitions
This topic provides a reference for all circuit response keywords that are supported in Designer.
The coverage is divided into two major sections, one for responses available for linear network
analysis and one for responses available for harmonicbalance nonlinear analysis.
Linear Network Analysis Circuit Responses
The responses for linear network analysis are categorized into the following sections:
Display Parameters in the Report Editor
The format for linear and smallsignal circuit responses is:
CircuitResponse(CKT=arg1 term=arg2)
where
Display Parameters Circuit responses available in the Traces dialog.
OUT Block Parameters Circuit responses specified in the OUT block to indicate a special analysis;
for example, group delay.
OPT Block Parameters Circuit responses available for optimization.
STAT Block Parameters Circuit responses available for statistical analysis.
CircuitResponse identifies the response parameter, for example, S11.
Linear Network Analysis Circuit Responses
Circuit Response Definitions262
The CKT and term parameters are optional. If CKT is not specified, the toplevel circuit will be
used. If term is not specified, the global default terminations will be used. Multiple term keywords
may be used to terminate circuit ports individually and differently.
Examples:
S21
S21(CKT=cktA R2=600.0)
S21(CKT=cktA R1=75 Z2=60+j10 Z3=IMP(ckt1Port))
Complex Numbers Formats for Display Parameters and Expressions
Complex numbers can be specified in realimaginary or magnitudeangle format:
1. RealImaginary numbers take the form x+jy, where x and y are the real and imaginary parts of
the complex value, respectively. They can be integers, floating point, or exponentialformat
numbers, for example, 3+j5, 3.5−j4.6, 1.2E2+j5.5.
2. MagnitudeAngle numbers take the form (r a) where r is the magnitude and a is the angle in
degrees. They can be integers, floating point, or exponentialformat numbers—for example,
(30 60), (75.3 22.5), (1.1E2 1.3E1).
arg1 is the circuit name. CircuitResponse will be computed using this circuit.
For an analysis that includes nonlinear devices, arg1 must include the instance path
since active devices in subcircuits may have different bias points. For example,
A_1.B_2 where B_2 is the instance of subcircuit B referenced from the instance of
subcircuit A_1.
term is either R or Z followed by a port number, e.g. R1.
R is used for real termination and Z is used for complex termination in realimaginary
or magnitudeangle format.
arg2 is the value of R or Z.
Z can also be set to the impedance of a oneport circuit or data label by using the IMP()
function, e.g. Z1=IMP(ckt1Port). Note: Not available in SSAC analysis.
Linear Network Analysis Circuit Responses
Circuit Response Definitions263
Reference Circuit Definitions for TwoPort Responses
The circuit responses for twoport circuits use the impedance and reflection coefficient definitions
used in the figure. A common quantity used defines the determinant of the [S] matrix representing
the twoport and is defined as
Zs
Vs
ZL
Γs
ZIN ZOUT
ΓIN
ΓOUT
ΓL
V1 V2
Twoport
Network
[S]
+

+

∆ = − S S S S
11 22 12 21
Linear Network Analysis Circuit Responses
Circuit Response Definitions264
Parameters for NPort Circuits
Single Port Parameters for NPort Circuits
Parameters for TwoPort Circuits
Gain and Matching Parameters for TwoPort Circuits
Sij Complex S parameter
Yij Complex Y parameter
Zij Complex Z parameter
GDij Real Group Delay (not available in linear network analysis),
where φij
=phase(S
ij
)
RHOi Complex Reflection coefficient,
RTLi Real Return loss ,
VSWRi Real Voltage standing wave ratio,
Aij Complex ABCD parameters (chain parameters). For linear network analysis,
use ABCDij.
Hij Complex Hybrid parameters
Gij Complex Inverse Hybrid parameters
GA Available power gain,
GFMN Gain when the input impedance (Zopt) is used to achieve minimum
noise figure (FMIN)
GMAX Real Maximum available gain ,
GD
ij
ij
d
d
=
φ
ω
RHOi S
ii
=
RTLi S
ii
=
VSWRi
S
S
ii
ii
=
+
−
1
1
GA =
−
− −
= +
−
1
1
1
1
1
2
11
2 21
2
2
22
12 21
11
Γ
Γ Γ
Γ
Γ
Γ
S
S OUT
OUT
S
S
S
S where
S
S S
S
,
( )
GMAX =
− −
− −
¦
´
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
1
1
1
1
1
11
2 21
2
22
2
21
12
2
S
S
S
unilateral case
S
S
K K bilateral case
,
,
Linear Network Analysis Circuit Responses
Circuit Response Definitions265
GML Complex Optimum gain reflection coefficient for Load at maximum
available gain (GMax) ,
where,
,
,
GMS Complex Optimum gain reflection coefficient for Source at maximum
available gain (GMax),
,
,
,
GP Power gain,
TG Transducer power gain,
MSG Real Maximum stable gain ,
UPG Unilateral power gain,
YMS Source admittance at maximum available gain (GMAX),
where ZS
is the source impedance.
YML Load admittance at maximum available gain (GMAX),
where ZL
is the load impedance.
ZMS Source impedance at maximum available gain (GMAX),
ZML Load impedance at maximum available gain (GMAX),
GML =
± − B B C
C
2 2
2
2
2
2
4
2
B S S
2 22
2
11
2 2
1 = + − − ∆
C S S
2 22 11
= −
∗
∆
GMS =
± − B B C
C
1 1
2
1
2
1
4
2
B S S
1 11
2
22
2 2
1 = + − − ∆
C S S
1 11 22
= −
∗
∆
GP =
−
− −
= +
−
1
1
1
1
1
2
22
2 21
2
2
11
12 21
22
Γ
Γ Γ
Γ
Γ
Γ
L
L IN
IN
L
L
S
S where
S
S S
S
,
TG
S
S
S
S
L
OUT L
=
−
−
−
−
1
1
1
1
2
11
2
21
2
2
2
Γ
Γ
Γ
Γ Γ
MSG =
S
S
21
12
UPG =
− −
=
1
1
1
1
0
11
2 21
2
22
2 12
S
S
S
when S ,
YMS
GMS
GMS
=
−
+

\

.

1 1
1
Z
S
YML
GML
GML
=
−
+

\

.

1 1
1 Z
L
ZMS
YMS
=
1
ZML
YML
=
1
Linear Network Analysis Circuit Responses
Circuit Response Definitions266
Port Parameters for TwoPort Circuits
Stability Parameters for TwoPort Circuits
Noise Parameters for TwoPort Circuits
YIN Input admittance with port 2 terminated,
where YL
is the load admittance.
YOUT Output admittance with port 1 terminated,
where YS
is the source admittance.
ZIN Input impedance with port 2 terminated,
where ZL
is the load impedance.
ZOUT Output impedance with port 1 terminated,
where ZS
is the source impedance.
B1
B1 term of the stability factor,
. For SSAC analysis, use BI.
K
Real Stability factor k
MU
Real Stability factor mu
KCSR
Real Stability circle radius for Source ,
KCLR Real Stability circle radius for Load ,
KCSO Complex Stability circle origin for Source ,
KCLO Complex Stability circle origin for Load
FMIN Real Minimum noise figure power ratio. FMIN is derived from fundamental noise
quantities.
NF Real Noise figure power ratio. NF is derived from fundamental noise quantities.
YIN = −
+
Y
Y Y
Y Y
L
11
12 21
22
YOUT = −
+
Y
Y Y
Y Y
S
22
12 21
11
ZIN = −
+
Z
Z Z
Z Z
L
11
12 21
22
ZOUT = −
+
Z
Z Z
Z Z
S
22
12 21
11
B1 = + + − 1
11
2
22
2
2
S S ∆
K =
− − + 1
2
11
2
22
2
2
21 12
S S
S S
∆
( )
MU =
−
− +
1
22
2
11 22 21 12
S
S S S S ∆
*
KCSR =
−
S S
S
12 21
11
2
2
∆
KCLR =
−
S S
S
12 21
22
2
2
∆
( )
KCSO =
−
−
∗
∗
S S
S
11 22
11
2
2
∆
∆
( )
KCLO =
−
−
∗
∗
S S
S
22 11
22
2
2
∆
∆
Linear Network Analysis Circuit Responses
Circuit Response Definitions267
TwoPort Voltage Gain Parameters
Voltage and Current Probe Parameters
The name includes the hierarchical path. The hierarchy is traced from the toplevel circuit through
subcircuit instance names to the probe (for example, Vp(cktA1.cktB1.p1). The toplevel circuit is
terminated in the port termination(s) specified in the analysis. In schematic, the terminations are
properties of the ports themselves. For netlists, the terminations are specified in the NOUT block.
Parameters for Linear Network Analysis TimeDomain Responses
Note Time domain responses are valid only when time specifications are included in the analysis.
NT Real Equivalent noise temperature,
RN Real Equivalent normalized noise resistance ratio. RN is derived from fundamental noise
quantities.
RNU Real Equivalent unnormalized noise resistance,
GOPT Complex Optimum noise figure reflection coefficient,
YOPT Complex Optimum noise figure source admittance,
, where Go and Bo
are derived from fundamental noise quantities.
ZOPT Complex Optimum noise figure source impedance,
VGIO Complex Voltage gain inputoutput,
VGIN Complex Voltage gain insertion,
VGSL Complex Voltage gain sourceload,
Vp(name) Complex voltage of the probe element name.
Ip(name) Complex current of the probe element name.
TI(z, RT=r) Real Impulse response for Time domain simulation. z represents the circuit
response of Sij, Yij, or Zij. r is the rise time used in the calculation.
NT NF = − ( ) * 1 290
RNU RN = * Z
REF
GOPT
Zopt
Zopt
=
−
+
Zs
Zs
YOPT = + Go jBo
ZOPT
YOPT
=
1
VGIO =
V
V
2
1
VGIN VGSL
Z
Z
S
L
= +

\

.
 1
VGSL =
V
V
2
S
Linear Network Analysis Circuit Responses
Circuit Response Definitions268
OUT Block Parameters
The OUT block is automatically generated when needed for schematic users. For netlist users, the
OUT block is needed only for group delay calculations.
If group delay is desired, include the following in the netlist:
OUT
PRI cktName S GD PERT=val
END
Using PERT is optional.
Schematic users enter the information in the linear FREQ block component and fill out the proper
ties for GD (ON or OFF), PERT, and OPTION (S or VG).
OPT and STAT Block Parameters
The OPT and STAT blocks share many of the same parameters and syntax. Definitions of the
parameters are the same as the display parameters above unless otherwise indicated. For detailed
syntax information, see the sections on Optimization Specification and Statistical Analysis in the
Control Blocks chapter of the Reference Volume.
TS(z, RT=r) Real Step response for Time domain simulation. z represents the circuit response
of Sij, Yij, or Zij. r is the rise time used in the calculation.
TP(z, RT=r) Real Pulse response for Time domain pulse simulation. z represents the circuit
response of Sij, Yij, or Zij. r is the rise time used in the calculation.
S GD Indicate to the analysis to calculate group delay, as defined above.
PERT Group delay perturbation factor. The perturbation frequency used in the
difference calculation will be perturbed by f*PERT.
S
Device modeling to match S parameters to measured data or another
circuit. For example, S=data_ref where data_ref is the name of a data
block or another circuit. See Circuit Modeling Goals in the
Optimization Specification section in the Control Blocks chapter of the
Reference Volume for more information.
Y
Device modeling to match Y parameters to measured data or another
circuit.
Z
Device modeling to match Z parameters to measured data or another
circuit.
S
ij
Device modeling to match S
ij
to measured data or another circuit.
Linear Network Analysis Circuit Responses
Circuit Response Definitions269
Y
ij
Device modeling to match Y
ij
to measured data or another circuit.
Zij Device modeling to match Z
ij
to measured data or another circuit.
VG1 Device modeling to match VGSL (sourcetoload voltage gain) to measured data.
VG2 Device modeling to match VGIN (insertion voltage gain) to measured data.
VG3 Device modeling to match VGIO (inputtooutput voltage gain) to measured data.
GDij Specify GDij to a goal.
MSij Specify magnitude of S
ij
to a goal.
MYij Specify magnitude of Y
ij
to a goal.
MZij Specify magnitude of Z
ij
to a goal.
MVG
i
Specify magnitude of VG1, VG2, or VG3 to a goal.
PSij Specify phase (in degrees) of S
ij
to a goal.
PYij Specify phase (in degrees) of Y
ij
to a goal.
PZij Specify phase (in degrees) of Z
ij
to a goal.
PVGi Specify phase (in degrees) of VG1, VG2, or VG3 to a goal.
RSij Specify real part of S
ij
to a goal.
RYij Specify real part of Y
ij
to a goal.
RZij Specify real part of Z
ij
to a goal.
RVGi Specify real part of VG1, VG2, or VG3 to a goal.
ISij Specify imaginary part of S
ij
to a goal.
IYij Specify imaginary part of Y
ij
to a goal.
Linear Network Analysis Circuit Responses
Circuit Response Definitions2610
IZij Specify imaginary part of Z
ij
to a goal.
IVGi Specify imaginary part of VG1, VG2, or VG3 to a goal.
Linear Network Analysis Circuit Responses
Circuit Response Definitions2611
For TwoPorts Only
K Specify stability factor to a goal.
GMAX Specify maximum available gain to a goal.
NF Specify noise figure to a goal.
UPG Unilateral power gain for twoport circuits.
GFMN Gain when the input impedance (Zopt) is used to achieve minimum
noise figure (FMIN) for twoport circuits.
FMIN Specify minimum noise figure to a goal.
GOPT Device modeling to match optimum reflection coefficient for minimum
noise figure to complex data or another circuit.
GMS Optimum gain reflection coefficient for source at GMAX, complex.
GML Optimum gain reflection coefficient for load at GMAX, complex.
YMS Source admittance at maximum available gain (GMAX), complex.
YML Load admittance at maximum available gain (GMAX), complex.
ZMS Source impedance at maximum available gain (GMAX), complex.
ZML Load impedance at maximum available gain (GMAX), complex.
YOPT Optimum noise figure source admittance, complex.
ZOPT Optimum noise figure source impedance, complex.
YIN Input admittance with port 2 terminated, complex.
YOUT Output admittance with port 1 terminated, complex.
ZIN Input impedance with port 2 terminated, complex.
ZOUT Output impedance with port 1 terminated, complex.
RHOi Reflection coefficient, complex.
Nonlinear Circuit Responses
Circuit Response Definitions2612
Note All optimizable complex responses for two ports devices may be preceded by R, I, M or P
prefix for real, imaginary, magnitude and phase, respectively. For example, RYOUT denotes the
real part of YOUT while MZIN indicates the magnitude of ZIN, etc.
For Port Models Only
Group Delay Perturbation
Nonlinear Circuit Responses
Display Parameters
Forms are used for defining graphs and tables that allow very general expressions. Several func
tions are available to manipulate the display parameters. Equations can also be used to obtain data
consisting of several display parameters. To obtain responses such as magnitude, use the MAG()
function; for example, MAG(V1<H1>). The available functions are given at the end of this chapter.
VSWRi Voltage Standing Wave Ratio, real.
MSG Maximum Stable Gain, real.
GA Available Power Gain, real.
GP Power Gain, real.
TG Transducer Power Gain, real.
NT Equivalent Noise Temperature, real.
RN Equivalent Normalized Noise Resistance Ratio, real.
RNU Equivalent UnNormalized Noise Resistance Ratio, real.
GBW Specify gainbandwidth product to a goal
PERT Frequency perturbation for group delay calculations
Nonlinear Circuit Responses
Circuit Response Definitions2613
Definitions
External Port Responses
Hn Harmonic expression that may be for single, two, or threetone analysis.
That is, Hi, +/−Hi +/−Hj, +/−Hi +/−Hj +/−Hk, respectively.
i,j Port numbers.
x Single device port index (for example, Ig for gate current)
xy Dual device port index (for example, Vds for drainsource voltage)
z Instance name of device
Ai<Hm> Incident traveling wave at external port i, harmonic m.
Time Domain Display: This is the real incident wave waveform,
specified as Ai.
Spectral Domain Display: Complex incident wave spectrum,
specified as Ai.
Network Fn/Sweep Domain Display: Select a harmonic
component to display the complex incident wave in the frequency
domain, specified as Ai<Hm>.
Definition:
Bi<Hm> Exiting traveling wave at external port i, harmonic m.
Time Domain Display: This is the real exit wave waveform,
specified as Bi.
Spectral Domain Display: Complex exit wave spectrum, specified
as Bi.
Network Fn/Sweep Domain Display: Select a harmonic
component to display the complex exit wave in the frequency
domain, specified as Bi<Hm>.
Definition:
A Hm
V Hm I Hm R
R
i
i i i
i
< >=
< > + < >
2
B Hm
V Hm I Hm R
R
i
i i i
i
< >=
< > − < >
2
Nonlinear Circuit Responses
Circuit Response Definitions2614
EFi<Hm> Real DC to RF conversion efficiency of the mth harmonic at port i.
Use primarily for computing oscillator efficiency. Multiply by 100
to get efficiency in percent.
Time Domain Display: N/A
Spectral Domain Display: N/A
Network Fn/Sweep Domain Display: Select a port and harmonic
to display the efficiency, specified as EFi<Hm>
Definition:
FO<Hm> Frequency at harmonic m. Use to obtain the oscillation frequency at
the first or higher harmonics. The default unit is the hertz.
Time Domain Display: N/A
Spectral Domain Display: N/A
Network Fn/Sweep Domain Display: Select a harmonic to display
the frequency, specified as FO<Hm>
GCij<Hm,Hn> Complex general conversion transfer parameters between output
port i, harmonic m and input port j, harmonic n. These are the large
signal analogy to S parameters. Use dB() to get the transfer
parameter in dB.
Time Domain Display: N/A
Spectral Domain Display: N/A
Network Fn/Sweep Domain Display: Select a harmonic to display
the frequency, specified as GCij<Hm,Hn>.
Definition:
where B and A are the
exiting and incident traveling waves, respectively.
EF Hm
PO Hm
I V
i
i
Bias bias
All Bias Sources
< >=
< >
∑
GC Hm Hn
B Hm
A Hn
ij
i
j
< >=
< >
< >
,
Nonlinear Circuit Responses
Circuit Response Definitions2615
Ii<Hm> Current into external port i, harmonic m. The default unit is the
ampere.
Time Domain Display: This is the real current waveform, specified
as Ii.
Spectral Domain Display: Complex current spectrum, specified as
Ii.
Network Fn/Sweep Domain Display: Select a harmonic
component to display the complex current in the frequency domain,
specified as Ii<Hm>.
PAij<Hm,Hn> Real poweradded efficiency between output port i, harmonic Hm
and input port j, harmonic Hn. Requires a source at port j, harmonic
n. Multiply by 100 to get efficiency in percent.
Time Domain Display: N/A
Spectral Domain Display: N/A
Network Fn/Sweep Domain Display: Select a port and harmonic
to display the poweradded efficiency, specified as PAij<Hm,Hn>
Definition:
where
Pinj
<Hn> is the power absorbed by the network at port j, harmonic
Hn.
PA Hm Hn
PO Hm Pin Hn
I V
ij
i j
Bias Bias
All Bias Sources
< >=
< > − < >
∑
,
Nonlinear Circuit Responses
Circuit Response Definitions2616
PFi<Hm> Power flux at external port i, harmonic m. Power flux is positive if
power is delivered into the network, and it is negative if power is
delivered from the network. The default unit is the watt. Use the
dBm() function to obtain power in dB with respect to 1 mW (the
dBm() function will lose the directional information).
Time Domain Display: This is the instantaneous power, specified
as PFi.
Spectral Domain Display: Power flux spectrum, specified as PFi.
Network Fn/Sweep Domain Display: Select a harmonic
component to display the power flux in the frequency domain,
specified as PFi<Hm>.
Definition for time domain:
Definition for frequency domain:
POi<Hm> Output power flowing out of the network at external port i,
harmonic m. Output power is positive if power exits the network.
The default unit is the watt. Use the dBm() function to obtain power
in dB with respect to 1 mW (the dBm() function will lose the
directional information).
Time Domain Display: This is the instantaneous power, specified
as POi.
Spectral Domain Display: Output power spectrum, specified as
POi.
Network Fn/Sweep Domain Display: Select a harmonic
component to display the output power in the frequency domain,
specified as POi<Hm>.
Definition for time domain:
Definition for frequency domain:
PF v t i t
i i i
= ( ) ( )
{ } PF Hm V Hm I Hm
i i i
< >= < > < >
1
2
Re
*
PO v t i t
i i i
= ( ) ( )
PO Hm R I Hm B Hm
i i i i
< >= < > = < >
1
2
2
1
2
2
Nonlinear Circuit Responses
Circuit Response Definitions2617
RLi<Hm> Real power return loss at port i, harmonic m. Requires a source at
port i, harmonic m. Use dB() to get return loss in dB.
Time Domain Display: N/A
Spectral Domain Display: N/A
Network Fn/Sweep Domain Display: Select a harmonic
component to display the power return loss, specified as RLi<Hm>.
Definition:
where Γ is the reflection coefficient at port i, harmonic m.
SPi<Hm> Real spectral purity of the mth harmonic power at port i. Use dB()
to get purity in dB.
Time Domain Display: N/A
Spectral Domain Display: N/A
Network Fn/Sweep Domain Display: Select a harmonic
component to display the spectral purity, specified as SPi<Hm>.
Definition:
where NH are the
total number of harmonic components, excluding DC.
TGij<Hm,Hn> Real transducer gain between output port i, harmonic m and input
port j, harmonic n. Requires a source at port j, harmonic n. Use dB()
to get gain in dB
Time Domain Display: N/A
Spectral Domain Display: N/A
Network Fn/Sweep Domain Display: Select the harmonic
components to display the transducer gain, specified as
TGij<Hm,Hn>.
Definition:
where Pavs is the
available source power at port j, harmonic n.
RL Hm
PO Hm
Pavs Hm
Hm
i
i
i
i
< >=
< >
< >
= < > Γ
2
SP Hm
PO Hm
PO Hn
i
i
i
n n m
NH
< >=
< >
< >
= ≠
∑
1,
TG Hm Hn
PO Hm
Pavs Hn
ij
i
j
< >=
< >
< >
,
Nonlinear Circuit Responses
Circuit Response Definitions2618
Vi<Hm> Voltage across external port i, harmonic m. Default units are volts.
Time Domain Display: This is the real voltage waveform, specified
as Vi.
Spectral Domain Display: Complex voltage spectrum, specified as
Vi.
Network Fn/Sweep Domain Display: Select a harmonic
component to display the complex voltage in the frequency domain,
specified as Vi<Hm>.
VGij<Hm,Hn> Complex voltage gain between port i, harmonic m and port j,
harmonic n. Requires a source at port j, harmonic n. Use dB() to get
voltage gain in dB.
Time Domain Display: N/A
Spectral Domain Display: N/A
Network Fn/Sweep Domain Display: Select the harmonic
components to display the voltage gain, specified as
VGij<Hm,Hn>.
Definition:
YIi<Hm> Complex input admittance at port i, harmonic m. Requires a source
at port i, harmonic m.
Time Domain Display: N/A
Spectral Domain Display: N/A
Network Fn/Sweep Domain Display: Select the harmonic
components to display the input admittance, specified as YIi<Hm>.
Definition:
VG Hm Hn
V Hm
V Hn
ij
i
j
< >=
< >
< >
,
YI Hm
I Hm
V Hm
i
i
i
< >=
< >
< >
Nonlinear Circuit Responses
Circuit Response Definitions2619
ZIi<Hm> Complex input impedance at port i, harmonic m. Requires a source
at port i, harmonic m.
Time Domain Display: N/A
Spectral Domain Display: N/A
Network Fn/Sweep Domain Display: Select the harmonic
components to display the input impedance, specified as ZIi<Hm>.
Definition:
ZI Hm
V Hm
I Hm
i
i
i
< >=
< >
< >
Nonlinear Circuit Responses
Circuit Response Definitions2620
Noise Spectrum Responses
ANi<Hm> Amplitude noise spectrum at port i, harmonic m. AN is only
computed by specifying NSi<Hm> or ANi<Hm>in the NOUT
block. The default unit is the dBc/Hz.
Time Domain Display: N/A
Spectral Domain Display: N/A
Network Fn/Sweep Domain Display: Amplitude noise is available
at the port and harmonic specified in the NOUT block for the NS
keyword.
NSi<Hm> Lower sideband noise spectrum at port i, harmonic m. Noise
spectrum is available for singletone analysis only. NSi<Hm> must
be present in the NOUT block to tell the simulator to compute it and
noise analysis or oscillator noise analysis must be activated. The
default unit is the dBc/Hz.
Time Domain Display: N/A
Spectral Domain Display: N/A
Network Fn/Sweep Domain Display: Noise Spectrum is available
for the ports and harmonics specified in the NOUT block.
NSLi<Hm> Lower sideband noise spectrum at port i, harmonic m. This is the
same as noise spectrum and is produced by specifying NSi<Hm> in
the NOUT block. The default unit is the dBc/Hz.
Time Domain Display: N/A
Spectral Domain Display: N/A
Network Fn/Sweep Domain Display: Noise Spectrum is available
for the ports and harmonics specified in the NOUT block.
Nonlinear Circuit Responses
Circuit Response Definitions2621
NSUi<Hm> Upper sideband noise spectrum at port i, harmonic m. This is
produced by specifying NSi<Hm> in the NOUT block. The default
unit is dBc/Hz.
Time Domain Display: N/A
Spectral Domain Display: N/A
Network Fn/Sweep Domain Display: Noise Spectrum is available
for the ports and harmonics specified in the NOUT block.
PNi<Hm> Phase noise spectrum at port i, harmonic m. PN is only computed
by specifying NSi<Hm> or PNi<Hm> in the NOUT block. The
default unit is dBc/Hz.
Time Domain Display: N/A
Spectral Domain Display: N/A
Network Fn/Sweep Domain Display: Phase noise is available at
the port and harmonic specified in the NOUT block for the NS
keyword.
Nonlinear Circuit Responses
Circuit Response Definitions2622
SmallSignal Mixer and Mixer Noise Responses
CGij<Hm,Hn> Conversion gain between output port i, harmonic m and input port j,
harmonic n. Conversion gain is available for twotone excitation in
smallsignal mixer analysis only. It must be present in the NOUT
block to tell the simulator to compute it.
Time Domain Display: N/A
Spectral Domain Display: N/A
Network Fn/Sweep Domain Display: Conversion gain is available
for the ports and harmonics specified in the NOUT block. Use dB()
to obtain conversion gain in dB.
Definition:
where Pavs is the
available source power at port j, harmonic n.
NFij<Hm,Hn> Mixer noise figure between output port i, harmonic m and input port
j, harmonic n. Noise figure is available for a twotone excitation
only in the smallsignal mixer analysis. It must be present in the
NOUT block to tell the simulator to compute it and the noise
analysis must be activated. Use dB() to obtain Noise Figure in dB.
Time Domain Display: N/A
Spectral Domain Display: N/A
Network Fn/Sweep Domain Display: Noise Figure is available for
the ports and harmonics specified in the NOUT block.
CG Hm Hn
PO Hm
Pavs Hn
ij
i
j
< >=
< >
< >
,
Nonlinear Circuit Responses
Circuit Response Definitions2623
Noise Contribution Responses
NPLINi<Hm> Noise power contribution at port i, harmonic m from the linear
subnetwork. The default unit is the watt.
Time Domain Display: N/A
Spectral Domain Display: N/A
Network Fn/Sweep Domain Display: Noise contribution is
available at the port and harmonics specified in the NOUT block
for the NS keyword or at the output port and harmonics specified
in the NOUT block for the NF keyword.
NPDEVi(z)<Hm> Noise power contribution at port i, harmonic m from nonlinear
device named z. The default unit is the watt.
Time Domain Display: N/A
Spectral Domain Display: N/A
Network Fn/Sweep Domain Display: Noise contribution is
available at the port and harmonics specified in the NOUT block
for the NS keyword or at the output port and harmonics specified
in the NOUT block for the NF keyword.
NPSRCi<Hm> Noise power contribution at port i, harmonic m from local
oscillator signal. The default unit is the watt.
Time Domain Display: N/A
Spectral Domain Display: N/A
Network Fn/Sweep Domain Display: Noise contribution is
available at the port and harmonics specified in the NOUT block
for the NS keyword or at the output port and harmonics specified
in the NOUT block for the NF keyword.
Nonlinear Circuit Responses
Circuit Response Definitions2624
Modulation Analysis Responses
The modulation analysis responses use the following definitions:
NPKT Basic system noise power added in NPWR. The default unit is
the watt.
NPKT = Factor*(Boltzmann’s constant)*(ambient temperature
in Kelvin), where Factor is from 0 to 1.
Time Domain Display: N/A
Spectral Domain Display: N/A
Network Fn/Sweep Domain Display: Noise contribution is
available if NS or NF is specified in the NOUT block.
NPWRi<Hm> Total noise power at port i, harmonic m. The default unit is the
watt.
NPWR = NPLIN + NPDEV + NPSRC + NPKT.
Time Domain Display: N/A
Spectral Domain Display: N/A
Network Fn/Sweep Domain Display: Noise power is available
at the port and harmonics specified in the NOUT block for the
NS keyword or at the output port and harmonics specified in the
NOUT block for the NF keyword.
FS1 Start baseband frequency of the first adjacent channel.
FS2 Start baseband frequency of the second adjacent channel.
FS3 Start baseband frequency of the third adjacent channel.
BW1 Onesided bandwidth of the main and first adjacent channels.
BW2 Onesided bandwidth of the main and second adjacent channels.
BW3 Onesided bandwidth of the main and third adjacent channels.
Nonlinear Circuit Responses
Circuit Response Definitions2625
FSn and BWn are defined in the modulation source specifications for adjacent and alternate chan
nel measurements. An explanation of the BWn and FSn parameters is shown graphically below.
Note that BW1, BW2, and BW3 do not have to be equal:
To invoke modulation analysis, one of PACP, PIB, or ACPR must be specified in the NOUT block.
A1PRi
A2PRi
A3PRi
Adjacent channel power ratio. Use dB() to obtain units of dB.
Time Domain Display: N/A
Spectral Domain Display: N/A
Network Fn/Sweep Domain Display: Adjacent channel power
ratio is available for the ports specified in the NOUT block.
Definition: AnPRi =
P AC
P IB
n i
n i
Nonlinear Circuit Responses
Circuit Response Definitions2626
ACPRi Same as A1PRi.
P1ACi
P2ACi
P3ACi
Adjacent channel power at port I for channel definition n. The
default unit is the watt. Use dBm() to obtain units of dBm.
Time Domain Display: N/A
Spectral Domain Display: N/A
Network Fn/Sweep Domain Display: Adjacent channel power is
available for the ports specified in the NOUT block.
Definition: PnACi =
where f1 and f2 define the start and
stop frequencies of the adjacent channel. f1 = FSn and f2 = f1 + 2BWn.
PACPi Same as P1ACi.
P1IBi
P2IBi
P3IBi
Inband power at port i for channel definition n. Default units are
watts. Use dBm() to obtain units of dBm.
Time Domain Display: N/A
Spectral Domain Display: N/A
Network Fn/Sweep Domain Display: Inband power is available
for the ports specified in the NOUT block.
Definition: PIBi =
. where BWn is the bandwidth of the
main channel as defined in the modulation source specification.
PIBi same as P1IBi.
Ichi
Qchi
Inphase and quadraturephase timedomain waveforms at port i.
The default unit is the volt.
Time Domain Display: The voltage waveform of the inphase
signal component, Ichi, and the quadraturephase signal component
Qchi.
Spectral Domain Display: N/A
Network Fn/Sweep Domain Display: N/A
p dw
f
f
( ) ω
1
2
∫
p w dw
BWn
BWn
( )
−
∫
Nonlinear Circuit Responses
Circuit Response Definitions2627
IchEyei
QchEyei
Eye diagram of the inphase or quadraturephase timedomain
waveforms at port i. The default unit is the volt.
Time Domain Display: The voltage waveform of the inphase
signal component, IchEyei, or quadraturephase signal component,
QchEyei, framed in time and overlapped. The overlap is repeated
every (#samples/bit * #cycles). #samples/bit is defined by the
modulation source as N; #cycles is defined in the program’s Traces
dialog.
Spectral Domain Display: N/A
Network Fn/Sweep Domain Display: N/A
Constlltni Constellation plot of the complex signal at port i.
Time Domain Display: The voltage waveform of the inphase
signal component is plotted on the X axis and the quadraturephase
signal component is plotted on the Y axis.
Spectral Domain Display: N/A
Network Fn/Sweep Domain Display: N/A
IQi Modulation spectra of the complex signal at port i. The default unit
is the volt. Use dB() to obtain units of dB with respect to 1 V.
Time Domain Display: N/A
Spectral Domain Display: Voltage modulation spectra of the
complex signal at port i.
Network Fn/Sweep Domain Display: N/A
It may be useful to use the Msmooth() function to smooth, or low
pass filter, the spectral data; that is, Msmooth(IQi) or
dB(Msmooth(FQi)).
Nonlinear Circuit Responses
Circuit Response Definitions2628
Device Port Responses
Ix
(z)
<
H
m
>
Current into terminal x of device name z. The default
unit is the ampere.
Time Domain Display: This is the real current wave
form, specified as Ix(z).
Spectral Domain Display: Complex current spec
trum, specified as Ix(z).
Network Fn/Sweep Domain Display: Select a har
monic component to display the complex current in
the frequency domain, specified as Ix(z)<Hm>.
IP(z)<Hm> Current into probe named z. The default unit is the ampere.
Time Domain Display: This is the real current waveform,
specified as IP(z).
Spectral Domain Display: Complex current spectrum, specified
as IP(z).
Network Fn/Sweep Domain Display: Select a harmonic
component to display the complex current in the frequency
domain, specified as IP(z)<Hm>.
Nonlinear Circuit Responses
Circuit Response Definitions2629
POxy(z)<Hm>
PFxy(z)<Hm>
Power flux at device port xy, device name z. In the frequency
domain, the output power at an external port is positive. The power
flux at a device port is positive if power is delivered to the device
and negative if power is delivered from the device. Use the dBm()
Function to obtain power in dB with respect to 1 mW. The default
unit is the watt.
Time Domain Display: This is the instantaneous power, specified
as POxy(z) or PFxy(z).
Spectral Domain Display: Power flux spectrum, specified as
POxy(z) or PFxy(z).
Network Fn/Sweep Domain Display: Select a harmonic
component to display the power flux in the frequency domain,
specified as POi<Hm> or PFi<Hm>.
Definition for time domain:
, where represents the
voltage across terminals xy at device z, and similarly
for i.
Definition for frequency domain:
Vxy(z)<Hm> Voltage at device port xy, device name z. The default unit is the volt.
Time Domain Display: This is the real voltage waveform, specified
as Vxy(z).
Spectral Domain Display: Complex voltage spectrum, specified as
Vxy(z).
Network Fn/Sweep Domain Display: Select a harmonic
component to display the complex voltage in the frequency domain,
specified as Vxy(z)<Hm>.
PO z PF z v t i t
xy xy xy
z
xy
z
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) = = v
xy
z
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
{ }
PO z Hm PF z Hm
V z Hm I z Hm
xy xy
xy xy
< >= < >=
< > < >
1
2
Re
*
Nonlinear Circuit Responses
Circuit Response Definitions2630
VP(z)<Hm> Voltage across probe named z. The default unit is the volt.
Time Domain Display: This is the real voltage waveform, specified
as VP(z).
Spectral Domain Display: Complex voltage spectrum, specified as
VP(z).
Network Fn/Sweep Domain Display: Select a harmonic
component to display the complex voltage in the frequency domain,
specified as VP(z)<Hm>.
SVn(z)<Hm> State variable n of the device named z. The unit depends on the
specific state variable and device, but is usually the volt. Consult the
component catalog for the definition of the state variables for each
nonlinear device.
Time Domain Display: This is the real state variable waveform,
specified as SVn(z).
Spectral Domain Display: Complex state variable spectrum,
specified as SVn(z).
Network Fn/Sweep Domain Display: Select a harmonic
component to display the complex state variable in the frequency
domain, specified as SVn(z)<Hm>.
Nonlinear Circuit Responses
Circuit Response Definitions2631
Bias Element Responses
Device Port Indices
The device port indices indicate the terminals of builtin device models. They are used to specify
the current into a terminal, a voltage across a pair of terminals, and power into a pair of terminals.
Single Device Port Indices
FET: g, d, s, b (gate, drain, source, and bulk (for MOS))
DIOD: a, c (anode and cathode)
BIP: b, e, c, s (base, emitter, collector, and substrate)
BIP: b, e, c, tj (base, emitter, collector, and thermal port nodes (for HBT))
Example usage: Ig, Ia, Ie
Dual Device Port Indices
All combinations of two single indices are valid for the builtin device models.
Example usage:Vgs, Vds, Vce, Vac, POgs, Poac
Vtj gives temperature for HBT
V(z)<Hm> Voltage across bias source named z. The default unit is the volt.
Time Domain Display: This is the real voltage waveform, specified
as V(z).
Spectral Domain Display: Complex voltage spectrum, specified as
V(z).
Network Fn/Sweep Domain Display: Select a harmonic
component to display the complex voltage in the frequency domain,
specified as V(z)<Hm>.
I(z)<Hm> Current into bias source named z. The default unit is the ampere.
Time Domain Display: This is the real current waveform, specified
as I(z).
Spectral Domain Display: Complex current spectrum, specified as
I(z).
Network Fn/Sweep Domain Display: Select a harmonic
component to display the complex current in the frequency domain,
specified as I(z)<Hm>.
Nonlinear Circuit Responses
Circuit Response Definitions2632
Examples
Display Functions and Operators
Expressions may be defined and displayed on graphs and tables. The expressions use the operators
and functions defined below. Several constants are also defined. You can also use the swept or run
ning variable in the expressions.
Operators
Operators take the form:
argument1 operator argument2
Here the operator is one of the algebraic operator symbols +, −, /, * having their usual meaning and
^ (caret) for exponentiation. The arguments may be constants, functions or circuit responses.
Functions
A large variety of functions are available to operate on real and complex arguments. The arguments
are indicated in parentheses and are separated by commas. The arguments are specified by r for a
real argument and z for a complex argument. Most functions accepting complex argument are
defined for real arguments as well. The return type is indicated by the first word of the description.
If the return type depends on the argument, then it is listed as Argument.
Data Domain Description
PO1 Spectrum Output power spectrum at port 1.
Vds(Q1) Spectrum Drainsource voltage spectrum at Q1.
VP(Probe1) Spectrum Voltage spectrum across probe1
Ig(Q1) Time Gate current waveform of Q1
POds(Q1) Time Instantaneous power waveform at the drainsource of Q1.
PO1<H1> Sweep Fundamental output power at port 1.
TG21<H2,H1> Sweep Gain from the 1st harmonic at port 1 to the 2nd harmonic at
port 2.
GC21<H1,H1> Sweep Largesignal S parameter similar to S
21
Mag(z) Real, Magnitude.
Re(z) Real, Real component.
Nonlinear Circuit Responses
Circuit Response Definitions2633
Im(z) Real, Imaginary component.
Ang(z) Real, Angle.
CAng(Z) Real, cumulative angle. Remains continuous as the angle passes through ±180º.
Conjg(z) Complex, Conjugate of a complex number.
dB(r) Real, Converts the quantity to dB based on the unit. If the argument is V, I, S,
etc., 20*Log10(r) is used. If the argument is a power unit such as PO, TG, NF,
10*Log10(r) is used. If the unit of the argument is not known, 20*Log10(r) is
used.
dB10(r) Real, 10*Log10(r) used for power ratios.
dB20(r) Real, 20*Log10(r) used for voltage and current ratios.
dBm(r) Real, 10*Log10(1000*r), Logarithmic power with respect to 1 milliwatt.
dBW(r) Real, 10*Log10(r), Logarithmic power with respect to 1 watt.
Deriv(r) Real, Derivative of r with respect to the X or running axis.
Int(r) Real, Truncation to integer value.
NInt(r) Real, Rounding to nearest integer value.
Sin(z) Argument, Sine trigonometric function.
Cos(z) Argument, Cosine trigonometric function.
Tan(z) Argument, Tangent trigonometric function.
ASin(z) Argument, Arc Sine trigonometric function.
ACos(z) Argument, Arc Cosine trigonometric function.
ATan(z) Argument, Arc Tan trigonometric function.
Sinh(z) Argument, Sine hyperbolic function.
Nonlinear Circuit Responses
Circuit Response Definitions2634
Functions that reduce a vector into a single value
Note The results of these functions cannot be graphed, but should be displayed in a table.
Cosh(z) Argument, Cosine hyperbolic function.
Tanh(z) Argument, Tangent hyperbolic function.
ASinh(z) Argument, Arc Sine hyperbolic function.
ACosh(z) Argument, Arc Cosine hyperbolic function.
ATanh(z) Argument, Arc Tan hyperbolic function.
Sqrt(z) Argument, Square root.
Log(r) Real, Natural logarithm.
Exp(r) Real, Exponential function.
Sgn(r) Real, Sign extraction. (1 for r<0, 0 for r=0, 1 for r>0)
Sgn(r1,r2) Real, sign extension. [abs(r1) for r2≥0, abs(r1) for r2<0]
Log10(r) Real, Logarithm of base 10.
Msmooth(exp
r [, fl = value])
Msmooth is a median smoothing function that averages a window of data
points as the window center moves across the data vector (expr). If applied to
complex data, it calculates the magnitude first and then smooths. The fl
specification is optional. Its value is the percentage of the data size used to
calculate average. Its default value is 1%.
Min(r) Real, Minimum value of argument vector.
Max(r) Real, Maximum value of argument vector.
Rms(r) Real, Root Mean Squared value of argument vector.
Avg(r) Real, Average of argument vector.
Intrx(r1,r2,s) Find the X value of the intersection of lines (circuit responses) r1 and r2 using s
as the running variable. The function uses only the first two points of the lines
and will extrapolate. See the examples at the end of this section.
Examples
Circuit Response Definitions2635
Constants
Examples
Some examples of functional expressions using circuit responses, functions and operators are:
dB(S21)
Mag(S11)
Mag(V(cktA.cktB.3))
dB(TG21<H2,H1>)
ANG(S21(CKT=cktA,R2=600.0))ANG(S21(CKT=cktB,Z2=IMP(cktC)))
1.0MAG(S11(CKT=cktA))^2MAG(S21(CKT=cktA))^2
To determine IP3 for an amplifier twotone power sweep analysis:
INTRY(dBm(PO2<H1+H0>),dBm(PO2<H2H1>),P1<H1+H0>)
where:
Intry(r1,r2,s) Find the Y value of the intersection of lines (circuit responses) r1 and r2 using s
as the running variable. The function uses only the first two points of the lines
and will extrapolate. See the examples at the end of this section.
Pi Real constant 3.1415....
e Natural logarithm base 2.718....
DegRad Convert degrees to radians (π/180).
RadDeg Convert radians to degrees (180/π).
dBm(PO2<H1+H0>) Output power at port 2 at the fundamental of tone 1.
dBm(PO2<H2H1>) Output power at port 2 at the intermodulation product.
P1<H1+H0> Input power source (assumed sweep in dBm) at low power levels
(prior to compression).
Harmonic Balance Analysis (HBA) 121
12
Harmonic Balance Analysis (HBA)
Harmonic balance analysis is performed using a spectrum of harmonically related frequencies, sim
ilar to what you would see by measuring signals on a spectrum analyzer. The fundamental frequen
cies are the frequencies whose integral combinations form the spectrum of harmonic frequency
components used in the analysis. On a spectrum analyzer you may see a large number of signals,
even if the input to your circuit is only one or two tones. The harmonic balance analysis must trun
cate the number of harmonically related signals so it can be analyzed on a computer.
Analysis parameters such as No. of Harmonics specify the truncation and the set of fundamental
frequencies used in the analysis. The fundamental frequencies are typically not the lowest frequen
cies (except in the singletone case) nor must they be the frequencies of the excitation sources.
They simply define the base frequencies upon which the complete analysis spectrum is built.
A project for harmonic balance analysis must contain at least the following: A toplevel circuit, at
least one nonlinear active device, and a frequency specification (including the number of harmonics
of interest). Designer has five categories of harmonic balance analysis:
• Singletone analysis (single RF signal)
• Twotone intermodulation analysis (two RF signals)
• Twotone mixer analysis (one RF signal and one LO signal)
• Threetone intermodulation analysis (three RF signals)
• Threetone mixer analysis (two RF signals and one LO signal).
Title
122 Harmonic Balance Analysis (HBA)
Formation of the Harmonic Balance Equations
Harmonic balance analysis involves the periodic steadystate response of a fixed circuit given a
predetermined set of fundamental tones [1,2]. The analysis is limited to periodic responses
because the basis set chosen to represent the physical signals in the circuit are sinusoids, which are
periodic. The Fourier series is used to represent these signals. In the singletone case, a signal is
given by:
where X
k
= X
k
*
, ω
o
is the fundamental frequency and NH is the number of harmonics chosen to
represent the signal.
In harmonic balance, the circuit is usually divided into two subcircuits connected by wires forming
multiports. One subcircuit contains the linear components of the circuit and the other contains the
nonlinear device models as shown in the figure. The linear subcircuit response is calculated in the
frequency domain at each harmonic component (k*ω
o
) and is represented by a multiport Y matrix.
This is the function performed by linear analysis.
Separation of the linear and nonlinear subcircuits
The nonlinear subcircuit contains the active devices whose models compute the voltages and cur
rents at the intrinsic ports of the device (parasitic elements are linear and absorbed by the linear
subnetwork). The port voltages (v) and currents (i) are analytic or numeric functions of the device
state variables (x). Often the state variables represent physical voltages such as diode junction volt
age or FET gate voltage, but are not restricted to physical quantities. The port voltages and currents
are often functions of the time derivatives of the state variables (when a nonlinear capacitor is
involved) and of timedelayed state variables (such as a timedelayed current source). Generally,
the nonlinear device equations are of the form:
(2)
x t X e
k
k NH
NH
jk t
o
( ) =
=−
∑
ω
Nonlinear
Subcircuit
Linear
Subcircuit
Sources
and
Loads
v t x t
dx
dt
d x
dt
x t
n
n
( ) ( ), , , , ( ) = −
Φ K τ
i t x t
dx
dt
d x
dt
x t
n
n
( ) ( ), , , , ( ) = −
Ψ K τ
Title
Harmonic Balance Analysis (HBA) 123
The device state variables, port voltages, and currents are transformed to the frequency domain
using the discrete Fourier transforms as X, V
k
(X) and I
k
(X), respectively. Kirchhoff's current law is
applied to the interface between the subcircuits at each harmonic frequency:
where J
k
are the Norton equivalents of the applied generators. This constitutes the harmonic bal
ance equations at each harmonic frequency. The object of the analysis is to find the set of state vari
ables, X, to satisfy equation 4.
When the analysis begins, the state variables are typically set to zero and the left side of equation 4
is nonzero. We can write an error vector:
whose Euclidean norm E
t
E = E is called the Harmonic Balance Error (HBE). If the HBE is
reduced below a tolerance, we say that equation 4 is satisfied and a solution has been obtained.
Solving Methods
The process of solving the harmonic balance equations is an iterative one. An estimate of X is
inserted into (5), E is calculated and if it is not below the tolerance then a new value of X must be
determined and tried. Each such loop is termed an iteration. There have been several methods used
in the past to determine new values of X and two that have proven to be the most general and effi
cient are discussed here.
The state variables, X, and harmonic balance residuals, E are complex valued. In practice these are
decomposed into their real and imaginary parts so that the number of real unknowns in X is
ND*(2*Nt+1) where ND is the total number of nonlinear device ports and Nt is the number of fre
quency components (=NH for single tone analysis). Now we can write E(X)=0 as a Taylor series
expansion truncated after the first derivative term:
where J, the Jacobian matrix, is the first derivative matrix of E with respect to X and superscript n
indicates the current iteration. Solving for X and using this for the next trial:
This is the NewtonRaphson update method where the last righthand term is the update. This
method works in one iteration if the set of equations is linear, but will take an unknown number of
iterations if nonlinear. Often the update is reduced by a factor called the Newton damping factor so
the method takes smaller steps each iteration. Convergence to a solution is not guaranteed and the
iterates may diverge if not controlled. Designer uses enhanced versions of the NewtonRaphson
method to improve convergence and speed.
Y
k
V
k
X ( ) I
k
X ( ) J
k
+ + 0 =
E
k
X ( ) Y
k
V
k
X ( ) I
k
X ( ) J
k
+ + =
E(X) E(X ) J(X ) (X X )
(n) (n) (n)
= ≈ + − 0
X X J (X ) E(X
(n 1) (n) 1 (n) (n) + −
= − )
Title
124 Harmonic Balance Analysis (HBA)
Designer uses an algorithm that dynamically changes the Newton damping factor during solving
based on the rate of convergence. If the solver has trouble converging, the factor will be made
smaller to improve convergence. If it has been reduced by more than a predetermined factor, the
solver will stop and an error will be reported.
An important aspect to note is the size of the Jacobian. If X contains ND*(2*Nt+1) elements, then
J contains this number squared. As a practical example, if ND=10 (5 FETs) and Nt=4, then there
are 8100 entries in J which takes 63 kBytes. This is relatively small, but Nt becomes much larger
when multitone excitation is considered.
Some of the controlling functions are made accessible through the CTRL block in the project (see
the Control Blocks chapter). The HBE tolerance can be changed from its default by: HBTOL x
where x is the tolerance per device port per frequency component.
The absolute harmonic balance error allowed is scaled by the number of device ports and number
of frequency components so that large circuits with many frequency components meet HBE criteria
similar to those of small circuits. The default for HBTOL is 1.0x10
6
. For the case of 2tone inter
modulation analysis and 3tone analysis, the allowed harmonic balance is also scaled by the relative
currents of the circuit. This reduces the allowed error (effectively reducing HBTOL) to provide bet
ter accuracy of the intermodulation products.
The number of allowed iterations before the program stops can be changed from its default value of
400 by: MAXITER n, where n is an integer.
Multitone Analysis
The discussion above was based on singletone analysis for conceptual simplicity. Multitone anal
ysis is simply an extension of singletone [3,4,5]. In the singletone case, a circuit is excited with an
RF source and harmonics of that source are produced by the nonlinearities of the circuit. The set of
harmonics, the frequency of excitation and DC are called the spectrum of the analysis. The single
tone spectrum is defined as:
S
1
= k*f
0
k=0,1,...,NH. (8)
where f
0
is the fundamental frequency. In multitone analysis the spectrum is modified to include
the harmonic products of each fundamental tone. The harmonic products are just integer functions
of the fundamental frequencies and indicate the allowed “bins” for power conversion within a cir
cuit. The rest of the harmonic balance analysis is exactly the same.
The conversion between timedomain waveforms and Fourier coefficients is accomplished by the
discrete Fourier transform in singletone analysis. For each additional fundamental tone, a dimen
sion is added in the transform. This allows efficient computation between domains, but becomes
cpuintensive when more than threedimensions are encountered.
Local Oscillator Spectrum Initialization of Mixer Circuits
For mixer analysis cases where the primary interest is the conversion gain and the RF signal powers
are small compared to the LO, the circuit can be analyzed using the LO signal only and the conver
sion gain is determined using smallsignal (linear) frequencyconversion methods. This is per
formed using the SmallSignal Mixer Analysis option (see the next section in this chapter).
Title
Harmonic Balance Analysis (HBA) 125
For cases where the RF signal power is not insignificant compared to the LO, a full mixer spectrum
must be used. Compression of the conversion gain due to high RF power can then be analyzed.
Here, the mixer problem can be divided into two parts to help speed the analysis. Firstly, the LO
signal is analyzed using singletone analysis; the RF signal is turned off. Singletone analysis is
usually very fast compared with a full twotone analysis. Once the LO signal spectrum is found, the
results are used to initialize the full mixer spectrum and the RF signal is turned back on. The full
spectrum is then analyzed.
This method is most useful for threetone mixer problems, due to the large number of spectral com
ponents used in the analysis. The primary use of the threetone mixer analysis is to determine the
intermodulation products of the IF products. This precludes the use of smallsignal mixer analysis
(since the intermodulation products cannot be determined using linear frequency conversion meth
ods), but the RF signals are generally small compared to the LO. By solving the LO problem first,
which is the primary nonlinear problem, and then introducing the RF signals, the analysis time can
be reduced by a factor of about three. The actual time reduction depends on the circuit, the RF
power levels, and the conversion gain.
Using the LO harmonic spectrum to initialize the full mixer spectrum is the default for threetone
analysis. The option is not the default for twotone analysis, because significant time improvements
have not been observed.
Number of Spectral Components and Reduced Spectrum Option
The number of spectral components considered in each type of analysis is related to the number of
fundamental tones and the nonlinearity specified. The tables below list the number of spectral com
ponents for several nonlinearities considered in twotone and threetone analyses. The reduced
spectrum option removes selected spectral components where significant harmonic power is not
expected. The results of the analysis will not degrade at low power levels, but may yield different
results for high power levels, depending on the circuit. Usually, the difference in results is negligi
ble for practical cases.
The reduced spectrum option is especially useful for threetone mixer analysis where the primary
objective is to obtain the intermodulation intercept point with the IF. Low RF signal power levels
are used and the analysis results are unaffected by the reduced spectrum option (the number of LO
harmonics is not affected).
Number of Spectral Components (excluding DC)
for TwoTone and ThreeTone Intermodulation Analysis
nonlinearity
INTM m
twotone
Full (default)
twotone
Reduced
threetone
Full (default)
threetone
Reduced
3 12 8 31 21
4 20 12 64 31
Title
126 Harmonic Balance Analysis (HBA)
Note: #LO is the number of local oscillator harmonics; #SB is the number of RF sidebands
5 30 22 115 79
6 42 30 188 115
7 56 44 209
8 72 56
9 90 74
10 110 90
Number of Spectral Components (excluding DC) for TwoTone Mixer analysis
#SB (M2) = 1 #SB (M2) = 2 #SB (M2) = 3
#LO (M1) Full (default) Reduced
Full
(default)
Reduced
Full
(default)
Reduced
2 7 7 12 12 17 17
4 13 13 22 18 31 23
6 19 19 32 24 45 29
10 31 31 52 36 73 41
15 46 46 77 51 108 56
20 61 61 102 66 143 71
25 76 76 127 81 178 86
30 91 91 152 96 213 101
Number of Spectral Components (excluding DC) for ThreeTone Mixer analysis
Title
Harmonic Balance Analysis (HBA) 127
Notes:Entries that have been filledin can be simulated
#LO is the number of local oscillator harmonics; INTM is the intermodulation order
The total number of spectral components grows very quickly with the level of nonlinearity and
number and fundamental tones.
• Twotone or threetone intermodulation spectrum: The highest order group of spectral compo
nents, except those in the fundamental group (the intermodulation products), are ignored. In
this case, the n in REDUCEDn is ignored.
• Twotone mixer analysis: All sidebands except the first sideband above the nth local oscillator
harmonic will be ignored.
• Threetone mixer analysis: All sideband groups at or below the nth local oscillator harmonic
will be the same as the reduced twotone intermodulation spectrum; all the sidebands above the
n'th local oscillator harmonic will contain the two fundamental frequencies only.
Understanding the reduced spectrum is a little complicated. If the analysis is run with several
reduced spectrum values and the spectrums are compared, then a better understanding of the spec
tral selections will be attained. Many studies were conducted and showed that the (default) reduced
spectrum option for threetone mixer intermodulation analysis affected analysis accuracy only
slightly.
Sparse Jacobian Techniques
The Jacobian matrix, when properly arranged, can be treated as a sparse matrix by presetting some
entries to zero [6]. The physical reason for doing this is that most of the power transfer takes place
INTM (M2) = 3 INTM (M2) = 5
# LO (M1) Full
Reduced
(default)
Full
Reduced
(default)
2 62 42 152 112
4 112 52 274 122
6 162 62 132
10 262 82 152
15 107 177
20 132 202
25 157 227
30 182 252
Title
128 Harmonic Balance Analysis (HBA)
between the harmonic frequencies of the fundamentals and much less takes place between the other
frequencies in the spectrum. We can therefore set these derivatives to zero within the Jacobian.
When this criterion is not met, the band of nonzero entries is widened to include crossharmonic
terms.
Because the Jacobian structure is properly arranged, sparse matrix techniques are efficiently
employed. General purpose sparse matrix solvers that analyze the sparsity structure are avoided and
specialized solvers can be used that are much more efficient. Designer automatically sets the band
width of the sparse tridiagonal matrix and dynamically alters it if the nonlinearity of the circuit is
too great for the sparse assumptions. In this way the simulator achieves convergence using the min
imal amount of computation time and memory that is possible for a given problem. For circuits
with many devices under multitone operation, the CPU time may be decreased by a factor of 40.
A control parameter is made available to override the initial default sparsity parameter that controls
the Jacobian bandwidth. The initial setting is 0 and can be changed by:
DIAG n
where n will be the initial sparsity parameter. Typical values range between 0 and 6. The sparsity
parameter will still be dynamically altered during execution if needed. If n is greater than Nt/3 (Nt
is the number of frequencies), then the program will use the full Jacobian. If only the full Jacobian
is desired, then set n to a large number.
Using a sparse Jacobian does not affect the final values or accuracy of the results. It will only affect
the convergence properties of the particular problem.
Iterative Newton Method
One of the short comings of harmonicbalance methods is the large memory requirements when a
circuit has many nonlinear devices and/or multitone analysis is needed. The Jacobian system
matrix grows large and must be stored and factored. Sparse methods may not be enough to keep the
DIAG
1
0
2
3
4
Sparse Jacobian block structure.
Title
Harmonic Balance Analysis (HBA) 129
problem within the memory bounds and acceptable computational resources of desktop computers.
Designer uses a technique that efficiently solves large systems of equations without direct factor
ization of the system matrix. In this way, there is no simplification or approximation made to the
problem and the full accuracy of the conventional harmonicbalance method is completely main
tained. The convergence and powerhandling capabilities of conventional harmonicbalance analy
sis are also fully maintained. The method is completely automatic and does not require any user
intervention. An internal software switch detects when the new method should be used and auto
matically invokes it.
A brief summary of the method and its advantages is given: Conventional harmonicbalance com
putes and stores the Jacobian matrix. The iterative solution of the harmonicbalance equations
requires factorization of the Jacobian to obtain updates of the circuit voltages. As the number of
nonlinear devices in the circuit increases and the number of spectral components used to analyze
the circuit increases, the Jacobian matrix can become very large, requiring tens or hundreds of
megabytes of storage and several minutes of CPU time to factor it. The calculation and factoriza
tion of the Jacobian typically occurs several times during a single harmonicbalance solution. The
new method, based on an iterative approach known as Krylov Subspace Methods, avoids direct
storage and factorization of the Jacobian. Rather, a series of matrixvector operations replaces the
full storage and factorization steps while retaining full numerical accuracy.
Observed speedup factors depend on the number of nonlinear devices in the circuit and the number
of spectral components used in the analysis as well as the convergence properties of the harmonic
balance algorithm. Speed improvements over conventional harmonic balance analysis from 2x to
10x for circuits consisting of a few transistors under two and threetone excitation have routinely
been observed. A circuit containing 20 FETs under threetone analysis exhibited a speed improve
ment factor of 30x. Memory requirements have also been tremendously reduced. The 20 FET cir
cuit originally required >200MB and now will analyze with 64MB. As the circuit becomes more
“complex” the new methods provides better speed and memory improvements.
Designer Outputs
During analysis, Designer generates a number of output files that are used to store textual, graphi
cal and initialization information. The files generated are:
myfile.aud
The audit file contains textual information about the analysis. In its basic form it contains the final
results of the network functions. Additional information can be requested by setting the verbosity
flag in the control block as:
VERBOSE n
where 0 ≤ n ≤ 4. The higher the verbosity number is, the more output that is generated about the
final and initial points at each sweep step.
Sweeping Frequency, Power and Voltage Sources
Each source in the design can be swept in amplitude. Also, the tones defined for the analysis can be
swept. When more than one source or frequency are swept, an ambiguity arises as to the order of
precedence. The following rules apply in the cases of multiple sweeps:
Title
1210 Harmonic Balance Analysis (HBA)
1) When more than one source is swept and no frequencies are swept, then the sources sweep in
unison. That is, each source is stepped at the same time. This is a onedimensional sweep.
2) When more than one frequency is swept and no sources are swept, then the frequencies sweep in
unison. This is also a onedimensional sweep.
3) When frequencies and sources are both swept, the program performs a twodimensional sweep
where the sources are swept in the innermost loop. A matrix results where the source sweep is the
most rapidly changing index. An exception to this case is during noise analysis, where the swept
frequency deviation will be the innermost loop.
For additional details, see the Advanced Sweep Options topic.
Generating LargeSignal SParameters
Since largesignal Sparameters are poorly defined, but widely used, we will show two methods of
generating them. If your definition of largesignal Sparameters is different, you can redefine the
example to suit your own needs. Here lies the ambiguity as to what one means by largesignal S
Title
Harmonic Balance Analysis (HBA) 1211
parameters. It will depend on the specific application and must be tailored in each case. Presented
below is one interpretation:
Schematic diagram: Generating largesignal Sparameters
The calculation of Sparameters in the largesignal regime is not as straightforward as it is in the
linear, smallsignal regime. The “largesignal Sparameters” are dependent on the power of the
excitation sources at each external circuit port as well as the circuit bias and terminations. Guide
lines will be given here on using Designer to generate largesignal Sparameters, but the proper use
of these Sparameters in circuit design is up to you.
Consider a twoport circuit whose largesignal Sparameters are desired. If we apply a source at
port 1 with port 2 terminated, we could measure the reflected and transmitted waves, and con
versely for a source applied to port 2 [7]. However, this assumes that when the device under test is
Device
Under
Test
b1(f1)
b1(f2) a1(f1)
b2(f1)
a2(f2) b2(f2)
R1 R2
P2,f2 P1,f1 a.
Device
Under
Test
b1(f1) a1(f1)
R1
P1,f1
b.
Device
Under
Test
a3(f3)
b3(f1)
b3(f2)
b3(f3)
R1 R2
R3
P2,f2
P3,f3
P1,f1
b1(f1)
b1(f2)
b1(f3) a1(f1)
b2(f1)
b2(f2)
a2(f2) b2(f3)
c.
Title
1212 Harmonic Balance Analysis (HBA)
actually used, it will be terminated in the same impedance as it was tested. This is rarely the case.
Typically the device is embedded in some matching network which presents a complex impedance
to the device. Therefore, the operating regime of the device will change and its largesignal S
parameters will be altered.
We could then hypothesize that a source can be placed at each port and the traveling waves could
be measured at each port. The problem here is that it is not possible to distinguish between the
reflected wave at a port and the transmitted wave due to the source at the other port because the
sources are the same frequency. If we perturb the frequency of one of the sources, then the reflected
and transmitted waves due to each source can be resolved. This, however, requires a twotone anal
ysis. The situation is illustrated in the diagram for a twoport device under test.
The difference in frequency between the two sources can be made small, on the order of 0.001%.
This is recommended for circuits of large Q. Typically the difference used is about 0.1% because
the Sparameters of the device under test do not change rapidly with frequency.
This example shows some of the inconsistencies associated with largesignal Sparameters. For
example, what happens to the power that is converted to other harmonic products? These will
depend on the bias point, harmonic terminations, etc. In practice, the powers measured include all
harmonic powers incident on the detector, whereas in the calculations we can pick out the precise
fundamental powers. Also, we chose incident power levels as 10 dBm and 8 dBm, but how do we
know if these are correct until after the design is done? There are several approximations like these
that are assumed to be small when using largesignal Sparameters in active circuit design. None
theless, these parameters persist in design and can be computed using Designer.
In some cases where it can be approximated that one or more ports will be conjugately matched so
a source doesn't need to be present there, higher port parameters can also be computed using repet
itive analyses.
Other socalled conversion parameters can be computed. For example, if a mixer conversion matrix
is desired between the RF and IF frequencies, the corresponding transmission parameters can be
computed using TG between the proper harmonic numbers. The reflection coefficients can be
found by using RL at the source ports and source harmonics.
If You Encounter Convergence Difficulties
The nonlinear solver present in Designer has been greatly improved over previous versions, but you
may still have convergence problems with some circuits. Particularly, highly nonlinear circuits with
bipolar transistors or circuits with high drive levels may pose a problem. For such circuits, the fol
lowing hints are suggested to enable finding a solution:
1)Check the circuit connections. Improper node connections and/or missing units on parameters are
the most common causes for convergence problems and messages that indicate “Singular Jaco
bian.” This commonly happens when the active devices are not biased properly or the signal path is
not connected. Use the Show Bias Point option on the Analysis dialog to check for proper bias.
2)Check that the bias sources are properly connected. If constant current sources are used, make
sure the current flow is in the desired direction.
3) Add losses in the circuit. When initial designs are simulated it is common to use ideal elements
that don't have losses (e.g., transmission lines using characteristic impedance and electrical length
Title
Harmonic Balance Analysis (HBA) 1213
only). This may pose problems in the analysis of the linear subcircuit at DC or when computing the
Jacobian for nonlinear analysis.
4) Approach the solution point incrementally. By sweeping the source voltage or power toward the
desired level, the circuit is driven gradually into the region where convergence is difficult to obtain.
During a source sweep, the results of the previous step are used for the initial iterate of the subse
quent step, the starting point is closer to the vicinity of the desired solution than a “cold” start from
zero initial values. Designer also employs automatic step reduction on power sweeps, whereby the
step size is halved if convergence was not obtained on the previous step.
5) A similar solution to the above is to start the analysis from the previous solution. The *.VAR file
should be backed up, the solution options should start from a previous solution, and the DC initial
ization should be disabled. This method can also be useful when manually tuning the circuit to
achieve a desired response (if it is a singlepoint analysis).
6)If insufficient sampling points are used to represent the timedomain waveforms, there will be
significant aliasing errors in the FFT.
References
[1]V. Rizzoli, A. Lipparini, and Ernesto Marazzi, “A GeneralPurpose Program for Nonlinear
Microwave Circuit Design,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 31, no. 9, pp. 762770,
September 1983.
[2]V. Rizzoli, A. Lipparini, A. Costanzo, F. Mastri, C. Cecchetti, A. Neri, and D. Masotti, “Stateof
theArt HarmonicBalance Simulation of Forced Nonlinear Microwave Circuits by the Piecewise
Technique,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 1228, January 1992.
[3]V. Rizzoli, C. Cecchetti, A. Lipparini, “ A GeneralPurpose Program for the Analysis of Nonlin
ear Microwave Circuits Under Multitone Excitation by Multidimensional Fourier Transform,” 17th
European Microwave Conf., pp. 635640, September 1987.
[4]V. Rizzoli and A. Neri, “StateoftheArt and Present Trends in Nonlinear Microwave CAD
Techniques,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 343365, February 1988.
[5]V. Rizzoli, C. Cecchetti, A. Lipparini, and F. Mastri, “GeneralPurpose HarmonicBalance Anal
ysis of Nonlinear Microwave Circuits Under Multitone Excitation,” IEEE Trans. Microwave The
ory Tech., vol. 36, no. 12, pp. 16501660, December 1988.
[6]V. Rizzoli, F. Mastri, F. Sgallari, V. Frontini, “The Exploitation of SparseMatrix Techniques in
Conjunction with the Piecewise HarmonicBalance Method for Nonlinear Microwave Circuit
Analysis,” 1990 MTTS Int. Microwave Symp. Digest, pp. 12951298, June 1990.
[7]V. Rizzoli, A. Lipparini, and F. Mastri, “Computation of LargeSignal SParameters by Har
monicBalance Techniques,” Electron. Lett., vol. 24, pp. 329330, Mar. 1988.
[8]V. Rizzoli, F. Mastri, and F. Sgallari, and G. Spaletta, “HarmonicBalance Simulation of Strongly
Nonlinear Very LargeSize Microwave Circuits by Inexact Newton Methods,” IEEE MTTS, pp.
13571360, 1996.
Title
1214 Harmonic Balance Analysis (HBA)
General Form for Netlist Syntax and Parameters
Definitions Used for Harmonic Balance:
HarmSpec :=optSign integer Fterm 
optSign integer Fterm sign integer Fterm 
optSign integer Fterm sign integer Fterm sign integer Fterm
Fterm := F1  F2  F3
optSign := +   
sign := +  
for example: F1+F2 or F1+2F2
General Form: Nonlinear Analysis Using Harmonic Balance
.HB[:name]
+ [NHARM = integer]  INTM = integer  NLO = integer NSB =
integer 
+ NLO = integer INTM = integer
+ F1 = swpDef [F2 = swpDef] [F3 = swpDef] [FNOI = swpDef]
+ [anaSwpDef]
+ [PORT = int] [HNUM = HarmSpec] [NOISE = boolean]
+ [MSPTS = integer]
+ [SWPORD = {anaSwpOrderDef}] [OPTION = name] [SVINI = name]
Parameter Description Default Comments
NHARM
Number of
harmonics for 1
tone HB
4
INTM
Intermod. order
for 2 and 3tone
HB
Used for amplifier
intermodulation analysis
NLO NSB
Number of LO
harmonics for 2
tone number of
sidebands for 2
tone
Mixer case
NLO INTM
Number LO
harmonics for 3
tone
Intermod. order
for 3tone
Used for mixer
intermodulation analysis
Title
Harmonic Balance Analysis (HBA) 1215
F1, F2, F3
Fundamental
Frequencies
FNOI
Noise spectral
frequencies
Noise spectrum case
anaSwpDef
Define swept
parameter
(dummy variable
that represents the
actual value)
none
When sweeping bias
sources, the only
parameters that can be
swept are voltage (V) and
current (I) for the DC
sources
anaSwpOrderDef
The actual values
that define the
order in which the
parameters get
swept.
none
Inc. sources & params
PORT
Port for noise
spectrum output
1
HNUM
Harmonic number
for noise output
F1
NOISE
Toggles noise
spectrum analysis
OFF
MSPTS
Number of
modulation
sampling points
1
Toggles modulation
based HB if MSPTS > 1
SWPORD
Defines ordered
sweep
See Note 1
OPTION
Name of
.OPTIONS
statement
none
control options for this
analysis
SVINI
Name of .SVINIT
statement
none
initial values for this
analysis
Title
1216 Harmonic Balance Analysis (HBA)
Notes
1. Parameter keyword values in the Harmonic Balance Analysis command (.HB) can be algebraic
expressions or simple parameters. But an expressions must be evaluated prior to analysis (in
other words, the keyword parameter cannot be dependent on an analysis variable, for example,
"F").
2. If a value is assigned by a parameter which is swept, only the original value is used (in other
words, the sweep values will be ignored).
3. The SWPORD parameter defines the sweep order of items specified in anaSwpDef. The 1st
sweep variable in the list will be the innermost sweep loop. See the discussion below on
sweeping circuit variables for more detail.
4. For discussion of the frequency spectrum and selecting spectrum parameters see the earlier
section, Overview of Harmonic Balance Analysis.
5. If no SVINIT is assigned to the analysis commands, the first .SVINIT command in the netlist
will be used.
SWPORD
Defines ordered
sweep
TBD
The first entry defines the
innermost loop
Title
Harmonic Balance Analysis (HBA) 1217
For discussion of spectral noise analysis, see Glossary in the online help topics (Noise Analysis).
HBA, 1Tone
Single tone harmonic balance analysis is used when simulating a circuit that is driven by a single
excitation source at one frequency, or several sources at related frequencies. This case also includes
frequency dividers where the fundamental corresponds to the division frequency. Parameters:
Increasing the number of harmonics increases the accuracy of the analysis at the expense of longer
computation times and large memory requirements. Typical number of harmonics is 4 to 8. For cir
cuits that are driven with harmonic sources (e.g., square wave sources) or circuits that generate high
harmonics, a greater number of harmonics may be included in the analysis; e.g., 32. See Program
Limits to determine the largest number of harmonics that can be simulated.
To Set Up a 1Tone Analysis
1. On the Circuit menu, click Add Solution Setup.
2. When the Solution Setup dialog box appears, select Harmonic Balance in the Analysis
Type list.
3. In Solution Setup, type an Analysis Name (or accept the default name, for example,
“HB1Tone1”). Select 1Tone in the Category list.
4. For most simulations, leave Disable this analysis unselected (the default). But depending
on the requirements for a particular project, clearing this box lets you create and store multiple
solution setups for later use. (Note that if this feature is used, any changes made to the project
will invalidate the simulation results.)
5. Click Next, and the Harmonic Balance Analysis, 1Tone dialog box appears. In the No.
of Harmonics box, enter the number of harmonics: The higher the number of harmonics, the
more accurate the results, but the analysis takes longer to complete. For more information, see
Overview of Harmonic Balance Analysis.
6. In the Harmonic Balance Analysis, 1Tone dialog box, select either the following:
Enable Noise Spectrum Calculations or Use SolutionPath Tracing. These are
either/or selections, depending on the requirements of a particular project. For more informa
tion see SolutionPath Tracing in the online help topics and Noise Spectrum Calculations (next
section).
7. To enter the sweep parameters for frequency (F1, required), do either of the following:
• In the Harmonic Balance Analysis, 1Tone dialog box, click the blank text area to
the right of F1 (under Name and Sweep Value). Type the sweep parameters and netlist
syntax directly into the text box.
• Click Add, and the Add/Edit Sweep dialog box appears: In the Variable list, make
sure that F1 is selected (default selection). Select Single Value, type the frequency in the
Value text box, and make sure that the appropriate units (GHz, MHz, kHz) are selected.
NHARM Number of harmonics to use in the analysis
F1 Frequency of the fundamental tone in the analysis
Title
1218 Harmonic Balance Analysis (HBA)
Click Add, and then click OK to close the Add/Edit Sweep dialog box.
8. To customize the analysis (for example, to override Verbose mode), click Solution Setup
Options (Default Options). When the Select Solution Options dialog box appears, make the
appropriate selections, click OK, and return to the Harmonic Balance Analysis, 1Tone dia
log box. For more information, see Solution Options in the online help topics.
9. When the Harmonic Balance Analysis, 2Tone, Mixer Spectrum dialog box reappears,
click Finish.
10. To set up an advanced sweep option (for example, to sweep a circuit parameter or a bias
source), see Sweep Options, HBA Sweep Options, and Advanced Sweep Options in the online
help topics.
11. Run the simulation: On the menu bar, click Circuit and then click Start Analysis. If the circuit
was set up correctly, the analysis begins immediately and a red progress bar appears. (If the
analysis is not successful, check the Message Window for an explanation, and then take cor
rective action.)
12. To display results: On the menu bar, click Circuit and then click Create Report. For more
information, see Generating Reports and PostProcessing in the online help topics.
Noise Spectrum Calculations
The noise spectrum analysis option computes the noise power in dBc/Hz at discrete frequencies
offset from the singletone input. This type of analysis is generally used to determine phase noise,
amplitude noise or upper and lower sideband noise spectrum of forced circuits, such as amplifiers,
frequency multipliers, dividers, etc. This analysis can only be used with singletone analysis.
The source(s) exciting the circuit can be defined with their own noise spectral power using the
.NOISESOURCE statement. The frequency deviations used to specify the source do not have to
match those used in the analysis; the program will linearly interpolate the input data.
When computing the noise powers, the noise contributed by the power source termination and the
load termination is ignored. Parameters:
Example:
PORTP:1 1 0 PNUM=1 RZ=50 P1=0dBm HNUM1=F1 NOISE=nsrc
.NOISESOURCE nsrc (
+FDEV =10100100010KHz100KHz 1MHz
+PN =0306080100120
+AN = 100130150160165165 )
PORTP:2 2 0 PNUM=2 RZ=50
FNOI Specifies the offset frequencies from the fundamental for the noise spectrum.
Can use a general sweep specification.
PORT Output port of the noise calculation (default is port 1)
HNUM Harmonic of the noise calculation (default is F1)
NOISE Turns noise analysis ON or OFF (default is OFF)
Title
Harmonic Balance Analysis (HBA) 1219
.HB NHARM=8 F1=1GHz FNOI = DEC 10 1MHz 1 PORT=2 HNUM=2*F1
NOISE=ON
This analysis will use the noisy source at port 1 whose noise spectrum is defined by nsrc and it will
compute the noise power density at the load at port 2, at the second harmonic. After the analysis,
the phase noise, amplitude noise, upper and lower sideband noise spectrums can be displayed.
Stability Analysis and SolutionPath Tracing
This is an optional setting in the Harmonic Balance Analysis, 1Tone dialog box. For additional
explanation, see SolutionPath Tracing in the online help topics.
Netlist Syntax and Parameters for 1Tone HB Analysis
Netlist Example
.HB NHARM=16 F1=1GHz
The analysis contains 16 harmonics of the fundamental at 10GHz, plus DC. The frequency spec
trum used is {0, 1GHz, 2GHz, 3GHz, ... 16GHz}.
Parameter Description Default Comments
NHARM
Number of
harmonics to
use in the
analysis
Required
The number of
harmonics excluding
DC. A DC analysis of
the circuit is indicated
by a value of 0.
F1
Frequency of
the
fundamental
tone in the
analysis
Required
Title
1220 Harmonic Balance Analysis (HBA)
HBA, 2Tone, Mixer
Twotone harmonic balance analysis is used for simulating upconversion in modulators and down
conversion in mixers. The circuit is driven by a LO source at F1 and either a RF source at F2 (for
downconversion) or a RF source at F2F1 (for upconversion). Sources at other harmonically
related frequencies can also be included, for example, to define subharmonic mixers. Parameters:
TwoTone Mixer Analysis Spectrum
Increasing the number of LO harmonics improves the accuracy of the simulation at the expense of
computation time. For nonswitching mixers, NLO is typically set between 4 and 8. For switch
mode mixers or mixers that are driven far into saturation, 8 to 16 harmonics may be needed.
If the RF source is small compared to the LO, the number of sidebands can be set to 1 (default).
Many upconverter cases have a largesignal modulation source, in which case NSB may be
increased to 2 or 3. When studying mixer compression by the RF source, NSB can also be
increased to 2 or 3 for improved accuracy.
When the power contained in one of the fundamentals is much greater than the other, as in a mixer
case, then a spectrum is selected such that the harmonics of the strong signal (LO) and the side
bands of the LO and weak signal (RF) can be assessed. The bounds are then chosen as:
m1 = M1m2 = M2
0 ≤ p ≤ M1 and 0 ≤ q ≤ M2
where M1 is the number of LO harmonics (NLO) and M2 is the number of sidebands (NSB) on
each side of the LO. The LO harmonics, sidebands and difference frequency are clearly seen. The
total number of spectral components for this selection algorithm is given by
Nt = M1*(2*M2 + 1) + M2
This resulting spectrum (for M1=4, M2=2) is shown in the following figure:
NLO Number of LO harmonics to use in the analysis
NSB Number of RF sidebands
F1 Frequency of tone 1 in the analysis
F2 Frequency of tone 2 in the analysis
Title
Harmonic Balance Analysis (HBA) 1221
To Set Up a 2Tone, Mixer Analysis
1. On the menu bar, click Circuit and then click Add Solution Setup.
2. When the Solution Setup dialog box appears, select Harmonic Balance in the Analysis
Type list.
3. In Solution Setup, type an Analysis Name (or accept the default name, for example,
“HB2Tone2”). Select 2Tone, Mixer Spectrum in the Category list.
4. For most simulations, leave Disable this analysis unselected (the default). But depending
on the requirements for a particular project, clearing this box lets you create and store multiple
solution setups for later use. (Note that if this feature is used, any changes made to the project
will invalidate the simulation results.)
5. Click Next, and the Harmonic Balance Analysis, 2Tone, Mixer Spectrum dialog box
appears. In the No. of LO Harmonics and No. of RF Sidebands boxes, enter integer values
for the localoscillator harmonics and RF sidebands. For more information, see the previous
discussion (TwoTone Mixer Analysis Spectrum).
6. In the Harmonic Balance Analysis, 2Tone, Mixer Spectrum dialog box, select either
the following: Small Signal Mixer Analysis or Use SolutionPath Tracing. These are
either/or selections, depending on the requirements of a particular project. For more informa
tion see Stability Analysis, SolutionPath Tracing, and Small Signal Mixer Analysis in the
online help topics.
7. To enter the sweep parameters for frequency (F1 and F2, both required) do either of the fol
lowing:
• In the Harmonic Balance Analysis, 2Tone Mixer Spectrum dialog box, click the
<
H
0
+
H
0
>
=
0
f
LO Harmonics
1st Sideband
2nd Sideband
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H
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+
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1
>
=
4
*
f
1
+
d
<
H
0
+
H
2
>
=
2
*
f
2
=
2
*
f
1
+
2
*
d
<
H
1
+
H
2
>
=
3
*
f
1
+
2
*
d
<
H
2
+
H
2
>
=
4
*
f
1
+
2
*
d
I
F
L
O
R
F
Twotone spectrum for M1=4, M2=2. The vertical axis
delineates the LO harmonics and sideband products.
Title
1222 Harmonic Balance Analysis (HBA)
blank text area to the right of F1 (under Name and Sweep Value). Type the sweep
parameters and netlist syntax directly into the text box. Then follow the same procedure
for F2.
• Click Add, and the Add/Edit Sweep dialog box appears: In the Variable list, make
sure that F1 is selected (default selection). Select Single Value, type the frequency in the
Value text box, and make sure that the appropriate units (GHz, MHz, kHz) are selected.
Then follow the same procedure for F2, Click Add, and then click OK to close the Add/
Edit Sweep dialog box.
8. To customize the analysis (for example, to override Verbose mode), click Solution Setup
Option (Default Options). When the Select Solution Options dialog box appears, make the
appropriate selections, click OK, and return to the Harmonic Balance Analysis, 2Tone,
Mixer Spectrum dialog box. For more information, see Solution Options in the online help
topics.
9. When the Harmonic Balance Analysis, 2Tone, Mixer Spectrum dialog box reappears,
click Finish.
10. To set up an advanced sweep option (for example, to sweep a circuit parameter or a bias
source), see Sweep Options, HBA Sweep Options, and Advanced Sweep Options in the online
help topics.
11. Run the simulation: On the menu bar, click Circuit and then click Start Analysis. If the circuit
was set up correctly, the analysis begins immediately and a red progress bar appears. (If the
analysis is not successful, check the Message Window for an explanation, and then take cor
rective action.)
12. To display results: On the menu bar, click Circuit and then click Create Report. For more
information, see Generating Reports and PostProcessing in the online help topics.
SmallSignal Mixer Analysis
This mode assumes that the RF signal is small enough to not affect the operating regime. In other
words, the RF signal power should be much smaller than the LO (at least 10 dB for a lossy mixer ,
and 0 ~ 30 dB for a high gain mixer). This criterion is easily satisfied for most mixer applications.
But if the RF signal power is comparable to the LO (or if you need to determine the compression
characteristics of the mixer), then a full harmonicbalance analysis is needed.
The advantage to using smallsignal mixer analysis comes from the speed of the analysis. Since the
RF signal power is neglected, the harmonicbalance analysis is performed using only the single
tone LO. This analysis is much faster than twotone analysis. The program then computes the spec
ified conversion gain using linear frequency conversion methods.
For additional information, see SmallSignal Mixer Analysis in the online help topics.
Calculate Noise Figure
The noise figure of the mixer can be computed by turning NOISE on. The noise is computed at the
default temperature (297K). Contributions of phase noise injected by the LO can be accommodated
by using the .NOISESOURCE statement. The output of the mixer noise analysis is NF as detailed
above. For example, in the default mixer configuration, the noise figure can be displayed at
Title
Harmonic Balance Analysis (HBA) 1223
NF31<F2F1,F2>. Note the similarity between the CG and NF keywords  they use the same ports
and harmonic numbers. Sources and frequencies can also be swept for noise figure analysis.
The key point is that nonlinear mixer noise analysis “ignores” the RF input specification. The sig
nal is still there for use in graphs, as we have shown with our YData definition. However, the RF
signal is assumed to be low enough that it qualifies as a smallsignal input, so its absolute level is
irrelevant. The definition shown is the proper way to display mixer noise figure as a function of LO
power.
Based upon the discussion above, it is not possible to analyze mixer noise figure as a function of
RF drive. The RF specification is ignored, so the simulator simply will not see the swept variable.
The analysis will still run, however, and you will be able to see the noise figure at a single drive
level. The results here would be valid for LO drive as specified in the project and any “smallsig
nal” RF drive level.
Title
1224 Harmonic Balance Analysis (HBA)
Netlist Syntax and Parameters
Netlist Example
DownConverter Example:
VSIN 1 0 V=1.0V HNUM=F1; 1V LO source at F1
VSIN 2 0 V=0.1V HNUM=F2; 0.1V RF source at F2
.HB NLO=8 NSB=1 F1=1.00GHz F2=1.05GHz
The analysis will use 8 harmonics of the LO and 1 RF sideband. The LO frequency is 1GHz using
harmonic number F1, the RF frequency is 1.05GHz using harmonic number F2, and the IF fre
quency is 50MHz at harmonic number F2F1.
UpConverter Example:
VSIN 1 0 V=1.0 HNUM=F1; 1V LO source at F1
VSIN 2 0 V=0.2 HNUM=F2F1; 0.2V modulation source at F2F2
Parameter Description Default Comments
NLO
Number of
LO
harmonics to
use in the
analysis
Increasing the number of LO harmonics
improves the accuracy of the simulation
at the expense of computation time. For
nonswitching mixers, NLO is typically
set between 4 and 8. For switchmode
For mixers or mixers that are driven far
into saturation, 8 to 16 harmonics may be
needed.
NSB
Number of
RF sidebands
If the RF source is small compared to the
LO, the number of sidebands can be set to
1 (default). Many upconverter cases have
a largesignal modulation source, in
which case NSB may be increased to 2 or
3. When analyzing mixer compression by
the RF source, NSB can also be increased
to 2 or 3 for improved accuracy.
F1
Frequency of
tone 1 in the
analysis
required
F2
Frequency of
tone 2 in the
analysis
required
Title
Harmonic Balance Analysis (HBA) 1225
(50MHz)
.HB NLO=8 NSB=2 F1=1.00GHz F2=1.05GHz
The analysis will use 8 harmonics of the LO and 2 RF sidebands. The LO frequency is 1GHz at F1,
the upconverted RF signal will emerge at 1.05GHz at F2, and the modulation signal is 50MHz at
F2F1. Note there will also be an upconverted RF signal at 0.95GHz (2*F1F2).
Subharmonic Down Converter Example:
VSIN 1 0 V=1.0 HNUM=F1; 1V LO source at F1
VSIN 2 0 V=0.01 HNUM=F1+F2; 0.01V RF source at 2*F1+? = F1+F2; ?
= F2F1
.HB NLO=8 NSB=1 F1=1.00GHz F2=1.05GHz
This example is mixing the RF signal at 2.05GHz with the LO at 1GHz. The 2nd harmonic of the
LO is used to mix with the RF to produce an IF at 50MHz. Note that the fundamental frequencies
F1 & F2 are chosen for a regular mixer and the RF signal is applied at the appropriate harmonic, i.e.
2.05GHz = 2*F1+? = F1 + F2 where ? is F2  F1. The analysis takes place with 8 LO harmonics
and 1 RF sideband.
Title
1226 Harmonic Balance Analysis (HBA)
HBA, 2Tone, Intermod
Twotone harmonic balance is used to simulate intermodulation distortion in amplifiers. The circuit
is driven by two sinusoidal sources separated in frequency by 1%, typically. Sources at harmoni
cally related frequencies can also be included, if desired. Parameters:
INTM is usually set to 3 for thirdorder intermodulation calculations and calculation of IP3. Simi
larly, set INTM to 5 for fifth order intermodulation, 7 for seventh order, etc. The higher the order,
the more frequency components are considered and the longer the calculation time.
TwoTone Intermod Analysis Spectrum
The twotone analysis spectrum is defined as:
S
2
= p*f
1
+ q*f
2

p=0,1,,...,m1 q=0,1,...,m2
where f
1
and f
2
are the first and second fundamentals, and m1 and m2 define the bounds of the
spectrum. When the powers of the fundamentals are of similar magnitude, the bounds are chosen
such that the harmonics and intermodulation products can be accurately assessed. The bounds are
chosen as:
m1 = m2 = INTM
p + q ≤ INTM
INTM is called the intermodulation order since it determines the order of intermodulation products
that will included in the spectrum. The total number of spectral components for this selection algo
rithm is
Nt = INTM * (INTM + 1)
In twotone intermodulation analysis (two RF signals), INTM is the maximum order of intermodu
lation products and must not be less than 2. If the pair of fundamental frequencies are (f1, f2), the
frequencies of interest, i.e., all spectral elements of the circuit, are given by:
p*f1 + q*f2 , 0 ≤ p + q ≤ INTM
The spectrual plot (for INTM = 3) is shown in the following diagram:
INTM Order of intermodulation distortion to calculate in the analysis
F1 Frequency of tone 1 in the analysis
F2 Frequency of tone 2 in the analysis
Title
Harmonic Balance Analysis (HBA) 1227
Twotone intermodulation spectrum for M=3. The vertical axis shows the intermodulation order for
each spectral component.
To Set Up a 2Tone, Intermod Spectrum Analysis
1. On the menu bar, click Circuit and then click Add Solution Setup.
2. When the Solution Setup dialog box appears, select Harmonic Balance in the Analysis
Type list.
3. In Solution Setup, type an Analysis Name (or accept the default name, for example,
“HB3Tone2”). Select 2Tone, Intermodulation Spectrum in the Category list.
4. For most simulations, leave Disable this analysis unselected (the default). But depending
on the requirements for a particular project, clearing this box lets you create and store multiple
solution setups for later use. (Note that if this feature is used, any changes made to the project
will invalidate the simulation results.)
5. Click Next, and the Harmonic Balance Analysis, 2Tone, Intermodulation Spec
trum dialog box appears. In the Intermodulation Order box, enter the appropriate integer
value. For more information, see the previous discussion (TwoTone Intermod Analysis Spec
trum).
6. In the Harmonic Balance Analysis, 2Tone, Intermodulation Spectrum dialog box,
you can also select Use SolutionPath Tracing. This is an optional selection, depending on
the requirements of a particular project. For more information see SolutionPath Tracing in the
online help topics.
7. To enter the sweep parameters for frequency (F1 and F2, required) do either of the following:
<

H
1
+
H
1
>
=

f
1
+
f
2
<
H
1
+
H
0
>
=
f
1
<
H
2
+
H
0
>
=
f
2
<
H
2

H
1
>
=
2
*
f
1

f
2
<

H
1
+
H
2
>
=

f
1
+
2
*
f
2
<
H
0
+
H
0
>
=
0
<
H
2
+
H
0
>
=
2
*
f
1
<
H
1
+
H
1
>
=
f
1
+
f
2
<
H
0
+
H
2
>
=
2
*
f
2
<
H
3
+
H
0
>
=
3
*
f
1
<
H
2
+
H
1
>
=
2
*
f
1
+
f
2
<
H
1
+
H
2
>
=
f
1
+
2
*
f
2
<
H
0
+
H
3
>
=
3
*
f
2
f
3
2
1
Intermodulation
Order
S
i
g
n
a
l
1
S
i
g
n
a
l
2
L
o
w
e
r
3
r
d
O
r
d
e
r
P
r
o
d
u
c
t
U
p
p
e
r
3
r
d
O
r
d
e
r
P
r
o
d
u
c
t
Twotone intermodulation spectrum for M=3. The vertical
axis shows the intermodulation order for each spectral
component.
Title
1228 Harmonic Balance Analysis (HBA)
• In the Harmonic Balance Analysis, 2Tone, Intermodulation Spectrum dialog
box, click the blank text area to the right of F1 (under Name and Sweep Value). Type
the sweep parameters and netlist syntax directly into the text box. Follow the same proce
dure for F2.
• Click Add, and the Add/Edit Sweep dialog box appears: In the Variable list, make
sure that F1 is selected (default selection). Select Single Value, type the frequency in the
Value text box, and make sure that the appropriate units (GHz, MHz, kHz) are selected.
Follow the same procedure for F2, Click Add, and then click OK to close the Add/Edit
Sweep dialog box.
8. To customize the analysis (for example, to override Verbose mode), click Solution Setup
Option (Default Options). When the Select Solution Options dialog box appears, make the
appropriate selections, click OK, and return to the Harmonic Balance Analysis, 2Tone,
Intermodulation Spectrum dialog box. For more information, see Solution Options in the
online help topics.
9. When the Harmonic Balance Analysis, 2Tone, Mixer Spectrum dialog box reap
pears, click Finish.
10. To set up an advanced sweep option (for example, to sweep a circuit parameter or a bias
source), see Sweep Options, HBA Sweep Options, and Advanced Sweep Options in the online
help topics.
11. Run the simulation: On the menu bar, click Circuit and then click Start Analysis. If the circuit
was set up correctly, the analysis begins immediately and a red progress bar appears. (If the
analysis is not successful, check the Message Window for an explanation, and then take cor
rective action.)
12. To display results: On the menu bar, click Circuit and then click Create Report. For more
information, see Generating Reports and PostProcessing in the online help topics.
Title
Harmonic Balance Analysis (HBA) 1229
Netlist Syntax and Parameters
Netlist Example
VSIN 1 0 V=1.0 HNUM=F1
VSIN 2 0 V=1.0 HNUM=F2
.HB INTM=3 F1=1.00GHz F2=1.01GHz
The analysis will contain 13 harmonics, including DC. The frequency spectrum used is {0,
0.01GHz,0.99GHz, 1.00GHz, 1.01GHz, 1.02GHz, 2.00GHz, 2.01GHz, 2.02GHz, 3.00GHz,
3.01GHz, 3.02GHz, 3.03GHz}. The intermodulation frequencies for this example are 2*F1−F2 =
0.99GHz and 2*F2−F1 = 1.02GHz.
Parameter Description Default Comments
INTM
Order of intermodulation
distortion to calculate in
the analysis
3
INTM is usually set to 3 for thirdorder
intermodulation calculations and calculation
of IP3. Similarly, set INTM to 5 for fifth
order intermodulation, 7 for seventhorder,
etc. The higher the order, the greater the
number of frequency components
considered and the longer the calculation
time.
F1
Frequency of Tone 1 in
the analysis
Required
F2
Frequency of Tone 2 in
the analysis
Required
Title
1230 Harmonic Balance Analysis (HBA)
HBA, 3Tone, Intermod
Threetone harmonic balance analysis for amplifiers is used to analyze the intermodulation charac
teristics of circuits excited with three incommensurate tones. Although the common definition of
IP3 for amplifiers uses two tones, performing a threetone analysis will provide more information
of the intermodulation products.
Applications include investigating intermodulation of a signal consisting of three tones, for exam
ple, a CATV amp with one video tone and two audio tones, or an interfering signal in a receiver.
This analysis is used when the 3 tones are of similar power. Parameters:
ThreeTone, Intermod Analysis Spectrum
INTM is usually set to 3 for thirdorder intermodulation calculations, 5 for fifth order, and so on.
The higher the order, the more frequency components are considered and the longer the calculation
time.
The threetone analysis spectra are very similar to twotone and are defined by
p*f1 + q*f2 + r*f3, 0 ≤ p + q + r ≤ Intm
where f1, f2, and f3 are the fundamental frequencies. If the pair of fundamental frequencies are (f1,
f2), the frequencies of interest, i.e., all spectral elements of the circuit, are given by:
 p*f1 + q*f2 , 0 ≤  p  +  q  ≤ m
The total number of spectral components is given by:
INTM
Order of intermodulation distortion to
calculate in the analysis
F1
Frequency of tone 1 in the analysis
F2
Frequency of tone 2 in the analysis
F3
Frequency of tone 3 in the analysis
Title
Harmonic Balance Analysis (HBA) 1231
The resulting spectral components (for INTM =3) are shown in the following diagram. Notice the
much larger number of tones in the spectrum as compared with the twotone case for INTM=3.(
To Set Up a 3Tone, Intermod Spectrum Analysis
1. On the menu bar, click Circuit and then click Add Solution Setup.
2. When the Solution Setup dialog box appears, select Harmonic Balance in the Analysis
Type list.
3. In Solution Setup, type an Analysis Name (or accept the default name, for example,
“HB4Tone3”). Select 3Tone, Intermodulation Spectrum in the Category list.
4. For most simulations, leave Disable this analysis unselected (the default). But depending
on the requirements for a particular project, clearing this box lets you create and store multiple
solution setups for later use. (Note that if this feature is used, any changes made to the project
will invalidate the simulation results.)
5. Click Next, and the Harmonic Balance Analysis, 3Tone, Intermodulation Spec
trum dialog box appears. In the Intermodulation Order box, enter the appropriate integer
value. For more information, see the previous discussion (Three Tone Intermod Analysis Spec
trum).
6. In the Harmonic Balance Analysis, 3Tone, Intermodulation Spectrum dialog box,
you can also select Use SolutionPath Tracing. This is an optional selection, depending on
the requirements of a particular project. For more information see SolutionPath Tracing in the
online help topics.
7. To enter the sweep parameters for frequency (F1, F2 and F3, all required) do either of the fol
lowing:
f
<
H
0

H
1
+
H
1
>
<

H
1
+
H
1
+
H
0
>
<

H
1
+
H
0
+
H
1
>
<
H
0
+
H
0
+
H
0
>
<
H
2
+
H
0

H
1
>
<
H
2

H
1
+
H
0
>
<
H
1
+
H
1

H
1
>
<
H
1
+
H
0
+
H
0
>
<
H
0
+
H
2

H
1
>
<
H
1

H
1
+
H
1
>
<
H
0
+
H
1
+
H
0
>
<
H
0
+
H
0
+
H
1
>
<

H
1
+
H
2
+
H
0
>
<
H
0

H
1
+
H
2
>
<

H
1
+
H
1
+
H
1
>
<

H
1
+
H
0
+
H
2
>
<
H
2
+
H
0
+
H
0
>
<
H
1
+
H
1
+
H
0
>
<
H
1
+
H
0
+
H
1
>
<
H
0
+
H
2
+
H
0
>
<
H
0
+
H
1
+
H
1
>
<
H
0
+
H
0
+
H
2
>
<
H
3
+
H
0
+
H
0
>
<
H
2
+
H
1
+
H
0
>
<
H
1
+
H
2
+
H
0
>
<
H
1
+
H
1
+
H
1
>
<
H
0
+
H
3
+
H
0
>
<
H
1
+
H
0
+
H
2
>
<
H
0
+
H
2
+
H
1
>
<
H
0
+
H
1
+
H
2
>
<
H
0
+
H
0
+
H
3
>
1
2
3
S
i
g
n
a
l
1
S
i
g
n
a
l
2
S
i
g
n
a
l
3
Three tone intermodulation spectrum for M=3. The vertical axis shows
the intermodulation order for each spectral component. Note that the
products will change position depending on the separation between the
fundamental tones. Here the difference between signal 3 and signal 2 is
slightly greater than the difference between signal 2 and signal 1.
Title
1232 Harmonic Balance Analysis (HBA)
• In the Harmonic Balance Analysis, 3Tone, Intermodulation Spectrum dialog
box, click the blank text area to the right of F1 (under Name and Sweep Value). Type
the sweep parameters and netlist syntax directly into the text box. Follow the same proce
dure for F2 and F3.
• Click Add, and the Add/Edit Sweep dialog box appears: In the Variable list, make
sure that F1 is selected (default selection). Select Single Value, type the frequency in the
Value text box, and make sure that the appropriate units (GHz, MHz, kHz) are selected.
Follow the same procedure for F2 and F3, Click Add, and then click OK to close the
Add/Edit Sweep dialog box.
8. To customize the analysis (for example, to override Verbose mode), click Solution Setup
Option (Default Options). When the Select Solution Options dialog box appears, make the
appropriate selections, click OK, and return to the Harmonic Balance Analysis, 3Tone,
Intermodulation Spectrum dialog box. For more information, see Solution Options in the
online help topics.
9. When the Harmonic Balance Analysis, 3Tone, Intermodulation Spectrum dialog
box reappears, click Finish.
10. To set up an advanced sweep option (for example, to sweep a circuit parameter or a bias
source), see Sweep Options, HBA Sweep Options, and Advanced Sweep Options in the online
help topics.
11. Run the simulation: On the menu bar, click Circuit and then click Start Analysis. If the circuit
was set up correctly, the analysis begins immediately and a red progress bar appears. (If the
analysis is not successful, check the Message Window for an explanation, and then take cor
rective action.)
12. To display results: On the menu bar, click Circuit and then click Create Report. For more
information, see Generating Reports and PostProcessing in the online help topics.
Title
Harmonic Balance Analysis (HBA) 1233
Netlist Syntax and Parameters
Netlist Example
VSIN 1 0 V=1.0 HNUM=F1
VSIN 2 0 V=1.0 HNUM=F2
VSIN 3 0 V=1.0 HNUM=F3
.HB INTM=3 F1=1.00GHz F2=1.01GHz F3=1.011GHz
The analysis uses 1.00GHz, 1.01GHz and 1.011GHz for the fundamental frequencies. Note that the
difference chosen between F2 and F1 is 10MHz and the difference between F3 and F2 is 1MHz.
These differences should not be chosen as equal because intermodulation products will then fall on
the same frequencies. It is generally better to separate the differences, even by a small amount, so
that the harmonic number of the intermodulation product can be determined.
Parameter Description Default Comments
INTM
INTM is usually set
to 3 for thirdorder
intermodulation
calculations, 5 for
fifth order, etc.
The higher the
order, the more
frequency
components are
considered and the
longer the
calculation time
Required
F1
Frequency of tone 1
in the analysis
Required
F2
Frequency of tone 2
in the analysis
Required
F3
Frequency of tone 2
in the analysis
Required
Title
1234 Harmonic Balance Analysis (HBA)
HBA, 3Tone, Mixer Intermod
Threetone harmonicbalance analysis for mixers is used for simulating the intermodulation distor
tion in mixers and modulators. The circuit is excited by a LO and two RF signals separated in fre
quency by 1%, typically. Sources at harmonically related frequencies can also be included, if
desired. Parameters:
Increasing the number of LO harmonics improves the accuracy of the simulation at the expense of
computation time. For nonswitching mixers, NLO is typically set between 4 and 8. For switch
mode mixers or mixers that are driven far into saturation, 8 to 16 harmonics may be needed.
ThreeTone Mixer Intermod Analysis Spectrum
For thirdorder intermodulation, INTM is set to 3; for fifth order, it is set to 5, etc.
The number of frequency components used in the analysis increases rapidly as NLO or INTM are
increased, and the corresponding memory and computation time increases. See the Nonlinear Anal
ysis Chapter for details.
For the mixer case, the spectrum is chosen assuming that one LO and two RF signals are present.
The spectrum is selected by recognizing the intermodulation products of the RF signals as the
quantities of interest. The intermodulation spectrum of the two isolated RF signals is then repeated
on each side of the LO harmonics to form the threetone mixer spectrum. This is given by:
m1 = NLO and m2 = m3 = INTM
0 ≤ p + q + r ≤ M1 0 ≤ q + r ≤ M2(17)
where M1 is the number of LO harmonics and M2 is the intermodulation order of the RF tones. The
spectrum is shown in Figure 105 for M1=2 and M2=3. The total number of spectral components is
given by
Nt = M1*(2*M2
2
+ 2*M2 + 1) + M2
2
+ M2 (18)
Generally, the number of frequency components required for threetone analysis grows much faster
than for twotone analysis. This restricts the nonlinearity that can be computed. If four or more
NLO Number of LO harmonics to use in the
analysis
INTM Order of intermodulation distortion to
calculate in the analysis
F1 Frequency of the local oscillator (tone 1)
F2 Frequency of the first RF tone (tone 2)
F3 Frequency of the second RF tone (tone 3)
Title
Harmonic Balance Analysis (HBA) 1235
tones were considered, the number of frequency components becomes prohibitive unless smaller
selection schemes are used.
The intermodulation products of the two RF signals are shown to the third order in the following
diagram (important spectral components are labeled):
To Set Up a 3Tone, Mixer Intermod Analysis (.HBA)
1. On the menu bar, click Circuit and then click Add Solution Setup.
2. When the Solution Setup dialog box appears, select Harmonic Balance in the Analysis
Type list.
3. In Solution Setup, type an Analysis Name (or accept the default name, for example,
“HB5Tone3”). Select 3Tone, Mixer Intermodulation Spectrum in the Category list.
4. For most simulations, leave Disable this analysis unselected (the default). But depending
on the requirements for a particular project, clearing this box lets you create and store multiple
solution setups for later use. (Note that if this feature is used, any changes made to the project
will invalidate the simulation results.)
5. Click Next, and the Harmonic Balance Analysis, 3Tone, Mixer Intermodulation
Spectrum dialog box appears. In the No. of LO Harmonics and Intermodulation Order
boxes, enter integer values for the localoscillator harmonics and intermodulation order. For
more information, see the previous discussion (ThreeTone Mixer Intermod Analysis Spec
trum).
6. In the Harmonic Balance Analysis, 3Tone Mixer Intermodulation dialog box, you
can select the Use SolutionPath Tracing option. This is an optional selection, depending
on the requirements of a particular project. For more information see SolutionPath Tracing in
the online help topics.
7. To enter the sweep parameters for frequency F1, F2, and F3 (all required) do either of the fol
lowing:
• In the Harmonic Balance Analysis, 3Tone, Mixer Intermodulation dialog box,
f
LO
Harmonics
1st Order
2nd Order
3rd Order
IF1= < H1+ H1+ H0 >
IF2= < H1+ H0H1 >
U= < H1H1+ H2 >
L= < H1+ H2H1 >
LO= < H1+ H0+ H0 >
RF1= < H0+ H1+ H0 >
RF2= < H0+ H0+ H1 >
Three tone mixer spectrum for M1=2, M2=3.
The intermodulation products of the two RF
signals are shown to third order. Important
spectral components are labeled.
Title
1236 Harmonic Balance Analysis (HBA)
under Name and Sweep Value, click the blank area near F1: Type the sweep parame
ters and netlist syntax directly into the text box. Follow the same procedure for F2 and F3.
• Click Add, and the Add/Edit Sweep dialog box appears: In the Variable list, make
sure that F1 is selected (default selection). Select Single Value, type the frequency in the
Value text box, and make sure that the appropriate units (GHz, MHz, kHz) are selected.
Follow the same procedure for F2 and F3, Click Add, and then click OK to close the
Add/Edit Sweep dialog box.
8. To customize the analysis (for example, to override Verbose mode), click Solution Setup
Option (Default Options). When the Select Solution Options dialog box appears, make the
appropriate selections, click OK, and return to the Harmonic Balance Analysis, 3Tone,
Mixer Intermodulation Spectrum dialog box. For more information, see Solution Options in
the online help topics.
9. When the Harmonic Balance Analysis, 3Tone, Mixer Intermodulation Spectrum
dialog box reappears, click Finish.
10. To set up an advanced sweep option (for example, to sweep a circuit parameter or a bias
source), see Sweep Options, HBA Sweep Options, and Advanced Sweep Options in the online
help topics.
11. Run the simulation: On the menu bar, click Circuit and then click Start Analysis. If the circuit
was set up correctly, the analysis begins immediately and a red progress bar appears. (If the
analysis is not successful, check the Message Window for an explanation, and then take cor
rective action.)
12. To display results: On the menu bar, click Circuit and then click Create Report. For more
information, see Generating Reports and PostProcessing in the online help topics.
Title
Harmonic Balance Analysis (HBA) 1237
Netlist Syntax and Parameters
Netlist Example
VSIN 1 0 V=1.0 HNUM=F1; LO signal
VSIN 2 3 V=0.01 HNUM=F2; RF1 signal
VSIN 3 0 V=0.01 HNUM=F3; RF2 signal
.HB NLO=4 INTM=3 F1=1.00GHz F2=1.01GHz F3=1.011GHz
The LO at 1.00GHz will be analyzed with 4 harmonics and the spectrum will be set up for third
order intermodulation distortion at baseband. The two RF signals at 1.01GHz and 1.011GHz will
Parameter Description Default Comments
NLO
Number of LO
harmonics to use in
the analysis
required
Increasing the number of LO harmonics
improves the accuracy of the simulation
at the expense of
computation time. For nonswitching
mixers, NLO is typically set between 4
and 8. For switchmode
mixers or mixers that are driven far into
saturation, 8 to 16 harmonics may be
needed.
INTM
Order of
intermodulation
distortion to
calculate in the
analysis
required
For thirdorder intermodulation, INTM is
set to 3; for fifth order, it is set to 5, etc.
The number of frequency components
used in the analysis increases rapidly as
NLO or INTM are
increased, and the corresponding memory
and computation time increases. See the
Nonlinear Analysis
Chapter for details.
F1
Frequency of tone 1
in the analysis
required
F2
Frequency of tone 2
in the analysis
required
F3
Frequency of tone 2
in the analysis
required
Title
1238 Harmonic Balance Analysis (HBA)
mix down to IF1 at 10MHz and IF2 at 11MHz. The intermodulation products will be at 9MHz and
12MHz.
The corresponding harmonic numbers are given (Similar principles apply for the upconverter and
subharmonic mixer cases as described the earlier 2tone HB Mixer Analysis):
LO 1.00GHz F1
RF1 1.01GHz F2
RF2 F3 1.011GHz
IF1 10MHz F2F1
IF2 11MHz F3F1
IM1 9MHz 2IF1IF2 = F1+2*F2F3
IM2 12MHz 2IF2IF1 = F1F2+2*F3
Title
Harmonic Balance Analysis (HBA) 1239
Solution Options
After doing the solution setup (see Hamonic Balance Analysis) you can configure solution options
by selecting Solution Setup Option (Default Options) in the Select Solution Options dialog and
clicking New. This opens the Solution Options dialog.
The Solution Options dialog is organized into the following tab sections:
• HB1
• HB2
Title
1240 Harmonic Balance Analysis (HBA)
• Transient1
• Transient2
• Advanced
Note: The Name field in the Solution Options dialog specifies the file in which to save the options
you select.
HB1
The HB1 tab is already selected when the Solution Options dialog opens.
The following controls are available:
Title
Harmonic Balance Analysis (HBA) 1241
• Harmonic balance tolerance sets the total allowed error tolerance Designer uses for
solving harmonic balance equations. (The default value is 1E006.) The solution is said
to converge when the solver reduces the harmonic balance error to a value equal to or less
than this number. The error tolerance is normalized for each nonlinear device port and
each spectral component.
• Max. no of iterations sets the nonzero integer number of solution iterations within which
the solver must achieve convergence. (The default value is 400.) If the solver cannot con
verge within the number of iterations specified, it stops.
• Perform DC solution to initialize HB solution tells Designer to perform a DC analysis
before harmonic balance analysis. (The default is checked.) You may wish to turn Per
form DC Initialization off when you use the results of a previous analysis to initialize the
current analysis (see Initialize Using Previous Solution), or in cases where the analyzed
circuit’s DC operating point differs greatly from its DC bias point. (“DC bias point”
assumes no signal sources.)
• Use previous solution from file to initialize HB solution tells Designer to use the state
variables determined in a previous analysis to initialize the state variables of the current
analysis. (The default is unchecked.) After completing each nonlinear analysis, Designer
automatically stores the state variables determined in a file named *.var, where * is the
filename of the circuit under analysis.
• Increase default sampling rate for TONE1 by 2^x sets the additional sampling point
exponent for the first tone. If NP1 is the number of sampling points for Tone 1 determined
by Designer, then NP1’ = NP1*(2^x) is used for the number of sampling points of Tone.
• Initialize mixer spectrum by solving LO problem first tells Designer to perform a one
tone analysis of the LO spectrum and use the results for initialization of the complete
mixer spectrum.
• Use analytic derivatives during nonlinear solution tells Designer to use analytic deriva
tives of nonlinear devices in HB analysis. Designer will evaluate the derivatives of non
linear devices using the numerical method if this box is unchecked.
Title
1242 Harmonic Balance Analysis (HBA)
HB2
When you select the HB2 tab in the Solution Options dialog, the following dialog is dis
played:
The following controls are available:
• Default No. of search points sets the number of steps used during oscillator search mode.
A large number of steps is useful for oscillator design, but may slow Designer during
oscillator analysis. This value must be > 5. The default number of search points is 40
• Amplitude of test source sets the amplitude of injected test signal to search and locate
oscillation during the oscillator search mode.
• Krylov subset factor sets the maximum number of dimensions of the Krylov subspace
used in the iterative Newton analysis by GMRES method. This value must be > 1 and the
Title
Harmonic Balance Analysis (HBA) 1243
default value is 80.
• Print CPU times in audit file tells the program to write out the analysis CPU times in the
audit file *.aud, located in the result directory, which allows the user to see the CPU times
consumed by the analysis.
Transient1
When you select the Transient1 tab in the Solution Options dialog, the following dialog is dis
played:
The following controls are available:
• Absolute current solution tolerance sets the absolute current error tolerance used in
transient analysis.
Title
1244 Harmonic Balance Analysis (HBA)
• Absolute charge solution tolerance sets the charge error tolerace used in transient analy
sis.
• Relative solution tolerance of V and I sets the relative error tolerance of voltages and
currents used in transient analysis.
• Minimum conductance of any branch sets the value of the minimum conductance Gmin
used in transient analysis.
• Testing device internal currents error tolerance sets the device internal current error
tolerance used in transient analysis.
• Absolute voltage tolerance sets the absolute voltage error tolerance used in transient
analysis.
• Approximated truncation error scalar factor sets the factor by which the approximate
truncation error evaluated in transient analysis is scaled.
Title
Harmonic Balance Analysis (HBA) 1245
Transient2
When you select the Transient2 tab in the Solution Options dialog, the following dialog is dis
played:
The following controls are available:
• Relative mag. required for pivoting sets the minimum acceptable pivot ratio used in par
tial pivoting in the solution of network equations used in transient analysis. PIVREL is
the minimum acceptable ratio of an acceptable pivot value to the largest column entry.
• Absolute mag. required for pivoting sets the minimum value of a matrix element for it
to be used as a pivot used in transient analysis.
• DC and bias point max. iterations sets the limit on the number of DC iterations in tran
sient analysis.
Title
1246 Harmonic Balance Analysis (HBA)
• DC and bias point max. guess iterations sets the DC transfer curve iteration limit used in
transient analysis.
• Max. iterations at any time point sets the limit on the number of iterations for solving
one time point in transient analysis.
• Max. iterations for all time points sets the limit on the number of total iterations in tran
sient analysis.
• Max. number of freq. sampling points for convolution sets the maximum number of
frequency sampling points for convolution in transient analysis.
Advanced
When you select the Advanced tab in the Solution Options dialog, the following dialog is dis
played:
Title
Harmonic Balance Analysis (HBA) 1247
Select one or more of the options listed in the All Options window and click Add to add the option.
The following controls are available:
• addsam2 sets the additional sampling point exponent for the second tone. If NP2 is the
number of sampling points for Tone 2 determined by Designer, then NP2’ = NP2*(2^x) is
used for the number of sampling points of Tone 2. The default value is 0.
• addsamp3 sets the additional sampling point exponent for the third tone. If NP3 is the
number of sampling points for Tone 3 determined by Designer, then NP3’ = NP3*(2^x) is
used for the number of sampling points of Tone 3. The default value is 0.
• cfnewt is a damping factor used during a Newton iteration in HB analysis. Designer
dynamically determines CFNEWT so setting this parameter has limited effect. It is still
offered for compatibility with previous Circuit products.
• hbesuppress will suppress the writing of HB errors into the audit file.
• itqmin sets the minimum number of QuasiNewton iterations in HB analysis.
• maxnfsampling sets the maximum number of frequency sampling points for convolution
in transient analysis
• newtontype sets a flag to select inexact Newton or exact Newton method in HB analysis.
Checked: exact Newton. Unchecked: inexact Newton
• oscfstep sets the fractional frequency step used during oscillator search mode. If FSWP
NUM is set this option will be ignored.
• spectrum sets the harmonic pattern used in HB analysis. Undefined=Reduced pattern is
used. Full=full harmonics are used. Reduced=reduced2 pattern is used. Reduced0 through
Reduced20 defines each different harmonics pattern used in HB analysis, respectively
• tnom sets the nominal temperature for the circuit.
• verbose sets the degree (as an integer ³ 0 and £ 4) of output detail the program saves in
audit files, the names of which take the form *.aud, where * is the filename of the circuit
under analysis. The default value, 0, tells Designer to store only the final results of the cir
cuit’s electrical performance. The higher the verbosity number, the more detailed the
reportage.
HBA Sweep Options
To sweep the frequency of any of the analyses, one or more sweep specifications can be applied to
the F1, F2, and F3 parameters. The program will sort the frequencies specified into a monotonic
list. For example:
.HB NHARM=16 F1=LIN 1GHz 10GHz 1GHz
will sweep F1 from 1GHz to 10GHz in steps of 1GHz. Sweep specifications can be combined to
form sweeps with additional points, for example:
.HB NHARM=16 F1=LIN 1GHz 10GHz 1GHz LIN 5GHz 6GHz 0.1GHz
will include a finer set of analysis points spaced 0.1GHz between 5GHz and 6GHz. Any of the
sweep specifications can be mixed (LIN, LIST, DEC, etc.) to define the analysis points.
Title
1248 Harmonic Balance Analysis (HBA)
If a sweep is specified as decreasing, the program will form a monotonically decreasing list to use
in the analysis. To specify a decreasing sweep, the end value must be less than the start value; the
sign of the increment (for LIN) is ignored. If two or more sweeps with conflicting directions are
specified, an increasing sweep will be assumed. For more detailed information, see the discussion
on Sweep Specifications.
When sweeping more than one frequency, the number of sweep points for the frequencies that are
swept together must be the same. That is, if F1 and F2 are swept together and F1 has 10 sweep
points, then F2 must also have 10 sweep points. In .HB analysis, all frequencies are collectively
swept by default.
Swept Source Analysis
To sweep DC or RF sources, the SourceSpec specification is used. Voltage, current and power
sources may be swept. The sweep is specified in the .HB analysis statement and the source to be
swept references the appropriate analysis source variable, i.e. VSRCi, ISRCi, or PSRCi where i is
replaced by an integer. For example:
VSIN 1 0 V={VSRC1} FNUM=F1
.HB NHARM=8 F1=1GHz VSRC1=LIN 0.0 1.0 0.1
will sweep the voltage source from 0.1V to 1.0V in steps of 0.1V. Note that VSRC1 is considered a
variable and must be enclosed in curly braces. An example of a swept power source at a port is:
PORTP 1 0 PNUM=1 P1={PSRC1} HNUM1=F1 P2={PSRC1} HNUM2=F2
.HB INTM=3 F1=1GHz F2=1.01GHz PSRC1=LIN 0dBm 20dBm 2dB
will sweep each power source at port 1 from 0dBm to 20dBm in steps of 2dB. This is commonly
used for intermodulation distortion calculations. Source specifications can also be mixed to sweep
power and bias independently, for example:
PORTP 1 0 PNUM=1 P1={PSRC1} HNUM1=F1 P2={PSRC2} HNUM2=F2
.HB NHARM=8 F1=1GHz PSRC1=LIN 0dBm 20dBm 2dB PSRC2=LIN 10dBm
10dBm 2dB
will sweep RF power source 1 from 0dBm to 20dBm in steps of 2dB and will sweep RF power
source 2 from 10dBm to 10dBm in steps of 2dB.
Sweeping Frequencies and Sources
Both frequency and RF or DC sources can be swept in an analysis. By default, the sources will be
swept together as the inner loop of the .HB analysis and will be swept independent of frequency.
Sweeping Circuit Variables
Arbitrary circuit variables can be swept in an analysis to provide tuning curves of a circuit. For
example, to sweep a capacitor value, we can set up an analysis:
.PARAM C1 = 10pF; Set up nominal value
CAP:1 1 0 C={C1}
.HB:1 NHARM=8 F1=1GHz C1 = LIN 5pF 15pF 1pF ; C1 is swept in
Title
Harmonic Balance Analysis (HBA) 1249
this analysis
.HB:2 NHARM=8 F1=1GHz; C1 is not swept in this analysis
The .PARAM statement sets up the nominal value of C1 which would be used when C1 is not
swept, as in the HB:2 analysis.
Coupled sweeps and independent sweeps can be set up in this fashion to generate one or more
dimensional tuning curves. For example, a twodimensional tuning curve can be set up as follows:
.PARAM C1 = 10pF
CAP:1 1 0 C={C1}
*
.PARAM C2 = 5pF
CAP:2 2 0 C={C2}
*
.HB NHARM=8 F1=1GHz C1= LIN 5pF 15pF 1pF C2 = LIN 4pF 6pF 1pF
SWPORD={C1,C2}
will generate 11 sweep points for C1 and 3 sweep points for C2 resulting in 33 analysis points. The
SWPORD statement indicates that C1 and C2 will be swept independently because they are sepa
rated by a comma.
.PARAM C1 = 10pF P1=0dBm
CAP:1 1 0 C={C1}
.HB NHARM=8 F1=LIN 1GHz 2GHz 0.1GHz P1=LIN 0dBm 10dBm 2dB
+ C1= LIN 5pF 15pF 1pF SWPORD={P1, F1, C1}
will sweep P1, F1, and C1 independently, resulting in 6x11x11 = 726 analysis points.
Title
1250 Harmonic Balance Analysis (HBA)
Harmonic Balance Oscillator Analysis 141
14
Harmonic Balance Oscillator Analysis
Title
142 Harmonic Balance Oscillator Analysis
HB Oscillator (HBOSC)
Oscillator Analysis Using Harmonic Balance (.HBOSC)
The Oscillator Design Aid performs a small (but finite) signal HB analysis at frequency points
between the start and stop frequencies given for F1. By examining the real and imaginary parts of
the injected source, the analysis determines if a resonant frequency exists. If one does exist, it will
be displayed during the analysis. The purpose of this analysis is to quickly examine a broad fre
quency range to determine the approximate oscillation frequency (if one exists within the range).
See the section on Oscillator Analysis in the Nonlinear Analysis Chapter for more detail.
At the end of the analysis, a graph of the real and imaginary parts of the injected source will be dis
played. The criteria for the resonant frequency is:
Imaginary part = 0
Real part < 0
Only under these conditions does the circuit have the potential to oscillate. Once the resonant fre
quency is determined, the frequency range is usually narrowed (to about +/ 10%) and an oscillator
analysis is performed. .
Example
.HBOSC F1=500MHz 700MHz DESIGN=ON
The analysis will search between 500MHz and 700MHz to find the resonant frequency where oscil
lations can be supported.
Parameter Description
F1
Set the start and stop frequency
limits, i.e. F1=start stop
DESIGN
Set to ON for oscillator design
analysis and OFF for other
functions
Other
parameters
Other parameters may be specified,
but will be ignored during this
analysis.
Title
Harmonic Balance Oscillator Analysis 143
Oscillator Option Parameters
Three .OPTION parameters are sometimes modified for oscillator design and analysis:
Normally, OSCFSTEP=0.02 is sufficiently small to catch the resonant frequency between the start
and stop limits. For highQ oscillators, it may be necessary to set this to a smaller fraction. Alterna
tively, FSWPNUM can be set, which provides a more intuitive means of specifying the number of
frequency points to analyze between the start and stop frequencies. The actual number of frequen
cies may depend on the bandwidth of the range, but 30 to 50 usually suffices. Two methods are
offered because using OSCFSTEP is often faster, but FSWPNUM is more intuitive. If FSWPNUM
is specified, any value given to OSCFSTEP will be ignored.
The default setting for OSCVEXT should suffice for practically all applications. However, for very
low power oscillators, it may be necessary to decrease the source magnitude to 1mV.
General Netlist Form
.HBOSC[:name]
+[NHARM = integer]  INTM = integer  NLO = integer NSB = integer 
+NLO = integer INTM = integer
+F1 = cval cval [F2 = swpDef] [F3 = swpDef] [FNOI = swpDef]
+[anaSwpDef]
+[DESIGN = boolean]
+[PORT = integer] [HNUM = HarmSpec]
+[ NOISE = boolean ] [SWPORD = {anaSwpOrderDef}]
Parameter Description
OSCFSTEP
Fractional frequency step used to
sweep between the start and stop
frequencies (default 0.02)
FSWPNUM
Number of frequencies to use to
search between start and stop
frequencies
OSCVEXT
Magnitude of excitation applied to
oscillator circuit (default 10mV)
Parameter Description Default Comments
Title
144 Harmonic Balance Oscillator Analysis
NHARM
Number of harmonics
for 1tone HB
4
INTM
Intermod. order for 2 &
3tone HB
amplifier case
NLO NSB
Number of LO
harmonics for 2tone
Number of sidebands
for 2tone
mixer case
NLO INTM
Number LO harmonics
for 3tone
Intermod. order for 3
tone
mixer case
F1
Fundamental frequency oscillator frequency
F2, F3
Frequencies of tones 2
and 3
frequencies that contain
RF sources
FNOI
Noise spectral
frequencies
oscillator noise analysis
anaSwpDef
Define swept
parameters
none
DESIGN
Select Design Aid or
Osc Analysis
OFF
PORT
Port for noise output
1
HNUM
Harmonic number for
noise output
F1
NOISE
Toggles oscillator noise
analysis
OFF
SWPORD
Defines ordered sweep See Notes
Title
Harmonic Balance Oscillator Analysis 145
Notes
Parameter keyword values in the .HBOSC command may be expressions or parameters, but must
be evaluated prior to analysis. Therefore they cannot be dependent on analysis variables (e.g., F).
If a value is assigned by a parameter and the parameter is being swept, the value used will only be
the one assigned by the original value of the parameter and the sweep values will be ignored.
Title
146 Harmonic Balance Oscillator Analysis
HBOSC, 1Tone
Basic oscillator analysis (HBO, single tone) is used to perform a full harmonicbalance analysis to
solve for the state variables and frequency of an oscillator.
This analysis is usually preceded by an oscillator design analysis which identifies the resonant fre
quency of the circuit and narrow the frequency range within +/10%, however, this is optional. (For
more information, see Oscillator Resonant Frequency Search in the online help topics.)
The oscillator analysis proceeds in two phases:
1. An injected source will search for the approximate frequency and amplitude needed to satisfy
the loopgain criteria of an oscillator. Once these conditions are met, step two will proceed.
2. A rigorous harmonicbalance analysis will commence to solve the HB equations and determine
the frequency of the oscillator. (For more information, see the oscillator analysis section in the
Nonlinear Analysis chapter.)
Example
.HBOSC NHARM=4 F1=500MHz 700MHz
This analysis searches for the oscillation frequency between 500MHz and 700MHz. Once found,
four harmonics will be used to carry out the full oscillator analysis.
Oscillator Noise Analysis
The oscillator noise analysis option computes the noise spectral power at a discrete set of frequen
cies offset from the carrier (or harmonics of the carrier). The typical application is to simulate phase
noise and amplitude noise of an oscillator. A full harmonicbalance analysis of the oscillator is first
carrier out, then the phase noise at each specified frequency offset is computed.
Parameter Description
NHARM
Number of harmonics used in the analysis
F1
Set the start and stop frequency limits, i.e.
F1=start stop
Title
Harmonic Balance Oscillator Analysis 147
Example
.HBOSC NHARM=4 F1=500MHz 700MHz FNOI=DEC 10 10MHz 2 PORT=2
HNUM=F1 NOISE=ON
This analysis will first perform the oscillator analysis and search for an oscillatory frequency
between 500MHz and 700MHz. Then, the oscillator noise analysis will commence and the noise
Parameter Description
OSCFSTEP
Fractional frequency step used
to sweep between the start and
stop frequencies (default 0.02)
FSWPNUM
Number of frequencies to used
to search between start and
stop frequencies
OSCVEXT
Magnitude of excitation applied
to oscillator circuit (default
10mV)
NHARM
Number of harmonics used in the
analysis
F1
Set the start and stop frequency
limits, i.e. F1=start stop
FNOI
Specifies the offset frequencies
from the fundamental for the
noise spectrum. Can use a general
sweep specification.
PORT
Output port of the noise
calculation (default is port 1)
HNUM
Harmonic of the noise calculation
(default is F1)
NOISE
Turns oscillator noise analysis
ON or OFF (default is OFF)
Title
148 Harmonic Balance Oscillator Analysis
power will be computed at port 2, harmonic F1 between 10Hz and 100MHz using 2 frequency
points per decade.
To Set Up a 1Tone Oscillator Analysis
1. On the menu bar, click Circuit and then click Add Solution Setup:
2. When the Solution Setup dialog box appears, select Harmonic Balance Oscillator in the
Analysis Type list.
3. In Solution Setup, type an Analysis Name (or accept the default name, for example,
“HBOSC1Tone1”). Make sure that 1Tone is selected in the Category list.
4. For most simulations, leave Perform Analysis selected (the default selection). But depending
on the requirements for a particular project, clearing this box lets you create and store multiple
solution setups for later use. (Note that if this feature is used, any changes made to the project
will invalidate the simulation results.)
5. Click Next, and the Harmonic Balance Oscillator Analysis, 1Tone dialog box appears.
Select Enable Oscillator Design Analysis.
6. In the No. of Harmonics box, enter an appropriate integer value (required). The higher the
number of harmonics, the more accurate the results, but the analysis takes longer to complete.
For more information, see Harmonic Balance Analysis in the online help topics.
7. Specify the Oscillator Search Range (required): In the Start and Stop boxes, type the appro
priate frequencies, and make sure that the appropriate units (GHz, MHz, kHz) are selected.
8. Select either of the following: Enable Noise Spectrum Calculations or Use SolutionPath
Tracing. These are either/or selections, depending on the requirements of a particular project.
For more information see Oscillator Noise Analysis (next section) or SolutionPath Tracing (in
the online help topics).
9. To customize the analysis (for example, to override Verbose mode), click Solution Options.
When the Solution Options dialog box appears, make the appropriate selections, click OK,
and return to the Harmonic Balance Oscillator Analysis, 1Tone dialog box. For more infor
mation, see Solution Options in the online help topics.
10. To set up an advanced sweep option (for example, to sweep a circuit parameter or a bias
source), see Harmonic Balance Sweeps and Advanced Sweep Options in the online help top
ics.
11. Run the simulation: On the menu bar, click Circuit and then click Start Analysis. If the circuit
was set up correctly, the analysis begins immediately and a red progress bar appears. (If the
analysis is not successful, check the Message Window for an explanation, and then take cor
rective action.)
12. To display results: On the menu bar, click Circuit and then click Create Report. For more
information, see Generating Reports and PostProcessing in the online help topics.
Oscillator Noise Analysis
The oscillator noise analysis option computes the noise spectral power at a discrete set of frequen
cies offset from the carrier (or harmonics of the carrier). The typical application is to simulate phase
Title
Harmonic Balance Oscillator Analysis 149
noise and amplitude noise of an oscillator. First a full harmonicbalance analysis of the oscillator is
done, and then the phase noise at each specified frequencyoffset is computed. For additional infor
mation on noise spectral power, see Harmonic Balance, 1Tone in the online help topics.
Parameters
Example
.HBOSC NHARM=4 F1=500MHz 700MHz FNOI=DEC 10 10MHz 2 PORT=2
HNUM=F1 NOISE=ON
This analysis will first perform the oscillator analysis and search for an oscillatory frequency
between 500MHz and 700MHz. Then, the oscillator noise analysis will commence and the noise
power will be computed at port 2, harmonic F1 between 10Hz and 100MHz using 2 frequency
points per decade.
Stability Analysis and SolutionPath Tracing
This is an optional setting in the Harmonic Balance Analysis, 1Tone dialog box. For additional
explanation, see SolutionPath Tracing in the online help topics.
Parameter Description
NHARM
Number of harmonics used in the
analysis
F1
Set the start and stop frequency
limits, i.e. F1=start stop
FNOI
Specifies the offset frequencies
from the fundamental for the noise
spectrum. Can use a general sweep
specification.
PORT
Output port of the noise
calculation (default is port 1)
HNUM
Harmonic of the noise calculation
(default is F1)
NOISE
Turns oscillator noise analysis ON
or OFF (default is OFF)
Title
1410 Harmonic Balance Oscillator Analysis
Netlist Syntax and Parameters for 1Tone HB Analysis
Netlist Example
.HB NHARM=16 F1=1GHz
The analysis contains 16 harmonics of the fundamental at 10GHz, plus DC. The frequency spec
trum used is {0, 1GHz, 2GHz, 3GHz, ... 16GHz}.
Parameters Description Default Comments
NHARM
Number of
harmonics to
use in the
analysis
Required
The number of
harmonics excluding
DC. A DC analysis of
the circuit is indicated
by a value of 0.
F1
Frequency of
the fundamental
tone in the
analysis
Required
Title
Harmonic Balance Oscillator Analysis 1411
HBOSC, 2Tone, Mixer
Oscillator Analysis as Part of 2Tone Mixer Analysis
The oscillator can determine the frequency of F1 in a twotone analysis. In this case, the twotone
mixer spectrum is used. The oscillator will perform as the LO and a RF source can be used for F2,
or at any harmonic component. The effect of the finite power of any source will be computed. For
example, in mixer compression analysis, the large RF source may shift the oscillator frequency if
the isolation between the RF and the LO is low. This analysis can be used for complete oscillator
mixer systems or for the special case of selfoscillating mixers where the RF signal is injected
directly into the oscillating device. Parameters:
Example
VSIN 1 0 V=0.01 HNUM=F2
.HBOSC NLO=4 NSB=1 F1=500MHz 700MHz F2=800MHz
This analysis will first perform a singletone oscillator analysis, searching for the oscillation
between 500MHz and 700MHz. The second tone will then be introduced and the oscillator problem
(using a full twotone analysis) will be solved. The oscillator frequency and power characteristics
may change depending on the effects of the RF source in the circuit.
To Set Up a 2Tone Oscillator, Mixer Analysis
1. On the menu bar, click Circuit and then click Add Solution Setup:
2. When the Solution Setup dialog box appears, select Harmonic Balance Oscillator in the
Analysis Type list.
3. In Solution Setup, type an Analysis Name (or accept the default name, for example,
“HBOSC2Tone2”). Select 2Tone Mixer Intermodulation Spectrum in the Category list.
4. For most simulations, leave Perform Analysis selected (the default selection). But depending
on the requirements for a particular project, clearing this box lets you create and store multiple
solution setups for later use. (Note that if this feature is used, any changes made to the project
Parameter Description
NLO
Number of LO harmonics used in the analysis
NSB
Number of RF sidebands used in the analysis
F1
Set the start and stop frequency limits, i.e.
F1=start stop
F2
Set the fundamental frequency for the RF tone
Title
1412 Harmonic Balance Oscillator Analysis
will invalidate the simulation results.)
5. Click Next, and the Harmonic Balance Oscillator Analysis, 2Tone, Mixer Spectrum dia
log box appears. Select Enable Oscillator Design Analysis.
6. In the No. of LO Harmonics and No. of RF Sidebands boxes, enter appropriate integer val
ues (both required). The higher the number of harmonics, the more accurate the results, but the
analysis takes longer to complete. For more information, see Harmonic Balance Analysis in
the online help topics.
7. Specify the Oscillator Search Range (required): In the Start and Stop boxes, type the appro
priate frequencies, and make sure that the appropriate units (GHz, MHz, kHz) are selected.
8. Select either of the following: SmallSignal Mixer Analysis or Use SolutionPath Tracing.
These are either/or selections, depending on the requirements of a particular project. For more
information see SolutionPath Tracing and SmallSignal Mixer Analysis in the online help top
ics.
9. Specify F2: To enter the sweep parameters for frequency F2 (required) do either of the follow
ing:
• In the Harmonic BalanceOscillator Analysis, 2Tone, Mixer Spectrum dialog box,
under Name and Sweep Value, click the blank area near F2: Type the sweep parameters
and netlist syntax directly into the text box, and click Finish. Or,
• Click Add, and the Add/Edit Sweep dialog box appears: In the Variable list, make sure
that F2 is selected (default selection). Select Single Value, type the frequency in the
Value text box, and make sure that the appropriate units (GHz, MHz, kHz) are selected.
Click Add, and then click OK to close the Add/Edit Sweep dialog box. When Harmonic
Balance Oscillator Analysis, 2Tone, Mixer Spectrum dialog box reappears, click Fin
ish.
10. To customize the analysis (for example, to override Verbose mode), click Solution Options.
When the Solution Options dialog box appears, make the appropriate selections, click OK,
and return to the Harmonic Balance Oscillator Analysis, 2Tone, Mixer Spectrum dialog
box. Click Finish. For more information, see Solution Options in the online help topics.
11. To set up an advanced sweep option (for example, to sweep a circuit parameter or a bias
source), see Harmonic Balance Sweeps and Advanced Sweep Options in the online help top
ics.
12. Run the simulation: On the menu bar, click Circuit and then click Start Analysis. If the circuit
was set up correctly, the analysis begins immediately and a red progress bar appears. (If the
analysis is not successful, check the Message Window for an explanation, and then take cor
rective action.)
13. To display results: On the menu bar, click Circuit and then click Create Report. For more
information, see Generating Reports and PostProcessing in the online help topics.
Title
Harmonic Balance Oscillator Analysis 1413
Netlist Syntax and Parameters
Netlist Example
DownConverter Example:
VSIN 1 0 V=1.0V HNUM=F1; 1V LO source at F1
VSIN 2 0 V=0.1V HNUM=F2; 0.1V RF source at F2
.HB NLO=8 NSB=1 F1=1.00GHz F2=1.05GHz
The analysis will use 8 harmonics of the LO and 1 RF sideband. The LO frequency is 1GHz using
harmonic number F1, the RF frequency is 1.05GHz using harmonic number F2, and the IF fre
quency is 50MHz at harmonic number F2F1.
UpConverter Example:
VSIN 1 0 V=1.0 HNUM=F1; 1V LO source at F1
VSIN 2 0 V=0.2 HNUM=F2F1; 0.2V modulation source at F2F2
Parameter Description Default Comments
NLO
Number of
LO
harmonics to
use in the
analysis
Increasing the number of LO harmonics
improves the accuracy of the simulation
at the expense of computation time. For
nonswitching mixers, NLO is typically
set between 4 and 8. For switchmode
For mixers or mixers that are driven far
into saturation, 8 to 16 harmonics may be
needed.
NSB
Number of
RF sidebands
If the RF source is small compared to the
LO, the number of sidebands can be set to
1 (default). Many upconverter cases have
a largesignal modulation source, in
which case NSB may be increased to 2 or
3. When analyzing mixer compression by
the RF source, NSB can also be increased
to 2 or 3 for improved accuracy.
F1
Frequency of
tone 1 in the
analysis
required
F2
Frequency of
tone 2 in the
analysis
required
Title
1414 Harmonic Balance Oscillator Analysis
(50MHz)
.HB NLO=8 NSB=2 F1=1.00GHz F2=1.05GHz
The analysis will use 8 harmonics of the LO and 2 RF sidebands. The LO frequency is 1GHz at F1,
the upconverted RF signal will emerge at 1.05GHz at F2, and the modulation signal is 50MHz at
F2F1. Note there will also be an upconverted RF signal at 0.95GHz (2*F1F2).
Subharmonic Down Converter Example:
VSIN 1 0 V=1.0 HNUM=F1; 1V LO source at F1
VSIN 2 0 V=0.01 HNUM=F1+F2; 0.01V RF source at 2*F1+? = F1+F2; ?
= F2F1
.HB NLO=8 NSB=1 F1=1.00GHz F2=1.05GHz
This example is mixing the RF signal at 2.05GHz with the LO at 1GHz. The 2nd harmonic of the
LO is used to mix with the RF to produce an IF at 50MHz. Note that the fundamental frequencies
F1 & F2 are chosen for a regular mixer and the RF signal is applied at the appropriate harmonic, i.e.
2.05GHz = 2*F1+? = F1 + F2 where ? is F2−F1. The analysis takes place with 8 LO harmonics and
1 RF sideband.
Title
Harmonic Balance Oscillator Analysis 1415
HBOSC, 2Tone, Intermod
Oscillator Analysis as Part of 2Tone Intermodulation Analysis
The oscillator can determine the frequency of F1 in a twotone analysis. In this case, the twotone
intermodulation spectrum is used. A RF source can be used for F2, or at any harmonic component.
The effect of the finite power of any source will be computed, e.g. any pulling effects on the oscil
lator.
Example
VSIN 1 0 V=0.01 HNUM=F2
.HBOSC INTM=3 F1=500MHz 700MHz F2=800MHz
This analysis will first perform a singletone oscillator analysis, searching for the oscillation
between 500MHz and 700MHz. The second tone will then be introduced and the oscillator problem
(using a full twotone analysis) will be solved. The oscillator frequency and power characteristics
may change depending on the effects of the RF source in the circuit.
To Set Up a 2Tone Oscillator, Intermod Analysis
1. On the menu bar, click Circuit and then click Add Solution Setup:
2. When the Solution Setup dialog box appears, select Harmonic Balance Oscillator in the
Analysis Type list.
3. In Solution Setup, type an Analysis Name (or accept the default name, for example,
“HBOSC3Tone2”). Make sure that 2Tone Intermodulation Spectrum is selected in the Cat
egory list.
4. For most simulations, leave Perform Analysis selected (the default selection). But depending
on the requirements for a particular project, clearing this box lets you create and store multiple
solution setups for later use. (Note that if this feature is used, any changes made to the project
will invalidate the simulation results.)
5. Click Next, and the Harmonic Balance Oscillator Analysis, 2Tone, Intermodulation Spec
Parameter Description
INTM
Intermodulation order used in the
analysis
F1
Set the start and stop frequency
limits, i.e. F1=start stop
F2
Set the fundamental frequency for
the second tone
Title
1416 Harmonic Balance Oscillator Analysis
trum dialog box appears. Select Enable Oscillator Design Analysis.
6. In the No. of Harmonics box, enter the appropriate integer value (required). The higher the
number of harmonics, the more accurate the results, but the analysis takes longer to complete.
For more information, see Harmonic Balance Analysis in the online help topics.
7. Specify the Oscillator Search Range (required): In the Start and Stop boxes, type the appro
priate frequencies, and make sure that the appropriate units (GHz, MHz, kHz) are selected.
8. You can also select Use SolutionPath Tracing. This is an optional selection, depending on
the requirements of a particular project. For more information see SolutionPath Tracing in the
online help topics.
9. Specify F2: To enter the sweep parameters for frequency F2, (required) do either of the fol
lowing:
• In the Harmonic Balance Oscillator Analysis, 2Tone, Intermodulation Spectrum dia
log box, under Name and Sweep Value, click the blank area near F2: Type the sweep
parameters and netlist syntax directly into the text box, and click Finish. Or,
• Click Add, and the Add/Edit Sweep dialog box appears: In the Variable list, make sure
that F2 is selected (default selection). Select Single Value, type the frequency in the
Value text box, and make sure that the appropriate units (GHz, MHz, kHz) are selected.
Click Add, and then click OK to close the Add/Edit Sweep dialog box. When Harmonic
Balance Oscillator Analysis, 2Tone, Intermodulation Spectrum dialog box reappears,
click Finish.
10. To customize the analysis (for example, to override Verbose mode), click Solution Options.
When the Solution Options dialog box appears, make the appropriate selections, click OK,
and return to the Harmonic Balance Oscillator Analysis, 2Tone, Intermodulation Spec
trum dialog box. For more information, see Solution Options in the online help topics.
11. To set up an advanced sweep option (for example, to sweep a circuit parameter or a bias
source), see Harmonic Balance Sweeps and Advanced Sweep Options in the online help top
ics.
12. Run the simulation: On the menu bar, click Circuit and then click Start Analysis. If the circuit
was set up correctly, the analysis begins immediately and a red progress bar appears. (If the
analysis is not successful, check the Message Window for an explanation, and then take cor
rective action.)
13. To display results: On the menu bar, click Circuit and then click Create Report. For more
information, see Generating Reports and PostProcessing in the online help topics.
Title
Harmonic Balance Oscillator Analysis 1417
Netlist Syntax and Parameters
Netlist Example
VSIN 1 0 V=1.0 HNUM=F1
VSIN 2 0 V=1.0 HNUM=F2
.HB INTM=3 F1=1.00GHz F2=1.01GHz
The analysis will contain 13 harmonics, including DC. The frequency spectrum used is {0,
0.01GHz,0.99GHz, 1.00GHz, 1.01GHz, 1.02GHz, 2.00GHz, 2.01GHz, 2.02GHz, 3.00GHz,
3.01GHz, 3.02GHz, 3.03GHz}. The intermodulation frequencies for this example are 2*F1−F2 =
0.99GHz and 2*F2F1 = 1.02GHz.
Parameter Description Default Comments
INTM
Order of
intermodulati
on distortion
to calculate
in the
analysis
3
INTM is usually set to 3 for thirdorder
intermodulation calculations and
calculation of IP3. Similarly, set INTM to
5 for fifth order intermod, 7 for seventh
order, etc. The higher the order, the more
frequency components are considered and
the longer the calculation time.
F1
Frequency of
tone 1 in the
analysis
Required
F2
Frequency of
tone 2 in the
analysis
Required
Title
1418 Harmonic Balance Oscillator Analysis
HBOSC, 3Tone, Intermod
Oscillator Analysis as Part of 3Tone Intermodulation Analysis
The oscillator can determine the frequency of F1 in a threetone analysis. In this case, the three
tone intermodulation spectrum is used. A RF source can be used for F2 and F3, or at any harmonic
component. The effect of the finite power of any source will be computed, e.g. any pulling effects
on the oscillator.
Example:
VSIN 2 1 V=0.01 HNUM=F2
VSIN 1 0 V=0.01 HNUM=F3
.HBOSC INTM=3 F1=500MHz 700MHz F2=800MHz F3=801MHz
This analysis will first perform a singletone oscillator analysis, searching for the oscillation
between 500MHz and 700MHz. The second and third tones will then be introduced and the oscilla
tor problem (using a full threetone analysis) will be solved. The oscillator frequency and power
characteristics may change depending on the effects of the RF sources in the circuit.
To Set Up a 3Tone Oscillator, Intermod Analysis
1. On the menu bar, click Circuit and then click Add Solution Setup:
2. When the Solution Setup dialog box appears, select Harmonic Balance Oscillator in the
Analysis Type list.
3. In Solution Setup, type an Analysis Name (or accept the default name, for example,
“HBOSC3Tone2”). Make sure that 3Tone Intermodulation Spectrum is selected in the Cat
egory list.
4. For most simulations, leave Perform Analysis selected (the default selection). But depending
Parameter Description
INTM
Intermodulation order used in the
analysis
F1
Set the start and stop frequency
limits, i.e. F1=start stop
F2
Set the fundamental frequency for
the second tone
F3
Set the fundamental frequency for
the third tone
Title
Harmonic Balance Oscillator Analysis 1419
on the requirements for a particular project, clearing this box lets you create and store multiple
solution setups for later use. (Note that if this feature is used, any changes made to the project
will invalidate the simulation results.)
5. Click Next, and the Harmonic Balance Oscillator Analysis, 3Tone, Intermodulation Spec
trum dialog box appears. Select Enable Oscillator Design Analysis.
6. In the No. of Harmonics box, enter the appropriate integer value (required). The higher the
number of harmonics, the more accurate the results, but the analysis takes longer to complete.
For more information, see Harmonic Balance Analysis in the online help topics.
7. Specify the Oscillator Search Range (required): In the Start and Stop boxes, type the appro
priate frequencies, and make sure that the appropriate units (GHz, MHz, kHz) are selected.
8. You can also select Use SolutionPath Tracing. This is an optional selection, depending on
the requirements of a particular project. For more information see SolutionPath Tracing in the
online help topics.
9. Specify F2 and F3: To enter the sweep parameters for frequency F2, and F3 (both required) do
either of the following:
• In the Harmonic Balance Oscillator Analysis, 3Tone, Intermodulation Spectrum dia
log box, under Name and Sweep Value, click the blank area near F2: Type the sweep
parameters and netlist syntax directly into the text box. Follow the same procecdure for
F3, and click Finish. Or,
• Click Add, and the Add/Edit Sweep dialog box appears: In the Variable list, make sure
that F2 is selected (default selection). Select Single Value, type the frequency in the
Value text box, and make sure that the appropriate units (GHz, MHz, kHz) are selected.
Follow the same procedure for F3, click Add, and then click OK to close the Add/Edit
Sweep dialog box. When Harmonic Balance Oscillator Analysis, 3Tone, Intermodu
lation Spectrum dialog box reappears, click Finish.
10. To customize the analysis (for example, to override Verbose mode), click Solution Options.
When the Solution Options dialog box appears, make the appropriate selections, click OK,
and return to the Harmonic Balance Oscillator Analysis, 3Tone, Intermodulation Spec
trum dialog box. For more information, see Solution Options in the online help topics.
11. To set up an advanced sweep option (for example, to sweep a circuit parameter or a bias
source), see Harmonic Balance Sweeps and Advanced Sweep Options in the online help top
ics.
12. Run the simulation: On the menu bar, click Circuit and then click Start Analysis. If the circuit
was set up correctly, the analysis begins immediately and a red progress bar appears. (If the
analysis is not successful, check the Message Window for an explanation, and then take cor
rective action.)
To display results: On the menu bar, click Circuit and then click Create Report. For more informa
tion, see Generating Reports and PostProcessing in the online help topics.
Title
1420 Harmonic Balance Oscillator Analysis
Netlist Syntax and Parameters
Netlist Example
VSIN 1 0 V=1.0 HNUM=F1
VSIN 2 0 V=1.0 HNUM=F2
VSIN 3 0 V=1.0 HNUM=F3
.HB INTM=3 F1=1.00GHz F2=1.01GHz F3=1.011GHz
The analysis uses 1.00GHz, 1.01GHz and 1.011GHz for the fundamental frequencies. Note that the
difference chosen between F2 and F1 is 10MHz and the difference between F3 and F2 is 1MHz.
These differences should not be chosen as equal because intermodulation products will then fall on
the same frequencies. It is generally better to separate the differences, even by a small amount, so
that the harmonic number of the intermodulation product can be determined.
Parameter Description Default Comments
INTM
INTM is usually set
to 3 for thirdorder
intermodulation
calculations, 5 for
fifth order, etc.
The higher the
order, the more
frequency
components are
considered and the
longer the
calculation time
Required
F1
Frequency of tone 1
in the analysis
Required
F2
Frequency of tone 2
in the analysis
Required
F3
Frequency of tone 2
in the analysis
Required
Title
Harmonic Balance Oscillator Analysis 1421
HBOSC, 3Tone, Mixer Intermod
Oscillator Analysis as Part of 3Tone Mixer Intermodulation Analysis
The oscillator can determine the frequency of F1 in a threetone analysis. In this case, the three
tone mixer spectrum is used. The oscillator will perform as the LO and RF sources can be used for
F2 and F3, or at any harmonic component. The effect of the finite power of any source will be com
puted. This analysis can be used to compute mixer intermodulation distortion of complete oscilla
tormixer systems or for the special case of selfoscillating mixers where the RF signals are injected
directly into the oscillating device.
Example:
Parameter Description
INTM
Intermodulation order used in the
analysis
F1
Set the start and stop frequency
limits, i.e. F1=start stop
F2
Set the fundamental frequency for
the second tone
F3
Set the fundamental frequency for
the third tone
NLO
Number of LO harmonics used in
the analysis
INTM
Intermodulation order used in the
analysis
F1
Set the start and stop frequency
limits, i.e. F1=start stop
F2
Set the fundamental frequency for
the first RF tone (tone 2)
F3
Set the fundamental frequency for
the second RF tone (tone 3)
Title
1422 Harmonic Balance Oscillator Analysis
VSIN 2 1 V=0.01 HNUM=F2
VSIN 1 0 V=0.01 HNUM=F3
.HBOSC NLO=4 NSB=1 F1=500MHz 700MHz F2=800MHz F3=801MHz
This analysis will first perform a singletone oscillator analysis, searching for the oscillation
between 500MHz and 700MHz. The second and third tones will then be introduced and the oscilla
tor problem (using a full threetone analysis) will be solved. The oscillator frequency and power
characteristics may change depending on the effects of the RF sources in the circuit.
To Set Up a 3Tone Oscillator, Mixer Intermod Analysis
1. On the menu bar, click Circuit and then click Add Solution Setup:
2. When the Solution Setup dialog box appears, select Harmonic Balance Oscillator in the
Analysis Type list.
3. In Solution Setup, type an Analysis Name (or accept the default name, for example,
“HBOSC3Tone2”). Make sure that 3Tone, Mixer Intermodulation Spectrum is selected in
the Category list.
4. For most simulations, leave Perform Analysis selected (the default selection). But depending
on the requirements for a particular project, clearing this box lets you create and store multiple
solution setups for later use. (Note that if this feature is used, any changes made to the project
will invalidate the simulation results.)
5. Click Next, and the Harmonic Balance Oscillator Analysis, 3Tone, Mixer Intermodula
tion Spectrum dialog box appears. Select Enable Oscillator Design Analysis.
6. In the No. of Harmonics box, enter the appropriate integer value (required). The higher the
number of harmonics, the more accurate the results, but the analysis takes longer to complete.
For more information, see Harmonic Balance Analysis in the online help topics.
7. Specify the Oscillator Search Range (required): In the Start and Stop boxes, type the appro
priate frequencies, and make sure that the appropriate units (GHz, MHz, kHz) are selected.
8. You can also select Use SolutionPath Tracing. This is an optional selection, depending on
the requirements of a particular project. For more information see SolutionPath Tracing in the
online help topics.
9. Specify F2 and F3: To enter the sweep parameters for frequency F2, and F3 (both required) do
either of the following:
• In the Harmonic Balance Oscillator Analysis, 3Tone, Mixer Intermodulation Spec
trum dialog box, under Name and Sweep Value, click the blank area near F2: Type the
sweep parameters and netlist syntax directly into the text box. Follow the same procecdure
for F3, and click Finish. Or,
• Click Add, and the Add/Edit Sweep dialog box appears: In the Variable list, make sure
that F2 is selected (default selection). Select Single Value, type the frequency in the
Value text box, and make sure that the appropriate units (GHz, MHz, kHz) are selected.
Follow the same procedure for F3, click Add, and then click OK to close the Add/Edit
Sweep dialog box. When Harmonic Balance Oscillator Analysis, 3Tone, Mixer Inter
modulation Spectrum dialog box reappears, click Finish.
Title
Harmonic Balance Oscillator Analysis 1423
10. To customize the analysis (for example, to override Verbose mode), click Solution Options.
When the Solution Options dialog box appears, make the appropriate selections, click OK,
and return to the Harmonic Balance Oscillator Analysis, 2Tone, Intermodulation Spec
trum dialog box. For more information, see Solution Options in the online help topics.
11. To set up an advanced sweep option (for example, to sweep a circuit parameter or a bias
source), see Harmonic Balance Sweeps and Advanced Sweep Options in the online help top
ics.
12. Run the simulation: On the menu bar, click Circuit and then click Start Analysis. If the circuit
was set up correctly, the analysis begins immediately and a red progress bar appears. (If the
analysis is not successful, check the Message Window for an explanation, and then take cor
rective action.)
To display results: On the menu bar, click Circuit and then click Create Report. For more informa
tion, see Generating Reports and PostProcessing in the online help topics.
Title
1424 Harmonic Balance Oscillator Analysis
Netlist Syntax and Parameters
Netlist Example
VSIN 1 0 V=1.0 HNUM=F1; LO signal
VSIN 2 3 V=0.01 HNUM=F2; RF1 signal
VSIN 3 0 V=0.01 HNUM=F3; RF2 signal
.HB NLO=4 INTM=3 F1=1.00GHz F2=1.01GHz F3=1.011GHz
The LO at 1.00GHz will be analyzed with 4 harmonics and the spectrum will be set up for third
order intermodulation distortion at baseband. The two RF signals at 1.01GHz and 1.011GHz will
Parameter Description Default Comments
NLO
Number of LO
harmonics to use in
the analysis
required
Increasing the number of LO harmonics
improves the accuracy of the simulation
at the expense of
computation time. For nonswitching
mixers, NLO is typically set between 4
and 8. For switchmode
mixers or mixers that are driven far into
saturation, 8 to 16 harmonics may be
needed.
INTM
Order of
intermodulation
distortion to
calculate in the
analysis
required
For thirdorder intermodulation, INTM is
set to 3; for fifth order, it is set to 5, etc.
The number of frequency components
used in the analysis increases rapidly as
NLO or INTM are
increased, and the corresponding memory
and computation time increases. See the
Nonlinear Analysis
Chapter for details.
F1
Frequency of tone 1
in the analysis
required
F2
Frequency of tone 2
in the analysis
required
F3
Frequency of tone 2
in the analysis
required
Title
Harmonic Balance Oscillator Analysis 1425
mix down to IF1 at 10MHz and IF2 at 11MHz. The intermodulation products will be at 9MHz and
12MHz.
The corresponding harmonic numbers are given (Similar principles apply for the upconverter and
subharmonic mixer cases as described the earlier 2tone HB Mixer Analysis):
LO 1.00GHz F1
RF1 1.01GHz F2
RF2 F3 1.011GHz
IF1 10MHz F2F1
IF2 11MHz F3F1
IM1 9MHz 2IF1IF2 = F1+2*F2F3
IM2 12MHz 2IF2IF1 = F1F2+2*F3
Title
1426 Harmonic Balance Oscillator Analysis
Harmonic Balance Sweeps
Swept Frequency Analysis
To sweep the frequency of either F1 or F2, one or more sweep specifications can be applied to F1
and/or F2. The program will sort the frequencies into a monotonic list. Direction of the sweep spec
ification will be preserved only if one specification is used. For example:
.HBSSMIX NLO=8 F1=LIN 1GHZ 2GHZ 100MHZ F2=2.1GHZ
will sweep the LO frequency from 1GHz to 2GHz in steps of 100MHz. The IF frequency will
sweep from 1.1GHz to 0.1GHz. It is important not to let F1 and F2 be the same frequency.
To keep a constant IF, sweep both F1 and F2 (by default they will be swept together):
.HBSSMIX NLO=8 F1=LIN 1GHZ 2GHZ 100MHZ F2=LIN 1.1GHZ 2.1GHZ
100MHZ
will keep the IF constant at 100MHZ. An alternative specification to keep the difference between
F1 and F2 a constant 100MHz is the FDEV keyword:
.HBSSMIX NLO=8 F1=LIN 1GHZ 2GHZ 100MHZ F2=FDEV 100MHZ
Swept Source Analysis
To sweep DC or RF sources, the anaSwpSpec specification is used. Voltage, current and power
sources may be swept. The sweep is specified in the .HBSSMIX analysis statement and the source
to be swept references a source parameter. For example:
.PARAM P1 = 0dBm
PORTP 1 0 PNUM=1 P1={P1} HNUM1=F1
.HBSSMIX NLO=8 F1=1GHz F2=1.1GHz P1=LIN 0dBm 10dBm 1dB
will sweep the power source from 0dBm to 10dBm in steps of 1dB. Note that P1 is a parameter and
must be enclosed in curly braces.
Sweeping Frequencies and Sources
Both frequency and RF or DC sources can be swept in a HBSSMIX analysis.
SmallSignal Mixer Analysis 151
15
SmallSignal Mixer Analysis
Title
152 SmallSignal Mixer Analysis
Overview
Smallsignal mixer analysis treats the RF (or modulation) signal as a smallsignal and computes the
desired frequency converted IF (or sideband) signal. The circuit is first computed with the LO sig
nal applied using a 1tone harmonicbalance analysis, and then the desired frequency converted sig
nal is computed using smallsignal frequency conversion techniques.
The advantage to using smallsignal mixer analysis comes from the speed of the analysis. Since the
RF signal power is neglected, the harmonicbalance analysis is performed using only the single
tone LO. This analysis is much faster than twotone analysis. The program then computes the spec
ified conversion gain using linear frequency conversion methods, resultin in a fast analysis time as
compared to full 2tone analysis.
The desired frequency component and port of the output signal must be specified prior to analysis.
Also, the smallsignal analysis assumes that the RF signal is small enough not to affect the operat
ing regime. In other words, the RF signal power should be much smaller than the LO (at least 10 dB
for a lossy mixer, or 20  30 dB for a high gain mixer). This criteria is easily satisfied for most
mixer applications, but when the RF signal power is comparable to the LO (or when you wish to
determine the compression characteristics of the mixer) full harmonicbalance analysis is needed as
shown in the next section.
Parameters:
Increasing the number of LO harmonics increases the accuracy of the analysis at the expense of
longer computation times and larger memory requirements. The typical number of LO harmonics
to use is 4 to 8 for nonswitching mixers and 8 to 16 for switching mixers.
The default values of the parameters IFPORT, IFHNUM, RFPORT and RFHNUM are for a mixer
in the configuration:
• RF applied to port 1 at frequency F2
• LO applied to port 2 at frequency F1
• IF extracted from port 3 at frequency F2F1
NLO Number of LO harmonics to use in the
analysis
IFPORT Port number of the desired IF signal
IFHNUM Harmonic number of the desired IF
signal
RFPORT Port number of the applied RF signal
RFHNUM Harmonic number of the applied RF
signal
Title
SmallSignal Mixer Analysis 153
For other configurations, modify the appropriate parameters as needed.
On output, the conversion gain of the mixer can be extracted using the CG keyword. For the
default configuration, CG31<F2F1,F2> will yield the conversion gain (for output in dB use the
DB() function).
DownConverter Example:
PORTP 1 0 PNUM = 1 P1 = 30dBm HNUM1 = F2;RF source
PORTP 2 0 PNUM = 2 P1 = 10dBm HNUM1 = F1;LO source
PORT 3 0 PNUM = 3;IF load
.HBSSMIX NLO=8 F1=1GHZ F2=900MHZ IFPORT=3 IFHNUM=F2F1
RFPORT=1 RFHNUM=F2
The analysis uses the default configuration (the IF and RF port and hnum information is given for
clarity) and will compute the conversion gain of the RF signal injected at port 1 frequency con
verted to the IF signal (100MHz = F2  F1) at the IF load at port 3. At the output display, the CG
response is used to view the conversion gain. In this case CG31<F2F1,F2> is the proper function.
General Form for Small Signal Mixer Analysis (.HBSSMIX)
.HBSSMIX[:name]
+NLO = integer [NSB = integer]
+F1 = swpDef F2 = swpDef
+[anaSwpDef]
+ [IFPORT = integer] [RFPORT = integer]
+ [IFHNUM = HarmSpec] [RFHNUM = HarmSpec]
+ [ NOISE = boolean ] [SWPORD = {anaSwpOrderDef}]
Parameter Description Default Comments
NLO NSB
Number of LO harmonics
Number of sidebands
NSB = 1
Specifying a nonunity
value for NSB will not
affect results.
F1, F2
Fundamental Frequencies
(LO & RF)
anaSwpDef
Define swept parameters
none
IFPORT
IF port number
3
IFHNUM
Harmonic number for IF
F2F1
RFPORT
RF port number
1
RFHNUM
Harmonic number for RF
F2
Title
154 SmallSignal Mixer Analysis
Notes
1. Parameter keyword values in the .HBSSMIX command may be expressions or parameters, but
must be evaluated prior to analysis. Therefore they cannot be dependent on analysis variables
(e.g. F).
2. If a value is assigned by a parameter and the parameter is being swept, the value used will only
be the one assigned by the original value of the parameter and the sweep values will be
ignored.
Example:
.HBSSMIX:1 NLO=8 F1=LIN 1GHz 2GHz 50MHz F2=FDEV 100MHz
+ IFPORT=3 IFHNUM=F1+F2 RFPORT=2 RFHNUM=F2 NOISE=ON
Special Output for .HBSSMIX
Since a special frequency conversion analysis is being performed, not all regular harmonicbalance
circuit responses are available on output. Although HBSSMIX is similar to 2tone analysis, the 2
tone harmonic numbers are only used for the conversion gain (CG) and noise figure (NF) response
keywords. All other circuit responses use 1tone harmonic numbers.
Special Keywords Available for .HBSSMIX
NOISE
Toggles mixer noise
analysis
OFF
SWPORD
Defines ordered sweep
TBD
1st entry defines
innermost loop
CGij<Fn, Fm> Conversion Gain from input port j,
harmonic Fm to output port i,
harmonic Fn. Fn and Fm represent
frequencies, e.g. F1, F2F1. CG output
is available by default when an HBSSMIX
analysis is performed.
NFij<Fn, Fm> Noise Figure from input port j, harmonic Fm
to output port i, harmonic Fn. NF output is
available when noise is turned on for a
HBSSMIX analysis (see below).
Title
SmallSignal Mixer Analysis 155
Other circuit responses are available only for the LO signal, e.g. a power spectrum will only show
harmonics of the LO. Responses such as PO2<F1> only use 1tone harmonic numbers.
Title
156 SmallSignal Mixer Analysis
LoadPull Analysis161
16
LoadPull Analysis
Loadpull analysis uses an impedance sampling method to present at a port or a PTUNER element.
The impedance samples can cover the entire Smith chart, or be limited to a desired sector . Load
pull analysis varies a selected harmonic impedance of one tuner; the impedances of other tuners are
kept constant. An HB simulation is performed at each sampling point to solve for the circuit
responses. Upon completion of the analysis, constant contour curves can be generated for any user
defined performance measure. Loadpull analysis can be applied to single or multitone circuits,
amplifiers, mixers, oscillators, etc.
The loadpull analysis requires a minimum of four items (shown in the diagram):
• A .LOADPULL statement
• An HB analysis statement to define the desired analysis
• A .TUNER that defines harmonic tuner impedances
• A port or PTUNER element that defines where the tuner will be applied in the circuit (see
LoadPull Analysis162
PTUNER section, later in this topic)
Note that there may be multiple port or PTUNER elements that reference a single .TUNER, in
which case the impedances of those elements will be tuned simultaneously. It is the .TUNER that is
actually sampled during the loadpull simulation. For additional information on load pull analysis,
see TUNER, PTUNER, and PORT in the online help topics.
To Set Up a Load Pull Analysis
1. On the menu bar, click Circuit and then click Add Solution Setup: The Solution Setup dia
log box appears, and select Load Pull Analysis in the Analysis Type list.
2. Type an Analysis Name (or accept the default name, for example, “Loadpull1”).
3. For most simulations, leave Perform Analysis selected (the default setting). But depending on
the requirements for a particular project, clearing this box lets you create and store multiple
solution setups for later use. (Note that if this feature is used, any changes made to the project
will invalidate the simulation results.)
LoadPull Analysis163
4. Click Next, and the Load Pull Analysis dialog box appears.
5. Select a Tuner from the list. There are two types of tuners available for loadpull simulation:
Ideal and DoubleSlug. For additional details, see Specify Tuner for Load Pull in the online
help topics.
6. (for additional setup details, see Specify Tuner for Load Pull in the online help topics).
7. In the HB Analysis to Apply list, make the appropriate selection (for additional setup details,
see Harmonic Balance Analysis in the online help topics).
8. In the Harmonic/ Harmonic Cluster to Tune box, make the appropriate selection (for addi
tional details, see Harmonic Cluster in the next section).
9. To specify ZRho and ZAngle (magnitude and angle of complex impedance) do either of the
following:
• In the Load Pull Analysis dialog box, under Name and Sweep Value, click the blank area
near ZRho: Type the sweep parameters and netlist syntax directly into the text box. Fol
low the same procedure for ZAngle and click Finish. Or,
• Click Add, and the Add/Edit Sweep dialog box appears: In the Variable list, make sure
that ZRho is selected (default selection). Select Single Value, type the magnitude of the
complex impedance. Follow the same procedure for ZAngle, click Add, and then click
OK to close the Add/Edit Sweep dialog box. When the Load Pull Analysis dialog box
reappears, click Finish.
10. To set up an advanced sweep option (for example, to sweep a circuit parameter or a bias
source), see Advanced Sweep Options in the online help topics.
11. Run the simulation: On the menu bar, click Circuit and then click Start Analysis. If the circuit
was set up correctly, the analysis begins immediately and a red progress bar appears. (If the
analysis is not successful, check the Message Window for an explanation, and then take cor
rective action.)
12. To display results: On the menu bar, click Circuit and then click Create Report. For more
information, see Generating Reports and PostProcessing in the online help topics.
Netlist Form
.LOADPULL[:name]
+TUNER = name [CLUSTER = integer]
+[ZRHO = swpDef ] [ZANG = swpDef ]
+ SIMREF = simCommand
LoadPull Analysis164
Netlist Parameters
Netlist Example
.LOADPULL:1 TUNER=tuner1 RHO=ESTP 0.1 0.9 20 ANG=ESTP 0 300 40
+ CLUSTER=1 SIMREF=HB:1
Harmonic Cluster
A harmonic cluster is defined as the cluster of spectral components surrounding a particular har
monic in multitone analysis. The frequency of a harmonic cluster is defined as the average value of
all the spectral components falling in the same harmonic cluster. If necessary, this frequency will be
used to evaluate the harmonic impedance of the selected tuner in the loadpull simulation.
Parameter Description Default Comments
TUNER Tuner used for load pull simulation. It
must be defined in the .TUNER
statement
required
CLUSTER Harmonic cluster which the tuner apply
to (range: 0  9)
1 0 only applies to
multitone analysis
RHO Magnitude of the sample impedance,
the range for start and stop is 01 and
the range for number of divisions is 1 –
99
0.10.9
with 10
divisions
ANG Angle of the sample impedance, the
range for start and stop is 0359 and the
range for number of divisions is 199
0352
with 20
divisions
SIMREF Reference to the Harmonic Balance
simulation command. Its value can be
one of the following:
HB:name
HBOSC:name
HBSSMIX:name
HBOSCSSMIX:name
required
defines the type of
analysis used in the
loadpull simulation
LoadPull Analysis165
For example, in two tone intermodulation analysis with the highest intermodulation order is 5 and
F2 > F1:
Harmonic Impedances
Real world tuners are limited by their ability to control impedances at frequencies besides the fun
damental. In the implementation of loadpull simulation, arbitrary impedance values can be set to
any harmonic cluster using the ideal tuners. This will allow designers to separate the tuning of the
fundamental with the impedance presented to a harmonic. For the ultimate control, it is conceivable
that the impedance presented to each spectral components should be determined by the user, but
this presented an unwarranted burden. Rather, we will assume that the frequency separation of the
fundamental tones is small and therefore presenting the same impedance to each harmonic cluster
is justified.
PTUNER Component
Netlist form:
PTUNER:xxx n1 n2 TUNER=tuner_name
Netlist Example:
PTUNER:1 n1 n2 TUNER=tuner1
Harmonic Cluster Spectral Components
0
th
F2F1, 2F22F1
1
st
F1, F2, 2F1F2, 3F12F2, 2F2F1, 3F22F1
2
nd
2F1, 2F2, F1+F2, 3F1F2, 3F2F1
3
rd
3F1, 3F2, 2F1+F2, 2F2+F1, 4F1F2, 4F2F1
4
th
4F1, 4F2, 2F1+2F2, 3F1+F2, 3F2+F1
5
th
5F1, 5F2, 2F1+3F2, 2F2+3F1, 4F1+F2, 4F2+F1
Parameter Description Default
TUNER The name of the
referenced tuner
(.TUNER)
Required
LoadPull Analysis166
The PTUNER element can be used as a harmonic impedance connected to any place in the circuit.
Its harmonic impedance values are controlled by the referenced tuner. It is used primarily for load
pull analysis, but can also be used to insert arbitrary harmonic impedances in a circuit.
Specify Tuner for Load Pull
LoadPull Analysis167
Specify Tuner for Load Pull
There are two types of tuners available for loadpull simulation:
• Ideal Tuner
• DoubleSlug Tuner
The ideal tuner presents arbitrary (passive) impedances at any harmonic cluster (see .LOADPULL
for the definition of harmonic clusters) so that fundamental and harmonics can be tuned indepen
dently. The doubleslug tuner mimics a mechanical tuner that is often used for lab measurements.
While the fundamental or harmonic impedance can be controlled using a doubleslug tuner, the
impedances at other harmonic components are determined by the equivalent circuit of the tuner.
The doubleslug tuner allows better comparison to actual bench measurements.
The .TUNER must be referenced by a port of a PTUNER element in order to take effect during the
simulation. For .LOADPULL simulation, only one tuner may be reference by .LOADPULL to per
form the harmonic impedance sampling function.
For additional information, see Load Pull Analysis, PTUNER, and PORT in the online help topics.
Netlist Form
.TUNER name tunerType (tuner parameter list)
Ideal Tuner, RealImaginary Form
The ideal tuner is configured as a variable impedance device at the tuned harmonic cluster. Its
impedance is configured as follows:
where i and k refer to harmonic cluster indices. The tuner is configured so any passive impedance
can be realized. At the tuned frequency cluster, the impedance will be determined by the sampled
impedance point on the Smith chart. At other harmonic frequency clusters, the impedance will be
determined by usersupplied impedances. The tuner parameters are:
Tuned Frequency Cluster R
i
+ jX
i
Untuned Frequency Clusters R
k
+ jX
k
, k≠i
Parameter Description Default
RDEF Default resistance value
for the impedances of all
clusters
inf.
Specify Tuner for Load Pull
LoadPull Analysis168
The impedances at all clusters > 9 assume the default value specified by RDEF and XDEF.
In order to obtain a uniform sampling of points, the impedance of the tuned frequency cluster,
Z=R
i
+jX
i
, is mapped to a reflection coefficient using the reference impedance Z
r
=RR+jXR and the
mapping equation
XDEF Default reactance value
for the impedances of all
clusters
inf.
RDC DC Resistance of Tuner inf.
R0 Resistance at baseband
cluster (for multitone
analysis)
RDEF
X0 Reactance at baseband
cluster
XDEF
R1 Resistance at
fundamental cluster
RDEF
X1 Reactance at
fundamental cluster
XDEF
R2 Resistance at 2
nd
harmonic cluster
RDEF
X2 Reactance at 2
nd
harmonic cluster
XDEF
R9 Resistance at 9
th
harmonic cluster
RDEF
X9 Reactance at 9
th
harmonic cluster
XDEF
RR Reference resistance 50.0
XR Reference reactance 0.0
Γ =
+
Z Z
Z Z
r
r
−
Specify Tuner for Load Pull
LoadPull Analysis169
Note that Γ is the reflection coefficient of the tuner only. The impedance sampling is transferred to
two swept parameters in the .LOADPULL analysis: the magnitude of Γ from 0 to 1 and the angle of
Γ from 0 to 360 degrees.
Netlist form
.TUNER tuner_name IDEAL([RDC=dval] [RDEF=dval] [XDEF=dval]
+ [R0=dval] [X0=dval] [R1=dval] [X1=dval] [R2=dval] [X2=dval]
+ [R3=dval] [X3=dval] [R4=dval] [X4=dval] [R5=dval] [X5=dval]
+ [R6=dval] [X6=dval] [R7=dval] [X7=dval] [R8=dval] [X8=dval]
+ [R9=dval] [X9=dval] [RR=dval] [XR=dval])
Netlist Example
.TUNER tuner1 IDEAL(RDC=0 R0=50 X0=10 R2=50 X2=10)
Ideal Tuner, MagnitudeAngle Form
A tuner can also directly specify Γ using magnitudeangle form using the IDEALA tuner whose
parameters are
Parameter Description Default
PDEF Default radius for the
reflection coefficient of
all clusters
1.0
ADEF Default angle for the
reflection coefficient of
all clusters
0
RDC DC Resistance of Tuner inf.
P0 Magnitude of Γ at the
baseband cluster (for
multitone analysis)
PDEF
A0 Angle of Γ at the
baseband cluster (for
multitone analysis)
ADEF
P1 Magnitude of Γ at the
fundamental cluster
PDEF
A1 Angle of Γ at the
fundamental cluster
ADEF
P2 Magnitude of Γ at the
2
nd
harmonic cluster
PDEF
A2 Angle of Γ at the 2
nd
harmonic cluster
ADEF
:
Netlist Form
.TUNER tuner_name IDEALA([RDC=dval] [PDEF=dval] [ADEF=dval]
+ [P0=dval] [A0=dval] [P1=dval] [A1=dval] [P2=dval] [A2=dval]
+ [P3=dval] [A3=dval] [P4=dval] [A4=dval] [P5=dval] [A5=dval]
+ [P6=dval] [A6=dval] [P7=dval] [A7=dval] [P8=dval] [A8=dval]
+ [P9=dval] [A9=dval] [RR=dval] [XR=dval])
Netlist Example
.TUNER tuner1 IDEALA(RDC=50 PDEF=0.9 ADEF=30 P0=0.5 A0=45
P2=0.6
+ A2=75 P3=0.8 A3=250 P4=0.9 A4=300)
DoubleSlug Tuner
The doubleslug tuner mimics the common industry implementation of mechanical tuners. The
tuner is realized by a double (lossless) slug. All fundamental and harmonic impedances are deter
P9 Magnitude of Γ at the
9
th
harmonic cluster
PDEF
A9 Angle of Γ at the 9
th
harmonic cluster
ADEF
RR Reference resistance 50.0
XR Reference reactance 0.0
Specify Tuner for Load Pull
LoadPull Analysis1611
mined by the slug configuration and are not individually controllable. The tuner is nominally con
figured as:
where Z
0
and Z
S
are the characteristic impedances of the corresponding transmission lines. The
parameters for the doubleslug tuner are
The default values for L1, L2, L3 and L4 are corresponding to a quarter wavelength of a waveform
of 3GHz frequency.
For the doubleslug tuner being tuned, L1 and L3 are adjusted to obtain the harmonic impedances
of the selected cluster specified by the loadpull simulation with all other parameters being fixed at
the values supplied by the user. Then, the L1 and L3 values obtained are used in the evaluation of
the harmonic impedances of other clusters. This means that only the harmonic impedance at the
selected cluster can be arbitrarily set and the harmonic impedances of other clusters are evaluated
using the values of L1 and L3 obtained.
Parameter Description Default
RZS Real part of the characteristic
impedance Z
S
10
IZS Imaginary part of the characteristic
impedance Z
S
0
RZ0 Real part of the characteristic
impedance Z
0
50
IZ0 Imaginary part of the characteristic
impedance Z
0
0
L1 Length of the transmission line TRL1 25mm
L2 Length of the transmission line TRL2 25mm
L3 Length of the transmission line TRL3 25mm
L4 Length of the transmission line TRL4 25mm
RZC Real part of the reference impedance
Z
C
50.0
IZC Imaginary part of the reference
impedance Z
C
0.0
Specify Tuner for Load Pull
LoadPull Analysis1612
For other doubleslug tuners not being tuned, their harmonic impedances are calculated using the
parameter values specified by the user.
When the doubleslug tuner is connected to a port or referenced by a PTUNER element, the param
eter values of Z
0,
Z
S
, L2 and L4 together with the port impedance or the reference impedance of the
PTUNER element restrict the tuning range of the tuning harmonic impedance. The maximum tun
ing range is internally computed and the tuning values outside the range are skipped. Normally the
values of L2 and L4 are identical.
Netlist Form
.TUNER tuner_name DBSLUG([RZS=dval] [IZS=dval] [RZ0=dval]
[IZ0=dval]
+ [L1=dval] [L2=dval] [L3=dval] [L4=dval])
Netlist Example
.TUNER tuner1 DBSLUG(RZS=20 RZ0=75 L2=1.e5 L4=1.e6)
DC Nyquist Analysis 171
17
DC Nyquist Analysis
Title
172 DC Nyquist Analysis
HB Stability Analysis Overview
Most electrical engineers working in the microwave circuit design field are familiar with the
steadystate stability criterion commonly referred as the “K” factor for twoports:
where K>1 and B
1
>0 are necessary and sufficient conditions for unconditional stability. However,
there are three shortcomings to the Kfactor:
• It is defined for the steady state where Sparameters are defined. This inhibits detection of
instability due to nonsteady state behavior, such as circuit startup.
• Sparameters are defined only for linear circuits.
• Nonlinear behavior cannot be detected using this approach. As will be shown below, nonlinear
analysis is required for determining the stability portrait of intrinsically nonlinear circuits such
as oscillators. Thirdly, the Kfactor is independent of the port terminations as can be witnessed
by writing K using Z or Y parameters.
Instead, Designer uses the following two analysis methods to determine the stability of an arbitrary
circuit:
DC Nyquist
Stability Analysis
• Determine whether a circuit has a natural fre
quency in the righthalf plane or on the imagi
nary axis  that is, whether the circuit will
oscillate (asynchronous instability)
• Determine the approximate frequency of the
potential oscillation
SolutionPath
Tracing
• Determine circuit behavior such as hysteresis
(characterized by “jumps” in a circuit response)
and abrupt changes in circuit responses
• Analysis of complex circuit behavior that “regu
lar” harmonic balance analysis is unable to
solve. This analysis enables investigation of
complex circuits such as frequency dividers,
injectionlocked oscillators, oscillator dropout
and so on.
K
S S
S S
S S S S
B S S
=
− − +
= −
= + − −
1
2
1
11
2
22
2
2
12 21
11 22 12 21
1 11
2
22
2
2
∆
∆
∆
,
and
Title
DC Nyquist Analysis 173
Netlist Syntax and Parameters (.HBSTABILITY)
Functionality: Perform stability analysis: DC Nyquist, AC Nyquist, SolutionPath Tracing, DC and
AC Hopf Bifurcation Detection.
.HBSTABILITY[:name]
+[NHARM = integer]  INTM = integer  NLO = integer NSB =
integer 
+NLO = integer INTM = integer
+F1 = swpDef [F2 = swpDef] [F3 = swpDef]
+[anaSwpDef]
+TYPE = DCNYQUIST  ACNYQUIST  OSCNYQUIST  OSCTRACE 
+DCOUTTRACE  ACOUTTRACE  DCHOPF  ACHOPF
+[SWPORD = {anaSwpOrderDef}]
Parameter Description Default Comments
NHARM
Number of harmonics for
1tone HB
4
INTM
Intermod order for 2 & 3
tone HB
amplifier case
NLO NSB
Number of LO harmonics
for 2tone
Number of sidebands for 2
tone
mixer case
NLO INTM
Number LO harmonics for
3tone
Intermod order for 3tone
mixer case
F1, F2, F3
Fundamental Frequencies
anaSwpDef
Define swept parameters
none
TYPE
Select the type of stability
analysis to be performed
SWPORD
Defines ordered sweep
TBD
1st entry defines
innermost loop
Title
174 DC Nyquist Analysis
Example
.HBSTABILITY:1 NHARM = 8 F1 = DEC 10Hz 10GHz 9 TYPE=DCNYQUIST
Notes
Parameter keyword values in the .HBSTABILITY command may be expressions or parameters, but
must be evaluated prior to analysis. Therefore they cannot be dependent on analysis variables (for
example. F).
If a value is assigned by a parameter and the parameter is being swept, the value used will only be
the one assigned by the original value of the parameter and the sweep values will be ignored.
Stability Analysis Types Description
DCNYQUIST
Performs a Nyquist analysis at the DC bias point
ACNYQUIST
Performs a Nyquist analysis at the largesignal AC operating point
OSCNYQUIST
Performs a Nyquist analysis at the oscillator AC operating point
OSCTRACE
Performs solutionpath tracing on an oscillator while examining an
AC output response
DCOUTTRACE
Performs solutionpath tracing on a forced circuit while examining
a DC output response
ACOUTTRACE
Performs solutionpath tracing on a forced circuit while examining
an AC output response
DCHOPF
Locates the Hopf bifurcations occurring on the DC solution path.
ACHOPF
Locates the Hopf bifurcations occurring on the AC solution path.
Title
DC Nyquist Analysis 175
DC Nyquist Analysis
DC Nyquist analysis determines if any natural frequencies (system poles) lie in the righthand side
(RHS) of the complex σ+jω plane when the circuit is biased at its DC quiescent point with all AC
sources killed. If there is a natural frequency (NF) on the RHS, the circuit is unstable and will oscil
late. This is called Asynchronous Instability because a new frequency is generated that is not syn
chronized with the excitation. The analysis does not determine the precise location of the NFs, only
the number of complexconjugate NFs. However, the approximate frequency of the NF can also be
found so that the frequency of oscillation can then be determined, if desired, using oscillator analy
sis.
Instabilities in highfrequency circuits are often caused by frequencydependent positive feedback
around an active device. The feedback path may be as simple as parasitic reactance, e.g. in the
source of an FET; coupling between adjacent transmission lines may be the culprit; poorly decou
pled bias lines also contribute to low frequency instabilities. Since the analysis can only provide
information when the circuit is properly described, it is important to fully and accurately model the
circuit. This often means including parasitic effects, coupled trace descriptions, and accurately
defining the oncircuit and external circuit biasing circuit.
If an instability occurs due to the biasing circuit, the NF is often at low frequencies due to the long
electrical length of the complete biasing circuit. It is important, then, to begin the analysis at suffi
ciently low frequencies, e.g. 1MHz or even less. The upper frequency of the analysis should be past
the frequency where the active devices have sufficient gain to oscillate, for example, f
max
.
The frequency step is determined by the analysis as it progresses from the minimum to maximum
frequency. A simple linear or logarithmic sweep is inefficient and may miss critical frequencies.
The computed frequency step is based on the rate of change of the system determinant. This way,
fast changes can be detected and smaller steps are used to capture the detail of the system over a
narrow frequency range while large steps are used when there is little or smooth change in the sys
tem determinant.
The maximum step size can be set by using the third value of linear sweep specification (for exam
ple, LIN 10kHz 10GHz 100MHz will hold the maximum step size to 100MHz). It is recommended
to keep the third value to less than about 1/20
th
of the frequency of circuit operation. If there are
very highQ resonances present in the circuit, then the value should be kept to less than the 3dB
bandwidth of the resonance. If resonances are not known prior to analysis, but are expected, setting
the value to 1/100
th
or 1/200
th
of the frequency of circuit operation is often a safe value.
The output of the DC Nyquist analysis is the normalized determinant of the harmonicbalance sys
tem equations. This output is complex valued and can be plotted on the polar plane or magnitude
angle graph. For electrically small circuits, it is often most instructive to view the polar output. For
complex or electrically large circuits, the polar output can be difficult to discern and it is most use
ful to plot magnitude and cumulative angle CANG(z). Cumulative angle does not include the cut at
±180 degrees.
When a circuit is unstable, it will cross the negative real axis and encircle the origin completely.
This is shown in the Figure 1: DC Nyquist analysis polar plot for an asynchronously stable circuit
Title
176 DC Nyquist Analysis
(A) and an unstable circuit (B). The three crossings of the negative real axis in (B) indicate the
approximate frequencies of where the circuit may oscillate. (B) where the path crosses the negative
real axis three times and completely encircles the origin three times. The frequencies of the cross
ings are shown and these represent three frequencies where the circuit may oscillate. An oscillator
analysis can be run at each frequency, and a solution will be found. However, only one of these fre
quencies is actually a stable oscillating point and this is shown below in AC Nyquist analysis.
(A)
(B)
Figure 1: DC Nyquist analysis polar plot for an asynchronously stable circuit (A) and an unstable
circuit (B). The three crossings of the negative real axis in (B) indicate the approximate frequencies
of where the circuit may oscillate.
8.19GHz
16.9GHz
4.72GHz
Title
DC Nyquist Analysis 177
A
B
Figure 2: Magnitude and cumulative angle for plots of Figure 1: DC Nyquist analysis polar plot for
an asynchronously stable circuit (A) and an unstable circuit (B). The three crossings of the negative
real axis in (B) indicate the approximate frequencies of where the circuit may oscillate..
These plots show the same data from the Figure 1: DC Nyquist analysis polar plot for an asynchro
nously stable circuit (A) and an unstable circuit (B). The three crossings of the negative real axis in
(B) indicate the approximate frequencies of where the circuit may oscillate. in the magnitude and
cumulative angle format. (A) shows that the angle remains between ±180 and does not cross 180
(the negative real axis). (B) shows that the angle crosses 180 and also makes a full encirclement
because it also crosses and remains below 360 degrees. Additionally in (B), the angle crosses 540
and 900 degrees (the negative real axis) and continues to make encirclements of the origin.
Title
178 DC Nyquist Analysis
Notes
1. No harmonic frequency spectrum is used for DC Nyquist analysis, therefore the number of
harmonics does not have to be selected.
2. No sources need be specified unless the analysis is to be performed repeatedly as a DC bias
source is swept.
Example
.HBSTABILITY TYPE=DCNYQUIST F1=LIN 1MHz 20GHz 50MHz
This analysis will perform a DC Nyquist analysis from 1MHz to 20GHz using a maximum step size
of 50MHz. As needed, the analysis will adjust the step to capture any required detail.
Parameter Description
F1
Specifies the frequency range to sweep.
The maximum frequency step is set by
the third value of a LIN sweep.
TYPE
set to DCNYQUIST for DC Nyquist analysis
SWPORD
can be used to define multiple analyses as a
circuit parameter is swept
Title
DC Nyquist Analysis 179
Solution Path Tracing
Some nonlinear circuits exhibit complex behavior as a circuit parameter is swept. For example, a
parametric frequency divider only begins generating a subharmonic spur at f/2 when a certain input
power is reached. The observed sudden change in circuit behavior when the critical power level is
reached is a bifurcation of the circuit operation (bifurcation is a mathematical term used to describe
the sudden change of behavior when a critical parameter value is traversed). Several types of high
frequency circuits that exhibit this type of complex behavior are:
• Freerunning oscillators
• Injectionlocked oscillators
• Parametric frequency dividers and multipliers
• Certain types of mixers
The type of change in behavior of these circuits is characterized as synchronous because the fre
quencies within the circuit are the same as the applied source frequency or are harmonically related
to it. Therefore, the output frequency is synchronous with the input frequency. This description may
appear inconsistent in the oscillator case, but this case can be understood by recognizing that addi
tional frequencies do not appear once the circuit is already oscillating, whereas in the DC Nyquist
analysis of asynchronous instability, the circuit was in the stable DC bias point.
In general, it is good practice to perform a synchronous stability analysis on any circuit to ensure
there are not any unforeseen behavioral problems in the circuit design.
Fundamentals
Solution path tracing uses harmonicbalance analysis to trace a locus of solution points to deter
mine bifurcations of a circuit operating condition. Mathematically, a bifurcation takes place when
the natural frequencies of a circuit exchange sign on their real parts, or when the solution path splits
into two or more distinct curves. From a circuit designer’s point of view, these bifurcations are
characterized by the following:
• Change from a stable DC operating point to an oscillatory regime (e.g. oscillator startup)
• Hysteresis in a physically observable circuit response (e.g. frequency divider output power)
• Physical observation of a subset of computed operating regimes (e.g. multiple oscillator fre
quencies from the DC Nyquist analysis example)
Two important concepts in the determination of synchronous stability are derived from differential
equation theory. The first is simply stated: the stability of two points on the solution path curve of a
nonlinear function is the same if there is no bifurcation point between the two points.
The second concept helps determine the stability when crossing a bifurcation point and can be sum
marized as follows:
• Stability is exchanged at a turning point bifurcation.
• Stability is maintained at a critical point on the new solution path in the same direction of the
parameter.
Title
1710 DC Nyquist Analysis
So if we can absolutely determine the synchronous stability of one point on the solution path, then
we can determine the stability of any point on the path if the bifurcations are known. Consider Fig
ure 3: Consideration of a circuit response Pout as a function of applied DC bias E. where the circuit
response P
out
is plotted as a function of a bias source E in the absence of any RF excitation. From
purely physical considerations, point A is physically stable because it is at rest without any excita
tion and no observable output. Point H1 is a Hopf bifurcation point indicating the startup of an
oscillator. Points B and C are turning points.
Figure 3: Consideration of a circuit response P
out
as a function of applied DC bias E.
When a circuit exhibits a characteristic as shown in Figure 3: Consideration of a circuit response
Pout as a function of applied DC bias E., the physically observable behavior does not include the
unstable path BC. A hysteresis curve is then observed where the output jumps from B to b for
increasing E and from C to c for decreasing E.
A real circuit example of such behavior is shown in Figure 4: Injectionlocked oscillator analysis
parameterized by transistor bias. The circuit used to generate this response is an injectionlocked
oscillator and the parameter is the transistor bias voltage. The interpretation of the result can be
summarized as follows:
• The analysis begins at 25V where an oscillatory solution exists.
• The analysis decreases the bias voltage until it comes to turning point T2 where stability is
exchanged.
• The bias voltage is automatically increased until point T1 is reached where stability is again
exchanged.
• The bias voltage is automatically decreased until the Hopf bifurcation is reached at about 2V
where oscillation ceases (but stability is maintained).
• The analysis ends at 0V where we know we have a stable solution.
+
E
P
out
z
z
A
B
0
z
z
C
D
E
Pout
b
c
z
H1
Title
DC Nyquist Analysis 1711
Therefore the branch from 0V to T1 is stable, the branch from T1 to T2 is unstable, and the branch
from T2 to 25V is stable.
Figure 4: Injectionlocked oscillator analysis parameterized by transistor bias.
The physical observation on the test bench would be a sudden “jump” in the output power when T1
is reached or T2 is reached, depending on whether the bias is increased or decreased:
Increasing bias from 0V, when T1 is reached at 19V, the output power jumps from 22mW to 10mW
Decreasing bias from 25V, when T2 is reached at 3V, the output power jumps from 3mW to 24mW
Thus a hysteresis loop is formed.
Source Stepping
Sweeping a source in solution path tracing serves two purposes:
Detection of turning points
Completing the path to a known stable point
The swept source can be either an RF source or a DC source. The use of an RF source can be for
detection of frequency divider action, for example. A DC source can be used for oscillator bias tun
ing (as in Figure 4: Injectionlocked oscillator analysis parameterized by transistor bias.) or to
sweep the bias point of a circuit to zero to reach a known stable state.
When the increment size is given for a source in a sweep, the increment defines the largest step that
can be taken by the analysis. The analysis automatically controls the increment size and direction to
achieve a smooth trace around turning and bifurcation points. The largest step will be limited by the
increment given.
To sweep DC or RF sources, the anaSwpDef specification is used. Voltage, current and power
sources may be swept. The sweep is specified in the .HBSTABILITY analysis statement and the
source to be swept references the source variable. For example:
.PARAM V1 = 0
VSIN 1 0 V={V1} FNUM=F1
.HBSTABILITY NHARM=8 F1=1GHz V1=LIN 10.0 0.0 0.1
z
z
T1
T2
Title
1712 DC Nyquist Analysis
will sweep the voltage source from 10V to 0V using a maximum step size of 0.1V. Note that V1 is
a parameter and must be enclosed in curly braces. An example of a swept power source at a port is:
.PARAM P1 = 100mW
PORTP 1 0 PNUM=1 P1={P1} HNUM1=F1
.HBSTABILITY NHARM=8 F1=1GHz P1=LIN 100mW 0mW 2mW
will sweep the power source at port 1 from 100mW to 0mW using a maximum step of 2mW.
Frequency Stepping
Sweeping frequency for solution path tracing is useful when a turning point or bifurcation point
occurs with a change in frequency. Since frequency is a controlled variable, this analysis is only
useful for forced circuits and is not useful for oscillator circuits. For example, the frequency lock
ing range of an injectionlocked oscillator can be determined using this analysis ( note that an injec
tionlocked oscillator is a forced circuit and is not freerunning).
When the increment size is given for a frequency sweep, the increment defines the largest step that
can be taken by the analysis. The analysis automatically controls the frequency step size and direc
tion to achieve a smooth trace around turning and bifurcation points. The largest step will be lim
ited by the increment given.
To sweep frequency, set the F1 parameter in the .HBSTABILITY statement (or F2 or F3 for multi
tone sweep analysis). For example:
.HBSTABILITY NHARM=8 F1=LIN 6GHz 6.1GHz 2MHz
will sweep from 6GHz to 6.1GHz using a maximum step size of 2MHz. In cases where turning
points are encountered, the direction is often changed and the analysis will control the step size and
direction. It may be the case that the final frequency cannot be achieved, so the analysis will con
tinue until the maximum number of allowed steps is reached as given by the MAXNSTEP parame
ter in the .OPTIONS statement.
For example, for the same injectionlocked oscillator used in Figure 4: Injectionlocked oscillator
analysis parameterized by transistor bias., the power is held fixed and the frequency is swept from
6GHz to an initial target of 6.1GHz, as shown in Figure 5: Injectionlocked oscillator analysis
parameterized by frequency.. The turning point T1 is encountered at 6.037GHz and the direction of
the sweep is automatically changed. The frequency is decreased until turning point T2 is reached at
5.96GHz and again the direction is automatically changed. The frequency is then increased and the
sweep stops when the maximum number of steps (MAXNSTEP) is reached.
Title
DC Nyquist Analysis 1713
Figure 5: Injectionlocked oscillator analysis parameterized by frequency.
Tracing ForcedCircuit Responses
When performing solution path tracing on a forced circuit, either DC circuit response output or AC
circuit response output can be examined. These correspond to two categories in the TYPE parame
ter of .HBSTABILITY:
As shown above, most circuits are first examined for their AC characteristics, e.g. output power,
and the ACOUTTRACE option is then used. This analysis will find turning points and bifurcations.
To determine the synchronous stability of a circuit, a procedure is followed where:
Starting from an AC solution point, decrease the AC source(s) until zero and note any turning or
bifurcation points. Use the ACOUTTRACE option during this step and examine an AC output (e.g.
output power)
Decrease the DC bias source(s) until zero where a known stable point exists. Use the DCOUT
TRACE option during this step and examine a DC output (e.g. bias current).
DCOUTTRACE Perform solutionpath tracing on
a forced circuit while examining
a DC output response
ACOUTTRACE Perform solutionpath tracing on
a forced circuit while examining
an AC output response
Title
1714 DC Nyquist Analysis
Note any exchanges of stability as turning points were encountered. As discussed in section Funda
mentals, an exchange is made if the direction of the solution path is reversed around a turning point
(i.e. the slope becomes infinite at the turning point).
The stability of the operating point is then determined by noting the stability of the branch on which
the operating point resides.
For example, Figure 6: Injectionlocked oscillator solution path shows the injectionlocked oscilla
tor solution path parameterized by bias using the ACOUTTRACE option.
Figure 6: Injectionlocked oscillator solution path
Point A is a bifurcation from zero output power to finite output power. Since the branch from zero
to A is unidirectional (not shown here), it is asynchronously stable.
Branch AT1 represents a stable path.
A turning point occurs at T1 and the direction is reversed. Therefore an exchange of stability
occurs.
Branch T1T2 is unstable.
A turning point occurs at T2 and the direction is reversed. Therefore an exchange of stability
occurs.
Branch T2B is stable.
Tracing Oscillator Responses
Transient Analysis181
18
Transient Analysis
During transient analysis, frequencydomain results from nonlinearnetwork analysis (.HB) are
transformed into the time domain via the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), which presents informa
tion about network parameters in the time domain. Then a convolution technique uses the impulse
responses to calculate a transient response. The way to set up a transient analysis, and the environ
ment variables that control the analysis and its convolution, are presented in the following sections.
To Set Up a Transient Analysis
1. On the menu bar, click Circuit and then click Add Solution Setup: The Solution Setup dia
log box appears, and select Transient Analysis in the Analysis Type list.
2. Type an Analysis Name (or accept the default name, for example, “Transient1”).
3. For most simulations, leave Perform Analysis selected (the default setting). But depending on
the requirements for a particular project, clearing this box lets you create and store multiple
solution setups for later use. (Note that if this feature is used, any changes made to the project
will invalidate the simulation results.)
4. Click Next, and the Transient Analysis dialog box appears.
5. In the Length of Analysis box, type the time duration for the simulation (the time increment
for reporting transient simulation result). In the Maximum Time Step Allowed box, type the
time increment to be used for analysis. Make sure that the appropriate units (for example, ns)
are selected for each parameter.
6. Enter the No. of Sample Points per Maximum Time Step
7. To customize the analysis (for example, to set the maximum interations at any time point),
click Solution Options. When the Solution Options dialog box appears, make the appropriate
selections, click OK, and return to the Transient Analysis dialog box. (For more information,
see Solution Options in the online help topics.)
8. To set up an advanced sweep option (for example, to sweep a circuit parameter or a bias
source), see Advanced Sweep Options in the online help topics.
Transient Analysis182
9. Run the simulation: On the menu bar, click Circuit and then click Start Analysis. If the circuit
was set up correctly, the analysis begins immediately and a red progress bar appears. (If the
analysis is not successful, check the Message Window for an explanation, and then take cor
rective action.)
10. To display results: On the menu bar, click Circuit and then click Create Report. For more
information, see Generating Reports and PostProcessing in the online help topics.
Netlist Form (.TRAN)
.TRAN:name TSTEP=cval TSTOP=cval TSTART=cval TMAX=cval
+ SAMPLESTEP=cval UIC=[ON  OFF]
+ [anaSwpDef]
+ [SWPORD = {anaSwpOrderDef}] [OPTION=name]
Parameter Description Default Comments
TSTEP the time increment
for reporting
transient
simulation results
Only applied to data
table and .print
TSTOP final analysis time
TSTART start time to report
the analysis results
Only applied to data
table and print
TMAX maximum step size
used during
analysis
SAMPLESTEP time increment for
convolution
analysis
UIC use initial
conditions
specified in the
element or a .IC
statement.
OFF For more information,
see next section
OPTION name of a
.OPTIONS
statement
Transient Initial Conditions
Transient Analysis183
Transient Initial Conditions
Netlist Form
.IC voltageAssignmentList
voltageAssignementList := voltageAssignement
[voltageAssignmentList]
voltageAssignment := V([cktPath.]nodeName ) = voltageVal
Notes
1. The .IC statement has two different effects depending on whether the value of the UIC key
word in the .TRAN statement:
• If the UIC keyword is ON, then the initial conditions specified in the .IC statement are
used to establish the initial conditions. Initial conditions specified for individual elements
using the IC parameter on the element line will always have precedence over those speci
fied in a .IC statement.No DC analysis is preformed prior to a transient analysis. Thus it is
important to establish the initial conditions at all nodes using the .IC statement or using the
IC element parameter.
• If the UIC keyword is OFF or not specified, then a DC analysis is performed prior to a
transient analysis. During the DC analysis the node voltages indicated in the .IC statement
are held constant at the initial condition values. During transient analysis the nodes are not
constrained to the initial condition values.
2. In addition to using .IC, initial conditions can be individually set for the semiconductor
devices, capacitors, inductors, and other components that have the IC keyword.
Analysis Control
The following environment variables determine analysis control.
Parameter Description Default Comments
cktPath Hierarchical
circuit path
Defined above
nodeName Name of a node String
voltageVal Value to assign
to the node
voltage
Real
Convolution Control
Transient Analysis184
Maximum Time Step Allowed
Maximum Time Step Allowed defines the largest time step allowed during simulation. In most
cases, you do not need to set the maximum time step, because Designer uses an adaptivetimestep
method. During transient analysis, Designer automatically detects all break points, and the time
step is adjusted accordingly. As a result, the timestep value changes during simulation in
accordance with the nature of the circuit.
In some instances, you may need to set the maximum time step in order to achieve a smooth and
accurate result. One instance is when circuits have sinusoidal sources, since there is no inherent
break point. It is recommended that you set the maximum time step to a value that is at least half
the shortest anticipated rise or fall time.
Length of Analysis
The Length of Analysis variable defines the total time of analysis.
Convolution Control
The following environment variables determine convolution control.
Maximum Sampling Frequency
Maximum Sampling Frequency is defined by 1 / (2 * Maximum Time Step Allowed). In order to
satisfy the Nyquist sampling theorem, the corresponding timedomain sampling step is defined by 1
/ (2 * Maximum Sampling Frequency).
Delta Frequency
Delta Frequency is defined by 1 / Length of Analysis. The corresponding timedomain sampling
length is defined by 1 / Delta Frequency.
Default Values
The default “maximum sampling frequency” is 50 GHz, and the default “delta frequency” is
50MHz. Either, or both, of these values can be overridden to achieve higher accuracy for a given
circuit. The number of samples in the frequency domain is N = MaximumSamplingFrequency /
DeltaFrequency. The default value of N is 1000. The value of N must be less than the value of
MaxNFSampling, as set in the Transient Solution Options dialog.
An Example
Elements described in the frequency domain (Nport, CAPQ, INDQ, Sparameters, distributed
elements) are calculated using a convolution technique:
1. Linear network analysis calculates frequency domain response
2. InverseFFT uses the frequency response to obtain impulse response
3. Convolution uses the impulse response to calculate transient response
Theoretically, in order for the convolution technique to obtain correct results, the sampling range
should be set to infinity. However, this is not necessary during a practical simulation. But it is
Convolution Control
Transient Analysis185
important to set Maximum Sampling Frequency and Delta Frequency to proper values in
accordance with circuit characteristics.
For example, if Maximum Sampling Frequency is set to 200GHz and Delta Frequency is set to
100MHz. Convolution analysis will calculate the spectral components of the impulse response to
be at a bandwidth of 0200GHz and a resolution of 100 MHz. In this case, the number of frequency
sampling points is 2000 and the number of timesampling points is 4000 (010ns with a step of
2.5ps).
Due to model limitations, however, the Maximum Sampling Frequency for a particular element
may need to be modified. For example, if the MSTRL model is accurate to 30GHz, the maximum
sampling frequency should be set to 30GHz, even though the maximum sampling frequency
defined in the convolution control is higher than 30GHz.
Sweep Options11
1
Sweep Options
A key feature of Designer is the ability to add arbitrary variables for sweeping and analysis. For
example, voltages and currents of bias sources can be swept, and a capacitor value might be swept
in order to generate tuning curves.
Sweeping Circuit Parameters
• An arbitrary circuit variable is defined, added to the Variables list, and then used during cir
cuit analysis and sweeping.
• Note that when a swept parameter assigns a value, only the original value is used (in other
words, the sweep values will be ignored).
• Coupled sweeps and independent sweeps can be sent up to generate ndimensional tuning
curves (for additional explanation of these terms, see the glossary and the netlist examples).
• Note that sweeps are disabled for circuit parameters whose names conflict with predefined
keywords (lin, linc, oct, dec, etc.) and such parameters will not be accessible from the simula
tion setup sweep dialog.
To Set Up a Circuit Analysis Using a Swept Circuit Parameter
1. First, define the new variable to be swept: On the menu bar, click Circuit, and then click
Design Properties. The Properties dialog box appears.
2. In Properties, click the Local Variables tab, and then click Add. The Add Property dia
log box appears. To define the new variable, type its Name, and then type its initial Value
Sweeping Circuit Parameters
Sweep Options12
(which can include a unit; for example, 22.3e12 or 22.3pF):
3. Click OK to close the Add Property dialog box. The Properties dialog box returns:
4. In Properties make sure that the new variable has been added, and check that the Read Only
and Hidden boxes are cleared (these are the default settings; for more details, see Properties
Dialog Box in the Glossary). Click OK, close the Properties dialog box, and the new vari
able is created and ready for use.
5. Assign the new variable to a circuit component: On the menu bar click Window. When the
Window menu appears, click the appropriate schematic. The schematiceditor window
Sweeping Circuit Parameters
Sweep Options13
returns:
6. Doubleclick the component to be swept during analysis, and its Properties dialog box
appears. (In this example, you replace the capacitor’s original value, 20 pF, with the variable
Cx.)
7. In Properties, click the Passed Parameters tab, type the name of the variable in Value,
and then click anywhere outside the Value box. Note that the Override box is automatically
checked (for more details about Override, see the glossary). Click OK to close Properties
and return to the schematic editor.
8. To execute the sweep, first set up an analysis: On the menu bar, click Circuit and then click
Add Solution Setup. The Solution Setup dialog box appears.
Note: For additional information about setting up an analysis, refer to the appropriate topic, for
example, Linear Network Analysis. (To find a help topic, click the menu bar and then click
Help. In the Help menu, click Contents and the Designer Help window appears.)
9. In Solution Setup, select an Analysis Type, make the appropriate selections, and then click
Next. When the second dialog box appears, click Add. The Add/Edit Sweep dialog box
Sweeping Circuit Parameters
Sweep Options14
appears:
10. In Add/Edit Sweep, select the appropriate variable from the Variable list (in this example,
Cx) and then select one of the five options for sweeping: Single value, Linear step, Lin
ear count, Decade count, Octave count, or Exponential count (for definitions of
these terms, see the glossary). Type the appropriate values into the Start, Stop, and Step text
boxes, and make sure that each has the correct units (GHz, MHz, kHz). Click Add, and then
click OK to close the Add/Edit Sweep dialog box. (Later, if necessary, use the Edit and
Remove buttons to make changes or delete a particular sweep.)
11. Run the simulation: On the menu bar, click Circuit, and then click Start Analysis. If the cir
cuit was set up correctly, the analysis begins immediately, and a red progress bar appears. (If
the analysis is not successful, check the Message Manager for an explanation, and then take
corrective action.)
12. To display results: On the menu bar, click Circuit, and then click Create Report. For more
information, see Generating Reports and PostProcessing in the online help topics.
Netlist Syntax and Parameters
.PARAM C1 = 10pF; Set up nominal value
CAP:1 1 0 C={C1}
.NWA:1 F=1GHz C1= LIN 5pF 15pF 1pF SWPORD=(C1); C1 is swept in
this analysis
.NWA:2 F=1GHz; C1 is not swept in this analysis
The .PARAM statement sets up the nominal value of C1 which would be used when C1 is not
swept, as in the NWA:2 analysis.
Coupled sweeps and independent sweeps can be set up in this fashion to generate one or more
dimensional tuning curves. For example, a twodimensional tuning curve can be set up as follows:
.PARAM C1 = 10pF
CAP:1 1 0 C={C1}
.PARAM C2 = 5pF
CAP:2 2 0 C={C2}
Sweeping Bias Sources
Sweep Options15
.NWA:1 F=1GHz C1= LIN 5pF 15pF 1pF C2 = LIN 4pF 6pF 1pF
SWPORD=(C1,C2)
This analysis generates 11 sweep points for C1 and 3 sweep points for C2, resulting in 33 analysis
points. The SWPORD statement indicates that C1 and C2 will be swept independently because they
are separated by a comma.
Sweeping Bias Sources
• An arbitrary circuit variable is defined, added to the Variables dropdown list box, and then
used during circuit analysis and sweeping.
• Note that when a swept parameter assigns a value, only the original value is used (in other
words, the sweep values will be ignored).
• Voltage and current sources can be swept in order to analyze the circuit as a function of a bias
source value (for example, sweeping the bias to show amplifier gain versus frequency as
amplifier bias is swept). The procedure is similar to the sweeping of circuit parameters, except
that the analysis variables are restricted to DC voltage or current sources (note that only a volt
age or current source can be swept, not a power source).
• At each value of the swept bias source, the biaspoint analysis is performed and the circuit is
linearized about the bias point. After analysis, the typical circuit responses and DC data are
available at each bias point.
• Coupled sweeps and independent sweeps can be set up to generate ndimensional tuning
curves (for additional explanation of these terms, see glossary and the netlist examples).
To Set Up a Circuit Analysis Using a Swept Bias Source
1. First, you must define the new variable to be swept: On the menu bar, click Circuit and then
click Design Properties. The Properties dialog box appears.
2. In Properties, click the Local Variables tab, and then click Add. The Add Property dia
log box appears. To define the new variable, type its Name and then type its initial Value
(which must include a number and units (for example, 1V):
Sweeping Bias Sources
Sweep Options16
3. Click OK to close the Add Property dialog box. The Properties dialog box returns.
4. In Properties, make sure that the new variable has been added, and check that the Read
Only and Hidden boxes are cleared (these are the default setting; for more details, see Prop
erties Dialog Box in the glossary). Click OK to close the Properties dialog box. The new
variable is created and ready for use.
5. Now assign the variable to a circuit component: On the menu bar, click Window. When the
submenu appears, click the appropriate schematic and the schematic editor window returns:
Sweeping Bias Sources
Sweep Options17
6. Double click the voltage source to be swept, and the Source Selection dialog box appears. (In
this example, you assign the variable VOLTx to the voltage source.)
7. In Source Selection, click the Parameters tab, type the name of the variable in Value,
and then click anywhere outside the Value box. Click OK to close Properties and return to
the schematic editor.
8. To execute the sweep, first set up an analysis: On the menu bar, click Circuit and then click
Add Solution Setup. The Solution Setup dialog box appears.
Note: For additional information about setting up an analysis, refer to the appropriate topic, for
example, Linear Network Analysis. (To find a help topic, click the menu bar and then click
Help. In the Help menu, click Contents and the Designer Help window appears.)
9. In Solution Setup, select an analysis type, make the appropriate selections, and then click
Next. When the new dialog box appears, click Add, and the Add/Edit Sweep dialog box
Sweeping Bias Sources
Sweep Options18
appears:
10. In Add/Edit Sweep, select the appropriate variable from the Variable list (in this example,
Cx), and then select one of the five options for frequency sweep: Single value, Linear
step, Linear count, Decade count, Octave count, or Exponential count (for defini
tions of these terms, see the glossary). Type the appropriate values into the Start, Stop, and
Step text boxes, and make sure that the correct units appear for each (GHz, MHz, kHz).
Click Add, and then click OK to close the Add/Edit Sweep dialog box. (Later, as necessary,
use the Edit and Remove buttons to make changes or delete a particular sweep.)
11. Run the simulation: On the menu bar, click Circuit and then click Start Analysis. If the circuit
was set up correctly, the analysis begins immediately, and a red progress bar appears. (If the
analysis is not successful, check the Message Window for an explanation, and then take cor
rective action.)
12. To display results: On the menu bar, click Circuit and then click Create Report. For more
information, see Generating Reports and PostProcessing in the online help topics.
Netlist Syntax, Parameters, and Examples
Sweeping one source:
.PARAM V1 = 2V
VDC:1 1 0 V={V1}
.NWA:1 F=LIN 1GHz 10GHz 1GHz V1=LIN 2V 5V 1V
The parameter V1 is swept from 2 to 5 volts in 1 volt steps. At each V1 value, the voltage source
VDC:1 is set to V1 and a biaspoint analysis is performed. Then the frequency analysis proceeds
from 1 GHz to 10 GHz in 1 GHz steps.
Sweeping Multiple Sources
More than one source may be swept at a time. By default, all sources are swept simultaneously (1
D sweep).
.PARAM V1=2V V2=12V V3=0V
Sweeping Bias Sources
Sweep Options19
VDC:1 1 0 V={V1}
VDC:2 2 0 V={V2}
VDC:3 3 0 V={V3}
.NWA:2 F=LIN 1GHz 10GHz 1GHz V1=LIN 2V 5V 1V V2=LIN 12V 15V 1V
+ V3=LIN 0V 5V 1V
Advanced Sweep Options11
1
Advanced Sweep Options
Sweeping Parameters in a Circuit or System Design
Advanced Sweep Options12
One of Designer’s key features is the ability to define variables that can be swept and analyzed. For
example, a capacitor might be swept to generate a set of tuning curves. Or, in the case of a bias
source, its current or voltage can be swept.
The following sections describe how to sweep variables in Designer.
Sweeping Parameters in a Circuit or System Design
• First, you must define a circuit variable, and then assign it to a component in the design. After
the variable is set up in the design, you define its sweep parameters during the solution setup.
• Note that when a swept parameter assigns a value, only the original value is used (in other
words, the sweep values will be ignored).
• Coupled sweeps and independent sweeps can be set up to generate ndimensional tuning
curves.
• The following example assumes that we are working with a circuit design, but the same proce
dure applies to for a system design.
To Set Up a Circuit Analysis
1. On the Circuit menu, click Design Properties. The Properties dialog box appears:
a. Click the Local Variables tab and then click Add. The Add Property dialog box appears.
b. To define the new variable, type its Name (for example, “ Cx”) and then type its initial
Value, which must include a number and units (for example, 22.3pF).
c. Click OK to close the Add Property dialog box.
d. When the Properties dialog box reappears, make sure that the new variable has been
added.
e. Click OK to close the Properties dialog box. The new variable is created and ready for
use.
f. For additional information about adding a local variable, see Defining Local Variables in
Designer Help.
2. Now assign the variable to a circuit component:
a. On the Window menu, click the appropriate schematic.
b. Doubleclick the component to be swept, and its Properties dialog box appears.
Sweeping Parameters in a Circuit or System Design
Advanced Sweep Options13
c. In Properties, make sure that the Parameter Values tab is selected. Locate the appropri
ate parameter, and then enter the newlycreated variable in the Value box.
d. Click OK to close Properties and return to the schematic.
3. Set up an analysis:
a. On the Circuit menu, click Add Solution Setup. The Solution Setup dialog box appears:
a. Select an Analysis Type, make the appropriate selections, and then click Next. When the
second dialog box opens, click Add, and the Add/Edit Sweep dialog box appears:
b. In Add/Edit Sweep, select the appropriate variable from the Variable list, enter the
appropriate sweep parameters, click Add, and then click OK.
c. For additional information about setting up an analysis, refer to the appropriate topic, for
example, see Linear Network Analysis in Designer Help (on the Help menu, click Con
tents and the Designer Help window appears).
4. Run the simulation:
a. On Circuit menu, click Start Analysis. If the circuit is set up correctly, the analysis
begins immediately and a red progress bar appears.
b. If the analysis is not successful, check the Message Window for an explanation, and
then take corrective action.
5. Display the results:
a. On the menu bar, click Circuit and then click Create Report. The Create Report
dialog box appears.
b. When the Traces dialog box appears, make the appropriate selections, click Add
Trace, and then click Done.
c. For more information, see Generating Reports and PostProcessing in Designer
Help.
Netlist Syntax, Parameters, and Examples
• Arbitrary circuit variables can be swept in an analysis to provide tuning curves of a circuit. For
example, to sweep a capacitor value, we can set up an analysis. .PARAM statement sets up the
Sweeping DC and RF Sources
Advanced Sweep Options14
nominal value of C1 which would be used when C1 is not swept, as in the HB:2 analysis:
.PARAM C1 = 10pF; Set up nominal value
CAP:1 1 0 C={C1}
.HB:1 NHARM=8 F1=1GHz C1 = LIN 5pF 15pF 1pF ; C1 is swept in
this analysis
.HB:2 NHARM=8 F1=1GHz; C1 is not swept in this analysis
• Coupled sweeps and independent sweeps can be set up in this fashion to generate one or more
dimensional tuning curves. For example, the following analysis generates a twodimensional
tuning curve. It generates 11 sweep points for C1 and 3 sweep points for C2, resulting in 33
analysis points. (The SWPORD statement indicates that C1 and C2 will be swept indepen
dently because they are separated by a comma.)
.PARAM C1 = 10pF
CAP:1 1 0 C={C1}
*
.PARAM C2 = 5pF
CAP:2 2 0 C={C2}
*
.HB NHARM=8 F1=1GHz C1= LIN 5pF 15pF 1pF C2 = LIN 4pF 6pF
1pF SWPORD={C1,C2}
• The following analysis sweeps P1, F1, and C1 independently, resulting in 6x11x11 = 726 anal
ysis points.
.PARAM C1 = 10pF P1=0dBm
CAP:1 1 0 C={C1}
.HB NHARM=8 F1=LIN 1GHz 2GHz 0.1GHz P1=LIN 0dBm 10dBm 2dB
+ C1= LIN 5pF 15pF 1pF SWPORD={P1, F1, C1}
Sweeping DC and RF Sources
• First, you must define a circuit variable, and then assign it to a DC or RF source in the design.
After the variable is set up in the design, you define its sweep parameters during the solution
setup.
• Voltage and current sources can be swept in order to analyze the circuit as a function of a bias
source value (for example, sweeping the bias to show amplifier gain versus frequency as
amplifier bias is swept).
• The procedure is similar to that for a swept circuit parameter, except that the analysis variables
are restricted to DC voltage or current sources (note that only a voltage or current source can
be swept, not a power source).
Sweeping DC and RF Sources
Advanced Sweep Options15
• At each value of the swept bias source, the biaspoint analysis is performed and the circuit is
linearized about the bias point. After analysis, the typical circuit responses and DC data are
available at each bias point.
• Note that when a swept parameter assigns a value, only the original value is used (in other
words, the sweep values will be ignored).
• Coupled sweeps and independent sweeps can be set up to generate ndimensional tuning
curves.
• The following example assumes that we are working with a circuit design, but the same proce
dure applies to for a system design.
To Set Up a Circuit Analysis Using a Swept Bias Source
1. On the Circuit menu, click Design Properties. The Properties dialog box appears:
a. Click the Local Variables tab and then click Add. The Add Property dialog box appears.
b. To define the new variable, type its Name (for example, “VOLTx”) and then type its ini
tial Value, which must include a number and units ( for example, 1V).
c. Click OK to close the Add Property dialog box.
d. When the Properties dialog box reappears, make sure that the new variable has been
added.
e. Click OK to close the Properties dialog box. The new variable is created and ready for
use.
f. For additional information about adding a local variable, see Defining Local Variables in
Designer Help.
2. Now assign the variable to a source:
a. On the Window menu, click the appropriate schematic.
b. Doubleclick the source to be swept, and its Source Selection dialog box appears.
c. In Source Selection, locate the appropriate parameter, and then enter the new variable in
the Value box.
d. Click OK to close Source Selection and return to the schematic.
3. Set up an analysis:
a. Click Add Solution Setup. The Solution Setup dialog box appears:
Sweeping DC and RF Sources
Advanced Sweep Options16
b. In Solution Setup, select an Analysis Type, make the appropriate selections, and then
click Next. When the second dialog box opens, click Add, and the Add/Edit Sweep dia
log box appears:
c. In Add/Edit Sweep, select the appropriate variable from the Variable list, enter the
appropriate sweep parameters, click Add, and then click OK.
d. For additional information about setting up an analysis, refer to the appropriate topic, for
example, see Linear Network Analysis in Designer Help (on the Help menu, click Con
tents and the Designer Help window appears).
4. Run the simulation:
a. On Circuit menu, click Start Analysis. If the circuit is set up correctly, the analysis
begins immediately and a red progress bar appears.
b. If the analysis is not successful, check the Message Window for an explanation, and
then take corrective action.
5. Display the results:
a. On the menu bar, click Circuit and then click Create Report. The Create Report
dialog box appears.
b. When the Traces dialog box appears, make the appropriate selections, click Add
Trace, and then click Done.
c. For more information, see Generating Reports and PostProcessing in Designer
Help.
Netlist Syntax, Parameters, and Examples
Sweeping One Source in Linear Analysis
• The parameter V1 is swept from 2 to 5 volts in 1 volt steps. At each V1 value, the voltage
source VDC:1 is set to V1 and a biaspoint analysis is performed. Then the frequency analysis
proceeds from 1 GHz to 10 GHz in 1 GHz steps.
Sweeping DC and RF Sources
Advanced Sweep Options17
.PARAM V1 = 2V
VDC:1 1 0 V={V1}
.NWA:1 F=LIN 1GHz 10GHz 1GHz V1=LIN 2V 5V 1V
Sweeping Multiple Sources in Linear Analysis
• More than one source may be swept at a time. By default, all sources are swept simultaneously
(1D sweep).
.PARAM V1=2V V2=12V V3=0V
VDC:1 1 0 V={V1}
VDC:2 2 0 V={V2}
VDC:3 3 0 V={V3}
.NWA:2 F=LIN 1GHz 10GHz 1GHz V1=LIN 2V 5V 1V V2=LIN 12V 15V 1V
+ V3=LIN 0V 5V 1V
Swept Source in Harmonic Balance Analysis
• To sweep DC or RF sources, the SourceSpec specification is used. Voltage, current and power
sources may be swept. The sweep is specified in the .HB analysis statement and the source to
be swept references the appropriate analysis source variable, i.e. VSRCi, ISRCi, or PSRCi
where i is replaced by an integer. For example, the following will sweep the voltage source
from 0.1V to 1.0V in steps of 0.1V. Note that VSRC1 is considered a variable and must be
enclosed in curly braces
VSIN 1 0 V={VSRC1} FNUM=F1
.HB NHARM=8 F1=1GHz VSRC1=LIN 0.0 1.0 0.1
• The following example analyzes a swept power source at a port. It sweeps each power source
at port 1 from 0dBm to 20dBm in steps of 2dB. This is commonly used for intermodulation
distortion calculations.
PORTP 1 0 PNUM=1 P1={PSRC1} HNUM1=F1 P2={PSRC1} HNUM2=F2
.HB INTM=3 F1=1GHz F2=1.01GHz PSRC1=LIN 0dBm 20dBm 2dB
• Source specifications can also be mixed to sweep power and bias independently. For example,
the following analysis sweeps an RF the first power source from 0dBm to 20dBm in steps of
2dB, and sweeps the second RF power source 2 from 10dBm to 10dBm in steps of 2dB.
PORTP 1 0 PNUM=1 P1={PSRC1} HNUM1=F1 P2={PSRC2} HNUM2=F2
.HB NHARM=8 F1=1GHz PSRC1=LIN 0dBm 20dBm 2dB PSRC2=LIN 10dBm
10dBm 2dB
Sweeping Frequencies and Sources
Both frequency and RF or DC sources can be swept in an analysis. By default, the sources will be
swept together as the inner loop of the .HB analysis and will be swept independent of frequency.
Interpretive UserDefined Models281
28
Interpretive UserDefined Models
The Interpretive Userdefined model, or IUDM, lets the user model a nonlinear component.
Available topics:
IUDM Representations
IUDM Syntax
Frequency Weighting Functions
Examples
IUDM Representations
The Interpretive Userdefined model, or IUDM, lets the user model a nonlinear component by
specifying the constitutive relationships, equations that relate the n port currents and the n port volt
ages. The equations are specified in time domain. The equations may be specified in either an
explicit or an implicit representation.
With the explicit representation, the current at port k is specified as a function of the n port voltages
i.e. .
The implicit representation uses an implicit relationship between any of the port currents and any of
the port voltages i.e. .
IUDM
i
1
i
2
i
k
f
k
v
1
v
2
… v
n
i
1
i
2
… i
n
. . . . . . . ( ) =
f
k
v
1
v
2
… v
n
i
1
i
2
… i
n
. . . . . . . ( ) 0 =
IUDM Syntax
Interpretive UserDefined Models282
The explicit representation is a voltagecontrolled representation and can implement only voltage
controlled expressions. The implicit representation is not restricted. It can model equations that are
voltagecontrolled or currentcontrolled.
The advantages of using explicit representation are its simplicity and its simulation efficiency. In
implicit representation the port currents are also included as unknowns along with port voltages.
This results in a larger system of equations with a larger number of unknowns.
Hence usage of the implicit representation is recommended only when the nonlinear model cannot
be expressed by explicit equations.
IUDM Syntax
The netlist format for the model is:
IUDM:name nodelist
+ I[p, w] = {expression }
+ F[p, w] = {expression }
+ IN[p, w] = {expression }
+ NC[p, p] = {expression}
Note: Plus (+) is used here as a continuation character.
where:
1. For a given port, the port equation may be of the explicit or implicit form but not both
2. There must be at least one equation corresponding to each port
3. Weighting function index 0 and 1 are predefined as indicated below.
4. Noise currents and noise correlation equations are optional
name Alphanumeric instance name
nodelist is the list of node names connecting the device. The order of nodes is p
1
p
2
n
1
n
2
... where p
i
is the positive terminal (+ terminal indicated in the
diagram) of the i’th port and n
i
is the negative terminal of the i’th port
(positive current is into p
i
).
I[p, w] define the current into the p’th port using the w’th weighting function.
Corresponds to expressions of the form i = f(v).
F[p, w] define the implicit equation for the p’th port using the w’th weighting
function. Corresponds to expressions of the form 0 = f(i,v)
IN[p, w] define the meansquared noise current <i
p
2
> for the p’th port using the
w’th weighting function.
NC[p, q] define the noise current correlation factor between ports p and q.
expression a valid expression as defined below
Frequency Weighting Functions
Interpretive UserDefined Models283
The predefined variables are global and set by the simulator. They cannot be redefined by the
user.
Explicit Current Equations, i=f(v)
The explicit current equation defines the constitutive relationship of the current into a device port
as a function of the device port voltages, _V1, _V2, etc. When more than one equation is assigned
to a port, the currents are added together after being scaled by their indicated weighting functions.
Once a port current is defined by an explicit current equation, then any additional equations for that
port must also be explicit (explicit and implicit equations cannot be mixed).
Netlist Example
IUDM:diode1 1 2 I[1,0] = {1.0e9* (exp(_V1/0.026)  1)}
where the current into port 1 is given by the expression which is a function of _V1. The current is
scaled by weighting factor 0, which uses a scale factor of 1 (see below).
Implicit Equations, f(v,i) = 0
The implicit equation defines a constraint which is more general than the explicit equation. The
explicit equation defines a voltagecontrolled equation, while the implicit equation can be voltage
or current controlled, or both. The simple case can be represented as i  f(v) = 0 where i is the port
current variable _I1, _I2, etc.
Similar to the explicit equation case, the implicit equations are scaled by their indicated weighting
functions. Implicit equations can be added together at a port, but cannot be combined with explicit
equations.
Netlist Example
IUDM:resistor1 1 2 F[1,0] = {_I1  _V1/10 }
Frequency Weighting Functions
The frequency weighting functions serve to scale the port current and implicit equation spectrums.
This is most often used to calculate the derivative of a quantity, as in the case i = jωQ(v) where Q(v)
is a nonlinear voltage controlled charge expression.
Nonlinear device models are calculated in the time domain. The currents are then converted to the
frequency domain through a discrete Fourier transform. At this point weighting functions are
applied.
_V1 to _V9 Port voltages
_I1 to _I9 Port currents
Frequency Weighting Functions
Interpretive UserDefined Models284
For example, to realize the expression
i = f(v) + d[g(v)]/dt (1)
one can use, in the frequency domain
I(ω) = F(V(ω)) + H(ω)G(V(ω)) (2)
where H(ω) = jω is the weighting function.
PreDefined Weighting Functions
Two weighting functions are predefined for the most common cases.
UserDefined Functions
The .IUDMFUNC element creates a user defined function that can be used in the netlist. Functions
created with .IUDMFUNC are special functions that can be used only by the expressions of the
Symbolic Defined Device (IUDM).
General Form:
.IUDMFUNC name(x1,x2,..) = expression (x1,x2,..)
• The name defines the name of the function
• .IUDMfunc cannot redefine builtin functions
• .IUDMfunc follows the same scoping rules as .func
• Arguments are optional
• Arguments are dummy variables and take precedence over .PARAM parameters in a .IUDM
FUNC
• Arguments cannot start with a digit and cannot be ReservedKeywords
• Use of variables follow normal scoping rules in .IUDMFUNC, i.e. Parameter usage in .IUDM
FUNC will be resolved using the same scope search as performed for .PARAM
• The use of curly braces to define an expression is optional
Weight Index Scale Factor
0 1
1 jω
Examples
Interpretive UserDefined Models285
Example:
.IUDMFUNC xyz(x,y,z) = sin(x) + tanh(y) + sqrt(z)
.IUDMFUNC softExp(x) = if (x < 50, exp(x), (x+150)*exp(50))
Examples
PNJunction Diode Model
A simple PN junction diode model is detailed below in netlist form. The diode has an exponential
conduction current and simple 1/sqrt() capacitance function. The capacitance has been integrated
to obtain the nonlinear charge equation so that weighting functions can be used to compute the dis
placement current.
.param Is = 1nA ; Diode Saturation Current
.param C0=.2pf ; Zero Bias Capacitance
.param Vbi=0.8 ; Built in Voltage
.param IVt = 38.696
.IUDMfunc soft_exp(x) = if (x < 50, exp(x), (x+150)*exp(50))
.IUDMfunc my_sqrt(x) = sqrt(Vbi*(Vbiif(x<Vbi*0.8,x,Vbi*0.8)))
IUDM:Sdiode 1 2
+I[1,0] = {Is*(soft_exp(_V1*IVt)  1)}
+I[1,1] = {2*C0*my_sqrt(_V1)}
The equation used for the diode conduction current is:
where I
S
is the diode saturation current, V
J
is the applied junction voltage, and V
thermal
is kT/q.
The capacitance of the junction is given by:
where C
0
is the zerobias junction capacitance and V
bi
is the builtin voltage. To calculate the cur
rent through the capacitor we use
I
J
I
S
exp
V
J
V
thermal

\ .
 
1 –
\ .
 
=
C
J
C
0
1
V
J
V
bi
 –
\ .
 
1 – 2 ⁄
=
I
C
J
dQ
C
J
dt ⁄ =
Examples
Interpretive UserDefined Models286
which is equal to
in the frequency domain.
Therefore, the weighting function of index 1 can be used.
Materka MESFET Model
The topology of the model is shown in the following diagram:
The channel current equation is:
where V
gs
and V
ds
are the intrinsic FET voltages; I
dss
, V
po
, γ, and α are fitting parameters, and
.
The capacitances are given (for ) by:
jωQ
C
J
G D
S
Ids
Ig1
Ig2
Cgs
Cgd
I
ds
I
dss
1
V
gs
V
p
 –
\ .
 
2
αV
ds
V
gs
v
p
–

\ .
 
tanh =
V
p
V =
po
γV
ds
+
V
gs
0.8V
bi
<
Examples
Interpretive UserDefined Models287
and (for ) by:
where C
gs0
and C
gd0
are the zerobias capacitances for gatesource and gatedrain respectively and
V
bi
is the builtin voltage. The diode currents are given by:
where I
sf
and α are fitting parameters.
The netlist is as follows.
.param Idss = 100ma
.param Vpo = 2.0
.param GAMMA = 0.1
.param SL = 0.15
.param CGS0 = 1pf
.param CGD0 = 0.2pf
.param VBI = 0.8
.param ISF = 1nA
.param ALPHAF = 38.696
.IUDMfunc soft_exp(x) = if (x < 50, exp(x), (x+150)*exp(50))
.IUDMfunc my_sqrt(x) = sqrt(VBI*(VBI  if(x< VBI*0.8, x, VBI*0.8)))
C
gs
C
gs0
1
V
gs
V
bi
 –
\ .
 
1 – 2 ⁄
=
V
gd
0.8V
bi
<
C
gd
C
gd0
1
V
gd
V
bi
 –
\ .
 
1 – 2 ⁄
=
I
g1
I
sf
exp α
f
V
gs
( ) 1 – ( ) =
I
g2
I
sf
exp α
f
V
gd
( ) 1 – ( ) =
Examples
Interpretive UserDefined Models288
.IUDMfunc my_min(x) = Vpo+GAMMA*x
.IUDMfunc my_tanh(x) = tanh(SL*x/Idss)
.IUDMfunc my_square(x) = x*x
.param Vgs = _V1
.param Vds = _V2
.param Vgd = _V1  _V2
.param Is1 = ISF*(soft_exp(ALPHAF*Vgs)1)
.param Is2 = ISF*(soft_exp(ALPHAF*Vgd)1)
.param Qgs = 2*CGS0*my_sqrt(Vgs)
.param Qgd = 2*CGD0*my_sqrt(Vgd)
.param Ids1 = 1  (Vgs/(my_min(Vds)))
.param Ids = Idss*my_square(Ids1)*my_tanh(Vds)
IUDM:Q1 8 11 9
+I[1,0] = {Is1+Is2}
+I[1,1] = {Qgs+Qgd}
+I[2,0] = {Ids– Is2}
+I[2,1] = {1.0*Qgd}
The corresponding nonlinear library model is:
FETMAT:F1 8 11 9
+Idss = 100ma Vp0=2.0 GAMMA=0.1 SL=0.15 C10=1pf CF0=0.2pf VBI=0.8
+IG0=1nA R10 = 0 Kg=0.0 SS=0
Component Models101
10
Component Models
This subtopics beneath this level describe the components available in the Circuit simulator. To
expand a component subgroup, doubleclick its book icon. To read about a specific component,
doubleclick its information icon in the Help topic tree.
Hint
You can launch online help for any component from the schematic editor:
1. In the schematic editor, doubleclick the component for which you want to view help.
The Properties dialog opens.
2. Select the Parameter Values tab.
3. Select the Value radio button.
Component Models102
4. In the Info row, click the button in the Value column, as shown here for COAXSTEP:
The Help viewer opens to display the component’s specifications.
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