Contents

Loudspeaker Enclosure Analysis Program

Reference Manual

Release 5

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LEAP CrossoverShop Reference Manual © 2002 - 2003 LINEARX SYSTEMS INC. All Rights Reserved. Tel: (503) 612-9565 Fax: (503) 612-9344

Printed in the United States of America. February 25, 2003.

This document was produced on a Pentium-4 / 2GHz PC with Win2K using Adobe PageMaker 7.0, Adobe Illustrator 8.0, Adobe PhotoShop 6.0, MathType 4.0 for mathematics typography, and SnagIt 5.2 for screen captures. Final masters were produced using an Xerox Docutech image setter. Help files were composed and compiled using Windows Help Designer 3.1.

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License Agreement and Limited Warranty
Carefully read all of the following terms and conditions of this agreement before opening and using the contents of this package. The opening of this package indicates your acceptance of the terms and conditions of this license agreement. If you are not willing to accept the terms and conditions of this agreement, then you should return the entire product, with the package seal unbroken, to the place of purchase for a full refund of the purchase price.

s Copyright Ownership
Both the program and the documentation are protected under applicable copyright laws. LinearX is the holder of this copyright. Your right to use the program and the documentation are limited to the terms and conditions described herein. Use of the software unless pursuant to the terms and conditions of this license, or as otherwise authorized by law, is an infringement of the copyright.

s Limited Non-Exclusive License
You may: (a) use the enclosed program on a single computer, (b) physically transfer the program from one computer to another provided that the program is used on only one computer at a time, and that you remove any copies of the program from the computer from which the program is being transferred, (c) make copies of the program solely for backup or archival purposes. You must reproduce and include the copyright notice and label any backup copy. You may not: (a) distribute copies of the program or the documentation to others, (b) lease, rent, grant sublicenses, or other rights to the program, (c) provide use of the program in a computer service business, network, time-sharing multiple CPU or multiple users arrangement without the prior written consent of LinearX, (d) translate or otherwise alter the program or related documentation without the prior written consent of LinearX.

s Terms
Your license to use the program and the documentation will automatically terminate if you fail to comply with the terms of this agreement. Your license terminates in the event that you receive a license for an updated version of the product that replaces this product. If a license expiration date is printed on your documentation, or provided through other means such as a time limited electronic or software key, your license expires on the day as shown in the documentation, or on the day that the electronic or software key expires. If this license is terminated you agree to destroy all copies of the program and documentation.

s Limited Warranty
LinearX warrants to the original licensee that the disk(s) and or electronic key(s) on which the program is recorded will be free from defects in materials and workmanship under normal use for a period of ninety (90) days from the date of purchase as evidenced by a copy of your receipt. If failure of the product components has resulted from accident, abuse, or misapplication of the product, then LinearX or third party licensors shall have no responsibility to replace the disk(s) or key(s) under this limited warranty. This limited warranty and right of replacement is in lieu of, and you hereby waive, any and all other warranties, both expressed and implied, including but not limited to warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose. The liability of LinearX or third party licensors pursuant to this limited warranty shall be limited to the replacement of the defective disk(s) or key(s), and in no event shall LinearX or third party licensors be liable for incidental, indirect, punitive, or consequential damages, including but not limited to loss of use, loss of profits, loss of data or data being rendered inaccurate, or losses sustained by third parties even if LinearX or third party licensors have been advised of the possibility of such damages. This warranty gives you specific legal rights which may vary from state to state. Some states do not allow the limitation or exclusion of liability for consequential damages, so the above limitation may not apply to you. In addition to the foregoing, you should recognize that all complex software systems and their documentation contain errors and omissions. LinearX, its distributors, and dealers shall not be responsible under any circumstances for providing information on or corrections to errors and omissions discovered at any time in the product, whether or not they are aware of the errors or omissions. LinearX does not recommend the use of this product in applications in which errors or omissions could result in loss of life, injury, or other significant loss. This license agreement shall be governed by the laws of the state of Oregon and shall inure to the benefit of LinearX, its successors, administrators, heirs and assigns or third party licensors.

s United States Federal Government Restrictions
If this software is acquired by or on behalf of the U.S. Federal government or its agencies, this provision applies. Use, duplication, or disclosure of this software is subject to restrictions set forth in the appropriate FAR 52.227-19 and DFAR 252.227-7013 documents, as applicable. The software is "commercial computer software" and is licensed only with "Restricted Rights". Other Federal restrictions may also apply.

LinearX Systems Inc. 9500 SW Tualatin-Sherwood Rd. Tualatin, OR 97062-8586 USA TEL:(503) 612-9565 FAX:(503) 612-9344 WEB: www.linearx.com
All other Trademarks are the property of their respective owners.

Copyright 2002-2003, LinearX Systems Inc. All rights reserved.

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Technical Support
LinearX provides detailed printed manuals and on-line help within the program as the primary source for user information and assistance regarding the use of this product. If these sources do not contain the answers to your questions, contact LinearX via any of the following methods: Internet Forums: Internet Email: Internet Web: Fax: Tel: www.linearx.com/forums support@linearx.com www.linearx.com (503) 612-9344 (503) 612-9565

Technical support is free and unlimited at this time, however we reserve the right to charge for this service in the future as conditions, overhead, and support personnel requirements dictate. When contacting us regarding a technical support issue, PLEASE follow these steps to aid us in understanding and solving your problem:
(1) The About Box contains a procedure for generating a SYSCONFIG.TXT file. This file can be created by the user through the About Box and contains all of the information about your computer system and operating system. If you feel that your question could involve issues relating to your computer/operating system, please produce this file and attach it along with your fax or Email question. (2) If your question involves specific details or parameters unique to your project and problem, please include a copy of your design files with the necessary data so that we can reproduce your problem. This is only possible if you are communicating via an electronic means such as Email or uploading files directly to our web site. (3) If the issue regards error messages from the program, please include an exact description of the error message and/or address information that the program reports. (4) If there are specific steps involved to reproduce the issue, please note these exact steps required so that we can reproduce the problem.

Technical support hours are: Monday-Friday 9:00AM to 5:00PM Pacific Standard Time.

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Contents
Chapter 1: Installation
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 System Requirements .......................................................... Software Installation ............................................................ Authorization Key Installation ............................................... Starting the Program ................................................................. How to use the Manuals ...........................................................

1
3 4 5 6 7

Chapter 2: General Features
2.1 Tool Bars, Tool Buttons, & Control Bars .............................. 2.2 Graph Control Bar .................................................................. 2.3 Tracking Cursor .................................................................... 2.4 System & Guide Curve Libraries ............................................ 2.5 Graph Hot Spots & Popup Menus ......................................... 2.6 Quick View Window ................................................................ 2.7 Graph Scrolling & Panning ...................................................... 2.8 Circuit Editing .......................................................................... 2.9 Numeric Entry & Formats ....................................................... 2.10 Color Select Dialog ............................................................... 2.11 Font Select Dialog ............................................................

9
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 21 23 26

Chapter 3: Graph Windows
3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 Circuit Components ............................................................... Circuit Schematic .................................................................. SPL Response ...................................................................... Voltage Response ............................................................... Impedance Response .......................................................... Delay Response ................................................................. Transient Response .............................................................. Polar Response ............................................................... Ratio Response ...............................................................

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31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39

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Chapter 4: Circuit Components 41
4.1 Component Editing ....................................................... 43 4.2 Wire Component .......................................................... 44 4.3 Dot Component ............................................................ 45 4.4 Text Component ........................................................ 46 4.5 Data Node Component ......................................................... 47 4.6 Ground Component .............................................................. 48 4.7 Resistor Component ............................................................ 49 4.8 Capacitor Component ........................................................... 52 4.9 Inductor Component ............................................................ 55 4.10 FDNR Component ............................................................. 58 4.11 Transformer Component .................................................... 59 4.12 Potentiometer Component ................................................. 60 4.13 Switch Component ............................................................ 62 4.14 Impedance Component ..................................................... 63 4.15 Opamp Component ............................................................ 66 4.16 Generator Component ........................................................ 69 4.17 Transfer Function Component ............................................. 73 4.18 Buffer Component .............................................................. 89 4.19 Summer Component ........................................................... 90 4.20 Switched Capacitor Network Component ............................... 91 4.21 FIR Filter Component ......................................................... 95 4.22 IIR Filter Component ......................................................... 101 4.23 Transducer Component ..................................................... 107

Chapter 5: File Menu
5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9

113
115 116 117 118 125 126 127 128 129

New ....................................................................... Open ......................................................................... Reopen ...................................................................... Wizard ........................................................................... Save ........................................................................... SaveAs ...................................................................... Revert ........................................................................ Import Circuit Data ...................................................... Convert LEAP4 DGL ........................................................

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Chapter 5: File Menu (cont)
5.10 5.11 5.12 5.13 5.14 5.15 Open Graph Setup ............................................................. Save Graph Setup ............................................................. Print .............................................................................. File Editor .......................................................................... Preferences .................................................................... Exit ................................................................................

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133 134 135 138 140 143

Chapter 6: Editor Menu
6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9

145
147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155

Cut ................................................................................. Copy ................................................................................ Paste ........................................................................... Delete ........................................................................... Select All ..................................................................... Edit ......................................................................... Undo ...................................................................... Pack ...................................................................... Add ........................................................................

Chapter 7: Graph Menu
7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4

157
159 161 165 171

Parameters .................................................................. System Curves ................................................................ Guide Curves ................................................................ Notes & Comments ...........................................................

Chapter 8: Circuit Menu
8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8 8.9

173
175 179 193 194 197 199 201 205 209

Parameters ........................................................... Optimizer ................................................................. Information ............................................................ Z Scaling ............................................................... Calculate .............................................................. Thermal Analysis ........................................................... Sensitivity Analysis ........................................................ Monte Carlo Analysis ..................................................... Potentiometer Analysis .................................................

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Chapter 9: Synthesis Menu 213
215 219 223 225 229 235 241 243 245 247 249 251 253 255 259 9.1 Analog Passive: Allpole Filters ..................................... 9.2 Analog Passive: Elliptic Filters ....................................... 9.3 Analog Passive: Equalizer Networks ............................... 9.4 Analog Passive: Conjugate Networks ............................. 9.5 Analog Active: Allpole Filters ........................................ 9.6 Analog Active: Elliptic Filters ....................................... 9.7 Analog Active: Equalizers .............................................. 9.8 Analog Active: Realization ............................................. 9.9 Digital-IIR: Matched-Z Transform .................................. 9.10 Digital-IIR: Bilinear Transform ......................................... 9.11 Digital-IIR: Invariant Transform ....................................... 9.12 Digital-IIR: Convolution Transform ................................. 9.13 Digital-FIR: Window Filters ............................................. 9.14 Digital-FIR: Frequency Sampling ..................................... 9.15 Digital-FIR: Optimal Approximation ..................................

Chapter 10: Processing Menu

265
267 277 279 283 285 289 291 293 295 299 305 307 309

10.1 Unary Math Operations ................................................ 10.2 Binary Math Operations ................................................ 10.3 Minimum Phase Transform .......................................... 10.4 Group Delay Transform ................................................ 10.5 Delay Phase Transform ................................................ 10.6 Fast Fourier Transform .................................................. 10.7 Inverse Fast Fourier Transform ..................................... 10.8 Tail Correction ............................................................... 10.9 Curve Averaging ............................................................ 10.10 Polar Convertor ........................................................... 10.11 Data Transfer ............................................................ 10.12 Data Splice ............................................................... 10.13 Data Realign ...............................................................

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Chapter 11: Utilities Menu
11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 11.6 11.7 11.8 11.9

311
313 315 317 323 325 327 329 335 349

Import Curve Data ............................................................ Export Curve Data ............................................................... Export Graphics ................................................................... Copy Graphics to Clipboard ................................................... Copy Component Data to Clipboard ..................................... View Clipboard .................................................................... Curve Capture ...................................................................... Curve Editor ........................................................................ Air Core Inductor Designer ..................................................

Chapter 12: Library Menu

351

12.1 Opamp Models ................................................................... 353 12.2 Potentiometer Tapers ........................................................ 361

Chapter 13: Scale Menu
13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4

367
369 375 377 379

Parameters ......................................................................... Auto ................................................................................ Up ...................................................................................... Down ..................................................................................

Chapter 14: View Menu

381

14.1 Zoom In / Zoom Out ...................................................... 383 14.2 Zoom 1X / 2X / 4X / 8X ................................................. 385 14.3 Redraw / RedrawAll ......................................................... 387

Chapter 15: Window Menu
15.1 15.2 15.3 15.4 15.5 15.6 15.7

389
391 393 395 397 399 401 403

Tile Horizontal ............................................................. Tile Vertical ................................................................. Cascade All ................................................................ Minimize All ................................................................ Normal All ................................................................. Arrange Icons ............................................................. Graph Window List .......................................................

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Chapter 16: Toolbars Menu
16.1 16.2 16.3 16.4 16.5

405
407 409 411 413 415

Show All ........................................................................ Hide All .......................................................................... Menu Toolbars ................................................................ Status Bar ....................................................................... ToolBox .........................................................................

Chapter 17: Help Menu
17.1 17.2 17.3 17.4 17.5

417
419 421 423 425 427

Contents .................................................................... Index ................................................................. Glossary ................................................................. About Modules ....................................................... About Program .......................................................

Appendix

429
Appendix A: SI Units ................................................................... 431 Appendix B: References .............................................................. 433 Appendix C: Key Not Found - Troubleshooting ............................. 437

Index

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Installation

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1.1 System Requirements
CrossoverShop is a highly intensive numerical application. The program contains literally hundreds of numerical mathematics algorithms, some of which are extremely large and place very high demands on the CPU's floating point performance. CrossoverShop will use all of the speed your processor has to offer, and probably want much more. Depending on the speed and type of CPU in your system, some of the algorithms in this program can require seconds, minutes, hours, or even days to run until completion. CrossoverShop also uses extensive graphics. For best results a 1024 x 768 video resolution is suggested with at least 64K (16-bit) color depth.

Minimum System Requirements: s Mouse and Keyboard s LPT port or USB port s Windows® 95, 98, SE, ME, NT4, 2000, XP s 250MB free Hard Drive space s 64MB RAM Memory s Pentium® II / 350 or equivalent s Video 800 x 600 Resolution / 256 Colors s TrueType® or Adobe® Fonts

Recommended System Requirements: s Windows® 2000 or Windows® XP s 300MB free Hard Drive space s 256MB RAM Memory or more s Pentium® III / 800 or equivalent s Video 1024 x 768 Res / 64K or 16M Colors s Adobe® Fonts with Adobe Type Manager®

Note: Due to the limitations of Win9X, not all of the program's features and/or capabilities will be available in those operating systems.

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1.2 Software Installation
This software requires a full Win32 operating system such as Win9X (95/98/ SE/Me) or NT (4/2K/XP). It cannot be installed under Win32S (Win3.11). This software requires version 4.72 or higher of the Windows common control library COMCTL32.DLL. This will be checked during installation, and your system will be upgraded if necessary. Note: IMPORTANT ! If you are using NT, your user account must have Administrator rights. Installation Instructions: s Place the distribution CD into your CD-ROM drive. s If the CD does not AutoRun, locate and run the Setup.Exe file. s Follow the instructions on the screen. s Select an electronic or manual Registration method. The registration will prompt you for the product Serial Number, which can be found on the bottom of the Authorization Key or the product box.

Note: Memory and resource management under Win9X is very different than under WinNT. This program is very large, and can consume substantial quantities of memory ranging from 40MB to 200MB. NT (NT4,W2K,WXP) is much better at running large programs than Win9X. Running other applications along with this program places additional demands on the operating system and resources. If you experience very slow response from the program, or heavy disk drive caching activity, you should probably close other applications, or close and restart this program. For best results we suggest: (1) 64MB or more is strongly recommended (2) TheWindows swap file should be >2X your RAM. (3) You should make the swap file size fixed.

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1.3 Authorization Key Installation
In order for the program to operate, the authorization key must be installed on your computer. At his time only an LPT port key is offered, however in the near future a USB type key will be an option. Installing the Authorization Key: s Connect the key to one of your LPT parallel printer ports. Do not place the key on a COM port. The key will not operate on a COM serial port, it must be located on an LPT port. LPT ports can be identified as a 25 pin female connector located on the back of your computer. If you have a printer attached to your LPT port, just place the key between your computer and printer cable. If you have other key devices on your LPT port, the authorization key will work with these keys, and can be located in any position before or after other keys. The key contains the serial number (registration number) of your program. This registration number is displayed in the About Box inside the program. If you wish to obtain an extra key for operation on a second computer, or a site license for multiple installations, please contact the factory or a dealer.

Note: There are many other types of products which may also be installed on an LPT port besides a printer; for example ZIP drives, Syquest drives, Tape drives, Scanners, etc. The authorization key will not interfere with these products, however some of these products may prevent the authorization key from working. Not all devices will allow sharing of the LPT port. If this is the case, then a second LPT port may be required. If you receive Key Not Found, please see Appendix-C.

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1.4 Starting the Program
Once the installation program has been completed, and the computer rebooted, go to the Start Menu and locate the entry LinearX > LEAP > CrossoverShop. If during installation you also chose to install a group folder of icons on your desktop, you may also start the program from that location as well.

If you have installed the program to a different folder/directory than the default, the tutorial files will not be automatically loaded when you start the program the first time. You will need to select File | Open from the menu and locate the files in the actual installation folder.

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1.5 How to use the Manuals
The remaining chapters of this Reference Manual contain detailed information on the contents of the program: menus, dialogs, screens, and other operational areas which the user will encounter. Use this manual when you wish to know more about the operational details of the program. All of the reference information is also available inside the program within the Help system. Virtually all of the dialogs in the program contain a Help button which provides context sensitive help. Clicking these buttons will open the Help window and display all the reference information for that dialog. The Application Manual contains several tutorials in addition to other example designs contained in the application notes. The tutorials introduce you to the basic operational features of the program. The application notes provide different examples of how to integrate various features to accomplish more complex tasks. Where to go from here: - Read the following Chapter 2: General Features - Read Tutorial-1 in the Application Manual This is the recommended minimum. You should also read Tutorial-2, and if you are working in the digital domain read Tutorial-3 and Tutorial-4. Note: All users should read/work Tutorial-1 Due to the large number of features and capabilities contained in the program, it is very difficult to demonstrate how to use all of these features together in every possible situation. If you have a question about how to accomplish a complex design task, try to find an example of something similar in the Tutorials or Application Notes. We anticipate writing additional app notes in the future and do appreciate any suggestions for specific topics. Enjoy!

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2.1 Tool Bars, Tool Buttons, & Control Bars
There are 12 menus in the program, and over 100 tool buttons arranged on 12 moveable Toolbars. Essentially the functions given on a particular menu column are provided as tool buttons on a single corresponding toolbar. There are two (2) control bars (also known as trays) shown on the main screen. These trays autosize to hold the toolbars, and have user selectable backgrounds like the 'Marble' pattern shown below. One tray is fixed at the top of the screen below the menu, and the second tray is known as the ToolBox and is a floating window. Toolbars can be moved and rearranged simply by grabbing the handle on the left of each toolbar. They can be docked into any of the three trays, or dragged onto the screen by themselves as a single floating window. They can also be enabled or disabled for display.
Toolbox

Toolbars

Status Bar

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2.2 Graph Control Bar
Below the top tray, is a line of 9 buttons known as the Graph Control Bar. This program is an MDI application with 9 child windows. When any child window is maximized, the Graph Control Bar will appear. You can press any one of these buttons to switch to a different window. They effectively work very much like the tabs in a dialog box. The 9 MDI child windows contain: Components, Schematic, SPL, Voltage, Impedance, Delay, Transient, Polar, and Ratio graphs showing various curve values. The titles are self explanatory. Printing is done on the basis of these 9 windows.
Graph Control Bar

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2.3 Tracking Cursor
In the bottom tray, the cursor functions are shown. The cursor will track any System or Guide curve based on the points in the curve. To move the cursor to another frequency quickly, double click the left mouse button at the desired frequency. Use the Left/Right or the Home/End keyboard arrow keys to move along a curve. Use the Up/Down keyboard arrow keys to change to a different curve in the same curve library. To change to a different curve library, use the buttons in the cursor toolbar. The Absolute/Relative buttons select the cursor measurement mode. When you press Relative another black cursor will appear at the current position. As you move the cursor the displayed data will be calculated relative to the reference position. Pressing the Absolute button will return to normal mode.

Cursor Marker

Cursor Controls and Readouts

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Chapter 2

2.4 System & Guide Curve Libraries
There are two different curve libraries provided in the program: System Curves and Guide Curves. Each library can contain up to 99 curves of data. The System library curves are generated by the analysis of your design. The Guide curve library can contain any arbitrary data you wish to import, process, or copy from the System library. No editing or processing can be executed on System curves since these are exclusively generated by the program automatically. You can select which curve is tracked by the cursor using the two library buttons and Up/Down spin buttons in the Status Bar. The spin buttons will increment/decrement through the 99 curves of the selected library. Only curves enabled for display can be tracked.

Cursor Curve Selection

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2.5 Graph Hot Spots & Popup Menus
There are a number of regions defined in the graph artwork that respond to double clicks with the left mouse button. These are hot spots that will activate various dialogs depending on the region. For example, double clicking over a scale region will open the Scale | Parameters dialog. The various regions are shown below. There is also a popup menu available using the right mouse button which provides a listing of similar various common dialogs.

Graph Parameters

Cursor Control

Scale Parameters

Data Curves Notes Comments

Graph Parameters

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2.6 Quick View Window
There are many occasions where you may wish a tighter view of a particular area of a graph. A common example is when the scale is setup to show the full stopband region, but you then wish to see the small passband ripple near 0dB. Rather than having to constantly change the scale factor for the graph, you can drag a rectangle using the mouse over the range of interest. The Quick View window will appear with a smaller scale factor and frequency range. There are two options for determining the vertical scale as controlled in the File | Preferences dialog. The frequency/time limits will be rounded to the nearest major division, and the number of vert/horz divisions is the same as the main graph. To close the Quick View, press ESC or right click the mouse button.

Quick View Window

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2.7 Graph Scrolling & Panning
There are two scroll bars on each graph window, one for vertical scrolling and one for horizontal scrolling. Either or both may or may not be present depending on the zoom level of the graph window. You can also drag or pan the graph window directly by use of the mouse. First press and hold the SHFT key, and then while holding the left mouse button drag the artwork. The normal mouse pointer will be changed to a hand symbol. The schematic window also has auto panning, which occurs if a selected group of components is dragged towards the edge of the window. The window will be scrolled automatically.

Horizontal Scroll Bar Mouse Cursor Dragging Hand Vertical Scroll Bar

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2.8 Circuit Editing
A full featured graphical schematic editor for circuit entry and editing is provided in the program. Circuit editing can only be performed when the schematic window has focus. If you attempt to perform a circuit editing operation on a different window, you will receive an error message. The Editor menu and toolbar contains the tools and functions pertaining to circuit editing. Many of the commonly used commands are located here, as well as all the component types which can be added to the circuit. A snap grid is always in effect during schematic editing. However, major and minor grids can be displayed or disabled through the Circuit | Parameters dialog. Printing of the grid can be enabled/disabled through the File | Preferences dialog. Editing or creating a circuit is very easy. The editor was designed as a single mode editor, and with a minimum of command keys to remember. No function keys are used and a common component editing architecture is used for all components including wires. Many of the general editing functions are based on the standard Windows text command key assignments.

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Editing Command Keys: Select Component: Click the left mouse button within the bounding box of a component. Select Multiple Components: Drag mouse rectangle around the bounding boxes of components. The rectangle must fully enclose the component's bounding box. Append Select Components: Hold down the CTRL key, and do either of the above. Copy Components: Select component(s) and press CTRL-C. Paste Components: Press CTRL-V. Move Components: Hold left mouse button down inside bounding box of any selected component(s) and drag. Delete Components: Press DEL key. Add Components: Pick a component from the Edit menu or toolbar. Edit Component: Right Click the mouse (or DoubleClick) while a single component is selected. Move Wire Vertex: Click on wire to select, then hold down left mouse button while over a wire vertex and drag. Delete Wire Vertex: Click on wire to select, then hold down the ALT key and click the left mouse button over the wire vertex.

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Add Wire Vertex: Click on wire to select, then hold down the ALT key and click the left mouse button where you desire a new vertex. Note: The ALT key has a dual function of adding/deleting vertex nodes. Also, vertex nodes will always be added between existing nodes.

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2.9 Numeric Entry & Formats
The dynamic range of numeric values can be extremely large. To handle this wide range efficiently, the program makes extensive use of engineering notation. These are single character multiplier suffixes which appear at the end of a numerical floating point (real number) value. We are all familiar with the common usage of engineering notation for common components such as a 10K resistor or a 1u Farad capacitor. Here, the "K" represents 1E+3 and the "u" represents 1E-6. While these are common SI suffixes that will be familiar to most users, there are other SI suffixes that are less common. The full list of supported SI multipliers are as follows: Note that in virtually all of the suffix chars, the following convention is used: upper case is used for multipliers greater than unity, and lower case is used for multipliers smaller than unity. The only exception is the kilo suffix where both cases are supported (K or k). Use of the exa suffix E can lead to confusion since the standard scientific notation uses the letter E as well, e.g. 1.234E+5. The program assumes that if the E character is the last character in the number, it is treated as the exa multiplier 10+18. If additional numeric values follow E then it is treated as scientific.

SI Multipliers Name Value Suffix Name Value Suffix kilo mega giga tera peta exa zeta yotta 10+3 10+6 10
+9

K,k M G T P E Z Y

milli micro nano pico femto atto zepto yocto

10-3 10-6 10
-9

m u n p f a z y

10+12 10+15 10+18 10
+21

10-12 10-15 10-18 10
-21

10+24

10-24

To avoid confusion component values are never displayed with the type of units. For example, a capacitor value of 2.4f means 2.4 femto (2.4E-15). It does not mean 2.4 Farads. It is assumed that the user already knows what the units are for the given component (e.g. Ohms, Henrys, Farads, etc.). Please keep this in mind when you enter component values - you do not need to add the units.

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Entering Numerical Values Floating point numbers can be entered in any of three forms: real number format, scientific format, or engineering format. Examples are: 2400.75 2.40075E3 or 2.40075D3 2.40075K (real) (scientific) (engineering)

A floating point number must not contain spaces. Therefore do not place spaces between suffixes or other digits. Note that the scientific format supports the use of either the E or D character to separate the exponent, lower case also. In many dialog locations throughout the program, the entry of the numeric values is monitored and checked for range violations. For example, many parameters will not permit either negative or zero values. If you enter such a value in one of these locations it will be automatically corrected, typically to a value of unity. In some dialog locations additional constraints may be placed on the numeric value that you enter. This is to maintain the validity of the inherent formulas involved with the parameter. For example, if you were entering one of the values involved with the equation 2+3=5, then some other value in the equation must be simultaneously adjusted to maintain the validity of the equation. The program will perform many of these tasks for you automatically. Equation checking is performed when the focus leaves the current edit control. This informs the program that you have finished editing a value. You can Tab to another control or click the mouse in a different control to force the program to check the parameter relationships. Numerical Precision The program uses the maximum Intel architecture 80-Bit extended floating point format for all of the numeric data in the program. This results in numerical precision of about 18 decimal digits. However it should be noted that for many high order filters 80-Bit precision is inadequate. Some of the internal numerical algorithms can easily require more precision than is available in the 80-Bit format for high order designs.

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2.10 Color Select Dialog
A special button control is located on many dialogs throughout the program which provides for special editing of color selection. Two examples of such buttons are shown here on the right. The center of the button displays the current color for the parameter. When you click the button, another dialog will open to change the color.

The Color Select dialog provides many powerful and convenient features for color selection and editing. Three different color models are supported, as well as live mouse editing on a color wheel. Colors can be picked from presets, and new user defined colors can be saved as well. The dialog contains many small color pads which have the dual function of display and selection. Clicking a color pad loads the color as the current selection. If the current color matches one of the pads, than the pad will be highlighted.

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Standard Colors These are the 20 standard Windows colors. Some of the black colors are actually masking colors, but the remainder are generally the primary VGA 16 set. If your video mode is 16 or 256 color, then choosing one of these colors will provide for solid color. Other special colors will require dithering which may be undesirable. Clicking on one of the pads will select the color. Extended Colors There are 30 additional colors provided here for quick selection. Your video mode will need to have more than 256 colors for solid display, or they will be dithered. Clicking on one of the color pads will select the color. Custom Colors There are 20 additional locations provided here for user custom colors. When the Add Custom button is clicked, the current color will be added to the array. The array is auto incrementing, and when a color is added it will be assigned to the next pad. These colors will persist as long as the program is running. Clicking on one of the color pads will select the color. Selection These two pads display the current and original colors. This allows you to compare the two, or to return to the original if desired. Clicking on the Original Color pad will make it the current color. Add Custom Button Clicking this button will add the current color to the Custom Colors array. The array is auto incremented so the next color pad will be used. Model and Parameters There are three color model choices: - Hue-Saturation-Value (HSV) - Red-Green-Blue (RGB) - Cyan-Magenta-Yellow (CMY) The model selection controls which set of parameters appear on the sliders. The Hue slider has a range of 0 degrees to 360 degrees. This is the Hue of color as specified radially around the HSV wheel. All other sliders range from 0% to 100%.

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HSV Color Space The large circle, or color wheel, in the center of the panel enables live color editing by use of the mouse. While holding down the left mouse button, drag across the wheel and the color at the point of the mouse is selected. If you go into the black region, the last color at the edge is kept until you re-enter the circle. The color wheel represents the polar coordinates of Hue as angle and Saturation as magnitude. The vertical slider next to the wheel controls the Value parameter. This is essentially the overall brightness of the entire wheel. As the slider is moved, the Value of the wheel will change between 0% black and 100% full color brightness.

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2.11 Font Select Dialog
A special button control is located on many dialogs throughout the program which provides for special editing of font selection. An example of such a button is shown here. When you click the button, a dialog will open for font selection. Choosing a font and its size is completely up to the user. It is certainly possible to select a font and/or size that is too large for the available space in the graphics. However, with a little experimentation you will quickly see what is possible and what will actually work. The program positions the text items automatically either left, center, or right justified. By changing the size of a font you can easily see how the program will position the text.

This program only utilizes vector fonts. This means that TrueType and/or Adobe (ATM) fonts should be present. If you will be printing to a pen plotter, you should choose a plotter stroke font such as Modern that does not require fill, and can be easily drawn by a pen.

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TypeFace In this panel the number of vector font families is shown, the type of font which is currently selected, and a list of the available fonts. TypeSize The size of the font in points can be selected from the list box, incremented using the spin buttons, or entered directly in the list box. TypeStyle Several check boxes are provided to control the style of the font. All or none of the options can be combined. TypeColor This button displays and selects the color for the font. To change the color, click the button and the Color Select dialog will be presented. Sample Text A text sample of the current selection is displayed in this panel. The background color will be automatically set depending on the color of the font. A check box allows you to view the font in actual size, or at a different size controllable by the spin buttons at the lower right of the panel.

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3.1 Circuit Components
The Components window displays the listing of the parameter values currently in use by all components in the schematic. This data can be very extensive, filling a large number of pages. In most cases the data is rarely printed or viewed. However if you wish to obtain a complete listing of all data within the components, this listing provides that data. Depending on the size of the circuit, there may be more than one page of data. To navigate through the other pages, use the ScaleUp, ScaleDown tool buttons or menu functions. The number of columns that will be shown per page depends on the font selection, and the length of data produced for each line.

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3.2 Circuit Schematic
The Schematic window displays the circuit under evaluation, and also provides direct editing. The sheet size represented can be A (11x8.5) through E (34x44). The Circuit | Parameters dialog controls much of the appearance of the schematic artwork, including grids, fonts, colors, and backgrounds. The grid can be enabled/disabled for printing in the Preferences dialog. Depending on the size of the schematic page, and the paper size of your printer, you may need to print this artwork at reduced scale factors below 100%. Components may be added from either the Editor | Add menu, or from the Editor toolbar.

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3.3 SPL Response
The SPL graph displays the magnitude and phase of any enabled System or Guide curves that contain SPL type data. The Graph Parameters dialog controls much of the design and look of this graph including: number of vertical/horizontal major/ minor divisions, colors, fonts, lines, and backgrounds. The Scale Parameters dialog controls the vertical scale and top value, as well as the linear or log frequency axis. A Map region is located below the grid area that lists the color assignments for Data Curves. A Note region is also shown for user notes and comments. The proprietary circuit simulator of this program performs both electrical and acoustical dual domain computations. The Transducer components define the acoustical data for each transducer, and this data is then combined with the electrical transfer functions to produce the SPL response.

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3.4 Voltage Response
The Voltage graph displays the magnitude and phase of any enabled System or Guide curves that contain Voltage type data. The Graph Parameters dialog controls much of the design and look of this graph including: number of vertical/horizontal major/minor divisions, colors, fonts, lines, and backgrounds. The Scale Parameters dialog controls the vertical scale and top value, as well as the linear or log frequency axis. A Map region is located below the grid area that lists the color assignments for Data Curves. A Note region is also shown for user notes and comments. The circuit simulator of the program performs automatic computation of the voltages present across the Transducer components. Given a flat output from the generator(s), this then represents the transfer functions through the crossover sections. Thus the response of the network sections themselves is readily available here.

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3.5 Impedance Response
The Impedance graph displays the magnitude and phase of any enabled System or Guide curves that contain Impedance type data. The Graph Parameters dialog controls much of the design and look of this graph including: number of vertical/ horizontal major/minor divisions, colors, fonts, lines, and backgrounds. The Scale Parameters dialog controls the vertical scale and top value, as well as the linear or log frequency axis. A Map region is located below the grid area that lists the color assignments for Data Curves. A Note region is also shown for user notes and comments. The circuit simulator of the program performs automatic computation of the impedances loading each generator in the circuit. Thus the input impedance of each passive crossover section is produced as a curve. The program also automatically combines these impedances in parallel to produce the total system impedance. For this type of analog passive crossover simulation a separate generator is desirable for each crossover section, setup with identical parameters. For active crossovers the impedance information is unimportant and a single generator can be used to reduce the number of impedance curves produced during analysis.

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3.6 Delay Response
The Delay graph displays the magnitude and phase of any enabled System or Guide curves that contain Time vs. Frequency type data. The Graph Parameters dialog controls much of the design and look of this graph including: number of vertical/horizontal major/minor divisions, colors, fonts, lines, and backgrounds. The Scale Parameters dialog controls the vertical scale and top value, as well as the linear or log frequency axis. A Map region is located below the grid area that lists the color assignments for Data Curves. A Note region is also shown for user notes and comments. The circuit simulator of the program can perform automatic computation of the SPL group delay when the circuit is analyzed. This is an option. You can also compute Group Delay of any other curves you wish by using the Processing | Group Delay transform. Any curves which have the units of Time vs. Frequency will be displayed here. Typically these are group delay curves, but could be any other type of time curve as well.

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3.7 Transient Response
The Transient graph displays the magnitude and phase of any enabled System or Guide curves that contain Voltage vs. Time type data. The Graph Parameters dialog controls much of the design and look of this graph including: number of vertical/horizontal major/minor divisions, colors, fonts, lines, and backgrounds. The Scale Parameters dialog controls the vertical scale and top value, as well as the horizontal time axis. A Map region is located below the grid area that lists the color assignments for Data Curves. A Note region is also shown for user notes and comments. The most common types of curves displayed on this graph will be either Step or Impulse response functions. While the circuit simulator of the program does not automatically produce these curves, they can be generated by using the Processing | Inverse Fourier Transform dialog. There are too many conditional parameters which must be defined by the user in order to generate Impulse/Step response data. For this reason the program cannot make these choices for the user automatically.

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3.8 Polar Response
The Polar graph displays the magnitude and phase of any enabled System or Guide curves that contain SPL vs. Angle type data. The Graph Parameters dialog controls much of the design and look of this graph including: number of vertical/horizontal major/minor divisions, colors, fonts, lines, and backgrounds. The Scale Parameters dialog controls the vertical scale and top value, as well as the horizontal angle axis. A Map region is located below the grid area that lists the color assignments for Data Curves. A Note region is also shown for user notes and comments. While the circuit simulator of the program can automatically produce these curves, they will only be meaningful if the user has defined imported off-axis data for the Transducer components. All polar simulations are based on actual off-axis transducer data supplied by the user. The off-axis response of transducers is based not only on the driver itself, but also the enclosure. Accurate polar system simulation requires actual measurements of the off-axis response of the transducers on the enclosure. Note, this type of simulation can be produced from the EnclosureShop program.

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3.9 Ratio Response
The Ratio graph displays the magnitude and phase of any enabled System or Guide curves that contain dimensionless Ratio vs. frequency type data. The Graph Parameters dialog controls much of the design and look of this graph including: number of vertical/horizontal major/minor divisions, colors, fonts, lines, and backgrounds. The Scale Parameters dialog controls the vertical scale and top value, as well as the linear or log frequency axis. A Map region is located below the grid area that lists the color assignments for Data Curves. A Note region is also shown for user notes and comments. Ratio data is primarily transfer functions. This can be produced from dividing two curves of the same units, or by simply changing the units of a curve to Ratio. It is a general purpose graph that has many uses.

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4.1 Component Editing
There are 23 different types of circuit components supported in the program. Many of these components have unique capabilities and were specifically created to support advanced filter design and crossover analysis. All components can be rotated in 90 degree increments and/or mirrored on the X/ Y axis. The nodes of the components are always snapped to a 100 x 100 ghost grid. Components may be added from either the Editor | Add menu, or from the Editor Toolbar as shown below. A common setup is to place this editor Toolbar in the floating Toolbox, but it can be dragged out on the screen by itself as well. To edit any component simply right click with the mouse on a single selected component, or select Editor | Edit from the menu or Toolbar.

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4.2 Wire Component

This is the basic component for electrically connecting the nodes of other components. Each wire can have up to 50 vertex nodes. Wire vertex points are automatically locked to a ghost grid, and segments can have any angle. The component editor displays the origin X/Y values, relative to the circuit origin. All units are mils (1/1000 inch). A grid with the relative coordinates of each vertex is listed below. Rotation and mirroring is not supported for wires to avoid confusing coordinates for the vertex nodes. Generally it is rare to enter the vertex X/Y values directly, since it is much easier to graphically edit the nodes directly. If a node of another component occurs along a segment of a wire between vertex nodes, an error message will be displayed informing you of the condition. You had probably intended for a vertex to exist at this location.

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4.3 Dot Component

A nonelectrical component which can be used to indicate a cross-point connection of wires or other components. Can also be used for polarity or notation marking purposes. The component editor displays the origin X/Y values, relative to the circuit origin. All units are mils (1/1000 inch). Rotation and mirroring are not supported for Dots, since it is not relevant for a circle.

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4.4 Text Component

A nonelectrical component used to add text comments or notes to the schematic. A choice of three fonts can be selected for each comment. The component editor displays the origin X/Y values, relative to the circuit origin. All units are mils (1/1000 inch). The component can be rotated in 90 degree increments or mirrored against the X/Y axis. The actual comment text can be changed in the editing field. The three font selections are based on what is currently in use by the system for the Label, Value, or Parameter fonts as defined in the Circuit | Parameters dialog.

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4.5 Data Node Component

This square marker placed at an electrical node/vertex of the circuit indicates that the node will produce curve data. Up to 31 circuit data nodes can be plotted simultaneously. A text description can be assigned as well, and will be used as the name for the System Curve. The component editor displays the origin X/Y values, relative to the circuit origin. All units are mils (1/1000 inch). The component can be rotated in 90 degree increments or mirrored against the X/Y axis. The actual description text can be changed in the editing field.

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4.6 Ground Component

The bus connection for the electrical reference datum. Each circuit must include at least one connection to ground, since all data node voltages are calculated relative to ground. The component editor displays the origin X/Y values, relative to the circuit origin. All units are mils (1/1000 inch). The component can be rotated in 90 degree increments or mirrored against the X/Y axis.

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4.7 Resistor Component

The Resistor has value in Ohms, selectable precision/tolerance, temperature coefficient, and a model. The precision is selectable in standard sets of 1%, 5%, 10%, 20%, or Any Value. The tempco is entered in PPM (parts per million per C0). When the precision is 1, 5, 10, or 20 percent, the resistance value will be restricted to the industry standard set for that precision. If you enter a different value, it will be rounded to the nearest standard value. When the precision is Any Value, then no restrictions are applied and the value entered is retained without rounding. The spin buttons will step through the standard values up/down, or increment the value by a 0.1% ratio if the Any Value selection is present. The component editor displays the origin X/Y values, relative to the circuit origin. All units are mils (1/1000 inch). The component can be rotated in 90 degree increments or mirrored against the X/Y axis. The Global Editing check boxes can be used to set various parameters for all of the same type components in the circuit at once. Three different Resistor models are available: Ideal, Parasitic, and Exponent. The following section details the different models and their operation.

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Ideal Model A simple fixed resistance which is constant across all frequency.

Exponent Model A resistance which changes with frequency. The exponent Ew is used to control the log linear change of resistance vs. frequency. A positive exponent produces increasing resistance with increasing frequency, while a negative exponent produces decreasing resistance with increasing frequency. The graph below shows an example using an R value of 1.00 Ohm and an Ew value of 0.500. Note that the frequency dependent resistance will be equal to the R value at a radian frequency of 1.0 (or 0.159 Hz).

R(w ) = R ◊ w Ew w = 2p f

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Parasitic Model This model includes additional series inductance (Ls) and parallel capacitance (Cp). You can enter any of the Ls, Cp, Fo, or Q parasitic parameters shown above, and the program will maintain the relationships for you automatically. For example: if you enter the Q value, the Ls value will be calculated; if you enter the Cp value, the Fo value and Q will be recalculated. The graph below shows a typical parasitic resistance impedance curve across frequency. The inductance and capacitance will produce a resistance peak at Fo. The resonance frequency is produced by the Ls/Cp values, and the Q based on the R loss.

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4.8 Capacitor Component

The Capacitor has value in Farads, selectable precision/tolerance, temperature coefficient, and a model. The precision is selectable in standard sets of 1%, 5%, 10%, 20%, or Any Value. The tempco is entered in PPM (parts per mil per C0). When the precision is 1, 5, 10, or 20 percent, the capacitance value will be restricted to the industry standard set for that precision. If you enter a different value, it will be rounded to the nearest standard value. When the precision is Any Value, then no restrictions are applied and the value entered is retained without rounding. The spin buttons will step through the standard values up/down, or increment the value by a 0.1% ratio if the Any Value selection is present. The component editor displays the origin X/Y values, relative to the circuit origin. All units are mils (1/1000 inch). The component can be rotated in 90 degree increments or mirrored against the X/Y axis. The Global Editing check boxes can be used to set various parameters for all of the same type components in the circuit at once. Three different Capacitor models are available: Ideal, Parasitic, and Exponent. The following section details the different models and their operation.

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Ideal Model A simple fixed capacitance which is constant across all frequency.

Exponent Model A capacitance which changes with frequency. The exponent Ew is used to control the log linear change of capacitance vs. frequency. A positive exponent produces increasing capacitance with increasing frequency, while a negative exponent produces decreasing capacitance with increasing frequency. The graph below shows an example using an C value of 1.00 Farad and an Ew value of 0.500. Note that the frequency dependent capacitance will be equal to the C value at a radian frequency of 1.0 (or 0.159 Hz). Note that increasing capacitance produces a decrease in impedance.

C (w ) = C ◊ w Ew w = 2p f

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Parasitic Model This model includes additional series inductance (Ls), series resistance (Rs), and parallel resistance (Rp). You can enter any of the Ls, Rs, Fo, or Q parasitic parameters shown above, and the program will maintain the relationships for you automatically. For example: if you enter the Q value, the Ls value will be calculated; if you enter the Rs value, the Fo value and Q will be recalculated. The graph below shows a typical parasitic capacitance impedance curve across frequency. The inductance and capacitance will produce an impedance null at Fo. The resonance frequency is produced by the Ls/C values, and the null based on Rs. Rp can be used to produce a limiting value on the impedance to represent dielectric losses.

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4.9 Inductor Component

The Inductor has value in Henrys, selectable precision/tolerance, temperature coefficient, and a model. The precision is selectable in standard sets of 1%, 5%, 10%, 20%, or Any Value. The tempco is entered in PPM (parts per million per C0). When the precision is 1, 5, 10, or 20 percent, the inductance value will be restricted to the industry standard set for that precision. If you enter a different value, it will be rounded to the nearest standard value. When the precision is Any Value, then no restrictions are applied and the value entered is retained without rounding. The spin buttons will step through the standard values up/down, or increment the value by a 0.1% ratio if the Any Value selection is present. The component editor displays the origin X/Y values, relative to the circuit origin. All units are mils (1/1000 inch). The component can be rotated in 90 degree increments or mirrored against the X/Y axis. The Global Editing check boxes can be used to set various parameters for all of the same type components in the circuit at once. Three different Inductor models are available: Ideal, Parasitic, and Exponent. The following section details the different models and their operation.

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Ideal Model A simple fixed inductance which is constant across all frequency.

Exponent Model An inductance which changes with frequency. The exponent Ew is used to control the log linear change of inductance vs. frequency. A positive exponent produces increasing inductance with increasing frequency, while a negative exponent produces decreasing inductance with increasing frequency. The graph below shows an example using an L value of 1.00 Henry and an Ew value of 0.500. Note that the frequency dependent inductance will be equal to the L value at a radian frequency of 1.0 (or 0.159 Hz).

L (w ) = L ◊ w Ew w = 2p f

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Parasitic Model This model includes additional series resistance (Rs), and parallel capacitance (Cp). You can enter any of the Cp, Rs, Fo, or Q parasitic parameters shown above, and the program will maintain the relationships for you automatically. For example: if you enter the Q value, the Cp value will be calculated; if you enter the Rs value, the Fo value and Q will be recalculated. The graph below shows a typical parasitic capacitance impedance curve across frequency. The inductance and capacitance will produce a impedance peak at Fo. The resonance frequency is produced by the L/Cp values. The minimum impedance at low frequencies is controlled by Rs. Although this model produces loss, it still remains an over simplification to the highly complex losses which occur in an actual inductor. This is especially true for iron or ferrite core inductors, where both the inductance and resistance are strong functions of frequency. Therefore the values you choose for Rs and Cp should probably be defined based on their effective values in the frequency range of interest.

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4.10 FDNR Component
The FDNR component is not a physical component, but rather a theoretical component that is very useful when modeling certain types of active filters. It behaves much like a capacitor squared. To produce the impedance characteristic of this component in an actual circuit, a gyrator configuration is used which replaces the FDNR component. In most cases one terminal of the FDNR is grounded, which allows for a much simpler gyrator circuit.

The FDNR (Frequency-Dependent-Negative-Resistor) has value in Farads Squared, selectable precision/tolerance, and temperature coefficient. The precision is selectable in standard sets of 1%, 5%, 10%, 20%, or Any Value. The tempco is entered in PPM (parts per mil per C0). When the precision is 1, 5, 10, or 20 percent, the FrdSq value will be restricted to the industry standard set for that precision. If you enter a different value, it will be rounded to the nearest standard value. When the precision is Any Value, then no restrictions are applied and the value entered is retained without rounding. The spin buttons will step through the standard values up/down, or increment the value by a 0.1% ratio if the Any Value selection is present. The component editor displays the origin X/Y values, relative to the circuit origin. All units are mils (1/1000 inch). The component can be rotated in 90 degree increments or mirrored against the X/Y axis. The Global Editing check boxes can be used to set various parameters for all of the same type components in the circuit at once.

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4.11 Transformer Component
Since the transformer provides for electrical isolation between the primary and secondary, Data Nodes located in a non-ground referenced section of circuitry would not have a point of reference. If you need to obtain System Curves from floating circuitry, use the Summer component to obtain a perfect differential measurement. The Summer output is ground referenced.

The transformer has five interrelated parameters: primary inductance, secondary inductance, mutual inductance, turns ratio, and coupling coefficient. With the exception of mutual inductance, any of the other parameters can be entered by the user and the program will maintain the proper relationship. It is generally best to set the desired turns ratio first. The coupling coefficient cannot be exactly unity, but is often very close to unity. All inductance values are in Henrys. The component editor displays the origin X/Y values, relative to the circuit origin. All units are mils (1/1000 inch). The component can be rotated in 90 degree increments or mirrored against the X/Y axis. The Global Editing check boxes can be used to set various parameters for all of the same type components in the circuit at once.

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4.12 Potentiometer Component

The Pot component provides the ability to accurately model real-world potentiometer controls. This is a tremendous improvement over the method used in the past of discrete resistors with repeated value changes. When complex tapers or taps are involved, this component eliminates countless hours of tedious work. The Pot has a definable taper which is loaded from the current Taper Library in the program. It also can contain up to 3 taps, and these can be located at any position along the rotation. The Pot has value in Ohms, selectable precision/tolerance, and temperature coefficient. The precision is selectable in standard sets of 1%, 5%, 10%, 20%, or Any Value. The tempco is entered in PPM (parts per million per C0). When the precision is 1, 5, 10, or 20 percent, the resistance value will be restricted to the industry standard set for that precision. If you enter a different value, it will be rounded to the nearest standard value. When the precision is Any Value, then no restrictions are applied and the value entered is retained without rounding. The spin buttons will step through the standard values up/down, or increment the value by a 0.1% ratio if the Any Value selection is present. The component editor displays the origin X/Y values, relative to the circuit origin. All units are mils (1/1000 inch). The component can be rotated in 90 degree increments or mirrored against the X/Y axis. Note: The taper data is stored within the component itself, and saved in the design file. Libraries can be changed at anytime without effecting existing component.

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The position of the wiper is selected in percent of rotation: 0% meaning the counter clockwise (CCW) position and 100% representing the full clockwise (CW) position. The value can be entered directly or adjusted by use of the slider. The resolution is 0.1% increments. To enable the use of taps, select the number of taps in the list box. The tap A, B, C position edit fields will be enabled/disabled as needed. The available tapers from the current library are shown in the data grid. To load a new taper, select the taper in the grid and press the Load button. The taper currently in use by the pot is shown in the Taper Data group box. The graph displays the resistance ratio in percent of R1-2/ R1-3. The Global Editing check boxes can be used to set various parameters for all of the same type components in the circuit at once.

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4.13 Switch Component

The switch component has selectable positions from 1 to 26, and includes parameters for ON resistance and OFF leakage capacitance. The equivalent model for a 3-position switch is shown here, with the ON State in the A position. The switch can also be placed in the NONE state. All of the nodes of a switch must be connected to another component in the circuit. They cannot be left hanging.

The component editor displays the origin X/Y values, relative to the circuit origin. All units are mils (1/1000 inch). The component can be rotated in 90 degree increments or mirrored against the X/Y axis. The Global Editing check boxes can be used to set various parameters for all of the same type components in the circuit at once.

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4.14 Impedance Component

The Impedance Component provides the capability to import a complex impedance curve as a two terminal device. This is very useful for working with the actual measured impedance of inductors or other special components. The impedance function can also be switched to a simple fixed resistance if desired. A short text description can be entered which is also displayed inside the component symbol. The component editor displays the origin X/Y values, relative to the circuit origin. All units are mils (1/1000 inch). The component can be rotated in 90 degree increments or mirrored against the X/Y axis. The Global Editing check box can be used to set the parameters for all of the same type components in the circuit at once. The Impedance Data group box has three different tabs: Parameters, View Graph, View Data. The parameter tab is used to define the impedance function. The View Graph displays the actual impedance curve, and the View Data displays a tabular listing of the actual frequency points contained in the curve. The graph displays the curve based on the current system analysis frequency range. This is not necessarily the same frequency range defined by the imported data points. The program performs data interpolation automatically. The operation buttons Guide, Cut, Copy, Paste, and Delete are used to manage the curve data. The impedance curve can be loaded from the Guide Curve library or pasted from the Clipboard. It can also be copied to the Clipboard.

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When the Guide button is pressed, another dialog will open to allow an impedance curve to be selected. The data is copied into the Impedance component. All impedance curve data is stored within the Impedance component.

The View Graph panel will display the magnitude and phase of the impedance curve data. The system analysis frequency range is used, and the vertical scales are chosen automatically.

The View Data panel will display a tabular listing of the actual frequency data points stored within the Impedance component.

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4.15 Opamp Component

The opamp component contains a mathematical model for AC analysis. Parameters for input/output impedance, complex gain function, and voltage/ current noise are provided. Using a mathematical model, rather than a circuit model, dramatically increases the speed of analysis. Model parameter sets are selected and loaded from the opamp library. There are 11 parameters that define the opamp model: Name A short text identifier. This is displayed inside the opamp symbol and is generally the model name of the original device. Description Any additional notes about the model can be placed in this field. DC Gain The maximum open loop gain in dB that it reaches at 0Hz. GBW The gain bandwidth is the frequency where the open loop gain falls to 0dB. Phase Margin The difference in degrees between the phase at the GBW frequency and -180. Rin The open loop differential input impedance. Rout The open loop output impedance.

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Enoise The mid/high frequency input noise voltage density in V/RtHz. Inoise The mid/high frequency input noise current density in A/RtHz. Freq-En The low frequency corner of the flicker noise voltage in Hz. Freq-In The low frequency corner of the flicker noise current in Hz.

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The available models from the current library are shown in the data grid. To load a new model, select the model in the grid and press the Load button. The model currently in use by the opamp is shown in the Model Curves group box and the Component group box. The component editor displays the origin X/Y values, relative to the circuit origin. All units are mils (1/1000 inch). The component can be rotated in 90 degree increments or mirrored against the X/Y axis. The Global Editing check boxes can be used to set various parameters for all of the same type components in the circuit at once. Note: The model data is stored within the component itself, and saved in the design file. Libraries can be changed at anytime without effecting existing component data.

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4.16 Generator Component

The generator is the essential voltage/current source for all circuits. At least one generator must be present in any circuit, but more than one generator is also possible. This is common for analog passive crossovers, where a different generator is used to drive each network section. The circuit simulator automatically computes the impedance load on each generator and presents this data as a System curve. It also generates another curve which is the combined impedance of all in parallel. The generator can produce a fixed or varying voltage based on the selections in the dialog. It can also produce a fixed or varying output impedance. The Voltage & Impedance Data group box has three different tabs: Parameters, View Graph, View Data. The parameter tab is used to define the output voltage and impedance function. The View Graph panel displays the actual voltage or impedance curve, depending on which control had the previous focus in the Parameters tab. The View Data panel displays a tabular listing of the actual frequency points contained in the voltage or impedance curve. The graph displays the curves based on the current system analysis frequency range. This is not necessarily the same frequency range defined by the imported data points. The program performs data interpolation automatically. The operation buttons Guide, Cut, Copy, Paste, and Delete are used to manage the curve data. The voltage and impedance curves can be loaded from the Guide Curve library or pasted from the Clipboard. It can also be copied to the Clipboard. The operation for voltage or impedance is selected based on which of the two combo boxes is focused at the time the operation button is pressed.

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The component editor displays the origin X/Y values, relative to the circuit origin. All units are mils (1/1000 inch). The component can be rotated in 90 degree increments or mirrored against the X/Y axis. The Global Editing check boxes can be used to set various parameters for all of the same type components in the circuit at once. Note: The custom curve data is stored within the component itself, and saved in the design file. System or Guide curves can be changed at anytime without effecting existing component data.

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When the Guide button is pressed, another dialog will open to allow a voltage or impedance curve to be selected. The data is copied into the Generator component. All curve data is stored within the Generator component.

The View Graph will display the magnitude and phase of either the voltage or impedance curve data. The system analysis frequency range is used, and the vertical scales are chosen automatically.

The View Data will display a tabular listing of the actual frequency data points stored within the Generator component, for either the Voltage or Impedance curves.

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4.17 Transfer Function Component

The Transfer Function component provides the ability to insert custom transfer functions as a block into a circuit. The input and output of the TF component is ungrounded which enables it to be utilized in floating applications. The TF component can be used to produce all kinds of various isolated voltage/ current sources, controlled by voltage/current signals. It provides a group of standard functions for selection and also supports arbitrary functions. The TF component also has finite input and output impedance. There are 14 built-in transfer functions provided. These are generally 1st or 2nd order filter functions, and are detailed later in this section. They provide a quick means to imbed an ideal analog transfer function within a circuit. The Parameters group box contains the editing fields for the standard filter parameters, as well as controls for Rin and Rout. Options are also provided to reverse the phase or invert the transfer function. To load an arbitrary curve transfer function, select Curve and then the options in the lower group box will be enabled. The operation buttons Guide, Cut, Copy, Paste, and Delete are used to manage the curve data. The Ratio (transfer function) curve can be loaded from the Guide Curve library or pasted from the Clipboard. It can also be copied to the Clipboard.

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The View Graph panel displays the actual Ratio (transfer function) response. The View Data panel displays a tabular listing of the actual frequency points contained in the Ratio curve. The standard functions are computed based on the current system analysis frequency range to produce curve data. The graph displays the curves based on the current system analysis frequency range. This is not necessarily the same frequency range defined by the imported data points. The program performs data interpolation automatically. When the Guide button is pressed, another dialog will open to allow a Ratio curve to be selected. The data is copied into the component. All curve data is stored within the component.

The View Graph panel will display the magnitude and phase of the transfer function. The system analysis frequency range is used, and the vertical scales are chosen automatically.

The View Data panel will display a tabular listing of the actual frequency data points stored within the component.

The component editor displays the origin X/Y values, relative to the circuit origin. All units are mils (1/1000 inch). The component can be rotated in 90 degree increments or mirrored against the X/Y axis. The Global Editing check boxes can be used to set various parameters for all of the same type components in the circuit at once. Note: The transfer function Ratio curve is stored within the component itself, and saved in the design file. System or Guide curves can be changed at anytime without effecting existing component data.

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s LP1 -

1st Order Lowpass Filter

Filter Parameters: Fp = Frequency of the pole Ao = Gain

H ( s) =

Ao s 1+

wp

s = jw w = 2p f w p = 2p fp

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s HP1 -

1st Order Highpass Filter

Filter Parameters: Fp = Frequency of the pole Ao = Gain Fz=Fp for this filter.

Ao H ( s) =
1+ s = jw w = 2p f w p = 2p fp

s
wp

s
wp

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s AP1 -

1st Order Allpass Filter

Filter Parameters: Fp = Frequency of the pole Ao = Gain Fz=Fp for this filter. The magnitude response of this filter is flat.

Ao Á 1 H ( s) =
s = jw w = 2p f w p = 2p fp 1+

Ê Ë

s ˆ ¯ w p˜

s
wp

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s LP2 -

2nd Order Lowpass Filter

Filter Parameters: Fp = Frequency of the pole conjugate pair Qp = Q of the pole conjugate pair Ao = Gain

H ( s) =

Ao s2 1+ + Qpw p w p 2 s

s = jw w = 2p f w p = 2p fp

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s HP2 -

2nd Order Highpass Filter

Filter Parameters: Fp = Frequency of the pole conjugate pair Qp = Q of the pole conjugate pair Ao = Gain Fz=Fp for this filter.

Ao H ( s) =
1+ s = jw w = 2p f w p = 2p fp

s2 w p2
+

s
Qpw p

s2 w p2

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s AP2 -

2nd Order Allpass Filter

Filter Parameters: Fp = Frequency of the pole conjugate pair Qp = Q of the pole conjugate pair Ao = Gain Fz=Fp and Qz=Qp for this filter. The magnitude response of this filter is flat.

Ao Á 1 H ( s) =
s = jw w = 2p f w p = 2p fp 1+

Ê Ë

s s2 ˆ + 2˜ Qpw p w p ¯

s
Qpw p

+

s2 w p2

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s BP1 -

1st Order Bandpass Filter

Filter Parameters: Fp = Frequency of the pole conjugate pair Qp = Q of the pole conjugate pair Ao = Gain Fz=Fp and Qz=Qp for this filter. Bandpass and Bandreject filters are defined in terms of their pole pairs. A 1st order Bandpass is a second order polynomial.

Ao Á H ( s) =

Ê s ˆ Ë Qpw p ˜ ¯

s2 + 1+ Qpw p w p 2 s

s = jw w = 2p f w p = 2p fp

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s BR1 -

1st Order Bandreject Filter

Filter Parameters: Fz = Frequency of the zero conjugate pair Fp = Frequency of the pole conjugate pair Qp = Q of the pole conjugate pair Ao = Gain Bandpass and Bandreject filters are defined in terms of their pole pairs. A 1st order Bandreject is a second order polynomial. This filter supports asymmetrical Bandreject filters (Fz<>Fp).

H ( s) =

Ê s2 ˆ Ao Á 1 + 2 ˜ Ë wz ¯ 1+

s
Qpw p

+

s2 w p2

s = jw w = 2p f w p = 2p fp w z = 2p fz

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s LP½ -

Half Order Lowpass Filter

Filter Parameters: Fp = Frequency of the pole Ao = Gain

H ( s) =

Ao
1+ s wp

s = jw w = 2p f w p = 2p fp

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s HP½ -

Half Order Highpass Filter

Filter Parameters: Fp = Frequency of the pole Ao = Gain Fz=Fp for this filter.

s H (s) = Ao
s = jw w = 2p f w p = 2p fp
wp

1+

s
wp

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s LEQ -

Lowpass Equalization Filter

Filter Parameters: Fp = Frequency of the pole. Ao = Boost/Cut Gain at low frequencies

s Ï ¸ Ô Ao + w p Ô , Ao ≥ 1 Ô Ô Ô 1+ s Ô wp Ô Ô Ô Ô H ( s) = Ì ˝ Ô Ô s Ô Ô 1+ wp Ô , Ao £ 1Ô s Ô Ô 1 Ô Ô Ao + w p ˛ Ó s = jw w = 2p f w p = 2p fp

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s HEQ -

Highpass Equalization Filter

Filter Parameters: Fp = Frequency of the pole Ao = Boost/Cut Gain at high frequencies

s Ï 1 + Ao Ô wp Ô s Ô 1+ wp Ô Ô H ( s) = Ì Ô s Ô 1+ wp Ô s Ô Ô1 + Aow p Ó s = jw w = 2p f w p = 2p fp

¸ Ô , Ao ≥ 1Ô Ô Ô Ô ˝ Ô Ô , Ao £ 1Ô Ô Ô ˛

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s BEQ -

Bandpass Equalization Filter

Filter Parameters: Fp = Frequency of the pole conjugate pair Qp = Q of the pole conjugate pair Ao = Boost/Cut Gain at Fp frequency

Ï s2 s 1 + Ao + 2 Ô Qpw p w p Ô 2 Ô 1+ s + s Ô Qpw p w p 2 Ô H ( s) = Ì Ô 2 Ô 1+ s + s 2 Qpw p w p Ô Ô s s2 1+ + 2 Ô AoQpw p w p Ô Ó s = jw w = 2p f w p = 2p fp

¸ Ô , Ao ≥ 1Ô Ô Ô Ô ˝ Ô Ô , Ao £ 1Ô Ô Ô Ô ˛

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s SINC

-

Sin(x)/x Sampling Filter

Filter Parameters: Fs = Frequency of sampling Ao = Gain

H (s) = Ao
w 2 fs s = jw w = 2p f l=

sin (l ) 2 fs e l

-s

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4.18 Buffer Component

The Buffer component can provide three precision functions: invert the polarity of a signal, change the gain of a signal, or delay a signal. Both the input and output are ground referenced and have finite impedance. The gain and delay are specified in high precision. The gain can be entered in either dB or by linear ratio. The delay can be entered in seconds or by frequency, with the assumption that T=1/f. A check box for reversing the phase/polarity is also provided. The component editor displays the origin X/Y values, relative to the circuit origin. All units are mils (1/1000 inch). The component can be rotated in 90 degree increments or mirrored against the X/Y axis. The Global Editing check boxes can be used to set various parameters for all of the same type components in the circuit at once.

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4.19 Summer Component

The Summer component enables signals to be added or subtracted. It has two or three inputs, each with selectable polarity. The inputs and output have finite impedance and are ground referenced. This component is useful for taking differential measurements and/or producing single ended outputs from balanced circuits. The component editor displays the origin X/Y values, relative to the circuit origin. All units are mils (1/1000 inch). The component can be rotated in 90 degree increments or mirrored against the X/Y axis. The Global Editing check boxes can be used to set various parameters for all of the same type components in the circuit at once.

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4.20 Switched Capacitor Network

Non-Inverting basic SC resistor structure

The Switched Capacitor Network (SCN) models the frequency domain sampling behavior of switched capacitor resistor structures. There are two possible polarities: positive (non-inverting) and negative (inverting). The typical types of structures represented by the SCN are shown here on the right. When bi-phase switches operate at the sampling frequency Fs, the capacitor C is alternatively charged and discharged through the opposite terminals.

Inverting stray insensitive SC resistor structure

This process gives rise to an average current flow between the terminals as I=C*(V1-V2)*Fs. Rearranging the terms with respect to the differential voltage yields the equivalent resistance R=1/(Fs*C). However this resistance is an asymptotic value that is only approached at low frequencies relative to the sampling frequency. Due to the discrete time sampling process, both magnitude and phase change as the frequency is increased. A typical application of the SCN is to form an integrator as shown here. In this case a negative SCN is used to reverse the polarity. Since the opamp inverts the phase again, the complete integrator has positive polarity.

Integrator Application

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The circuit shown here uses two SCN's: one in a voltage divider, and the other in an integrator. If normal resistors were used, the voltage divider output should ideally have a flat -6dB output at all frequencies. Likewise, the integrator would have a -20dB/Decade response at all frequencies. In the Magnitude graph below the actual response using SCN components is shown for both outputs. Each curve shows nulls occurring at high frequencies. This is due to the sampling process. On the following page the Phase Response and Group Delay graphs are shown. The phase changes as frequency increases. Also the group delay for both curves show a delay of approximately 500uS for each output. This is the expected delay of 1/2 the sample clock period.

Example of SCN use with Voltage Divider and Integrator

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In the Parameters group box, editing fields are provided for the equivalent resistance R, the sampling clock frequency Fs, and the capacitance C. These parameters are equation related and monitored by the program. Changes made to any one parameter will cause the program to make corresponding changes in another parameter. For example, if you enter the R and Fs the program will calculate the C value. The Polarity group box allows you to choose either Positive or Negative polarity for the SCN (Non-Inverting/Inverting). The component editor displays the origin X/Y values, relative to the circuit origin. All units are mils (1/1000 inch). The component can be rotated in 90 degree increments or mirrored against the X/Y axis. The Global Editing check boxes can be used to set various parameters for all of the same type components in the circuit at once.

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4.21 FIR Filter Component

The FIR filter component models the frequency domain behavior of a digital FIR filter. The FIR component can also perform an interpolation or decimation function as defined by the M parameter. The schematic symbol displays the order of the filter N, the sampling frequency Fs, and the sampling frequency ratio M. Finite input and output resistance parameters are also included to enhance the analog interface. The FIR component provides a simulation of finite coefficient effects on the response of the filter. This can be useful in evaluating the precision requirements of a given filter, or for the comparison of different filters. FIR filters are created and loaded with coefficients using the Synthesis menu operations, by entering the values manually, or by importing the values from a text file. The Component group box includes the fields for Rin and Rout. These values define a pseudo input and output resistance for the block component which can be useful for modeling loading effects between stages, if so desired. The FIR Data group box provides editing, processing options, and viewing of the actual filter response.
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Coefficients The Coefficient panel offers display and editing of the coefficients. The Parameters group box contains fields for the Order (N), frequency sampling ratio (M), and the filter sampling frequency (Fs). For M = 1, the input and output sampling frequencies are equal. For M = +2, an interpolator is defined where the input frequency is 1/2 the output frequency. For M = -2, a decimator is defined where the output frequency is 1/ 2 the input frequency. Fs is always the highest sampling frequency. The Statistics group box displays the largest coef value and the sum of all coefs. This data is sometimes useful for certain types of filters. Processing From this group box you can import/export coefficients, and perform processing operations. There are seven different transformations provided in this panel. The first processing operation is Scaling of the FIR coefficients. The coefficients will be scaled by the linear ratio given in the edit field. You can use the [...] button to enter the value in dB as well. This feature is very handy for scaling the filter’s amplitude up or down, or changing the polarity. The next processing operation is Zero. This option will change all of the coefficient values to zero. Useful when you wish to produce only a time delay by zeroing all coefficients, and then entering a single coefficient as unity. The Transform (ZN ) processing operation is Exponentiation. The FIR filter will be raised to the integer power given in the edit field, thus multiplying the order of the filter by this value. Very useful for generating interpolation filters. The Change Sign of Odd Taps operation will mirror the filter's response around the Fs/4 frequency. For example, this will produce an image Highpass filter from a Lowpass filter.

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The Subtract Filter from Half Delay operation will mirror the filter's response around the Fc frequency. It can only be applied to even order FIR filters, and only has relevance for linear phase filters. For example, this operation will produce a complementary Highpass filter from a Lowpass filter. The Factor MinPhase and Factor MaxPhase buttons perform spectral factorization of the FIR filter. The filter order must be even, and the resulting filter order will be one-half the original order. The original filter must be linear phase and should have a unipolar type response. However in many cases usable min/max phase filters can be produced from the standard bipolar type. Factoring a linear phase filter has much the same effect as taking the square root of the filter's response. This means that the passband ripple and stopband attenuation will be cut in half. If you wish to create a min/max phase filter with the same ripple and attenuation specifications as the original, you can either design the linear phase filter with double order parameters (order, atten, ripple), or cascade two identical factored stages. The two methods produce similar but not identical results. View Graph The View Graph panel display the magnitude and phase of the FIR filter response. The system analysis frequency range is used. The vertical scale is adjustable here, to allow better viewing of the stopband or passband regions.

The Global Editing check boxes can be used to set various parameters for all of the same type components in the circuit at once. The component editor displays the Origin X/Y values, relative to the circuit origin. All units are mils (1/1000 inch). The component can be rotated in 90 degree increments or mirrored against the X/Y axis.

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Export The Export button opens a dialog as shown below. Many options are provided here to export the coefficient data in several different numeric formats as well as table listing formats. Both floating point and fixed point formats are supported, as well as Hex and Binary in Two's Complement, Sign-Magnitude, and Offset Binary. Scaling can also be performed for the fixed point formats. The maximum scaling factor is precomputed based on the values of the coefficients. A preview window shows a sample of how the output will appear. A header is also added to the file which is not shown.

When the Ok button is pressed, another dialog will be presented to select the file name/path to export. The file select dialog is shown below.

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Import The Import button opens a dialog as shown here. You may choose the file containing the FIR filter coefficients you wish to import. When the file is selected, the dialog below is opened. The contents of the file itself are presented in the left window for easy viewing. The right window shows a numerical preview listing of how the coefficients would be interpreted and their values.

Because there are so many different ways that digital filter coefficients can be written, you must define what kind of data is contained in the file. By viewing the lower window, you can easily determine if the proper options have been selected. If the format is not correct, you will see bad data in the right window. Using the features of this dialog; Real, Integer, Hex, and Binary coefficients can all be converted into their true floating point real form. The listing formats supported are based around the formats exported by the similar function previously described.

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Editor The Editor button opens a dialog as shown here. You may choose the file containing the FIR filter data you wish to open with your favorite text or code editor.

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4.22 IIR Filter Component

The IIR filter component models the frequency domain behavior of a digital IIR filter. This component can represent a multi-section IIR, with the sections configured in either Parallel or Cascade. The IIR component can also perform an interpolation or decimation function as defined by the M parameter. The schematic symbol displays the order of each filter section N, number of sections and configuration, the sampling frequency Fs, and the sampling frequency ratio M. Finite input and output resistance parameters are also included to enhance the analog interface. The IIR component provides a simulation of finite coefficient effects on the response of the filter. This can be useful in evaluating the precision requirements of a given filter, or for the comparison of different filters. IIR filters are created and loaded with coefficients using the Synthesis menu operations, by entering the values manually, or by importing the values from a text file. The Component group box includes the fields for Rin and Rout. These values define a pseudo input and output resistance for the block component which can be useful for modeling loading effects between stages, if so desired. The IIR Data group box provides editing, processing options, and viewing of the actual filter response.
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Coefficients The Coefficient panel offers display and editing of the coefficients. The Parameters group box contains fields for the Order (N), frequency sampling ratio (M), and the filter sampling frequency (Fs). For M = 1, the input and output sampling frequencies are equal. For M = +2, an interpolator is defined where the input frequency is 1/2 the output frequency. For M = -2, a decimator is defined where the output frequency is 1/ 2 the input frequency. Fs is always the highest sampling frequency. There are two coefficient columns, one for the (A) numerator terms, and the other (B) for the denominator terms. The coefficients based on the order of each IIR section are shown here. Processing This panel provides controls for changing the (A) numerator coefficients by a ratio. This feature is very handy for scaling the filter's amplitude up or down, or changing the polarity. The (A) coefficients in all of the sections will be scaled. Realization Transformation This radio group displays the current type of IIR filter, and allows you to transform the filter from one type to another. When you select a different realization, you will be prompted to confirm your choice. In some cases it is not possible to represent a filter function in all types. Identical poles are always a problem for Parallel realizations. In these cases the transformation may fail, and you should probably use the Cancel button to abort your changes and retain the original filter data. View Graph The View Graph panel will display the magnitude and phase of the FIR filter response. The system analysis frequency range is used. The vertical scale is adjustable.

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Export The Export button opens a dialog as shown below. Many options are provided here to export the coefficient data in several different numeric formats as well as table listing formats. Both floating point and fixed point formats are supported, as well as Hex and Binary in Two's Complement, Sign-Magnitude, and Offset Binary. Scaling can also be performed for the fixed point formats. The maximum scaling factor is precomputed for both the numerator and denominator. A preview window shows a sample of how the output will appear. A header is also added to the file which is not shown. When the Ok button is pressed, another dialog will be presented to select the file name/path to export. The file select dialog is shown below.

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Import The Import button opens a dialog as shown here. You may choose the file containing the IIR filter coefficients you wish to import. When the file is selected, the dialog below is opened. The contents of the file itself are presented in the top window for easy viewing. The bottom window shows a numerical preview listing of how the coefficients would be interpreted and their values.

Because there are so many different ways that digital filter coefficients can be written, you must define what kind of data is contained in the file. By viewing the lower window, you can easily determine if the proper options have been selected. If the format is not correct, you will see bad data in the lower window. Using the features of this dialog; Real, Integer, Hex, and Binary coefficients can all be converted into their true floating point real form. The listing formats supported are based around the formats exported by the similar function previously described.

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Editor/View File The Editor button opens a dialog as shown here. You may choose the file containing the IIR filter data you wish to open with your favorite text editor.

The Global Editing check boxes can be used to set various parameters for all of the same type components in the circuit at once. The component editor displays the Origin X/Y values, relative to the circuit origin. All units are mils (1/1000 inch). The component can be rotated in 90 degree increments or mirrored against the X/Y axis.

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4.23 Transducer Component

The Transducer component is undoubtedly the most important component of the electroacoustic circuit simulator. This component defines both the electrical and acoustical properties of the transducer, and also specifies the 3-D coordinate location of the transducer on the enclosure. Full support for dual-voice coil transducers is also provided. This component carries all the required measured SPL and Impedance data within its own data structure. In reality each of these components is a virtual curve library itself requiring up to 10MB of memory per circuit instance. Both On and Off axis data can be contained within a Transducer component. The simulation of system polar response requires the availability of measured Off-axis SPL data for each transducer in the system. The angular resolution of this data is solely up to the user. If no polar simulations are of interest, then Off-axis data for the transducer may be omitted. This is optional. In the case of dual voice coils, the schematic symbol will be drawn with four (4) terminals. Special dual voice coil impedance data must be supplied to simulate this type of transducer correctly. The component editor displays the Origin X/Y values, relative to the circuit origin. All units are mils (1/ 1000 inch). The component can be rotated in 90 degree increments or mirrored against the X/Y axis.

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Setup Panel The Setup tab panel displays numerous parameter fields to define the characteristics of the transducer. Understanding their meaning and use is very important. The Impedance and SPL curves for each driver are measured individually on the actual enclosure. The conditions of those measurements are defined here. Voice Coil Origin This is the 3D coordinate of the transducer relative to the origin. The first decision which must be made when starting any design is the location of the enclosure origin. A point must be chosen as the X,Y,Z reference on which all coordinates will be based. Generally this is somewhere on the surface of the baffle board of the enclosure. Two common origins are either the center of the tweeter or the center of the baffle board. The choice for the origin location is entirely up to the user. However, keep in mind that the On-Axis and polar plot computations will be calculated relative to this position. The On-Axis position has a coordinate of [0,0,Z] with Z being the simulation distance. Horizontal and Vertical polar angles are also taken relative to this location. Note: Unless otherwise specified, all coordinates and distances are relative to the enclosure origin. SPL Magnitude Reference These values define the conditions under which the SPL data was measured. The drive voltage and distance [0,0,Z] must be specified. SPL Phase At There are two possible choices for the phase data contained in your SPL curves: Voice Coil or Microphone. These choices denote the relative location for the phase data. If the phase data contains no path delay, then the Voice Coil option should be selected. This means the data represents the phase at the voice coil. However, if the phase data contains the full path delay of the Mic Distance parameter then the Microphone selection must be used. This means the data contains the true phase at the actual measurement position. Voice Coil If you are simulating a dual voice coil transducer, select Dual otherwise select Single. If you select Dual additional impedance data will be required. Reverse Checking this option will reverse the polarity of the transducer.

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SPL/Imp Curves On this panel the required On-Axis SPL and Impedance curves are input by the user. The curves can be supplied from either the Guide Curve library or pasted from the Windows Clipboard. If a Single voice coil transducer is in use, only a single pair of SPL/Impedance curves will be required. For a dual voice coil transducer, one SPL curve and two Impedance curves are needed. Note: The SPL curve here is the On-Axis data. This data is taken at the the 0,0,Z coordinate which is NOT necessarily the OnAxis location for the transducer itself. i.e. The On-Axis SPL curve for every transducer in the enclosure must be taken at the same physical location. Before performing any button operations you must select one of the curve entries in the grid box. The operations you perform will control the data for that entry. These entries display the kind of data needed, the name of the curve, and the points contained in the curve entry. Pressing the Guide button will open another dialog to select a curve from the Guide Curve library. You will need to have previously imported the data into the library. The Cut button will delete the Transducer data curve entry while copying it to the Windows Clipboard. The Copy button will copy the curve entry to the Clipboard. The data could then be pasted into the Guide Curve library. This provides the means to transfer data out of the Transducer component. The Paste button will paste the data from the curve currently in the Clipboard into the Transducer curve entry. This assumes that there is a previously copied curve(s) already in the Clipboard. If not the button is grayed out. The Delete button will delete the Transducer data curve entry. Dual Voice Coil Data Curves Special data is required for dual voice coil transducers. Two impedance curves are taken with different coil configurations and one SPL curve. With this data the program can then simulate response of the transducer under any drive conditions. The two impedance curves are taken on one coil with the other coil open/shorted. The SPL curve is taken driving one coil with the other open.

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SPL Off-Axis Curves If you desire polar simulations then you will need to supply data for this grid box as well. Up to 49 curves can be utilized defining both the Horz and Vert response. The angular resolution of the curves is up to the user. You can supply Horz data, Vert data, or both. The type of curve is selected by Clicking over the Axis column in the grid, or by using the All H or All V buttons below. Because many curves can be involved with Off-Axis data, one of the best ways to input the curves is by Copy/Paste through the Windows Clipboard. Multiple curve paste is supported. Once a group of curves is located in a curve library, it may be copied as a block of curves and Pasted here at once together. Note: You do not need to specify On-Axis (0Deg) value curves here. To further automate the process, the curve names will be scanned for identification text. If you name the curves with values representing the angular position in degrees and an H or V for Horz/Vert, then these values will be picked up and setup in the appropriate fields automatically. Regardless of your input method, the Axis and Degrees values in the grid columns must be set to match the curves you supply. Note: Remember that the Off-Axis angular values are relative to the enclosure origin and not the origin of the transducer itself. Before performing any curve button operations you must select one of the curve entries in the grid box. The operations you perform will affect that entry. Pressing the Guide button will open another dialog to select a curve from the Guide Curve library. You will need to have previously imported the data into the library. The Cut button will delete the Transducer data curve entry while copying it to the Windows Clipboard. The Copy button will copy the curve entry to the Clipboard. The data could then be pasted into the Guide Curve library. This provides the means to transfer data out of the Transducer component. The Paste button will paste the data from the curve currently in the Clipboard into the Transducer curve entry. This assumes that there is a previously copied curve already in the Clipboard. If not the Paste button is grayed out. The Delete button will delete the Transducer data curve entry.

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View Graph This panel will display a graphical view of any of the data curves maintained within the Transducer component. The curve displayed is based on any previously focused curve entry in either of the preceding grid box panels. To display a different curve, select it in one of the grid boxes and then return to this tab panel. The name of the curve being displayed is shown above the graph.

View Data This panel will display a tabular listing of the numeric values in a data curve maintained within the Transducer component. The curve displayed is based on any previously focused curve entry in either of the preceding grid box panels. To display a different curve, select it in one of the grid boxes and then return to this tab panel. The name of the curve being displayed is shown above the graph.

Note: All of the SPL and Impedance curves must contain valid phase data. Note: Minimum Phase data curves are of the Voice Coil phase type. Note: If you are not including Off-Axis data, then the measurement distance for the On-Axis SPL data should ideally be the same as the simulation distance.

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5.1 New

The File | New menu item starts a new design. The accelerator key CTRL-N can be used to activate this item using the keyboard, or the tool button as shown above. If your existing design has changes, and has not yet been saved, you will be prompted to save it first. File | New changes the name of the design to Untitled, and initializes and/or clears some of the various system parameters. You will be required to set a real name before the program will allow you to save the design file.

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5.2 Open

The File | Open menu item opens an existing design. The accelerator key CTRL-O can be used to activate this item using the keyboard, or the tool button as shown above. If your existing design has changes, and has not yet been saved, you will be prompted to save it first. File | Open presents a dialog to choose the design file to open. Design files have an LCD extension. Depending on the various options in the File | Preferences dialog, different parameters can be updated from design files, or retained as global settings across design files. Note: By default the program always loads your last design when launched.

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5.3 Reopen

The File | Reopen menu item opens an existing design, by one of the previously stored 12 paths. The sub menu adjacent to the drop down menu displays the possible choices. These paths are updated based on your previously opened design files. The tool button shown above can also be used, which will present a dialog with the same path choices as shown below. Each path is listed on a button for selection. If your existing design has changes, and has not yet been saved, you will be prompted to save it first.

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5.4 Wizard

The File | Wizard menu item will open a series of dialogs which provide an easy and quick means of designing a crossover. The accelerator key CTRL-W can be used to activate this item using the keyboard, or the tool button as shown above. Prior to starting the crossover Wizard you must import all of the Impedance and SPL curves necessary for your design. This data must already be located in the Guide Curve library before starting the Wizard. The Wizard will ask you a short series of simple questions, and then will automatically layout the complete crossover circuit for you. It will also optimize the crossover design. Using the Wizard is one of the easiest ways to get an initial crossover setup. However once the Wizard has completed its tasks, you can certainly edit, change, or modify the design as you would any other design. The Wizard is simply another means of starting a design. In some cases the results from the Wizard may be very close to what you desire. The Wizard was constructed to perform common crossover designs. It is not meant to provide every possible design permutation and special exception. For those situations you will need to modify the final Wizard design, or construct your own design manually as normal.

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Step-1 The first step is to choose what type of crossover you desire, and define how many sections there will be. These choices will control what parameters and other options will be needed in the following steps. The selections here are self explanatory.

Step-2 In this step the order and frequency points of the crossover objectives are defined. These are the alignments to which the response will be optimized. There may also be some optional crossover items available, depending on the type of crossover design. Only one of the four tabs will be available, and this selection will be made for you based on the type of design. Enter the crossover frequencies you desire, and choose the options you want for the crossover design. The following describes the various options. Analog Passive Order is the alignment objective order for the crossover sections. Use Conjugate Networks will add special circuit elements which compensate the transducer's impedance, to produce a nearly resistive load for the networks. Optimize Filters for SPL will enable optimization of the crossover sections for the flatest possible SPL response. Include Conjugates in SPL Optimization will enable the conjugate components for optimization.

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Analog Active Order is the alignment objective order for the crossover sections. Optimize Filters for SPL will enable optimization of the crossover sections for the flatest possible SPL response. Digital IIR Order is the alignment objective order for the crossover sections. Optimize Filters for SPL will enable optimization of the crossover sections for the flatest possible SPL response. Fs is the sampling frequency to be used for the IIR transformation. Digital FIR With FIR filters the slope (dB/Oct) for each crossover section will be different. The Transition Width selection controls a general design parameter for the width of these crossover regions. Equalize SPL Response will create another FIR filter designed to produce a flat response from the system. The Time Align Z Offsets will create delay sections to align the transducers. Fs is the sampling frequency to be used for the FIR synthesis, and Atten is the minimum attenuation desired in the stopbands. Step-3 Here you will define the location of the data curves for each of the crossover sections, the actual filter orders, and also the coordinates of each transducer. Click through each of the five tabs for each section to define all of the curve data. If a particular section is not used, it will be grayed out. Choose the proper SPL and Impedance curve entries in the Guide Curve library where you placed the transducer data. The Order selection defines the actual filter order to use for each crossover section in the design. This is often not the same as the optimization objective order for the alignment. The filter order is often less than the objective order, due to the non-flat response of the transducer itself.

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Voice Coil Origin X,Y,Z This is the 3D coordinate of the transducer relative to the origin. The first decision which must be made when starting any design is the location of the enclosure origin. A point must be chosen as the X,Y,Z reference on which all coordinates will be based. Generally this is somewhere on the surface of the baffle board of the enclosure. Two common origins are either the center of the tweeter or the center of the baffle board. The choice for the origin location is entirely up to the user. However, keep in mind that the On-Axis and polar plot computations will be calculated relative to this position. The On-Axis position has a coordinate of [0,0,Z] with Z being the simulation distance. Horizontal and Vertical polar angles are also taken relative to this location. SPL Magnitude Reference These values define the conditions under which the SPL data was measured. The drive voltage and distance [0,0,Z] must be specified. SPL Phase At There are two possible choices for the phase data contained in your SPL curves: Voice Coil or Microphone. These choices denote the relative location for the phase data. If the phase data contains no path delay, then the Voice Coil option should be selected. This means the data represents the phase at the voice coil. However, if the phase data contains the full path delay of the Mic Distance parameter then the Microphone selection must be used. This means the data contains the true phase at the actual measurement position. Step-4 When optimizing the crossover sections, the frequency region where the optimization will be performed must be specified. This is shown as the Red line across a portion of the transducer's response. You can change the limits of the crossover optimization frequency range by simply clicking the mouse near the ends of the Red line. You can also use the Default button to initialize the regions to a typically useful range. The section to be controlled is selected by the buttons shown above the graph.

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In most cases you will want to choose a portion of the passband and stopband for each section. You may need to run through the Wizard several times using different frequency limits if there are optimization problems in one area. Trial and error is probably the best approach.

Some regions of the transducer's response may not be controllable by the crossover. For example the tweeter resonance shown here at 25kHz is not included in the optimization. There are no crossover components that could change this response.

Finished - Processing After Step-4 is completed, the processing begins. A summary dialog will be shown which lists the tasks completed along with the current task underway. Other dialogs will also appear and disappear depending on the type of crossover, the number of sections, and the options selected. Note: No user intervention is required until all of the dialogs are gone. The processing may take anywhere from 30 seconds to 15 minutes or more depending on the crossover design and the speed of your computer. There can be many tasks required to complete the design.

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When all the dialogs are gone the Wizard has finished. You should then inspect the circuit and response graphs. Since so much of the processing is dependent on user data and parameters, any number of things could go wrong with the automated design process due to improper or incorrect data. You may wish to repeat the Wizard any number of times, changing various conditions or parameters. You may wish to save each design with a different name to revisit them later. Note: The Wizard deletes any and all existing circuitry in the schematic.

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5.5 Save

The File | Save menu item saves the current design under its existing name. The accelerator key CTRL-S can be used to activate this item using the keyboard, or the tool button as shown above. If the design does not currently have a name, you will be directed to the SaveAs dialog to choose a name for the design. If the design does not have changes since it was last saved, this menu item and button will be grayed out. If the design has changes since it was last saved, they will be enabled. When saving design files, it is generally best to create a project folder under which all of your files for that project can be placed. This can include imported/exported data files, graphics files, etc. Design files have an extension of LCD. You should always use the default extension. It is not recommended that you use other extensions, or you may not recognize the files in the future.

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5.6 SaveAs

The File | SaveAs menu item saves the current design under a new name. The tool button as shown above can also be used to activate this item. A dialog will be presented to specify the file name and/or folder. When saving design files, it is generally best to create a project folder under which all of your files for that project can be placed. This can include imported/ exported data files, graphics files, etc.

Design files have an extension of LCD. You should always use the default extension. It is not recommended that you use other extensions, or you may not recognize the files in the future.

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5.7 Revert

The File | Revert menu item allows you to abort the current design file changes, and reload the last saved version of the design. The tool button as shown above can also be used to activate this item. A dialog will be presented to ask you to confirm this action. All changes to the design will be lost when the previously saved version is reloaded.

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5.8 Import Circuit Data

The File | Import Circuit Data menu item allows you to import just the circuit schematic data from another design file into the current design . The tool button as shown above can also be used to activate this item. A dialog will be presented to allow you to choose the design file to import. The schematic must be the currently selected graph window.

The component labels of the imported circuit will automatically increment as needed to comply with the existing circuit. This feature essentially merges the imported circuit with the existing circuit design. The existing circuit design will not be affected, but rather the imported circuit will be appended. The incoming circuit will initially have all the new components group selected. This enables easy positioning of the new group around the schematic sheet. Note: In order to use this feature, the schematic window must be focused.

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5.9 Convert LEAP4 DGL

The File | Convert LEAP4 DGL menu item performs conversion of the LEAP-4 DGL file data into the program. The dialog shown below will appear for selection of the DGL file. After you select the DGL file the file will be decoded and the entry data shown as below. There are 20 possible entries in a DGL library. However, only entries which have crossover type data will be enabled (with imported data, non TSL). In LEAP-4 each entry was an individual crossover section, so you will need to select those entries that comprise a multi-way system design. This could be 2,3,4 entries etc. depending on how many crossover sections there were. The Design Creation option will create a new LCD file or use the current.

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Clicking the properties button at the end of an entry will display a dialog as shown above. This allows you to view the internal DGL data for that entry.

After you click Ok, the selected DGL entries will be converted and a schematic will be constructed as shown below. The circuit components will be arranged automatically by the program, and connected with wires based on the node list from the DGL PNL/AFL entry. The layout will probably appear disorganized, with many crossing wires. This is because LEAP-4 contains no physical layout information for the schematic. You will need to rearrange the circuit as needed to place the components in a more logical and descriptive fashion. The Transducer components will be fully loaded with the curve data from the DGL entries.

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The conversion routine will pull as much data as possible out of the DGL entries. However you may still need to inspect, add, or modify parameters to complete the design in a compatible way for this program. If DGL corrective filters were used in the design, then these will appear as Transfer Function or Buffer components in the schematic. This will negate the ability to compute the section impedances, since these isolate the passive network circuitry from the generators. There are many parameters in this program that were not present in LEAP-4. For example the X,Y,Z transducer coordinates need to be specified. Proper values in these coordinates will eliminate the need for Buffer components and their delay, and restore the ability to compute impedance. Because of the substantial structural changes between LEAP-4 and this program, perfect conversion of the DGL entries into this format is not always possible. For example, the SPL phase data may contain delay which will not be suitable here, and needs to be removed and handled by the transducer coordinates. There are many other special situations which may arise and need to be handled by the user manually.

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5.10 Open Graph Setup

The File | Open Graph Setup menu item opens a graph setups file, and loads the configuration data into the current design. The tool button as shown above can also be used to activate this item. Graph setup files have an FSG extension. Graph setup files store configuration parameters such as colors, lines, fonts, and scale data. You can save these settings in a graph setup file, and then load them into design files without affecting the circuit data.

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5.11 Save Graph Setup

The File | Save Graph Setup menu item saves a graph setup file. The tool button as shown above can also be used to activate this item. Graph setup files store configuration parameters such as colors, lines, fonts, and scale data. These are taken from the current design and stored in the graph setup file. You can save these settings in a graph setup file, and then load them into design files without affecting the circuit or target data. File | Save Graph Setup presents a dialog to specify the graph file name and folder to save. You may choose to save graph setup files on a project basis, or place the files in the common Graph folder. Graph files have an extension of FSG. You should always use the default extension. It is not recommended that you use other extensions, or you may not recognize the files in the future.

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5.12 Print

The File | Print menu item is used to print the main graph window data. The accelerator key CTRL-P can be used to activate this item using the keyboard, or the tool button as shown above. The Print item opens a dialog for printing control. From here the artwork generated in the program can be printed to any output device currently supported in your Windows system.

The graphs used in the program have layouts of 10 inches wide by 8 inches high. The Component Parameters text listing can have multiple pages depending on the length of the data. Schematic pages can be one of five different sizes from 11x8½ inches up to 34x44 inches. Printing at a scale factor of 100% will require landscape orientation on 8½ x 11 letter size paper. This is the default mode for the printer setup. For portrait printing, use a reduced scale factor such as 80% or less.

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Page(s) to Print This group box provides check boxes to enable printing of the various graph windows. Choose which pages you wish to print. The All On / All Off buttons provide an easy means to enable/disable all of the check boxes at once. Note that the schematic page can be larger than 11x8½. If you need to print this at reduced scale factor from the other pages, you will need to print it separately from the other standard letter size pages. Printer Configuration This group box displays the configuration for the currently selected printer. When you start a print, this configuration will be used. To change the configuration use the Setup button at the bottom of the dialog box. Color Options This group box provides two options which control how the graphics are printed. If the Color/Gray option is selected, and you are printing to a Black & White device, the colors in the artwork will be dithered to produce gray levels. When the Black & White selection is used, all colors in the artwork graphics will be printed as black regardless of the printer. This is a very useful feature when printing to a dot matrix device. Gray halftones of low resolution on small lines or fonts may often result in unreadable graphics. Printing all colors as black will eliminate this problem and produce better looking plots on low resolution devices. For printing on laser or ink jet printers where higher resolution is available, it may be a matter of choice as to the representation of color. Gray lines of varying density may help to produce more identity between multiple lines on the graphs. With the low cost availability of color ink jet printers today, printing in color will usually be the most popular choice. Location Options This group box provides two options which control where the graphics are printed on the page. If you are printing in full size, neither option will be much different since the artwork will mostly fill the page regardless. However, if the graph is printed at reduce size, the image will appear either in the middle of the page or in the top left corner.

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The Center of Page option positions the artwork in the center of the available printing area. The printing area is dependent on the page size selected for the printer. The Corner of Page option positions the artwork at a corner of the available printing area. The printing area is dependent on the page size selected for the printer, and the specific corner will vary depending on whether landscape or portrait orientation is in use. Scaling Options This editing field allows you to specify the amount of enlargement or reduction in the magnification of the printed image. The value is entered in percent. A full size 100% plot represents an artwork width of 10 inches and a height of 8 inches for the standard sized graphs. Setup Button Use this button when you wish to change the selected printer, and/or configuration. When this button is pressed another dialog will open to change the printer/port selection. These dialogs are produced from the printer driver. The contents of these dialogs will be different for various printers. An example is shown below.

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5.13 File Editor

The File | Editor menu item allows you to open and view/edit a file with your currently selected text editor. The tool button as shown above can also be used to activate this item. The default editor is set to NOTEPAD.EXE. However you can easily change this to your favorite text editor through the File | Preferences dialog.

There are many occasions in the program where you may wish to view or edit the contents of a text file. This arises frequently when you are importing/ exporting text data. All text files exported by the program have the default extension TXT. File | Editor presents a dialog to choose the file to open with the editor.

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The image above shows a text file opened with the MultiEdit editor.

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5.14 Preferences
The File | Preferences menu item opens a dialog that contains additional parameter settings for the program. These are parameters which are changed on a less frequent basis, or provide optional behavior. Preference parameters are stored in the LEAP_XVR. INI file as global characteristics, and are not loaded from design files.

Editor Path This is the path to the editor you wish to use when opening text files for viewing or editing inside the program. The default choice is the Window's NOTEPAD.EXE basic editing program. You can choose your own favorite editor by using the Browse button, and selecting your editor's EXE file. Cursor Style The bitmap used for the tracking cursor can be selected here. There are several possible choices. The blinking rate of the cursor can also be controlled by entering a numeric value in the edit box.

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General There are several check boxes which enable/disable general options in the program. The Show Splash Screen option controls whether the initial introduction screen appears when you start the program. The Graph Select Toolbar option controls whether or not it will appear when a graph window is maximized. The Auto Backup Design Files option will automatically create a BAK version of your design file each time you save it. The Quick View Scale from Data option controls how the vertical auto scale is generated for the QuickView graph. When disabled, the vertical scale is produced by the major division values of the original graph. When enabled, the scale is adjusted to fit the data within the bounds of the selection rectangle. Schematic The Show Component Nodes option enables display of the nodes of each component in the schematic. It is rare to use this option, but can sometimes be useful. The Component Transparent option controls whether the background and/or grid shows through the solid regions of components. This is purely a visual preference. The Print Grid option enables/disables printing of the grid, irrespective of whether or not it is displayed on the screen window. Enable Double Click Editing is an optional means to activate a component editor. Normally this is done by selecting a component and using right mouse click. However, you can choose to use a left mouse double click as well with this option. Relative Cursor Mode Horz Data When taking relative cursor measurements, this option provides two different readout modes for the horizontal data. You can have the horizontal value represent the absolute true value at the cursor, or the horizontal difference between the reference point and the current position of the cursor. This would be similar to what happens with the vertical data. Optional Design File Data These options determine whether some configuration parameters will be treated as global or design specific. For example, when opening a design file one may wish for the current graph fonts and color settings to remain unchanged. Likewise, one may wish that the toolbar locations remain the same, and not be affected when a design is opened. Conversely, if you want to restore all of the full configuration elements by each design file when it is opened, you can enable these options.

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Optional Graph Setup File Data These options determine whether some configuration parameters in the Graph Setup files will be restored when the setup file is opened. For example, the Scale Parameters option will reload the scale parameters from the saved graph setup file data. Likewise, the View Parameters option will reload the graph window display parameters from the saved graph setup file data. Using these options you can control which aspects of the graph setup file data you wish to use to restore previous settings. Control Bar Texture These are selectable backgrounds which can be used in the control bars located at the top and in the Tool Box. The color depth of these texture patterns vary from 4-Bit to 24Bit. Depending on the mode of your video system, some may not be suitable for display. You can create your own bitmaps as well and place them into the ControlBarTexture folder. The program will automatically load them for selection the next time it is started. There is also a palette file LEAP.PAL which should be used if you are creating 256 color bitmaps. All files must be BMP format.

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5.15 Exit
The File | Exit menu item is used to terminate the program. The accelerator key CTRL-Q can be used to activate this item using the keyboard as well. When this option is selected the system checks to see if any changes have been made since the design was last saved. If changes have been made, then a dialog box will appear with three options for exiting the program. If the current design name is Untitled you will always receive this message.

Use the YES button if you wish to save the design, and another dialog box will appear to allow you to enter a new file name if the current name is Untitled. If the current name is valid, the file will be updated. The program will exit after saving the file. Use the NO button if you do not wish to save the current design as a file, or do not wish to update the existing file on disk. The program will exit after pressing this button. Use the CANCEL button if you wish to abort the exiting process. You will be returned to the program after this button is pressed. Note: When you exit the program, all of the configuration data is stored in the LEAP_XVR.INI file and will be restored the next time you start the program.

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6.1 Cut

The Editor | Cut menu item copies and then deletes the currently selected component(s) from the schematic. The accelerator key CTRL-X can be used to activate this item using the keyboard, or the tool button as shown above. Components which have been Cut can be undeleted by either of two means: (1) Since the component was automatically copied prior to being deleted, it can be pasted back to the circuit. (2) By using the Undo function. This assumes that the circuit has not yet been packed since the component was removed. If the circuit has been packed, then the component cannot be restored by this means. Note: Activating any Editor command requires the Circuit Schematic window to be in the foreground (focused).

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6.2 Copy

The Editor | Copy menu item copies the currently selected component(s) to the internal copy buffer. The accelerator key CTRL-C can be used to activate this item using the keyboard, or the tool button as shown above. Components which have been copied can then be pasted back into the circuit any number of times. The new components will have exactly the same parameter values as the original component. Note: Activating any Editor command requires the Circuit Schematic window to be in the foreground (focused).

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6.3 Paste

The Editor | Paste menu item pastes the component(s) currently stored in the copy buffer into the schematic. The accelerator key CTRL-V can be used to activate this item using the keyboard, or the tool button as shown above. If the copy buffer is empty, an error message will result. The component(s) pasted on the schematic will be automatically selected as a group. This allows immediate moving and placement of the new component(s). Note: Activating any Editor command requires the Circuit Schematic window to be in the foreground (focused).

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6.4 Delete

The Editor | Delete menu item deletes all of the currently selected component(s) in the schematic. The accelerator keys DEL or CTRL-DEL can be used to activate this item using the keyboard, or the tool button as shown above. Components which have been deleted can only be undeleted by using the Undo function. This assumes that the circuit has not yet been packed since the component was removed. If the circuit has been packed, then the component(s) cannot be restored by this means. Note: Activating any Editor command requires the Circuit Schematic window to be in the foreground (focused).

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6.5 Select All

The Editor | Select All menu item selects all of the components in the schematic. The accelerator key CTRL-A can be used to activate this item using the keyboard, or the tool button as shown above. This item is most useful when you wish to move the entire schematic circuit together as a single unit. You could also delete the entire circuit. Note: To select a single component, simply mouse left click within the bounding box of the component. To select a group of components, drag a rectangle around the components with the mouse left button held down. Components can be added/ removed from the group by holding down CTRL while doing either of the previous.

Note: Activating any Editor command requires the Circuit Schematic window to be in the foreground (focused).

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6.6 Edit

The Editor | Edit menu item opens an editor dialog for the currently selected component. The accelerator key CTRL-E can be used to activate this item using the keyboard, or the tool button as shown above. Also, the mouse right click will open the component editor for a selected component, or the mouse left double click if enabled in File | Preferences. Only a single component can be edited at a time. If you have multiple components selected and attempt to edit, you will receive an error message. The component editor is different for each type of component. Note: Activating any Editor command requires the Circuit Schematic window to be in the foreground (focused).

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6.7 Undo

The Editor | Undo menu item will restore previously deleted component(s). The accelerator key CTRL-Z can be used to activate this item using the keyboard, or the tool button as shown above. At this time the only operation which can be undone is component deletion. Due to the highly complex nature of many of the components, and in some cases very large data structures, undoing all previous operations is not possible at this time. Perhaps in future versions additional undo operations will be supported. Note: Activating any Editor command requires the Circuit Schematic window to be in the foreground (focused).

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6.8 Pack

The Editor | Pack menu item will permanently remove previously deleted component(s) from the delete buffer, and resequence the labels of all remaining components. The tool button as shown above can also be used to activate this item. When components are deleted they are placed into an internal deletion buffer. They can be undone as long as the circuit has not yet been packed. Once packed, previously deleted components cannot be restored. Resequencing of the components means continuous indexing. For example, if we had three resistors R1/R2/R3 and then delete R2, R3 still retains its current label. However, after the circuit is packed R3 is re-indexed and named as R2 to fill the previous location.

Note: Activating any Editor command requires the Circuit Schematic window to be in the foreground (focused).

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6.9 Add

The Editor | Add sub menu items are used to add new components to the circuit. The sub menu contains all of the available types of components. These component items are also listed as tool buttons on the 2nd and 3rd tabs of the Editor toolbar. When components are added to the circuit they are placed in the center of the window, and initially selected. Of course you can also add components by copying an existing component and pasting duplicates. Note: Activating any Editor command requires the Circuit Schematic window to be in the foreground (focused).

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7.1 Parameters

The Graph | Parameters menu item will open a dialog which controls the appearance of graphs throughout the program. The tool button as shown above can also be used to activate this item. This dialog allows you to define the colors, lines, and fonts commonly used on the graphs of the program. By using these parameters a very wide range of different graph designs can be easily produced. Graphics dimensions are always given in mils (1/1000 of an Inch). For example a 10 mil line is 0.010 Inches. Frame Parameters The Background color is applied across the entire area of the graph page. The Note Underline controls the color and width of the lines under the user note text. The Large Frame Line controls the color and line width of the border around the graph. The Small Frame Line controls the color and line width of the sub divider border lines between different sections of the title block, note block, and map block. Grid Parameters The Background color is applied inside the region of the grid itself. The Border Line controls the color and width of the border surrounding the grid. The Major Div controls the color, width, and line style of the major division lines drawn on the grid. The Minor Div controls the color, width, and line style of the minor division lines drawn on the grid.

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Text Parameters There are six tabs in this group box that control the fonts used in different regions of the graph artwork. The titles are self explanatory. The color can be changed directly by clicking the Color button, and the font can be changed by clicking the Font button. Note: Win9X has no support for line styles other than Solid when using line widths larger than 1. WinNT4 does support this, however non-Solid line drawing is extremely slow. PostScript printing/export is always supported.

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7.2 System Curves

The Graph | System Curves menu item will open a dialog which controls the appearance of the System Curves in the program. The tool button as shown above can also be used to activate this item, or the accelerator key F4. This is one of the most frequently used dialogs in the program. The size of the dialog can be adjusted. System Curves are analytic data calculated from the analysis of your design. There is a maximum of 99 system curves. The active number of curves will depend on your analysis options and the complexity of your design. System curves are generated automatically and colored by the sequence of buttons shown at the top for each type of curve data. Most system curve parameters are not editable.

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Grid Table The large grid table displays the active System Curve entries. There are a maximum of 99 entries. The points column informs you whether each entry actually contains data or is empty. A library curve is actually a pair of curves, with a left side vertical data type, and a right side vertical data type. In most cases these represent magnitude and phase respectively. The G column provides an array of check boxes which are used to select the curve entry for display on the graph. The Name column can be edited to enter a name for each curve entry. The Info column provides access to some additional notes which can be attached to each curve. The System Curves have a Date/Time stamp applied. To modify the curve Info text, copy the curve into the Guide Curve library. The Horz Data Range column provides an abbreviated message giving the range of horizontal data. If it is a frequency axis, it will show the lowest and highest frequency values in the curve. The Left Vert and Right Vert columns show the type of data for each left/right data set. The type of units defined here determine which scale set will be used when drawing the curve, and on which graph the curve will appear. The Points column displays the number of data points in the curve. The maximum number of data points in a curve entry is 4096. The Style, Width, and Color columns determine the line attributes used to draw each curve. The width parameter is given in mils (1/1000 of an Inch). If the Right Lighter check box is enabled, the right side curve (generally phase) will be drawn with a lighter shade of the specified color. Note: Win9X does not support drawing complex lines larger than 1 pixel width. This means dash, dot, etc. WinNT is required to support these styles. In general System Curves cannot be edited. For example, you can change the color of an individual curve but it will be changed back to the previous color after the next analysis, if Auto Color is enabled. Each time the circuit is analyzed the existing system curves are deleted and a new set generated.

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The number of points, frequency range, and curve names cannot be changed in the System Curve library. The only parameter that will be preserved after analysis is curve Enable. Thus you can control which individual curves are displayed. Keep in mind that the number of System Curves is very dynamic. If changes are made to the circuit itself, or analysis parameters, the number of curves can easily change. Since individual colors are assigned on an index basis, any specific curve may not be located at the same index after the next analysis. The curves are displayed on different graphs depending on their type of data. For example, SPL curves appear on the SPL graph, Impedance curves appear on the Impedance graph, etc. If you wish to make changes to these curves, they must be copied and pasted into the Guide Curve library where full editing is then possible. System Curves & Naming Conventions Curves generated by the system analysis are named automatically, and do not allow for any user modification. Many curve names are derived from the labels given by the user to the Data Node or Transducer components. The System Curves are generated as groups in the following order: • Impedance load on all generators individually (# of Generator components). • Impedance of all in parallel (1). • Voltages at any Data Nodes (# of Data Node components). • SPL of each transducer (# of Transducer components). • SPL of all transducers summed (1). • Group Delay of SPL of each transducer (# of Transducer components). • Group Delay of SPL of all transducers summed (1). • Horz Polar SPL of each transducer (# of Transducer components). • Horz SPL of all transducers summed (1). • Vert Polar SPL of each transducer (# of Transducer components). • Vert SPL of all transducers summed (1). Depending on what analysis options you have chosen, some of these curves may not be present. If you have a large design and enable many options the number of curves can exceed the 99 curve capacity of the library. In that case some curves will be dropped past the end of the library and you will need to reduce your options.

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Show All This button will enable all curves for display. You can also toggle selected curves for display by using CTRL-G. Hide All This button will disable all curves for display. You can also toggle selected curves for display by using CTRL-G. Copy This button will copy all selected curves to the Clipboard. Before using this button you will typically want to select one or more curves in the grid table. Selection of multiple curves can be done by holding down the CTRL or SHFT keys while clicking additional curve entries. Auto Color Set This is a master color table used to automatically color the curves. All curves of the same data type will be assigned colors in this order. The color buttons can be clicked to change their colors. The changes will affect the next curves generated by analysis if the Auto Color option is enabled. Auto Color This option will enable automatic coloring of the curves during each analysis. Normally this option is enabled, but can be disabled if you have some specific color scheme you wish to preserve. Right Lighter This option will enable an automatic color variation for the Right vertical data of all curves. The Right data is generally phase. Thus the phase curve line will be given a lighter colored version of the magnitude color. This helps to distinguish the left/right curve lines from each other. If disabled, the phase curve line will have the same color as the magnitude line. Note: If there are no curves using either the Left/ Right sides of a graph, then the Scale on that side will not appear. Left (Magnitude) This option enables the Left (typically magnitude) curve line for display. Right (Phase) This option enables the Right (typically phase) curve line for display.

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7.3 Guide Curves

The Graph | Guide Curves menu item will open a dialog which controls the appearance of Guide Curves in all of the graphs of the program. The tool button as shown above can also be used to activate this item, or the accelerator key F6. This is a frequently used dialog, and its size can be adjusted as needed. Guide Curves are arbitrary data that is transferred (copied) from the System Curves, generated by processing functions, or externally imported into the program. There are a maximum of 99 guide curves. A curve actually contains two data arrays, Left/ Right which generally hold magnitude and phase data respectively. The type of units in the Left/Right vertical data arrays determine the graph used for display. Since guide curves contain arbitrary data, they cannot be directly recalculated when the system frequency range is changed. Therefore guide curves can contain data which is not necessarily in the same frequency range as that of the system.

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Grid Table The large grid table displays the curve entries. There are a maximum of 99 entries. The headers at the top give the title of each column. The columns may be resized or rearranged in order by dragging them with the mouse. The G column provides an array of check boxes which are used to select the curve entry for display on the graph. The Name column can be edited to enter a name for each curve entry. The Info column provides access to some additional notes which can be attached to each curve. Click the mini button to open the Curve Info dialog. The Horz Data Range column provides an abbreviated message giving the range of horizontal data. If it is a frequency axis, it will show the lowest and highest frequency values in the curve. Click the mini button to open the Curve Realign dialog. This dialog can be used to modify the curve's frequency range, resolution, or to create flat line curves from empty curves. The Left Vert and Right Vert columns show the type of data for each left/right data set. The type of units defined here determine which scale set will be used when drawing the curve, and on which graph the curve will appear. The Points column displays the number of data points in the curve. The maximum number of data points in a curve entry is 4096. The Style, Width, and Color columns determine the line attributes used to draw each curve. The width parameter is given in mils (1/1000 of an Inch). If the Same Line Type check box is enabled, all curves will have the same style, width, and color. If the Right Lighter check box is enabled, the right side curve (generally phase) will be drawn with a lighter shade of the specified color. Note: Win9X does not support drawing complex lines larger than 1 pixel width. This means dash, dot, etc. WinNT is required to support these styles.

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Show All This button will enable all curves for display. You can also toggle selected curves for display by using CTRL-G. Hide All This button will disable all curves for display. You can also toggle selected curves for display by using CTRL-G. Copy This button will copy all selected curves to the Window's Clipboard. Before using this button you will typically want to select one or more curves in the grid table. Selection of multiple curves can be done by holding down the CTRL or SHFT keys while clicking additional curve entries. Cut The Cut button will first copy the selected curves to the Windows's Clipboard, and then delete them from the library. Paste The Paste button will paste the copied curves from the Window's Clipboard starting at the currently selected curve entry. If the block of copied curves extends past the last entry, they will be wrapped around to the top of the library. This provides the means to move or copy curves from one location to another. Since the clipboard is used, a different library can be loaded and the curves pasted into that library. The Paste button will only be enabled if one or more curves are present in the clipboard. When a curve is present, the Paste button will show hint text containing the name and parameters of the curve. For multiple curves, a list of the original curve entry numbers will be displayed. Delete The Delete button will delete the selected curves from the library. Deleting all of the curves at once can be performed by pressing CTRL-A and then using Delete.

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Same Line Type This option will force the same line attribute settings for all guide curves. This means color, width, and line style. Right Lighter This option will enable an automatic color variation for the Right vertical data of all curves. The Right data is generally phase. Thus the phase curve line will be given a lighter colored version of the magnitude color. This helps to distinguish the left/right curve lines from each other. If disabled, the phase curve line will have the same color as the magnitude line. Note: If there are no curves using either the Left/ Right sides of a graph, then the Scale on that side will not appear. Left (Magnitude) This option enables the Left (typically magnitude) curve line for display. Right (Phase) This option enables the Right (typically phase) curve line for display.

Curve Info Dialog When an ellipse mini button in the Info column is clicked, the Curve Info dialog will appear as shown below. This dialog allows you to enter/edit additional notes for each curve entry. The Transfer options panel provides some handy features for displaying the curve info text on the graph page. Since there are 8 text lines in the graph notes, and only 4 lines in a curve entry info, you may select which side to place the text. The two options Copy Info Text to Left/Right Notes provide the selection. The text will be copied after Ok is clicked.

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Curve Realign When an ellipse mini button in the Horz Data Range column is clicked, the Curve Realign dialog will appear as shown here. This dialog performs re-indexing of the horizontal data points of a curve entry. It can also be used to create flat line curves from empty curve entries.

In most cases the horizontal data is frequency, but it could also be time or angular position information. This dialog reprocesses and interpolates the vertical data based on a new linear or log array of horizontal values. A common use for this operation is to reduce the resolution of a curve. For example, a curve containing 500 data points can be realigned into a 100 point curve. This could be within the same frequency range, or a different frequency range. This routine can also be used to simulate higher resolution using quadratic or cubic interpolation, and increasing the number of data points. Both of these methods will produce curvature rather than straight line segments. However, be aware that it is impossible to create data that was not originally present. For example if the original frequency range was 100Hz-1kHz, and you realign the data to 10Hz-1kHz, there is no original data below 100Hz. The result is a flat line segment from 10Hz-100Hz at the value of the original 100Hz data point. When changing the horizontal data from linear to log, there will be a loss of resolution either at the low end or high end of the spectrum. Since the curve's data will be altered you may wish to make a copy of the curve before performing this operation. This will prevent loosing your original data curve should you wish to run the operation again on the original data.

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7.4 Notes & Comments

The Graph | Notes & Comments menu item will open a dialog which allows you to enter user defined notes and identification information. The tool button as shown above can also be used to activate this item. Left Page / Right Page There are eight lines of possible notes which can be entered, four on each of these two tabs. The note lines will appear on all of the graphs. The amount of text which can be entered depends on the size of font currently selected. Title Block Data There are three fields provided to enter personal, company, and project names. The fields could also be used for engineering project numbers, drawing numbers or other record keeping data. The fields will appear in the title block of all graphs.

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Circuit Menu

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8.1 Parameters

The Circuit | Parameters menu item will open a dialog which controls the circuit analysis and the appearance of the circuit schematic artwork. The tool button as shown above on the Circuit toolbar or the accelerator key F5 can also be used to activate this item. This dialog allows you to define the analysis and display of the circuit on two tab panels. The Analysis Parameters panel lists the parameters which control the analysis of the circuit. The Schematic Parameters panel lists the parameters which control the display of the circuit. Note: The largest page sizes D and E are only available under NT. Win9X does not allow these sizes due to the 16 bit coordinate limitations.

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Frequency In this group box parameters for the frequency range, axis, and resolution are provided. If the frequency axis is Log then the Min frequency cannot be zero. Temperature This is the Operating Temperature for analysis. Most of the components in the system have a definable temperature coefficient parameter. The Reference Temperature defines the temperature at which each component has its stated value as shown on the schematic. This is given in the Preferences dialog with a default value of 25°C which is seldom changed. The two temperatures Operating and Reference are used in conjunction with each component's temperature coefficient to compute each component's effective operating value during circuit analysis. Acoustic This group box provides parameters which control the acoustic analysis. SPL Phase At provides two selections which control the acoustic phase data. Choosing SPL Zero Distance will produce phase without the path length delay of SPL Distance. The SPL Distance option will include the path phase delay. Although using the SPL Distance option is the true phase at the simulation point, it produces large phase rotation due to the delay. Since the phase delay itself is generally of little interest, it is often more useful to obtain the phase at zero distance. This displays the transfer function phase behavior more clearly. SPL Summation controls how the individual acoustic responses will be summed. The None option will disable the summation curve. Correlated is generally the most common option, and indicates that a complex vector summation will be used which includes the phase. Uncorrelated produces the RMS response and does not include phase. If the sources are tightly coupled together then the correlated selection is the proper option to use. However if the transducers are relatively at large distance from each other and in a reverberant field, then the uncorrelated option may be more representative of the combined response. The SPL Distance value is the radial distance from the enclosure origin where the simulation will be calculated. Horz Angle and Vert Angle determine the primary simulation location. Zero deg values are used for On-Axis. 176
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Polar This group box provides parameters which control the polar analysis. Direction can be None, Horz, or Vert. You cannot generate both Horz and Vert at one time since the viewing of the combination on a single polar graph would be very difficult. You can save the results of either set in the Guide Curve library for later use. The Max and Min values determine the range of the polar simulation. In most cases these are +/-90 deg if you only desire frontal coverage. If you desire full 360 deg polars, then set the values to +/-180. However, this of course assumes that you have imported data to define the transducers that cover this same polar range. The values here should basically match the range of data you provide with the transducers. The Points value is the number of polar data points calculated between the Max/Min range limits. If your range is +/-90,then 90 points would give 2 deg resolution. The program will interpolate values between your imported polar transducer data. This will generally give you slightly higher resolution simulations than your original polar transducer data. However there are limits to how far this can be enhanced. For example, asking for 1 deg simulation resolution when you only provided 30 deg transducer data is not realistic or meaningful. The original data is too sparse. The Frequency List is the polar frequency curves which will be generated. You can specify whatever frequencies you wish polar response for here. Options This group box provides additional options to control various curves or how they are produced. Impedance of All in Parallel will enable the system impedance curve. This is only important for analog passive crossovers. SPL Group Delay Curves will enable the generation of group delay associated with the SPL response curves. The Voltage as Transfer Function option determines how any Data Node voltages are represented. If this option is off, then the voltages at any Data Nodes are reported directly as produced by the generator(s). With the option on, the voltages are divided by the V1 generator output voltage. This then produces transfer functions Enabling the Polar Curve Normalization option will divide the acoustic polar response curves by their values at zero degrees. In this case the zero degree response will always be at 0dB.

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The schematic grid system consists of two different visible layout grids, and one invisible ghost grid. The ghost grid is 100x100 and is always in active use for component snap. The two visible layout grids, Major 500x500 and Minor 100x100, have selectable line colors, styles, and widths. They can be enabled or disabled for screen display. Printing of the Major/ Minor grids is controlled in the Preferences dialog. If you only wish to display the grids on screen, printing can be disabled. Note: Win9X has no support for line styles other than Solid when using line widths larger than 1. NT does support this, however non-solid line drawing can be extremely slow. PostScript printing/export is always supported Major / Minor Grid The Show checkbox will enable the grid. The LineStyle can be set for a variety of different types. The Width value is the width of the grid lines in mils (1/1000 Inch), and the Color button defines the color of the grid lines. Bkgd This button controls the color of the schematic background. The Background color is applied across the entire area of the schematic page. Comp /Wire Symbols The component and wire symbols are drawn with the line width and color as given by the parameters in these group boxes. Page Size There are six possible pages sizes which can be used for the schematic. When printing the larger pages on standard letter size printers, you will probably wish to print with a reduced scale factor. If you are changing from a large page size to a smaller page size, make sure that all components in the schematic are located within the bounds of the new page size before changing. Otherwise you will need to change back to the larger page size to reach the components. Component Parameters Each component has three possible text items which can be displayed with different fonts and colors. A sample is shown here. The Label is C1, the Value is 1.0u, and the Parameter is 5%.

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8.2 Optimizer

The Circuit | Optimizer menu item will open a dialog for the optimization of various component values to an arbitrary response curve. The tool button as shown above on the Circuit toolbar or the accelerator key F3 can also be used to activate this item. The Circuit Optimizer is a powerful tool for optimizing the values of many circuit components. By using this tool the required component values of a circuit can easily be found that best approximates any arbitrary response objective. Optimizations can be performed based on voltage, SPL, impedance, or group delay. Optimizations based on magnitude squared or complex data are also supported. The optimization can minimize either peak or average error. Individual enables are provided for each of the available component values, as well as manual editing of component values. Multiple memory storage is also provided to save and recall previous component value sets. The optimizer also supports both curve based as well as constraint based optimization, through use of a pair of Max/Min curves. Additional features are provided to control the exact frequency range for optimization, and the weight applied to any portion of the frequency range. Note: The optimizer ignores the component's precision parameter during the optimization process. Each component's final value will be rounded to the correct precision when the optimization run is completed. This can cause a change in the final response if the component precision is not set to Any Value.

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Optimizer The Optimizer panel contains several buttons, and a large data grid listing all of the available component parameters which can be optimized. Two fields at the bottom of the panel display the total number of parameters and the number of parameters currently selected (active) for optimization. The Clear All button can be used to disable optimization for all parameters. Another field at the top displays the current Error between the system data curve and the objective. This value will be updated after the optimization is complete. You can also force a manual update by clicking the Update button. The error level displayed depends on the choice of Ave or Peak error. Average error will appear much lower than peak error. For Impedance or Group Delay data, an equivalent scale is produced and calculated into a dB like value. The data grid displays each parameter's value, name of the component, the parameter's units, an index, and whether or not it is selected for optimization. You can manually change or enter values for the parameters in the grid, and recalculate the circuit response manually using the Update button. Five memorys are also provided. The Save button stores the current values of all parameters. When the Recall button is pressed at a later time, the previously saved values will be restored. This can be useful when you find a likeable solution and think you may wish to return to it. You can then continue optimizing without fear of loosing the previous solution. The Optimize button starts the optimization process. A dialog will appear which displays the current error, evaluation count, and iteration count. You can abort the run by clicking the Stop button. There may be a short time lag before the run actually stops depending on the engine being used and the internal state. If either the maximum iteration count is exceeded, or the error limit is met, the run will terminate. The run will also be terminated automatically if lack of progress is detected.

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Setup The Setup panel contains all of the parameters necessary to define the optimization process. There are two fundamental types of optimization provided: Curve, and Constraint. An example of each method is shown on the following page. Curve & Constraint Optimization Optimizing to a single curve is probably the most common, and seeks to match a system response to a single Guide Curve as tightly as possible. Constraint optimization uses two Guide Curves, one as the max limit and the other as the min limit. The optimizer seeks to produce a response which stays between these max/min limits. System Curve to Optimize This list box selects which system curve is to be optimized. The type of curve can be SPL, voltage, impedance, or group delay. Polar curves are not allowed. Iteration Limit This is the maximum number of iterations allowed. When using the Hydra engine this parameter has more importance, since the full number of iterations is generally always used. However when the other two engines are being used, the optimization run is almost always terminated due to lack of progress. If the optimizer senses that no further improvement can be made, the run is stopped automatically. Data There are two different types of data which can be optimized: Scalar and Vector. Scalar magnitude optimization is the most common used type of data. Vector optimization is used when the phase is also important, as in the case of non minimum phase filters like Allpass. This is the same as Scalar when using a group delay curve. Engine This option selects the algorithm and methodology used to perform the optimization. Amoeba tends to be the best general purpose selection. For more details, see the section on Optimization Engines. Hi/Lo Frequency Limits There are two sliders which control the region of frequency to be optimized. This enables you to reduce the optimization range to less than the entire range.

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Weighting The importance of the error at each frequency can be increased using the features on this tab. Increasing the weight at a given frequency forces the optimizer to reduce the error relative to other areas where the weight is unity. The grid shows a plot for a multi-segment line which represents the weighting function. The horizontal frequency axis is based on the current system frequency range. The vertical axis displays the weighting scale and ranges from 1.0 to the maximum value selected in the Scale list box. The initial weighting function will be a flat line at the bottom of the grid, with vertex nodes shown between each line segment. The number of line segments can be selected using the Lines list box. The weighting curve can be restored to a flat line of unity at any time using the Reset button. Equal node spacing across the frequency range is produced. Note: Whenever the system frequency range is changed the weighting curve will be automatically reset. As the mouse is moved across the plot, the frequency and weight values are displayed for the current location. To change the position of a node, simply click and hold the left mouse button near the node and drag. The frequencies of the two end nodes are fixed, allowing only the vertical weight values to be changed. For any middle nodes, both the frequency and weight can be changed with the frequency limited between adjacent nodes. The true error function is multiplied by the weight at each frequency to determine the effective error. This is most commonly used with Ave/Peak error in a single Curve optimization. For Constraint optimization it has no effect.

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Objective Generator This tab panel provides a very quick and easy means of generating an objective curve for optimization. Both sectional and system objective response curves can be generated with these features on this panel. The capabilities offered here are designed to cover the general needs of most crossover design requirements. If you require more specialized objectives, they can be createdthrough other analytic means using transfer function blocks, or maually defined using the Curve Editor utility. You can also import objective curves by numerical data or capture them graphically from external sources using the Curve Capture utility.

Function In this group box the selection for the type of curve shape is chosen. For system response the Flat option is generally used, and the Lowpass, Highpass, Bandpass for individual section objectives. Family A common set of families are provided here which cover most applications. These families are explained in detail in the Synthesis menu chapter. Order This group of radio buttons is used to select the filter order of the transfer function. In the case of Lowpass & Highpass, the polynomial order is identical to the filter order. For Bandpass, the polynomial order is twice the filter order. Parameters Data defines what type of objective curve is to be created. This should match the System Curve being optimized. The Level defines the passband or flat amplitude. The High and Low frequency values define the corner frequencies. Guide Curves The Generate Objective Curve will create the curve in the entry shown in the list box, and with the curve color shown in the color button. Multiple objective curves can be created in different entries and/or deleted.

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The graph below shows three objective curves generated for a 3-way crossover with frequencies of 250Hz and 3kHz and a level of 91dB SPL. During the optimization process you may find that the objective curves require modification. The features provided here enable fast adjustment and quick regeneraton of the objective curves.

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Curve Optimization The objective Guide Curve can be optimized directly, or to the inverse of the curve by using the Inverse check box . The Error Limit edit box provides a stopping limit. In most cases this parameter becomes almost a moot point. Generally any optimization is seeking the best solution possible. From this perspective one could certainly argue that the error limit should always be zero. The Error radio group provides two choices: Peak or Average. Optimizing to the peak option simply means that the worst case error is to be reduced. The average option produces the least average error across the entire curve.

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Constraint Optimization For the case of constraint optimization, there are only two requirements: the max guide and the min guide. No other parameters are involved. The real work comes in creating the two guide curves themselves. There are many ways this can be done.

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One common means is to start with a calculated response curve, perhaps the initial circuit response, and then use the Curve Editor to duplicate and then edit the curves to produce a max/min pair. A text editor could also be used to create the max/min curves as file data, and import these into the program. Yet another means would be to print a blank graph with the scale and frequency range to be used, and then draw the curve manually on the paper with a colored pen/pencil. If you can scan your paper, you can then import it using the Curve Capture utility. There are many other ways as well. You could use a vector drawing program such as Illustrator, or a bitmap editor such as PaintShop. The possibilities are limited only by your imagination. However when precision data is required, especially across a wide dynamic range, then the best choices are the Curve Editor or manual file editing. In the example graph just shown, the constraints change from a 140dB margin in the stop band, down to a 0.2dB margin in the passband. Constraint based optimization is very powerful for certain types of problems. Elliptic filters are one such category. In this case the actual locations of the nulls (zeros) in the stopband are relatively unimportant. The important aspect is that the stopband does not exceed some maximum limit. Constraints are ideally suited. However the fact that the nulls can dip down to infinite attenuation immediately raises a problem with respect to the min limit guide. To handle this situation, the program makes an important and logical assumption regarding the min limit guide. If the level of the min guide is below -200dB, then it treats any level below this as acceptable. This solves the zero problem. If your response is expected to have zeros, then the min limit guide should have a level which is below -200dB in these frequency regions.

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An Introduction to Optimization The basic concept of optimization is relatively straightforward: adjust a set of variables until a given error function is minimized. While this fundamental objective appears elementary in principle, a practical implementation is not. There are many different types of optimization problems. Depending on the type of problem the optimization process may be very easy or very tough. Unfortunately, the kind of optimization problem typically encountered in this field of work falls into the latter category. This type of optimization is known as: nonlinear, nonconvex, global optimization. The following pictorials will serve to illustrate the general characteristics for this class of optimization.

Convex Optimization

NonConvex Optimization A
F(x) Error Function

A
F(x) Error Function

B

B Y

X Z

Z
Variable (x) Variable (x)

Each of these two graphs show a simple error function in terms of a single dimensional variable. The left graph shows an easy convex problem. If the initial solution is started at points A or B, we can slide downhill from either to reach the minimum at point Z. Point Z is the global minimum since it is the point of lowest error anywhere on the curve. This is a simple downhill search. Convex optimization is relatively easy. Since there is only one minima, it is the global minima, and we can find it from any starting location.

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Now consider the graph on the right. Note that there are three minima at points X, Y, and Z. Point Z is still the global minimum since it is the lowest, while points X and Y are local minima. If we start at point B, we again slide downhill and reach the global min. However, if we start at point A we can only slide downhill to the local min at point X, and are then trapped. It should be obvious that we will never find the best solution at point Z if we start from point A and simply follow the curve downhill. In order to find point Z from point A, other more advanced search techniques must be employed. Sitting at the local minimum of point X, there is no direct method for determining the location, or even the existence, of point Z. For this reason virtually all global search algorithms employ some form of hill climbing based on random search. Error functions come in all kinds of shapes and flavors. Some have only a few minima, while others look like virtual washboards of endless ripples. The problem just illustrated was of a single variable - one dimension. Real world problems involve many variables and produce unimaginably complex error surfaces in N-dimensional hyperspace. As the number of variables increase the problem becomes exponentially more difficult. This is known as the curse of dimensionality. To solve these problems efficiently, optimization algorithms typically employ a combination of local downhill search with global random search. One of the keys to success is to achieve a proper balance between these methods. Unfortunately all problems are different, and no single method alone will provide the best results for all possible situations. For this reason, the program offers three entirely different optimization engines. Each contains a different balance between local and global search power. Their characteristics will be covered in a following section.

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Using an Optimizer Regardless of how sophisticated any optimization algorithm is, they are in reality little more than heuristically automated trial & error random analysis tools. They proceed towards a solution by employing a very large number of function evaluations, not by use of any high order intelligence. Optimization can be a very time consuming process if the problem is large or ill defined. There are two basic objectives for any optimization: (a) Find the global min (the best solution). (b) Find it using the fewest evaluations (as fast as possible). There are many steps which the user can take to improve the situation for both of these objectives. The amount of computational effort required to find a solution, hopefully the best solution, can be dramatically reduced if the problem is setup properly by the user. In some cases the difference is simply success or failure. The following hints may be helpful: s Provide the best starting values possible for your variables In theory optimization should be able to find the global min from any starting location. However in practice this is often not the case, or it may come with a huge penalty in terms of time. In general, the closer your initial starting point is to the final solution, the higher the probability of finding that solution, and using the least number of evaluations. s Select variables for optimization which produce a unique solution It is often critically important to enable only those parameters which can effectively control the response in the manner or frequency range needed, and to choose parameters that yield a unique solution. Minimizing the number of possible solutions greatly improves the speed of convergence. For example, consider a single inverting opamp gain stage with two resistors. The total gain of course is a function of both resistors. If you select both resistors for optimization, the number of possible gain solutions is infinite. Conversely, if you fix one resistor and optimize the other, there is only a single unique gain solution for any specific gain. Avoid selecting multiple parameters that produce identical changes. A simple common sense approach is to think about what parameters you would change manually yourself to achieve the desired response.

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s Optimize the fewest number of parameters As the number of variables increase, so does the computational burden but at a much steeper rate. Optimizing 20 parameters at once requires far more time than optimizing 10 parameters in two batches. Always try to reduce the number of active parameters when possible. s Reduce the number of System Curve points to a minimum For each error function evaluation, the circuit must be computed across the entire frequency range, using the number of data points currently defined in the Circuit Parameters dialog. If you reduce the density of data points, the speed of optimization will increase proportionally. For example, if the current number of data points is 500, but you could get away using 50, you can increase the speed of optimization by an order of magnitude. s Reduce the number of Data Nodes For each Data Node defined in the circuit, additional calculations must be performed. You can reduce the computational burden somewhat by removing any Data Node components which are not needed. For optimization only the Data Node currently selected for optimization is required.

Note: During the process of optimization, you may find that the optimizer has pushed some parameters to very high or very low values. If a suitable solution was found, then this means that the component had no effective use and can probably be eliminated from the circuit. However, if the solution still needs further optimization, and you feel that the component should have realistic values, then manually edit the value into a proper range prior to starting the optimization again. Optimizers generally find it difficult to pull in a parameter that is completely out of range.

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Optimization Engines Three different optimization algorithms are provided: Medusa, Amoeba, and Hydra. Each of these algorithms utilize entirely different methodologies, and offer a different balance between global and local search. Global search requires much more time than local search, as such there is an associated convergence speed trade-off between the methods. s Medusa: Fast speed, mostly local search This algorithm is the fastest, and it is also the most local. If your initial starting point is close to the final solution, or if the error function has relatively few minima, this method will produce the fastest solution. The number of error function evaluations is usually in the hundreds for 10 variables. In most cases only a few iterations are needed to reach a solution, although it may only be a local minimum. If your problem has many minima, or is highly nonconvex, then the solution found will probably not be the best solution. s Amoeba: Medium speed, best mix of local and global search This algorithm is the workhorse. It offers one of the best balances between local search and global random search. If your initial starting point is in the neighborhood of the global min, then this algorithm will usually find it. The number of error function evaluations is often amazingly low, generally in the high hundreds or few thousand for 10 variables. In most cases only a few iterations are needed and an excellent solution is quickly found. s Hydra: Low speed, mostly global search This algorithm is very slow, with the search highly random and global. It requires the full run of iterations to complete. You do not want to abort this algorithm before the full number of iterations has finished. Whatever the number of maximum iterations you choose, you will need to let them finish. The number of error function evaluations can run into the thousands or even tens of thousands for problems with just 10 variables. The best use of this algorithm is when you have a very poor initial starting point. This algorithm will improve that, but may not find the actual global minimum. One of the other methods may need to be run afterwards. If you have setup your problem well, then you should have no need to resort to this method.

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8.3 Information

The Circuit | Information menu item will open a dialog which displays circuit and component information. The tool button as shown above on the Circuit toolbar can also be used to activate this item. This dialog is probably used less than many others, but can be useful on occasion to locate a component, change the origin of the entire circuit, or obtain a summary of the components used in a circuit.

Circuit This panel displays several fields regarding the type of circuit, and its origin coordinate location. If it is a Synthesis circuit, all of the fields are disabled and cannot be edited. For a Custom circuit, all fields will be enabled except for the Name and Code fields which remain disabled. The Name field displays the synthesis circuit name, or the name custom. The Code field displays a unique catalog index number for a synthesis circuit, or zero if it is a custom circuit. The Domain, Family, Description, and Order/Stages display synthesis circuit information, or can be used for any other user data purpose if it is a custom circuit. The X/Y Origin fields display the coordinate locations for the entire circuit. Changing these values will move all components in the circuit. Component This panel contains a listing for each type of possible circuit components, and the total number of each type of component in the circuit.

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The data grid displays each component: the label name, its type, and the X/Y origin values. This display can be useful in locating a component if it is off the page after reducing the schematic page size. Below the data grid are two fields which display the total number of components and the number of Data Nodes which will be analyzed.

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8.4 Z Scaling

The Circuit | Z Scaling menu item will open a dialog which enables the values of many circuit components to be scaled by a common ratio. The tool button as shown above on the Circuit toolbar can also be used to activate this item. In many circumstances it is desirable to increase or decrease all of the component values in a circuit. This can be useful in reducing resistor noise, or to achieve desired loading for other stages. Reducing inventory can also be a goal by shifting some special component such as capacitors or inductors into preferred values. In order to maintain the basic response of the circuit while changing the overall impedance levels of the components, resistors/potentiometers and inductors must be increased/decreased in value, while capacitors/FDNRs must be reversed i.e. decreased/increased. This dialog performs all of these tasks. When the dialog is first opened, it scans the circuit to find a component with the most restricted value range in the following order: 20%, 10%, 5%, 1%. It chooses this component to produce the scaling steps used in the dialog.

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Scaling Parameters The chosen Component is listed, along with its Precision. The Scaling Factor is the current impedance ratio of change that will be applied to all supported components. If all components in the circuit have Any Value precision, then a default value of 0.1% will be used. The Scaling Factor can be increased or decreased by use of the Spin buttons. The original value of this component and the new value, based on the Scaling Factor, is displayed. The supported components are Resistors, Potentiometers, Inductors, Capacitors, and FDNRs. For capacitors and FDNRs, the value will be changed in the opposite direction as the scaling ratio. The values of all components will be rounded to their appropriate precision values as defined for each component. Note: When scaling the components of a circuit which produces controlled impedance such as a generalized impedance convertor (GICs), this operation will change that designed GIC impedance. For these kinds of circuits you may wish to use manual component editing.

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8.5 Calculate

The Circuit | Calculate menu item will force the program to analyze/calculate the circuit and update the Data Curves. The tool button as shown above on the Circuit toolbar or the accelerator key F9 can also be used to activate this item. This is one of the most frequently used operations in the program. If the circuit has schematic errors a dialog message will appear, after which the component causing the error will be auto-selected on the schematic. While the circuit is being calculated the cursor will change to the symbol shown below. When the analysis is completed the cursor will change back to the pointer. This makes it easy to tell when the analysis has finished. The number of data points contained in the curves and the frequency range are controlled by the Circuit | Parameters dialog.

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8.6 Thermal Analysis

The Circuit | Thermal Analysis menu item will open a dialog which generates a family of circuit analysis curves at different temperatures. The tool button as shown above on the Analysis toolbar can also be used to activate this item. Parameters The System Curve selected in this panel represents the response which will be analyzed. The Lo/Hi Temperature limits of the temperature sweep can be defined, as well as the circuit Reference Temperature. The number of curves generated is controlled by the Steps parameter. The results of this operation are a family of curves placed into the top of the Guide Curve array. Component Temp Coef Enable The temperature coefficients for each component are defined by editing the PPM parameters in each component. However, the components can also be enabled/ disabled as a group, or by component type, in this panel as well.

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The graph below demonstrates a family of thermal analysis curves. The actual operating temperature is listed in the name field of each Guide Curve.

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8.7 Sensitivity Analysis

The Circuit | Sensitivity Analysis menu item will open a dialog which produces a text listing of the sensitivity values of the components, and their worst case frequencies. The tool button as shown above on the Analysis toolbar can also be used to activate this item. Sensitivity analysis provides much the same kind of information as Monte Carlo analysis. However sensitivity analysis yields information related to each individual component, while Monte Carlo analysis shows the overall possible range of circuit response variations, due to both the sensitivity of the components and their precision. For sensitivity, a text listing of the S values is produced at the worst case frequency for each component. Monte Carlo analysis produces a max/min curve pair by varying all components randomly according to their precision. Sensitivity is a ratio between the change in output response vs. the change in component value. For example, if we had a component with a sensitivity value of S=2.0, at a worst case frequency of 1kHz, this means that a 1% change in the component value will produce a 2% change in the response at 1kHz. Since this is the worst case frequency, the S value at all other frequencies is equal or lower. To produce stable circuits with respect to component variations, it is obvious that low S values are much better than high S values. The component sensitivity depends very much on the circuit topology, and the target response which the topology is designed to produce. For example, the same circuit topology designed for a Chebyshev response will have much higher S values than if designed to a Bessel response. Sensitivity is a function of both topology and response shape.

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When the S values are in the range of 2 or lower, this is generally considered excellent design sensitivity resulting in a highly stable response. Values between 2 and 5 usually indicate good to moderate stability. When the values range from 5 to 10, this results in poor circuit stability. Relative to your circuit's response, it is the equivalent of all your 1% components acting as if they had only 5% to 10% precision. For circuits with component S values greater than 10, it becomes extremely difficult to produce a reliable response with standard components. These are of course only general guidelines. Each application has its own requirements and may be able to tolerate higher component sensitivity, or demand lower component sensitivity. In some cases you may find that most components in a particular circuit have S values near unity, and that only a few components have high S values. This information can be very important, and enables you to quickly determine which components may demand high precision, while others are non critical. The worst case frequency for most components usually occurs at one of three possible locations: near the corner frequency, or at either the low/high ends of the frequency range. The sensitivity is always computed relative to a single circuit response curve. In some cases S values of zero will be produced for different components . This means that the component has no effect on the curve selected for analysis. However, the component certainly does effect the output of other circuit nodes, or response curves. Choosing different System Curves will typically produce different sets of sensitivity values.

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Parameters The System Curve selected in this panel represents the response which will be analyzed. The total number of components for analysis is also displayed. Worst Case Sensitivity Data When the dialog is opened, the frequency and sensitivity data is always cleared. After you have selected the System Curve, click the Run Analysis button. When the circuit analysis completes a run, the data grid will be loaded with new frequency and sensitivity values. Sensitivity values will be computed for the following component types: - Resistor - Capacitor - Potentiometer - FDNR - Buffer (Gain & Delay) - Inductor - SCN

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If you wish to save the results of the analysis, you can write the contents to a file by clicking the Save as Text File button. An example is shown below.
======================================================= ©1993-2002 LinearX Systems Inc LEAP-CD (TM) Version=5.0.0.263 Date=Sep 10, 2002 Time=Tue 5:10 am Design= D:\Program Files\Leap_cd\ProjectsCrossovers\TESTS\Audax2w_RefCtr\AUDAX2W_CTR.LCD ======================================================= Note: Test Data Note: Test Simulation of Audax 2-Way Note: Ref Origin is Baffle Center Note: Analyzed: Nov 22, 2000 Wed 3:34 pm Note: Gray Curve is LMS measurement Note: Color curve is LEAP simulation Note: Note: ======================================================= Sensitivity Analysis: System Curve= 9 SPL@1M,0H,0V Sum(C) Freq SPL Phase False ======================================================= Indx Name Value Freq(Hz) Sensitivity ======================================================= 1 L2 1.0387m 1.3506K 0.5199 2 C2 26.6860u 694.4720 0.0598 3 L3 332.0000u 1.3506K 0.1143 4 R3 20.0000 3.0382K 0.1192 5 C7 6.8100u 1.9635K 0.3423 6 L6 267.0000u 1.9231K 0.4283 7 R5 1.7800 40.0000K 0.3270 8 C8 3.2400u 20.5671K 0.4509 9 R6 3.0100 40.0000K 0.4814 10 C9 15.0000u 1.5950K 0.1383 11 R7 1.0000 40.0000K 0.1609 =======================================================

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8.8 MonteCarlo Analysis

The Circuit | Monte Carlo Analysis menu item will open a dialog which performs multiple circuit analysis using random component values. The tool button as shown above on the Analysis toolbar can also be used to activate this item. Monte Carlo analysis provides much the same kind of information as Sensitivity analysis. However sensitivity analysis yields information related to each individual component, while Monte Carlo analysis shows the overall possible range of circuit response variations, due to both the sensitivity of the components and their precision. For sensitivity, a text listing of the S values is produced at the worst case frequency for each component. Monte Carlo analysis produces a max/min curve pair by varying all components randomly according to their precision. Monte Carlo analysis is a random process. Each time you perform the analysis the results can be slightly different but will in general be similar. The number of randomization runs can be any number, but a value of 30 is often used. This is a large enough statistical sample to show most of the circuit response variations. During each analysis iteration, the component values are randomly adjusted around their stated values up to the ± analysis precision. The analysis precision can be different than the component precision. Components can also be enabled/disabled by their type, which allows you to examine the variations solely due to each component group alone.

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Parameters The System Curve selected in this panel represents the response which will be analyzed. The Runs are the total number of random iterations to be performed. Components Each component type can be enabled/disabled as a group for randomization. Select which component types you wish to include in the analysis. Analysis Precision These fields define the analysis precision to be applied during randomization. The value of each enabled component is randomly adjusted across the ± range of the analysis precision. The analysis precision can be different than the component precision, and can be defined for each value class. For example, in some cases you may have a component precision such as 10% or 20% to limit the selection of standard values, but will choose to build the circuit using higher precision components such as 1%. For these cases you can assign the analysis precision to be different than the component precision.

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During the analysis the maximum and minimum values which occur at all frequency points are retained. When the analysis is completed, two curves will be written to the Guide Curve array. The two curves show the max/min range of circuit response variations retained from the Monte Carlo analysis. The data is produced for all of the seven graphs in the program. The magnitude graph below shows a typical Monte Carlo result for a Lowpass filter.

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8.9 Potentiometer Analysis

The Circuit | Potentiometer Analysis menu item will open a dialog which performs multiple circuit analysis while rotating the position of one or more potentiometers. The tool button as shown above on the Analysis toolbar can also be used to activate this item. This processing feature is extremely useful for equalizer design and other applications where pots are typically used. It provides invaluable information which enables easy and accurate selection of the proper taper. Tapers are generally chosen to provide an even distribution of the control's parameter range across its entire rotation. When incorrect tapers are used, the range can be crowded into one region of the rotation, with the remaining rotation providing little effective parameter change. The type of taper required depends on many factors including: the parameter being controlled, the circuit topology, and the loading on the wiper of the pot. There are three primary taper families: linear, log, and reverse log. However, these basic families come in many different shapes and contours. When loading considerations and taps are involved, the variations become virtually infinite. By analyzing the rotational sweep patterns of different combinations of tapers, wiper loading, and tap loading, the best configuration can be accurately determined.

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Parameters The System Curve selected in this panel represents the response which will be analyzed. The Steps are the total number of rotational positions to be analyzed. The maximum number is 32. Components When the dialog is opened, the circuit is scanned to locate potentiometer components. The pot components found will be listed in the data grid. Each entry displays the pot name, value, and its taper. An index number and enable check box are also provided. All pots which are enabled will be rotated together. This simulates the ganging of multi-section controls. When the analysis is complete, a family of curves will be written to the Guide Curve array. Each Guide Curve name contains the rotational position used to produce the curve. The following two graphs display samples of potentiometer analysis. The first graph shows the sweep characteristics of an incorrect taper selection. Note that most of the change occurs at the center of the range, with the ends of the rotation being crowded together. The second graph was run with a different taper selection for the same pot in the same circuit. Here the rotational sweep is much more evenly distributed.

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9.1 Analog: Allpole Filters

The Synthesis | Analog Passive | Allpole Filters menu item will open a dialog which contains an extensive catalog of explicit equation formulations and numerical solutions for the design of passive Allpole filters. The tool button shown above on the Analog Passive tab of the Synthesis toolbar will also activate this item. Note: Using the Synthesis dialogs requires that the Circuit Schematic window be active (has the focus). The Allpole class of filters have no zeros in their stopband, with respect to the characteristic Lowpass configuration. Since no finite design tables are used, a filter with any desired parameters can be easily designed. For example, Chebyshev filters can be designed with any passband ripple, and Linear Phase filters can be designed with any group delay ripple. The synthesis dialog receives your parameter values, designs a circuit fragment that performs the filter function, and then pastes it onto the schematic for you. You can then move the selected group of components to whatever position you like in your overall circuit. You will then need to integrate the circuit fragment into the rest of your circuit as needed. Passive networks are designed for a particular load impedance. This will appear as a resistor component in the circuit fragment. If your actual load is a transducer, you will need to delete this resistor and replace it with your real transducer load. The dialog also provides a picture of the circuit structure that will be designed. The circuit structure will change based on your parameter values and/or selections in the other dialog fields and controls.

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Order This group of radio buttons is used to select the order of the filter. In the case of Lowpass, Highpass, and Allpass filters the polynomial order is identical to the filter order. For Bandpass and Bandreject filters, the polynomial order is twice the filter order. When a low order is chosen, insufficient to represent the family selected, the filter function will default back to the Butterworth 3dB. For example, choosing a 1st order Chebyshev has no meaning since the order has too few degrees of freedom to produce this transfer function. Family The selections offered here cover a wide range of standard and specialized Allpole characteristics. Each Family may have a different number of parameters enabled or disabled depending on its requirements. A following section provides an explanation of each family's characteristics. Transformation The complete set of four transformations Lowpass, Highpass, Bandpass, and Bandreject are provided. Depending on the selection, various other editing fields will be enabled or disabled as required. Transition Attenuation Level This group box provides optional control to define the transition level, corner or edge, of the filter. The common transition level is 3dB which comes from the Butterworth family of filters. However, other filter families produce different transition levels. For example, consider a Chebyshev 0.1dB ripple filter. By strict definition the passband covers frequencies within the 0.1dB ripple specification. The natural transition frequency of the filter occurs at the end of the 0.1dB passband. This would correspond to the Natural selection in the group box. However if you wish to design the same filter based on the definition of a transition level of 3dB, this can be done by choosing the Custom option and entering 3.0 in the dB parameter field. Using this feature all filter families can be generated based on identical transition levels of any value.

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Frequency If the transformation type is Lowpass or Highpass then this parameter refers to the corner frequency. If the transformation type is Bandpass or Bandreject, this parameter represents the center frequency. Total Q This parameter will be enabled for Bandpass and Bandreject filters. It controls the width of the passband/stopband respectively. This parameter can be directly entered in terms of Q, or by using the [...] button entered as a pair of edge frequencies or by octave width. This option will also automatically recalculate the required center frequency and total Q. This is very useful for 3-way or higher midband crossover sections. Magnitude Ripple If the family selected supports passband ripple, then this parameter will be enabled. The Chebyshev families use this parameter. It is the zero to peak value of the ripple in the passband. Delay Ripple If the family selected supports group delay ripple, then this parameter will be enabled. The Linear Phase family uses this parameter. It is measured in terms of peak to peak ripple in percent. This characteristic is only relevant for Lowpass. R Load This is the design load value for the passive network. Passive filters require this, and will be designed based on this load. It is also of course assumed that the components are lossless. In reality the load may be a transducer with a complex impedance curve. In this case the response of the network will not perform to the ideal designed response. Such is the need for optimization to adjust the circuit components to produce the best overall response from the system. Allpole Family Descriptions The following provides a brief description of the primary characteristics for each filter family. It is worth mentioning that you can easily explore many of their other characteristics more fully by creating some filters yourself, and examining their response in any of the numerous graphs. s Butterworth 3dB This is the well known maximally flat family of allpole filters, with transition level of 3 dB. The normalized transfer function has all roots on a unit circle.

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Note: The single 4th order case is also commonly known as Linkwitz-Riley, but the general complete family is given here.

s Butterworth 6dB This is a modified form of the standard Butterworth family which produces 6dB transition levels. There are special complementary relationships that exist between the 3/6 families. The summation of the proper order and family in theory yield ideal allpass functions. For example, an odd order 3dB Lowpass/ Highpass pair will sum to yield an Allpass filter, while an even order 6dB Lowpass/Highpass pair will sum to yield an Allpass filter. s Chebyshev The Chebyshev, or equal magnitude ripple family, produces equal ripple response in the passband. The normalized roots lie on an ellipse, rather than a circle. The family produces one of the steepest cutoff rates, but can also require high Q values which may be difficult to realize in many circuits. . s Bessel The Bessel family produces a maximally flat group delay. It also has a very slow rate of cutoff. It is commonly used in applications where transient response or linear time delay is important. Gaussian and Linear Phase are also similar equivalents. s Legendre The Legendre family provides ripple free monotonic response like that of the Butterworth, but with much steeper cutoff rates like the Chebyshev. It can be a good compromise between the Butterworth and Chebyshev with respect to cutoff rate and producibility. s Linear Phase The Linear Phase, or equal group delay ripple family, produces equal ripple in the passband frequency region of the group delay response. This family has steeper cutoff than the Bessel or Gaussian still with linear phase behavior. s Synchronous The Synchronous family is a simple array of identical poles. They are very easy to build, and have near optimum transient response. However they also have very poor selectivity with slow cutoff rates. s Gaussian The Gaussian family is very similar to the Bessel, but has slightly slower cutoff rate and a more shallow group delay knee. It is commonly used in applications where transient response or linear time delay is important. Bessel and Linear Phase are also similar equivalents.

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9.2 Analog Passive: Elliptic Filters

The Synthesis | Analog Passive | Elliptic Filters menu item will open a dialog which contains a powerful catalog of explicit equation formulations and numerical solutions for the design of passive elliptic filters. The tool button shown above on the Analog Passive tab of the Synthesis toolbar will also activate this item. Note: Using the Synthesis dialogs requires that the Circuit Schematic window be active (has the focus). The elliptic class of filters have zeros in their stopband, with respect to the characteristic Lowpass configuration. Since no finite design tables are used, a filter with any desired parameters can be easily designed. For example, passband ripple as well as stopband attenuation can be custom designed for any elliptic filter. The synthesis dialog receives your parameter values, designs a circuit fragment that performs the filter function, and then pastes it onto the schematic for you. You can then move the selected group of components to whatever position you like in your overall circuit. You will then need to integrate the circuit fragment into the rest of your circuit as needed. Passive networks are designed for a particular load impedance. This will appear as a resistor component in the circuit fragment. If your actual load is a transducer, you will need to delete this resistor and replace it with your real transducer load. The dialog also provides a picture of the circuit structure that will be designed. The circuit structure will change based on your parameter values and/or selections in the other dialog fields and controls.

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Order This group of radio buttons is used to select the order of the filter. In the case of Lowpass & Highpass filters, the polynomial order is identical to the filter order. For Bandpass & Bandreject, the polynomial order is twice the filter order. Family The selections offered cover both the standard maximally flat and equal ripple types, as well as MCP versions of both. If the maximally flat types are selected, then the Passband Ripple dB parameter is disabled. A following section provides an explanation of each family's characteristics. If an MCP family is chosen, and the order is insufficient to represent the filter, the filter function will default back to the standard maximally flat or equal ripple families. Transformation The standard set of four transformations Lowpass, Highpass, Bandpass, and Bandreject are provided. Depending on the selection, various other editing fields will be enabled or disabled as required. MCP Factor MCP is an abbreviation for Multiple Critical Pole. This class of filters uses identical lower Q sections to replace the more usual single high order pole. The factor is the number of duplicate poles: 2, 3, or 4. The filter must have high enough order for a given factor selection, or it will be disabled. Transition Attenuation Level This group box provides optional control to define the transition level, corner or edge, of the filter. The common transition level is 3dB which comes from the Butterworth family of filters. However, there are cases in elliptic filters where the edge of the passband ripple may be selected as the transition frequency. For example, consider an equal ripple 0.1dB filter. By strict definition the passband covers frequencies within the 0.1dB ripple specification. The natural transition frequency of the filter occurs at the end of the 0.1dB passband. This would correspond to the Natural selection in the group box.

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However if you wish to design the same filter based on the definition of a transition level of 3dB, this can be done by choosing the Custom option and entering 3.0 in the dB parameter field. Using this feature all filter families can be generated based on identical transition levels of any value. Frequency If the transformation type is Lowpass or Highpass, this parameter refers to the corner frequency. If the transformation type is Bandpass or Bandreject, then this parameter represents the center frequency. Total Q This parameter will be enabled for Bandpass/Bandreject filters. It controls the width of the passband/ stopband respectively. This parameter can be directly entered in terms of Q, or by using the [...] button entered as a pair of edge frequencies, or by octave width. This option will also automatically recalculate the required center frequency and total Q. This is very useful for 3-way or higher midband crossover sections. Passband Ripple If the family selected is equal ripple type, then this parameter will be enabled. It is the zero to peak value of the ripple in the passband. R Load This is the design load value for the passive network. Passive filters require this, and will be designed based on this load. It is also of course assumed that the components are lossless. In reality the load may be a transducer with a complex impedance curve. In this case the response of the network will not perform to the ideal designed response. Such is the need for optimization to adjust the circuit components to produce the best overall response from the system. Stopband Attenuation The top of the stopband lobes, between the zeros, is determined by this parameter. The cutoff rate is the direct result of this parameter as well. As the stopband attenuation increases, the cutoff rate decreases, and the transition region grows. Depending on the order of the filter, and the value of this parameter, some filter solutions will not be possible. If a small attenuation is entered on a high order filter, the transition region becomes extremely small. This requires very high Q values and ultra critical zero frequencies. The solution will fail if Q values exceed 1000.

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Elliptic Family Descriptions The following provides a brief description of the primary characteristics for each filter family. It is worth mentioning that you can easily explore many of their other characteristics more fully by creating some filters yourself, and examining their response in any of the numerous graphs. There are many other practical concerns such as Q requirement which can also be evaluated. s Maximally Flat The Maximally Flat elliptic, also known as inverse Chebyshev or Chebyshev II, has no ripple in the passband. Since it has no passband ripple, the natural transition frequency occurs at the edge of the stopband. In most cases you will probably wish to use a custom transition of 3dB or similar. This family is easy to realize with low Q values. s Equal Ripple The Equal Ripple elliptic, also known as Cauer, is the most commonly known standard elliptic filter type. It has equal ripple in the passband, provides very steep cutoff, with a very small transition region. However, there is a catch. It typically requires very high Q in a single pole section, with very precise zero frequencies. It is probably one of the most difficult filters to realize. The MCP Equal Ripple family is a far more practical and very attractive alternative. s MCP Maximally Flat The Multiple Critical Pole (MCP) Maximally Flat elliptic produces the same kind of response as the standard maximally flat discussed above. However the MCP version here uses multiple identical poles to reduce the Q values. This repeated pole has the maximum Q of any in the filter. MCP filters require lower Q than the original filters, and are highly realizable with excellent stability. s MCP Equal Ripple The Multiple Critical Pole (MCP) Equal Ripple elliptic produces the same kind of response as the standard equal ripple discussed above. However the MCP version here uses multiple identical poles to reduce the Q values. This repeated pole has the maximum Q of any in the filter. MCP filters require lower Q than the original filters. For this reason MCP filters are highly realizable and stable. Note: MCP filters will have slightly wider transition regions than the original filter versions, and may require a slight increase in filter order. However the producibility of the higher order MCP will typically be far superior to that of the lower order standard filter.

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9.3 Analog Passive: Equalizer Networks

The Synthesis | Analog Passive | Equalizer Networks menu item opens a dialog which contains a collection of specialized equalizer functions. The tool button shown above on the Analog Passive tab of the Synthesis toolbar will also activate this item. Note: Using the Synthesis dialogs requires that the Circuit Schematic window be active (has the focus). Equalizer circuits perform special tasks such as adjusting broadband level or frequency response in a specific region. Several different circuits are provided here for those purposes. The synthesis dialog receives your parameter values, designs a circuit fragment that performs the filter function, and then pastes it onto the schematic for you. You can then move the selected group of components to whatever position you like in your overall circuit. You will then need to integrate the circuit fragment into the rest of your circuit as needed. Passive networks are designed for a particular load impedance. This will appear as a resistor component in the circuit fragment. If your actual load is a transducer, you will need to delete this resistor and replace it with your real transducer load. The dialog also provides a picture of the circuit structure that will be designed. The circuit structure will change based on your parameter values and/or selections in the other dialog fields and controls.

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L-Pad Attenuator This circuit performs broadband attenuation of level. You can enter the attenuation desired in dB and the load resistance in Ohms. The input impedance will remain equal to the load impedance. The needed values for R1 and R2 will then be calculated. This circuit is commonly used to attenuate tweeters or midranges to lower levels to match their sensitivity to that of more inefficient woofers.

RLC Parallel Tank This circuit is typically used to perform as a bandreject filter when used in series with a transducer. You can enter the resonance frequency Fo, the Q value, and load resistance which in this case means R1. These circuits are generally used to produce a dip in the response at a single frequency. Possibly to counteract a peak in the transducer's response. The proper value for R1 will depend on the transducer impedance and dip requirement. Some trial and error is typically needed and/or optimization.

RLC Series Trap This circuit is typically used to perform as a bandpass filter when used in series with a transducer, or as a bandreject filter when used in parallel. You can enter the resonance frequency Fo, the Q value, and load resistance which in this case means R1. These circuits are generally used to produce a dip in the response at a single frequency. Possibly to counteract a peak in the transducer's response. The proper value for R1 will depend on the transducer impedance and dip requirement. Some trial and error is typically needed and/or optimization.

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9.4 Analog Passive: Conjugate Networks

The Synthesis | Analog Passive | Conjugate Networks menu item will open a dialog which performs impedance equalization. The tool button shown above on the Analog Passive tab of the Synthesis toolbar will also activate this item. Note: Using the Synthesis dialogs requires that the Circuit Schematic window be active (has the focus). Conjugate networks seek to cancel the reactive portion of a complex impedance to yield a purely resistive impedance. Hence the name conjugate. They are often described as Zobel networks. In practice a purely resistive result can only be approximated. The tradeoff may involve lowering the impedance to an unacceptably low level. The complex impedance presented by a typical transducer requires a multistage conjugate design. This dialog can create and optimize ultra high performance multi-stage conjugates with any degree of flatness desired by the user. Conjugate networks are designed to compensate a specific impedance curve. For transducers the network must be connected directly in parallel across the transducer terminals. System impedance conjugates are also possible which yield a resistive load for the entire system. In this case the network is placed in parallel to the input of the crossover network itself. The synthesis dialog receives your parameter values, designs a circuit fragment that performs the network function, and then pastes it onto the schematic for you. You can then move the selected group of components to whatever position you like in your overall circuit. You will then need to integrate the circuit fragment into the rest of your circuit as needed.

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Impedance Curve The impedance function to compensate can be obtained from any of three sources: a Transducer component in the schematic, a System Curve, or a Guide Curve. The impedance curve will be displayed in the graph to the left. Resonance Threshold The impedance function may contain small or large resonance peaks in the curve. This parameter controls the sensitivity for detecting resonance locations. Too much sensitivity can cause small ripples in the curve to be incorrectly picked up as resonance locations. Insufficient sensitivity can cause larger resonance locations to be ignored. In most cases the default value is adequate, but can be changed if needed. Design Impedance The combination of a conjugate network always reduces the total impedance. Achieving further flatness requres more reduction in the resulting impedance. You can adjust the optimization process to achive 50-100% of the original minimum curve impedance by adjusting this parameter. Start Design Click this button to start the processing. The impedance curve will be scanned for resonance locations and a proper circuit structure created. The number of resonance peaks found is given in the Res Peaks field. The circuit structure will also then appear in the Conjugate Network group box. A new curve will be drawn on the graph showing the total impedance with the conjugate network. As the optimization continues, the total impedance will become flatter. The amount of computation time required will depend on the complexity of the circuit and curve data. When completed, you can click Ok to place the network on the schematic.

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You can also Stop the optimization at anytime and accept the design at that stage of optimization. The resulting impedance curve will generally have some amount of ripple. If you wish a flatter curve, then you will need to reduce the Design Impedance value. Depending on your needs you may be able to eliminate and/or combine some of the components of the multistage conjugate network by manual circuit editing.

The need for impedance compensation depends on many factors. Crossover networks can themselves be designed and optimized with or without impedance compensation. Typical systems with modern power amplifiers and short cable runs benefit little by impedance compensation. However, if the amplifier output impedance is high or the cable impedance large, the benefit can be substantial. A voltage divider is formed between the source and the loudspeaker system. This divider transfer function will appear directly in the acoustic response. If the loudspeaker impedance is flattened with impedance compensation, the transfer function is merely uniform attenuation.

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9.5 Analog Active: Allpole Filters

The Synthesis | AnalogActive | Allpole Filters menu item will open a dialog which contains an extensive catalog of explicit equation formulations and numerical solutions for the design of active Allpole filters. The tool button shown above on the Analog Active tab of the Synthesis toolbar will also activate this item. Note: Using the Synthesis dialogs requires that the Circuit Schematic window be active (has the focus). The Allpole class of filters have no zeros in their stopband, with respect to the characteristic Lowpass configuration. Since no finite design tables are used, a filter with any desired parameters can be easily designed. For example, Chebyshev filters can be designed with any passband ripple, and Linear Phase filters can be designed with any group delay ripple. There are two forms of an analog active circuit; the generic transfer function form, and the actual circuit realization form. Both forms are useful in different ways. This dialog creates generic transfer function blocks which produce the required filter functions. The Analog Active | Realization dialog can later be used to convert these individual blocks into actual circuit realizations. The synthesis dialog receives your parameter values, designs a combination of transfer function blocks that perform the filter function, and then pastes it onto the schematic for you. You can then move the selected group of components to whatever position you like in your overall circuit. You will then need to integrate the circuit fragment into the rest of your circuit as needed. You can also inspect the properties of each transfer function block component to see how the blocks are configured. The parameters of these blocks can be optimized or manually modified without the need of working at the R/C level of individual circuitry. When finalized these blocks can then be converted into realizations.

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The dialog also provides a picture of the circuit structure that will be designed. The circuit structure will change based on your parameter values and/or selections in the other dialog fields and controls. Order This group of radio buttons is used to select the order of the filter. In the case of Lowpass, Highpass, and Allpass filters the polynomial order is identical to the filter order. For Bandpass and Bandreject filters, the polynomial order is twice the filter order. When a low order is chosen, insufficient to represent the family selected, the filter function will default back to the Butterworth 3dB. For example, choosing a 1st order Chebyshev has no meaning since the order has too few degrees of freedom to produce this transfer function. Family The selections offered here cover a wide range of standard and specialized Allpole characteristics. Each Family may have a different number of editing field parameters enabled or disabled depending on its requirements. A following section provides an explanation of each family's characteristics. Transformation The complete set of five transformations Lowpass, Highpass, Allpass, Bandpass, and Bandreject are provided. Depending on the selection, various other editing fields will be enabled or disabled as required. MCP Factor MCP is an abbreviation for Multiple Critical Pole. This class of filters uses identical lower Q sections to replace the more usual single high order pole. The factor is the number of duplicate poles: 2, 3, or 4. The filter must have high enough order for a given factor selection, or it will be disabled.

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Transition Attenuation Level This group box provides optional control to define the transition level, corner or edge, of the filter. The common transition level is 3dB which comes from the Butterworth family of filters. However, other filter families produce different transition levels. For example, consider a Chebyshev 0.1dB ripple filter. By strict definition the passband covers frequencies within the 0.1dB ripple specification. The natural transition frequency of the filter occurs at the end of the 0.1dB passband. This would correspond to the Natural selection in the group box. However if you wish to design the same filter based on the definition of a transition level of 3dB, this can be done by choosing the Custom option and entering 3.0 in the dB parameter field. Using this feature all filter families can be generated based on identical transition levels of any value. Frequency If the transformation type is Lowpass, Highpass, or Allpass then this parameter refers to the corner frequency. If the transformation type is Bandpass or Bandreject, this parameter represents the center frequency. Magnitude Ripple If the family selected supports passband ripple, then this parameter will be enabled. The Chebyshev and MCP Chebyshev families use this parameter. It is the zero to peak value of the ripple in the passband. Delay Ripple If the family selected supports group delay ripple, then this parameter will be enabled. The Linear Phase family uses this parameter. It is measured in terms of peak to peak ripple in percent. This characteristic is only relevant for Lowpass or Allpass transformations. Total Q This parameter will be enabled for Bandpass/Bandreject filters. It controls the width of the passband/ stopband respectively. This parameter can be directly entered in terms of Q, or by using the [...] button entered as a pair of edge frequencies, or by octave width. This option will also automatically recalculate the required center frequency and total Q. This is very useful for 3-way or higher midband crossover sections.

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Allpole Family Descriptions The following provides a brief description of the primary characteristics for each filter family. It is worth mentioning that you can easily explore many of their other characteristics more fully by creating some filters yourself, and examining their response in any of the numerous graphs. There are many other practical concerns such as Q requirement which can also be evaluated. s Butterworth 3dB This is the well known maximally flat family of allpole filters, with transition level of 3 dB. The normalized transfer function has all roots on a unit circle. s Butterworth 6dB This is a modified form of the standard Butterworth family which produces 6dB transition levels. There are special complementary relationships that exist between the 3/6 families. For example, an odd order 3dB Lowpass/Highpass pair will sum to yield an Allpass filter, while an even order 6dB Lowpass/ Highpass pair will sum to yield an Allpass filter. s Chebyshev The Chebyshev, or equal magnitude ripple family, produces equal ripple response in the passband. The normalized roots lie on an ellipse, rather than a circle. The family produces one of the steepest cutoff rates, but can also require high Q values which may be difficult to realize in many circuits. . s Bessel The Bessel family produces a maximally flat group delay. It also has a very slow rate of cutoff. It is commonly used in applications where transient response or linear time delay is important. Gaussian and Linear Phase are also similar equivalents. s Legendre The Legendre family provides ripple free monotonic response like that of the Butterworth, but with much steeper cutoff rates like the Chebyshev. It can be a good compromise between the Butterworth and Chebyshev with respect to cutoff rate and producibility. s Linear Phase The Linear Phase, or equal group delay ripple family, produces equal ripple in the passband frequency region of the group delay response. This family has steeper cutoff than the Bessel or Gaussian, with the linear phase behavior.

Note: The single 4th order case is also commonly known as Linkwitz-Riley, but the general complete family is given here.

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s Transitional 3dB, 6dB, 12dB The Transitional family is essentially a splice of two other families: a Gaussian response for the passband, and a Chebyshev response for the stopband. The transition level at which the splicing occurs is represented by the three different sub families. They produce more linear phase behavior in the passband while giving a steeper rate of cutoff in the stopband. s Synchronous The Synchronous family is a simple array of identical poles. They are very easy to build, and have near optimum transient response. However they also have very poor selectivity with slow cutoff rates. s Gaussian The Gaussian family is very similar to the Bessel, but has slightly slower cutoff rate and a more shallow group delay knee. It is commonly used in applications where transient response or linear time delay is important. Bessel and Linear Phase are also similar equivalents. s MCP Butterworth The Multiple Critical Pole (MCP) Butterworth family produces a maximally flat magnitude response using multiple identical poles. This repeated pole has the maximum Q of any in the filter. MCP filters produce lower Q requirements than the original filters. For this reason MCP filters are highly realizable and stable. s MCP Chebyshev The Multiple Critical Pole (MCP) Chebyshev family produces an equal ripple magnitude response using multiple identical poles. This repeated pole has the maximum Q of any in the filter. MCP filters produce lower Q requirements than the original filters. For this reason MCP filters are highly realizable and stable. Many Chebyshev filters require a single very high Q pole, where the MCP uses multiple lower Q poles at the same frequency to perform nearly the same function.

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9.6 Analog Active: Elliptic Filters

The Synthesis | AnalogActive | Elliptic Filters menu item will open a dialog which contains an extensive catalog of explicit equation formulations and numerical solutions for the design of active Elliptic filters. The tool button shown above on the Analog Active tab of the Synthesis toolbar will also activate this item. Note: Using the Synthesis dialogs requires that the Circuit Schematic window be active (has the focus). The elliptic class of filters have zeros in their stopband, with respect to the characteristic Lowpass configuration. Since no finite design tables are used, a filter with any desired parameters can be easily designed. For example, passband ripple as well as stopband attenuation can be custom designed for any elliptic filter. There are two forms of an analog active circuit; the generic transfer function form, and the actual circuit realization form. Both forms are useful in different ways. This dialog creates generic transfer function blocks which produce the required filter functions. The Analog Active | Realization dialog can later be used to convert these individual blocks into actual circuit realizations. The synthesis dialog receives your parameter values, designs a combination of transfer function blocks that perform the filter function, and then pastes it onto the schematic for you. You can then move the selected group of components to whatever position you like in your overall circuit. You will then need to integrate the circuit fragment into the rest of your circuit as needed. You can also inspect the properties of each transfer function block component to see how the blocks are configured. The parameters of these blocks can be optimized or manually modified without the need of working at the R/C level of individual circuitry. When finalized these blocks can then be converted into realizations.

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The dialog also provides a picture of the circuit structure that will be designed. The circuit structure will change based on your parameter values and/or selections in the other dialog fields and controls. Order This group of radio buttons is used to select the order of the filter. In the case of Lowpass & Highpass filters, the polynomial order is identical to the filter order. For Bandpass & Bandreject filters, the polynomial order is twice the filter order. If an MCP family is chosen, and the order is insufficient to represent the filter, the filter function will default back to the standard maximally flat or equal ripple families. Transformation The standard set of four transformations Lowpass, Highpass, Bandpass, and Bandreject are provided. Depending on the selection, various other editing fields will be enabled or disabled as required. Family The selections offered cover both the standard maximally flat and equal ripple types, as well as MCP versions of both. If the maximally flat types are selected, then the Passband Ripple dB parameter is disabled. A following section provides an explanation of each family's characteristics. MCP Factor MCP is an abbreviation for Multiple Critical Pole. This class of filters uses identical lower Q sections to replace the more usual single high order pole. The factor is the number of duplicate poles: 2, 3, or 4. The filter must have high enough order for a given factor selection, or it will be disabled. Frequency If the transformation type is Lowpass or Highpass, this parameter refers to the corner frequency. If the transformation type is Bandpass or Bandreject, then this parameter represents the center frequency.

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Transition Attenuation Level This group box provides optional control to define the transition level, corner or edge, of the filter. The common transition level is 3dB which comes from the Butterworth family of filters. However, there are cases in elliptic filter design where the edge of the passband ripple may be selected as the transition frequency. For example, consider an equal ripple 0.1dB filter. By strict definition the passband covers frequencies within the 0.1dB ripple specification. The natural transition frequency of the filter occurs at the end of the 0.1dB passband. This would correspond to the Natural selection in the group box. However if you wish to design the same filter based on the definition of a transition level of 3dB, this can be done by choosing the Custom option and entering 3.0 in the dB parameter field. Using this feature all filter families can be generated based on identical transition levels of any value. Passband Ripple If the family selected is equal ripple type, then this parameter will be enabled. It is the zero to peak value of the ripple in the passband. Stopband Attenuation The top of the stopband lobes, between the zeros, is determined by this parameter. The cutoff rate is the direct result of this parameter as well. As the stopband attenuation increases, the cutoff rate decreases, and the transition region grows. Depending on the order of the filter, and the value of this parameter, some filter solutions will not be possible. If a small attenuation is entered on a high order filter, the transition region becomes extremely small. This requires very high Q values and ultra critical zero frequencies. The program will abort the solution if Q values exceed 1000. Total Q This parameter will be enabled for Bandpass/Bandreject filters. It controls the width of the passband/ stopband respectively. This parameter can be directly entered in terms of Q, or by using the [...] button entered as a pair of edge frequencies, or by octave width. This option will also automatically recalculate the required center frequency and total Q. This is very useful for 3-way or higher midband crossover sections.

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Even Order Filter Type When designing even order elliptic filters, two different configurations are possible. The number of zeros can be equal to the number of poles, or the number of zeros will be two less than the poles. For example, a 6th order Lowpass could be designed with 6 zeros (3 finite pairs), or 4 zeros (2 finite pairs). These two filter solutions are shown in the graph below. For the case of three zero pairs, the last zero occurs at a finite frequency of 3.6kHz. Therefore the attenuation at high frequencies is also finite. In the other case of two zero pairs, the 3rd zero pair has been moved to infinity. The attenuation at high frequencies is now also infinite. Different types of circuit topologies will generally require one of the two types. Active circuit topologies come in many forms, with both types commonly being used. In many cases of cascaded Bandreject stages, it is more common to see the full order Finite zero configuration. This allows all stages to have the same topology. Passive RLC ladders generally use the Infinite zero type. All of the even order elliptic passive synthesis circuits in the program require this type. Odd order elliptics always have one zero located at infinity.

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Elliptic Family Descriptions The following provides a brief description of the primary characteristics for each filter family. It is worth mentioning that you can easily explore many of their other characteristics more fully by creating some filters yourself, and examining their response in any of the numerous graphs. There are many other practical concerns such as Q requirement which can also be evaluated. s Maximally Flat The Maximally Flat elliptic, also known as inverse Chebyshev or Chebyshev II, has no ripple in the passband. Since it has no passband ripple, the natural transition frequency occurs at the edge of the stopband. In most cases you will probably wish to use a custom transition of 3dB or similar. Easy to realize with low Q values. s Equal Ripple The Equal Ripple elliptic, also known as Cauer, is the most commonly known standard elliptic filter type. It has equal ripple in the passband, provides very steep cutoff, with a very small transition region. However, there is a catch. It typically requires very high Q in a single pole section, with very precise zero frequencies. It is probably one of the most difficult filters to realize. The MCP Equal Ripple family is a far more practical and very attractive alternative. s MCP Maximally Flat The Multiple Critical Pole (MCP) Maximally Flat elliptic produces the same kind of response as the standard maximally flat discussed above. However the MCP version here uses multiple identical poles to reduce the Q values. This repeated pole has the maximum Q of any in the filter. MCP filters produce lower Q requirements than the original filters, and are highly realizable with excellent stability. s MCP Equal Ripple The Multiple Critical Pole (MCP) Equal Ripple elliptic produces the same kind of response as the standard equal ripple discussed above. However the MCP version here uses multiple identical poles to reduce the Q values. This repeated pole has the maximum Q of any in the filter. MCP filters produce lower Q requirements than the original filters. For this reason MCP filters are highly realizable and stable. Note: MCP filters will have slightly wider transition regions than the original filter versions, and may require a slight increase in filter order. However the producibility of the higher order MCP will typically be far superior to that of the lower order standard filter.

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9.7 Analog Active: Equalizer Filters

The Synthesis | Analog Active | Equalizers menu item opens a dialog which contains a collection of specialized equalizer functions. The tool button shown above on the Analog Active tab of the Synthesis toolbar will also activate this item. Note: Using the Synthesis dialogs requires that the Circuit Schematic window be active (has the focus). Equalizer circuits perform special tasks such as correcting selected regions of transducer response. Three different types of equalizers are provided: Lowpass shelving (LEQ), Bandpass peaking (BEQ), and Highpass shelving (HEQ). There are two forms of an analog active circuit; the generic transfer function form, and the actual circuit realization form. Both forms are useful in different ways. This dialog creates generic transfer function blocks which produce the required filter functions. The Analog Active | Realization dialog can later be used to convert these individual blocks into actual circuit realizations. The synthesis dialog receives your parameter values, designs a combination of transfer function blocks that perform the filter function, and then pastes it onto the schematic for you. You can then move the selected group of components to whatever position you like in your overall circuit. You will then need to integrate the circuit fragment into the rest of your circuit as needed. You can also inspect the properties of each transfer function block component to see how the blocks are configured. The parameters of these blocks can be optimized or manually modified without the need of working at the R/C level of individual circuitry. When finalized these blocks can then be converted into realizations. The dialog also provides a picture of the circuit structure that will be designed. The circuit structure will change based on your parameter values and/or selections in the other dialog fields and controls.

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Filter There are three types of filters available: LEQ, BEQ, and HEQ. The shape of these filters is denoted in their associated buttons. The LEQ/HEQ filters have a corner frequency and a boost/cut parameter value. The BEQ frequency is the center resonance and there is also a Q value. Only a single transfer function block is needed to produce these functions.

Q Factor This parameter can be directly entered in terms of Q, or by using the [...] button entered as a pair of edge frequencies, or by octave width. This option will also automatically recalculate the required center frequency and total Q.

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9.8 Analog Active: Realization

The Synthesis | Analog Active | Realization menu item opens a dialog which contains a collection of circuits to realize a wide range of generic transfer function blocks. The tool button shown above on the Analog Active tab of the Synthesis toolbar will also activate this item. Note: Using the Synthesis dialogs requires that the Circuit Schematic window be active (has the focus). There are two forms of an analog active circuit: the generic transfer function form, and the actual circuit realization form. Both forms are useful in different ways. This dialog reads the configuration of a single transfer function block and designs an equivalent R/C active circuit realization. This circuit fragment can then be used to replace the original generic transfer function block. It is assumed that you have one or more Transfer Function H block components already in the schematic. By repeated use of this dialog all of the transfer function blocks can be replaced with actual active circuit realizations. You may wish to save a copy of your design in both forms. It must be emphasised that active circuit design and realization is an entire subject by itself. Many transfer functions can be realized by a wide variety of different topologies. The circuit blocks designed by this dialog are limited to 1st and 2nd order stages, and therefore the filters will be cascaded realizations. This dialog is not intended to provide all possible realizations for any filter design. This is beyond the scope of this program. However you are free to manually create any other circuit topologies you need along with full optimization capability. Note: If you are generally working with active or digital filter design, FilterShop provides far more extensive tools and synthesis capabilities for this class of circuitry.

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H Circuit Components The large grid table displays the currently available H transfer function block components in the cirucit. You must choose one of these components to convert.

Parameters Each circuit has an R1 component which will be used as an impedance scaling factor for the design. There is no way to predict what value may be best or desired in advance for all possible circuits.

However you can repeat the process one or more times choosing the same H block to explore different possibilities for R1. The schematic below shows an example of an H component and its equivalent circuit realization. After the circuit is placed on the schematic, you may wish to change the tolerance of the component, assign a specific model to the opamp, or add additional components.

Note: This program does not support Noise Analysis of the circuitry. If you are generally working with active or digital filter design, FilterShop provides complete detailed analysis of noise performance.

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9.9 Digital-IIR: Matched-Z Transform

The Synthesis | Digital-IIR | Match-Z Transform menu item will open a dialog which provides a transform method for conversion from analog to digital IIR filters. The tool button shown above on the Digital-IIR tab of the Synthesis toolbar will also activate this item. Note: Using the Synthesis dialogs requires that the Circuit Schematic window be active (has the focus). All IIR transform methods require an analog prototype filter to exist in the circuit as generic H transfer function blocks. This means that you actually start with an analog active filter design, and then apply an IIR transform to produce the needed tap coefficients. The type of transformation to be used is very much dependent on the analog prototype filter itself. Some transforms will work for all types of analog filters, while others are only applicable to certain types of analog filters. In many cases there will only be a slight difference between the results of the different transforms. In other cases the difference will be success and outright failure. In general, it is probably best to pick the transform that results in the closest match to the original analog prototype. In other cases there may be special considerations such as the requirement of integer coefficient values etc., that may dictate using one method over another. Historically the Bilinear and Matched-Z transforms have generally found the widest application. These transforms perform well on almost any filter type. There are two forms of an analog active circuit: the generic transfer function form, and the actual circuit realization form. Both forms are useful in different ways. This dialog creates the Digital-IIR form from the generic transfer function block form. You may wish to save a copy of the original H block form for later use.

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Realization Form There are three different forms of IIR realizations which can be produced: • Single full high order section • Parallel combination of multiple 1st/2nd order sections • Cascade combination of multiple 1st/2nd order sections IIR filters are relatively sensitive to coefficient precision in high order configurations. For this reason parallel or cascade multi-section configurations are generally used. For some types of filters parallel is not the best choice. This is generally true for analog prototypes with identical poles. If the transform has a problem with the filter and the selected form, an error message will provide notification. If this happens, choose another form. Frequency Parameters The sampling and normalizing frequencies directly control the transform. The normalizing frequency is used to match the gains between the analog and IIR transfer functions, and is generally set to the corner or center frequency of the analog prototype. However other locations can also be used. Zero Insertion Factor This is an adjustable parameter that improves the transform results of the Matched-Z method. Essentially it is another variable warping control. In most cases a value of 10-15% has been shown to be optimal. For some filters this parameter will have no effect. By performing the transform a few times with changes to this parameter, you will easily find the optimum value that suits your particular filter. H Circuit Components You will need to select the H component(s) that define the specific filter to be converted. For example, a 6th order Lowpass filter would be comprised of three H blocks. Click Ok and a new IIR component will be placed on the schematic as shown here on the left. This component can then replace the original H blocks.

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9.10 Digital-IIR: Bilinear Transform

The Synthesis | Digital-IIR | Bilinear Transform menu item will open a dialog which provides a transform method for conversion from analog to digital IIR filters. The tool button shown above on the Digital-IIR tab of the Synthesis toolbar will also activate this item. Note: Using the Synthesis dialogs requires that the Circuit Schematic window be active (has the focus). All IIR transform methods require an analog prototype filter to exist in the circuit as generic H transfer function blocks. This means that you actually start with an analog active filter design, and then apply an IIR transform to produce the needed tap coefficients. The type of transformation to be used is very much dependent on the analog prototype filter itself. Some transforms will work for all types of analog filters, while others are only applicable to certain types of analog filters. In many cases there will only be a slight difference between the results of the different transforms. In other cases the difference will be success and outright failure. In general, it is probably best to pick the transform that results in the closest match to the original analog prototype. In other cases there may be special considerations such as the requirement of integer coefficient values etc., that may dictate using one method over another. Historically the Bilinear and Matched-Z transforms have generally found the widest application. These transforms perform well on almost any filter type. There are two forms of an analog active circuit; the generic transfer function form, and the actual circuit realization form. Both forms are useful in different ways. This dialog creates the Digital-IIR form from the generic transfer function block form. You may wish to save a copy of the original H block form for later use.

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Realization Form There are three different forms of IIR realizations which can be produced: • Single full high order section • Parallel combination of multiple 1st/2nd order sections • Cascade combination of multiple 1st/2nd order sections IIR filters are relatively sensitive to coefficient precision in high order configurations. For this reason parallel or cascade multi-section configurations are generally used. For some types of filters parallel is not the best choice. This is generally true for analog prototypes with identical poles. If the transform has a problem with the filter and the selected form, an error message will provide notification. If this happens, choose another form. Frequency Parameters The warping and sampling frequencies directly control the transform. The warping frequency is generally set to the corner or center frequency of the analog prototype. However other locations can also be used. H Circuit Components You will need to select the H component(s) that define the specific filter to be converted. For example, a 6th order Lowpass filter would be comprised of three H blocks. Click Ok and a new IIR component will be placed on the schematic as shown here on the left. This component can then replace the original H block(s).

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9.11 Digital-IIR: Invariant Transform

The Synthesis | Digital-IIR | Invariant Transform menu item will open a dialog which provides a transform method for conversion from analog to digital IIR filters. The tool button shown above on the Digital-IIR tab of the Synthesis toolbar will also activate this item. Note: Using the Synthesis dialogs requires that the Circuit Schematic window be active (has the focus). All IIR transform methods require an analog prototype filter to exist in the circuit as generic H transfer function blocks. This means that you actually start with an analog active filter design, and then apply an IIR transform to produce the needed tap coefficients. The type of transformation to be used is very much dependent on the analog prototype filter itself. Some transforms will work for all types of analog filters, while others are only applicable to certain types of analog filters. In many cases there will only be a slight difference between the results of the different transforms. In other cases the difference will be success and outright failure. In general, it is probably best to pick the transform that results in the closest match to the original analog prototype. In other cases there may be special considerations such as the requirement of integer coefficient values etc. that may dictate using one method over another. Historically the Bilinear and Matched-Z transforms have generally found the widest application. These transforms perform well on almost any filter type. There are two forms of an analog active circuit; the generic transfer function form, and the actual circuit realization form. Both forms are useful in different ways. This dialog creates the Digital-IIR form from the generic transfer function block form. You may wish to save a copy of the original H block form for later use.

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Realization Form There are three different forms of IIR realizations which can be produced: • Single full high order section • Parallel combination of multiple 1st/2nd order sections • Cascade combination of multiple 1st/2nd order sections IIR filters are relatively sensitive to coefficient precision in high order configurations. For this reason parallel or cascade multi-section configurations are generally used. For some types of filters parallel is not the best choice. This is generally true for analog prototypes with identical poles. If the transform has a problem with the filter and the selected form, an error message will provide notification. If this happens, choose another form. Frequency Parameters The sampling frequency directly controls the transform. Method Three different types of invariant transform methods provided. Each has slightly different characteristics. Invariant methods are best used for Lowpass or Bandpass type filters. H Circuit Components You will need to select the H component(s) that define the specific filter to be converted. For example, a 6th order Lowpass filter would be comprised of three H blocks. Click Ok and a new IIR component will be placed on the schematic as shown here on the left. This component can then replace the original H block(s).

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9.12 Digital-IIR: Convolution Transform

The Synthesis | Digital-IIR | Convolution Transform menu item will open a dialog which provides a transform method for conversion from analog to digital IIR filters. The tool button shown above on the Digital-IIR tab of the Synthesis toolbar will also activate this item. Note: Using the Synthesis dialogs requires that the Circuit Schematic window be active (has the focus). All IIR transform methods require an analog prototype filter to exist in the circuit as generic H transfer function blocks. This means that you actually start with an analog active filter design, and then apply an IIR transform to produce the needed tap coefficients. The type of transformation to be used is very much dependent on the analog prototype filter itself. Some transforms will work for all types of analog filters, while others are only applicable to certain types of analog filters. In many cases there will only be a slight difference between the results of the different transforms. In other cases the difference will be success and outright failure. In general, it is probably best to pick the transform that results in the closest match to the original analog prototype. In other cases there may be special considerations such as the requirement of integer coefficient values etc. that may dictate using one method over another. Historically the Bilinear and Matched-Z transforms have generally found the widest application. These transforms perform well on almost any filter type. There are two forms of an analog active circuit; the generic transfer function form, and the actual circuit realization form. Both forms are useful in different ways. This dialog creates the Digital-IIR form from the generic transfer function block form. You may wish to save a copy of the original H block form for later use.

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Realization Form There are three different forms of IIR realizations which can be produced: • Single full high order section • Parallel combination of multiple 1st/2nd order sections • Cascade combination of multiple 1st/2nd order sections IIR filters are relatively sensitive to coefficient precision in high order configurations. For this reason parallel or cascade multi-section configurations are generally used. For some types of filters parallel is not the best choice. This is generally true for analog prototypes with identical poles. If the transform has a problem with the filter and the selected form, an error message will provide notification. If this happens, choose another form. Frequency Parameters The sampling frequency directly controls the transform.

H Circuit Components You will need to select the H component(s) that define the specific filter to be converted. For example, a 6th order Lowpass filter would be comprised of three H blocks. Click Ok and a new IIR component will be placed on the schematic as shown here on the left. This component can then replace the original H block(s).

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9.13 Digital-FIR: Window Method Filters

The Synthesis | Digital-FIR | Window Method Filters menu item will open a dialog which uses the windowing method to design FIR filters. The tool button shown above on the Digital-FIR tab of the Synthesis toolbar can also be used to activate this item. Note: Using the Synthesis dialogs requires that the Circuit Schematic window be active (has the focus). The window method is one of the oldest techniques for designing FIR filters. Due to the power and flexibility of the equal ripple optimal methodology, windowing is often seen as a much more restricted older method for FIR design. However window filters have a particular characteristic for crossover design which is very appealing. The response at the corner frequency is always 1/2 amplitude ( -6dB). Furthermore the filter response of the passband and stopband are mirror images of each other. The Lowpass and Highpass duals are complimentary. This is a very desireable shape for crossover work, since the sum of opposite sections will always yield perfect unity. Window filters come in two different types; adjustable windows and fixed windows. This refers to whether or not the window has adjustable stopband attenuation. Most windows are fixed. The adjustable windows are the Kaiser, Gaussian, DolphChebyshev, VanDerMaas, and Taylor Series. There are a wide variety of different window functions cataloged in the dialog. Some are common, and others are less common. If you are interested in the details behind each of these specific window types, please consult one of the books in the Reference Sources chapter. Most of their characteristics can be observed simply by creating a filter with the particular window of interest. Note: If you are generally working with digital filter design, FilterShop provides far more extensive tools and synthesis capabilities for these types of filters.

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Window Function This is the catalog of windowing functions. Most are fixed windows with no adjustable stopband attenuation. If the window is adjustable, the Stopband Atten field will be enabled. Transformation This radio button group selects the type of filter transformation: Lowpass, Highpass, Bandpass, or Bandreject. Depending on the transformation different numeric fields will be enabled in the frequency parameters group box.

Frequency Parameters The most important parameter is, of course, the Sampling frequency. This parameter should always be set to the correct value before attempting to edit the other frequency parameters. The next field down will either have the label Corner or Center frequency depending on the selected transformation. Likewise, the next field below will either be labeled Passband or Stopband frequency width, again depending on the selected transformation. This field will only be enabled for Bandpass and Bandreject filters. The last field is the Transition frequency width. Changing the transition frequency will cause a recalculation of the Order of the filter. Conversely, changing the order of the filter will cause a recalculation of the transition frequency width. Amplitude Parameters Since the Stopband Attenuation is only adjustable for a few window functions, in most cases this field will be disabled. When it is disabled, it will display the typical attenuation value for the selected window function. When the selected window function is adjustable, the parameter can be edited. The Order can always be changed to any value desired for all window functions.

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9.14 Digital-FIR: Frequency Sampling Filters

The Synthesis | Digital-FIR | Frequency Sampling Filters menu item will open a dialog which designs FIR filters that approximate an arbitrary response curve. The tool button shown above on the Digital-FIR tab of the Synthesis toolbar can also be used to activate this item. Note: Using the Synthesis dialogs requires that the Circuit Schematic window be active (has the focus). The methodology employed here uses a discrete sampling of points from the objective curve to produce the FIR filter. This is really a polynomial interpolation method, using the Inverse DFT. The Digital-FIR Optimal Approximation is another similar method. Each may produce better or worse results than the other depending on the particular shape of the arbitrary response curve. In order to perform this operation you must have an objective response curve in either the System Curve or Guide Curve libraries. The ability of the approximation to follow details in the arbitrary response curve depends on the order chosen for the FIR filter, and the shape of the objective response curve. Phase resolution is very important to prevent aliasing errors which can cause invalid amplitude data. An adequate quantity of curve data points must be used for fast rotating phase functions. This is especially true for Log frequency axis data.

Note: If you are generally working with digital filter design, FilterShop provides far more extensive tools and synthesis capabilities for these types of filters.

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Parameters This group box contains the selections for the objective arbitrary response curve, the Order of the desired FIR approximation, and the Sampling frequency. The objective curve can be either in the System or Guide curve arrays. In some cases you may have no idea what order is required, and will simply need to try different values. Increasing the order should improve the approximation.

Symmetry Normally positive symmetry is always used for general purposes. Negative symmetry produces special filters such a Hilbert Transformers and Differentiators. The combination of even/odd order and positive/negative symmetry yields the four standard types of linear phase FIR filters. Zero Phase Sample This option provides the ability to choose two different sets of data points along the objective curve for approximation. The fundamental difference is whether or not a point at Zero frequency is included in the set, although all of the other data points will also be different. In most cases you will simply need to try either option and see which produces the best result for your purpose. Filter Type There are three types of FIR filters which can be produced. Min/Max phase filters can generally approximate the curve using half the linear phase order. Note: Not all combinations of even/odd order and positive/negative symmetry can produce all response shapes. If you are not familiar with the four types of FIR filters, use even order and positive symmetry.

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Original Response

Approximation

Examples The graph above shows an arbitrary response curve approximated with an order of N=30. It is clear that the order of the filter is not adequate to match this objective response curve using the Frequency Sampling approach. The graph below shows the same objective response curve, this time a filter order of N=100 is used to approximate the curve. The match is much improved.

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The graph above shows the relative match between the curves. It was produced by dividing the approximation target response by the arbitrary response curve. The approximation is clearly not equal ripple, as would generally be the result from the Digital-FIR Optimal Approximation method. Here the target matches the objective within about 0.3dB across most of the frequency range, with a slight peak at the Fs/2 frequency limit. Note: Both the Optimal Approximation and Frequency Sampling methods will have difficulty approximating any response in stopband regions. They are most effectively used on passband or transition regions, anywhere the amplitude is largely non zero. They are very effective for equalization.

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9.15 Digital-FIR: Optimal Approximation Filters

The Synthesis | Digital-FIR | Optimal Approximation Filters menu item will open a dialog which designs optimal FIR filters that approximate an arbitrary response curve. The tool button shown above on the Digital-FIR tab of the Synthesis toolbar can also be used to activate this item. Note: Using the Synthesis dialogs requires that the Circuit Schematic window be active (has the focus). The methodology employed here uses optimal FIR processing to create a single band type filter. The single band is treated as a passband. For this reason, the method is most useful when the arbitrary response curve does not contain regions of stopband style high attenuation. This method can be very effective for other transfer function compensation or correction to produce flat response. In order to perform this operation you must have an objective response curve in either the System Curve or Guide Curve libraries. The arbitrary response curve should be relatively smooth, without sharp transitions or discontinuities relative to the order of the filter. This can raise havoc with equal ripple algorithms. The data used by this method is solely magnitude. There is no importance to phase or polarity. Both Linear and Log data can be used, but the filter resolution is of course always linear and dependent on the order. Another alternative for FIR approximation is the Frequency Sampling method. Each method may perform differently for different arbitrary response curves. If you find that one method does not suit the task, try the other.

Note: If you are generally working with digital filter design, FilterShop provides far more extensive tools and synthesis capabilities for these types of filters.

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Note: Both the Optimal Approximation and Frequency Sampling methods will have difficulty approximating any response in stopband regions. They are most effectively used on passband or transition regions, anywhere the amplitude is largely non zero. Filter Type This group of radio buttons can be used to select the type of FIR filter: Linear Phase, Minimum Phase, or Maximum Phase. For details regarding the meaning of each of these types, and some examples, see the following section. Min/Max phase filters can generally approximate the curve using half the linear phase order.

Parameters This group box contains the selections for the objective arbitrary response curve, the Order of the desired FIR approximation, and the Sampling frequency. The objective curve can be either in the System or Guide curve libraries. In some cases you may have no idea what order is required, and will simply need to try different values. Increasing the order should generally decrease the ripple. Examples The following pages show some comparisons between Optimal Approximation and the Frequency Sampling method.

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The graph above shows the arbitrary objective response in Blue, and a 30 order FIR Optimal Approximation in Black. You can see the equal ripples of the Black approximation curve around the objective. The graph below shows the same objective curve, but this time approximated using the Frequency Sampling method with a 30 order FIR filter. This method clearly does not perform as well on this objective response for the same order filter.

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The graph below shows the same objective, but this time approximated using a 100 order FIR with the Optimal Approximation method. The curves match to within less than 0.1dB everywhere. Optimal Approximation is probably the most efficient method for this type of response curve.

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Filter Type The selection of filter type can be one of three different selections: Linear Phase, Minimum Phase, or Maximum Phase. The Amplitude graph below shows unipolar response in the Red and Blue curves which has stopband ripples that remain in the positive region above zero. The green curve is the common bipolar response. The Group Delay graph displays the response for maximum phase (Blue) , linear phase (Grn), and minimum phase (Red) filter types.

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10.1 Unary Math Operations

The Processing | Unary Math Operations menu item will open a dialog which performs mathematical operations on a single curve. The tool button as shown above on the Processing toolbar can also be used to activate this item. Unary math operations involve only a single curve hence the term unary. The result of the operation is returned in the same curve entry. In some cases you may wish to copy the curve into another entry, just in case you wish to reuse the original data later. Several different types of operations are provided: Magnitude Offset, Phase Offset, Delay Offset, Exponentiation, Smooth Curve, Frequency Translation, Mul (jω), Div (jω), Real (cos), Imag (sin). The dialog use is straightforward. Simply select the library curve to process, the operation, and enter the desired numeric value for the operation. Only the numeric field for the selected operation will be enabled, with all other fields disabled. The following examples demonstrate some various applications of each operation.

The Guide Curve list box provides selection of the library curve for the operation. This special list box shows the type of data contained in each curve. Any curve which is currently being displayed on the graph is denoted by Red vertical lines between the zones of each curve entry.

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s Magnitude Offset This operation simply adds the numeric dB value to the magnitude curve data. It is the equivalent of scaling the magnitude response. You can also click the units button and enter a linear ratio if desired. This operation is commonly used to move the magnitude data to a specific value, perhaps at a specific frequency. In the graph below, the Brown curve was dropped -3.0dB so that the average level on the curve is 90dB. The result is shown in the Red curve.

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s Phase Offset This operation simply adds the numeric Deg value to the phase curve data. It is the equivalent of shifting the phase response. If the Zero check box is enabled, the curve will be cleared to zero before the offset is applied. This operation is commonly used to change the polarity of a curve, by entering a value of +180 or -180 degrees. However, any other value can also be used for unusual effects. For example, a quadrature response can be generated by shifting the phase by 90 degrees. In the graph below, the Blue curve was shifted by +180Deg to reverse the polarity of the response. The result is shown in the Red curve.

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s Delay Offset This operation modifies the phase function of a curve to increase or decrease the equivalent delay specified in the edit field. You can also click the units button and enter a value in different units, including length based on the speed of sound in air if desired. It is the equivalent of shifting the phase response by a finite delay offset. This operation is commonly used to move a response forward or backward in time. However, many other purposes can be found for unusual effects. For example, to move an SPL response backward by 1 Inch, offset the response by 73uSec. In the graphs below, the Blue curve was shifted by +500uSec, with the resulting curve shown in Red. The Group Delay Transform was run on each curve, and is shown in the second graph. The additional 500uS of delay is clearly visible.

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s Exponentiation This operation raises the curve to the exponent power specified by the numeric Pwr value. This operation effects both magnitude and phase. The operation is commonly used to square the response of a curve (Pwr=2.0), or perhaps take the square root of a curve (Pwr=0.5). By using an exponent power of -1.0 the curve can be inverted. In the graph below, the Yellow curve is the square root (0.5) result of the original Blue curve, the Red curve is the squared (2.0) result, and the Green curve is the inverted (-1.0) result.

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s Smooth Curve This operation performs an averaging of the data to smooth the response by the bandwidth specified in octaves. Each frequency data point becomes the average of a group of points above and below, each spanning the specified octave width of that curve's frequency range. This operation effects both magnitude and phase. The operation is generally used when you wish to remove excess noise or detail from a response curve. In the graph below, the Black curve was smoothed by a value of 0.5 Octaves as shown in the Red curve.

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s Frequency Translation The frequency translation operation shifts the frequency locations of the curve data by a numeric Ratio value. This operation effects both magnitude and phase. The operation is rarely used, but sometimes is necessary when producing digital filters, and can also be used to correct imported measured data. Many other applications are also possible. In the graph below, the Black curve was frequency translated by a ratio of 0.50 as shown in the Red curve.

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s Multiply by jw This operation multiplies the curve data by the complex radian frequency at each point. This operation effects both the magnitude and phase. The phase curve will also have +90 degrees added everywhere. It is useful for converting inductance curves to impedance, or impedance curves to inverse capacitance, and other applications. In the graph below, the Red curve is the result of the operation applied to the Blue curve.

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s Divide by jw This operation divides the curve data by the complex radian frequency at each point. This operation effects both the magnitude and phase. The phase curve will also have -90 degrees added everywhere. It is useful for converting impedance curves to inductance, or inverse capacitance curves to impedance, and other applications. In the graph below, the Red curve is the result of the operation applied to the Blue curve.

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s Real (cos) This operation returns the real portion of the complex curve data by applying the cos() function to the phase and magnitude data. The resulting phase curve will be either 0 or 180 degrees. This operation effects both magnitude and phase. This operation can be useful in separating the resistance from complex impedance, or other similar applications. In the first graph below, the Red curve is the result of the operation applied to the Blue curve. s Imag (sin) This operation returns the imaginary portion of the complex curve data by applying the sin() function to the phase and magnitude data. This operation effects both the magnitude and phase. The phase curve will be either +90 or -90 degrees. This operation can be useful in separating the reactance from complex impedance, or other similar applications. In the graph below, the Red curve is the result of the operation applied to the Blue curve.

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10.2 Binary Math Operations

The Processing | Binary Math Operations menu item will open a dialog which performs basic arithmetic operations on a pair of curves. The tool button as shown above on the Processing toolbar can also be used to activate this item.

Binary math operations involve two curves hence the term binary. The two operand curves are selected from the Guide Curve library, and the result is placed into another Guide Curve entry. The result curve will be given a default name which denotes the operation performed. The fundamental operations of mul, div, add, and sub can be performed on the two operand curves. The frequency ranges in the two operand curves can be anything, but the result curve is always created using the operand A curve frequency range. The program performs automatic frequency translation for the operand curves. The dialog use is straightforward. Simply select the math op, the two operand curves, and the location for the result curve. The Mul and Div operations attempt to keep track of the units when possible. For example, when dividing two curves with identical units, the result curve will be given the Ratio type. If you are multiplying impedance and current, the result curve will be voltage. If you are dividing voltage by current, the result curve will be impedance, etc. If you wish to change the type of units on the curve, either operand, or result curves, you can do so in the curve library dialog. See the chapter Graph | Curve Library. Auto increment buttons are also provided for repeated operations on a block of similar curves.

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An example of using the Div operation is shown below. This operation is frequently used to obtain the ratio between two curves. In this case we have two voltage curves. Dividing the Bandpass filter (Blue) by the Highpass/Lowpass (Black) curve, produces the ratio curve shown in the lower graph. The result curve is always enabled for display after the operation is performed. However often it will have different units then the operand curves and cannot be shown on the graph simultaneously with the operand curves.

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7.3 Minimum Phase Transform

The Processing | Minimum Phase Transform menu item will open a dialog which provides a method of generating phase response data from magnitude only data. The tool button as shown above on the Processing toolbar can also be used to activate this item.

The minimum phase transform is very valuable when you do not already have a phase function for your magnitude data. In some cases this phase is more usable than the measured phase produced by some analyzers and software due to errors or other processing issues. In other cases, magnitude only data may be imported into the program. This routine can be used to construct a phase curve to provide full complex valued data. Once the phase data is constructed, group delay and time domain data can also be produced using other transforms on this menu. Operating the transform is relatively simple. The most important factor is the selection of the frequency range. In order for a minimum phase transform to produce accurate results, all of the magnitude changes must be contained within the system frequency range. The magnitude curve data should reach asymptotic response at the low and high frequency limits. This means that the derivative ( or slope) of the magnitude curve reaches a fixed constant at the frequency extremes. Once the transform knows the asymptotic slopes at the low and high frequency limits, it can properly integrate the entire magnitude response from 0Hz to Infinity. Either Log or Linear frequency axis can be used, but Log is the most common.

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Parameters The Guide Curve containing the magnitude data should be selected first. The Guide Curve list box provides selection of the library curve for the operation. This special list box shows the type of data contained in each curve. Any curve which is currently being displayed on the graph is denoted by Red vertical lines between the zones of each curve entry. After this is selected the low/high slopes will be automatically calculated and presented in the two editing fields with units of dB/Octave. The graph below illustrates the asymptotic slope at both the low and high frequency limits. For impedance curves, the Automatic Tail Correction and Mirroring provides additional special advanced processing. The calculated slope values may require adjustment. If the magnitude curve contains ripple or noise, the slope near the frequency limits may not be stable. In these cases you should adjust the values to represent the true asymptotic slopes as the frequency goes to 0Hz and Infinity. The asymptotic slope of a 1st order function is of course 6.02dB/Octave. If you know the actual Lowpass and Highpass orders of the response represented in the magnitude data, you can enter the appropriate values as multiples of 6.02.

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For example, in the previous graph the magnitude data was relatively rough, and it was known that both the Lowpass and Highpass slopes should be 4th order. The slopes were corrected to +24.08 and -24.08 dB/Octave. The resulting phase and group delay are shown below.

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To demonstrate the accuracy of this minimum phase transform, an analytic filter function was processed and compared to the known data. The magnitude, phase, and group delay graphs below show the original analytic response in Black, and the minimum phase transformed response in Blue. The generated phase and group delay closely match those of the true analytic response.

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10.4 Group Delay Transform

The Processing | Group Delay Transform menu item will open a dialog which provides a method of generating group delay response data from phase response data. The tool button as shown above on the Processing toolbar can also be used to activate this item. The group delay transform is commonly used when you wish to view a phase response in terms of its group delay characteristics. The phase response curve is specified as Right vertical data in the Source Curve entry. The transform will write the resulting group delay response to the Left vertical data of the Result Curve entry. The curve list boxes provide selection of the library Guide Curve for the operations. These special list boxes show the type of data contained in each curve. Any curve which is currently being displayed on the graph is denoted by Red vertical lines between the zones of each curve entry.

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The first graph below shows the magnitude and phase response of a Highpass filter. After the Group Delay Transform is applied to this data, the lower graph of group delay is produced. The ripples in the response are due to the measurement variations typical of empirical data. The group delay transform is very much like a derivative, and accentuates any variations or instabilities in the phase response.

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10.5 Delay Phase Transform

The Processing | Delay Phase Transform menu item will open a dialog which provides a method of generating phase response data from group delay data. The tool button as shown above on the Processing toolbar can also be used to activate this item. The delay phase transform can be very useful when you do not already have a matching phase function for your magnitude data and wish to generate the phase based on known or a desired group delay response. This situation often occurs when you are creating an arbitrary group delay curve using the Curve Editor and wish to construct a corresponding phase function. This transform can also be used to create transfer functions with prescribed magnitude response, but different group delay characteristics. For example, a normal analog minimum phase type filter response could be generated in the target system, and then a custom group delay curve created using the Curve Editor. The new group delay response could be a simple flat line for linear phase. This transform can then produce a new phase curve representing that linear phase response. The group delay curve is specified as Left vertical data in the Source Curve entry. The transform will write the resulting phase response to the Right vertical data of the Result Curve entry. Generally you will have the magnitude that you wish to keep already in the Result Curve entry.

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The curve list boxes provide selection of the Guide Curve library entry for the operations. These special list boxes show the type of data contained in each curve. Any curve which is currently being displayed on the graph is denoted by Red vertical lines between the zones of each curve entry. The graphs below demonstrate a linear phase example. A group delay curve was created using the Curve Editor, which is merely a flat line of 40mS. After the transform is run, the resulting phase is shown below.

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In this example the group delay was modified to include a tilt towards zero at the higher frequencies. The resulting phase is shown below. Using this transform, proper phase functions can be generated for almost any type of desired group delay response.

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10.6 Fast Fourier Transform

The Processing | Fast Fourier Transform menu item will open a dialog which performs an FFT on a time domain library curve. The tool button as shown above on the Processing toolbar can also be used to activate this item. An FFT transforms a time domain response into a frequency domain response. If the frequency domain result is to represent a transfer function, then the time domain response must be an Impulse type response. The time domain entry to be transformed is specified in the Source Curve list box. The resulting frequency domain response entry is selected in the Result Curve list box. When you choose the source curve, the number of data points will be shown above the list box. The number of data points produced in the frequency domain result curve will be 1/2 this value. The frequency axis will be linear. The curve list boxes provide selection of the library curve for the operations. These special list boxes show the type of data contained in each curve. Any curve which is currently being displayed on the graph is denoted by Red vertical lines between the zones of each curve entry.

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The first graph below shows a typical Impulse response curve. The graph at the bottom shows the FFT transformed response in the frequency domain. If you compare this to the other frequency domain curve in the following Inv FFT section, you will note that much of the low frequency resolution has been lost. This is due to the linear frequency resolution and 4096 sample size.

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10.7 Inverse Fast Fourier Transform

The Processing | Inverse Fast Fourier Transform menu item will open a dialog which performs an Inverse FFT on a frequency domain library curve. The tool button as shown above on the Processing toolbar can also be used to activate this item. An Inverse FFT transforms a frequency domain response into a time domain Impulse response. This dialog also provides convolution to automatically yield a Step response as well. Prior to performing the Inverse FFT, the frequency domain source curve must be converted into a specific number of linear frequency data points. This process is fully automatic, and the user only needs to specify how many linear frequency data points are to be used. The list box at the top provides a list of available choices. The frequency domain entry to be transformed is specified in the Source Curve list box. The resulting time domain Impulse and Step response entries are selected in the following two list boxes. The curve list boxes provide selection of the library curve for the operations. These special list boxes show the type of data contained in each curve. Any curve which is currently being displayed on the graph is denoted by Red vertical lines between the zones of each curve entry.

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The three graphs below show a sample frequency domain curve transformed into the equivalent time domain Impulse and Step response curves. The number of frequency data points used here was 2048.

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10.8 Tail Correction

The Processing | Tail Correction menu item will open a dialog that provides a means to fix the low and high ends of a curve so that the asymptotic slopes are precisely defined. The tool button as shown above on the Processing toolbar can also be used to activate this item.

Many of the process operations require data at frequencies beyond the range over which the curve was originally measured. The Minimum Phase Transform is particularly sensitive, and requires correct magnitude slopes at both the low and high ends of the frequency range. These routines extrapolate the response based on the slopes found at the ends of the measured frequency range. Since practical measurements often have large variations in the response at the frequency extremes, Tail Correction provides the means to reliably fix the tails of the response with a known asymptotic slope. The library curve list box provides selection of the library curve for the operation. This special list box shows the type of data contained in each curve. Any curve which is currently being displayed on the graph is denoted by Red vertical lines between the zones of each curve entry. When the curve entry is selected, the four numeric fields are updated. The initial frequency values will be set at 50% above and below the lowest and highest points in the curve. The magnitude slopes of the curve are also measured and their values presented in the other two fields. Once you have selected your curve entry, and the initial values have been calculated, you can then edit these values as desired.

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Since the curve's data will be altered, you may wish to make a copy of the curve before performing this operation. This will prevent loosing your original data curve should you wish to run the operation again on the original data. An example of Tail Correction is shown below. The two frequency thresholds used here were 15Hz and 7kHz. The slopes were set to +24dB/Oct and -24dB/ Oct respectively. The upper graph shows the original data in Blue and the corrected data in Red. The lower graph shows the phase as produced from the Minimum Phase Transform for both the original and corrected curves.

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10.9 Curve Averaging

The Processing | Curve Averaging menu item will open a dialog which performs averaging of multiple curves into a single curve. The tool button as shown above on the Processing toolbar can also be used to activate this item. It is sometimes desirable to average multiple measurements to come up with a single representative curve. Curve Averaging can mathematically average up to 99 curves and store the data in a separate library entry, or on top of one of the data curves being averaged. A common use for this utility is generating a true power response curve from multiple curves taken at different off axis angles around a transducer. Other uses include averaging of multiple curves to determine the mean, and then worst case max/min variations from that average response. Four different types of mathematical averaging are provided. The Guide Curve Parameters group box shows a data grid with the 99 library curves. Each curve entry can be enabled or disabled for averaging. A weighting value can also be specified for each curve. Below the grid is another selection box for the resulting average curve. Two additional buttons are provided for quickly enabling/disabling all curves. The Result Curve list box provides selection of the library curve for the result of the operation. This special list box shows the type of data contained in each curve. Any curve which is currently being displayed on the graph is denoted by Red vertical lines between the zones of each curve entry.

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Note: The result curve entry can be the same as one of the data curves used to construct the average. However, the original data will be overwritten when the operation is completed. The following is an exact description of each of the averaging methods: s Scalar AVE This is a simple weighted arithmetic average of the magnitude data for each of the curves. The phase is ignored in the averaging. WT =

Σ Wi

SAVE = (1/WT) •

Σ Wi • | vi|

s Scalar RMS This is an RMS weighted average of the magnitude data for each curve. The phase is ignored in the averaging. WT =

Σ Wi

SRMS = {(1/WT) •

Σ Wi • | v i2 |}½

s Vector AVE This is a weighted average performed using vector mathematics in the complex plane with the magnitude and phase at each data point. The phase is used in this method. WT =

Σ Wi

VAVE = (1/WT) •

Σ Wi • v i

s Vector RMS This is an RMS average performed using vector mathematics in the complex plane with the magnitude and phase at each data point. The phase is used in this method. WT =

Σ Wi

VRMS = {(1/WT) •

Σ Wi • v i 2 }½

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The top graph shows an example of 12 SPL curves, representing the response of a speaker at different angles of rotation. The bottom graph shows the resulting Scalar RMS average of these curves.

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10.10 Polar Convertor

The Processing | Polar Convertor menu item will open a dialog for compiling a group of frequency curves into polar curves. The tool button as shown above on the Processing toolbar can also be used to activate this item. This dialog is very useful for manually constructing polar plot data, from a group of normal frequency response measurements. Each frequency response curve is taken at a different location radially around the transducer. Using this dialog, the representative locations of each curve are entered, and then an output list of curves is established with specific frequencies for which the polar curves will be generated. Since there are a maximum of 99 curve entries in a library, the total number of input and output curves must fit within a single library. Typically there are many more input curves than output curves. The process can be repeated while changing the output polar frequencies, saving multiple libraries, thereby producing a larger number of output polar curves.

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Only the Function and Deg or Freq column fields require editing. The remaining columns reflect the data of the curve library entries. The Function field has three possible selections: Not Used, Input Deg, and Output Freq. The Not Used selection simply indicates that the curve is not involved in the conversion. The Input Deg selection is chosen for input curves containing the normal frequency response curves as measured at different radial locations around the transducer. The position of each curve is then specified in Degrees. The Deg values can be entered as either ±180, or 0 to 360, but will be automatically converted to the ±180 range. The Output Freq selection is chosen for output curves which will contain a polar response at a specified frequency. All Off This button will reset the Function column to Not Used, and set the Deg or Freq values to zero. Standard 360 This button will produce a standard setup for 36 input curves covering 10 Deg radial resolution, across the ±180 range. There will be 14 output curves in 1/2 octave intervals from 40kHz and lower. Standard 180 This button will produce a standard setup for 36 input curves covering 5 Deg radial resolution, across the ±90 range. There will be 14 output curves in 1/2 octave intervals from 40kHz and lower.

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The standard setup buttons provide an example of how to setup the polar conversion process and its parameters. However in many cases you will wish to modify or change these values for your own specific purposes. There is no particular order required for either the input or output curves. They can be mixed or out of sequence in any order. The conversion routine reads the Function and the Deg or Freq values to determine what is contained in each curve, and applies automatic sorting to properly construct the polar response output curves. s Example of Polar Conversion To illustrate how this utility can be used, an example is probably the best way to demonstrate the process. The directivity characteristics of a 1/2 Inch microphone are to be measured. A series of ground plane measurements were made by rotating the mic by 7.5 Degree increments through the entire 360 Degree circle. This resulted in 48 frequency response curves measured across 10Hz40kHz. The curves were then normalized to the on-axis 0 Degree curve. This was accomplished by dividing all curves by the 0 Degree curve. In this way the response at each location around the transducer is relative to the on-axis response. It was desired to produce 5 polar curves for the higher frequencies of 2kHz, 5kHz, 10kHz, 20kHz, and 40kHz. Since there are 48 input curves, and 5 output curves are required, it was decided that a couple of the input curves would be deleted. Since the response near the 0 Degree on-axis location is relatively smooth, the deleted curves were chosen to alternatively skip every other curve near 0 Deg. Thus the resolution near the ±30 Degree on-axis region was 15 Degrees.

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The dialog view shown here illustrates the setup for the input curves, and the lower dialog below shows the output curves. The order for some of the input curves was mixed. The Deg values for each input curve were entered to match their locations. The frequency values for the output curves were entered as well for the last five entries. When the Ok button is clicked, the polar curves are generated. This routine also enables the polar curves for display automatically when the processing is completed, and disables the input curves. The graph view of the polar curves is now shown on the following page.

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The beam width, Q, and Directivity Index are also calculated on the graph for each polar curve frequency The curves show the expected directivity increase with frequency. At 40kHz the response is highly directional. At 2kHz and below the response is virtually omni directional. If the Polar Convertor dialog is now reopened, the output curve names appear as shown on the following page. A view of the Curve Library is also shown. The routine automatically provides names for the polar curves, and also places a date/time stamp into the last Info field of the curves. Since polar curves made by this process are of low resolution (a small number of points), it can be helpful to use the Data Realign operation to increase the point density. This process will produce much better interpolation than the simple straight line segments which would normally be drawn by the graphing system. The polar plot on the next page shows cubic interpolation for 400 points.

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10.11 Data Transfer

The Processing | Data Transfer menu item will open a dialog that allows you to move individual vertical data arrays from one curve to another. The tool button as shown above on the Processing toolbar can also be used to activate this item. A library curve entry actually contains a pair of data arrays, one for the Left vertical parameter and one for the Right vertical parameter. In most cases the Left data represents the magnitude of a given response, and the Right represents the phase of that response. However it is possible to construct curves which contain a different pair of vertical data arrays using this dialog. Probably the most common example of this is an SPLZ type curve entry. In this case the Left vertical data contains the SPL magnitude, and the Right vertical data contains the Impedance magnitude. This Data Transfer operation moves a single vertical data array from one curve entry to another. The vertical data can be from either the Left or Right arrays, and can be transferred to either the Left or Right arrays of the Result curve entry. The curve list boxes provide selection of the library curve for the operations. These special list boxes show the type of data contained in each curve. Any curve which is currently being displayed on the graph is denoted by Red vertical lines between the zones of each curve entry. The example on the following page shows a normal SPL curve graph, an impedance curve graph, and the resulting SPL-Z combination curve graph. If you are going to be working with double magnitude curves, such as the type just described, you will probably need to enable the Auto/Up/Dn Right Vertical Data item in the File | Preferences dialog. In order for the right data to respond to scaling commands, this feature must be enabled. Otherwise only the Left scale will be controlled.
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10.12 Data Splice

The Processing | Data Splice menu item will open a dialog that allows you to combine data from two curves into another curve. The tool button as shown above on the Processing toolbar can also be used to activate this item. A splicing frequency is chosen by the user. Data below this frequency will come from one curve, and data above the frequency will come from the second curve. This can be very useful for combining two curves taken under different conditions into a final result curve. One common example is combining near field measurements to cover the low frequency region, with gated measurements to cover the mid and high frequency regions. This operation allows a finished combined result to be produced using data from both. Both low/high data curves must be of the same type of units, these cannot be mixed. The units of the result curve will be the same as those of the low/high data curves. The frequency points will be the same as the low curve below the splice frequency, and the same as those of the high curve above the splice frequency. If the two low/high curves were not of the same frequency range, then the result curve points will not have consistent frequency density. This can be corrected by using the Data Realign processing operation. This can be done directly in the curve library or from the Processing menu. The curve list boxes provide selection of the library curves for the operations. These special list boxes show the type of data contained in each curve. Any curve which is currently being displayed on the graph is denoted by Red vertical lines between the zones of each curve entry.

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The splice frequency should be chosen at a point where the curves have similar, if not identical, values. The cursor system can be very helpful in selecting the splice frequency. In the top graph below, two SPL curves are shown. The curves cross in the frequency region of 1500Hz. A splice frequency of 1550Hz was selected. The resulting curve is shown in the bottom graph. The minimum phase response for this curve could now be generated using the Minimum Phase Transform. Tail Correction might also be useful prior to generating the phase.

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10.13 Data Realign

The Processing | Data Realign menu item will open a dialog which performs re-indexing of the horizontal data points of a curve entry. The tool button as shown above on the Processing toolbar can also be used to activate this item. In most cases, the horizontal data is frequency, but it could also be time or angular position information. This dialog reprocesses and interpolates the vertical data based on a new linear or log array of horizontal values. A common use for this operation is to reduce the resolution of a curve. For example, a curve containing 500 data points can be realigned into a 100 point curve. This could be within the same frequency range, or a different frequency range. This routine can also be used to simulate higher resolution using quadratic or cubic interpolation and increasing the number of data points. Both of these methods will produce curvature rather than straight line segments. However, be aware that it is impossible to create data that was not originally present. For example, if the original frequency range was 100Hz-1kHz, and you realign the data to 10Hz-1kHz, there is no original data below 100Hz. The result is a flat line segment from 10Hz-100Hz at the value of the original 100Hz data point. When changing the horizontal data from linear to log, there will be a loss of resolution either at the low end or high end of the spectrum. The curve list box provides selection of the library curve for the operation. This special list box shows the type of data contained in each curve. Any curve which is currently being displayed on the graph is denoted by Red vertical lines between the zones of each curve entry.

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Since the curve's data will be altered, you may wish to make a copy of the curve before performing this operation. This will prevent loosing your original data curve should you wish to run the operation again on the original data. An example of data realignment is shown below. The first graph shows a 500 point log frequency SPL response from 10Hz - 40kHz. The second graph shows the result of realigning the data to 100 points from 20Hz - 20kHz, again with log resolution.

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11.1 Import Curve Data File

The Utilities | Import Curve Data File menu item will open a dialog which imports text file data into Guide Curve library entries. The tool button as shown above on the Utilities toolbar can also be used to activate this item. This dialog supports many different kinds of formats, and will generally operate in a universal fashion for almost any kind of file data. The only requirement is that the data be contained in ASCII columns of data points. It also provides many different kinds of automatic translations during the import process. The maximum number of data points allowed is 4096. If your file contains more points than this, an error message will appear and truncation of data will result. The data file format is relatively simple as follows: • • • • • • Lines starting with any char other than space or numeric are treated as comments Data lines have two or more columns as defined by the format. Each value in a data line can be delimited by space, commas, or tabs. If a line contains additional columns of data, they are ignored. If a line does not contain enough columns, zero values are assumed for the rest. Numeric real formats of both scientific and engineering are supported.

Note: It is best if comment lines start with a special character such as: /, *, or ; The file to be imported is selected using the features in the File Path group box. You can select the drive/folder in the left tree view, and the file itself in the right list view windows. You can also view/edit the file with your external editor by clicking on the editor button shown at the end of the file name field. When you click the Execute button, data is processed from the file and placed into the selected curve entry. You may also select multiple files which will be imported in sequence starting at the selected curve entry. These files must have the same type of units since they will be processed with the same settings.

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Horizontal, Left Vertical, and Right Vertical Data Understanding the use of these three group boxes is key to the proper import of external data. Each group box corresponds to the data in one of the file columns. The general format is assumed to contain three data columns. Typically this may be frequency, magnitude, and phase. If you have less than three columns, such as frequency and magnitude, use the phase selection for the third column anyway. This will automatically substitute zeros for the missing column. The type of data and units prefix is critically important to define what it is you are importing. Always verify that the Units field displays the exact units that the data column contains. For example, a voltage measurement could have a magnitude column with data in units of Volts, dBV, or dBm. The program treats each of these differently. Linear/Log would be used for Volts, and the dB selection would be required for dBV or dBm. For dB units, the dB Ref value then defines whether it is dBV (1.000V) or dBm (0.775V). If your file contains an index column of numbers as the first column, then use the Skip First Column option to ignore this column.

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11.2 Export Curve Data File

The Utilities | Export Curve Data File menu item will open a dialog which exports text file data from System or Guide curve library entries. The tool button as shown above on the Utilities toolbar can also be used to activate this item. The type of data and the units to be exported are controlled entirely by the current parameters in the scale system. In other words, the data is exported in exactly the same units as it is currently being viewed on the graph. For example, if a curve contains voltage data and is currently being displayed on the graph in dBm units, the data is therefore exported in dBm units. If it was viewed in Volts, it will be exported in Volts. This allows the user to automatically translate and export data into whatever units are desired, simply by displaying the data in the desired units on the graph. This is controlled by the Scale | Parameters dialog. The export dialog displays the units for the data curve that will be exported. The curve list box provides selection of the library curve for the operation. This special list box shows the type of data contained in each curve. Any curve which is currently being displayed on the graph is denoted by Red vertical lines between the zones of each curve entry. The File Path group box allows you to choose the file to be exported. Use the tree view on the left to select the drive/folder, and the list view on the right to select the file name, or enter it in the edit field.

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When you click the Execute button the file will be written. If a file of the same name already exists, you will be prompted to confirm the overwrite of that file. The sample listing below shows a typical file export. The columns are delimited with commas for easy export into spreadsheet programs.

Note: Regional language settings can affect the format of the output. The decimal point may be set to commas in some languages. This may cause a problem for import in some programs. You may need to change this setting to a decimal point in the Control Panel | Regional Options.

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11.3 Export Graphics

The Utilities | Export Graphics to File menu item will open a dialog which produces graphical export of the artwork from the graph window in the program. The tool button as shown above on the Utilities toolbar can also be used to activate this item. This dialog supports an extensive variety of both vector and raster image formats. There are many different kinds of graphics applications. The type of file format to use depends entirely on the application. Generally you will be opening or placing the file in some other application program. Obviously a file format must be chosen which is supported by the other program. The import capabilities of most programs are constantly changing with each revision, so it is impossible to give any general recommendations here. Please consult the documentation of the other program. If your primary application is to embed the images as part of a word processing document, then the EMF, WMF, and EPS formats are most commonly supported. However using the EPS format generally requires printing to a PostScript printer to obtain the full resolution. For non PostScript printing, use EMF or WMF formats. The PDF format is very useful for email attachments and other general use. If your primary application is for graphical editing, where you wish to modify the graphics content, you will need to choose a format that your drawing or illustration program supports. This could be any of the formats. Please consult the documentation of the drawing/illustration program. Artwork The name of the graph is shown here as the title above the grid on the graph. Format When Raster is selected, the format, resolution, color, and compression controls will be active. The raster image data will also be displayed in the fields at the bottom of the group box. When Vector is selected, the only active control is the vector format list box.

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Resolution DPI Use the two stepper buttons to increase or decrease this value. The value will be changed in units of 8. Color Format The possible color choices are: B&W, 16 Color, 256 Color, 16M Color, 16 Gray, 256 Gray. Depending on the file format, not all color choices may be available. Compression Some of the raster file formats have optional compression. If so, you will be able to choose either compressed or uncompressed. For other file formats this selection will be chosen for you.

File Path This group box provides selection of the folder where you wish to export the file, and an editing field to enter the file name. The program will automatically add the proper extension for the selected file format. The default file extension is controlled by the type of file format that will be exported. It is not recommended that you change it. Raster Images Raster images are bitmap representations of the artwork. They are formed by rows of pixels. They can be color or black & white. The resolution of the image is fixed at the time it is created. While raster images are probably the most portable form of graphic representation, they are very bulky and inefficient for high precision resolution. Moreover, printing a low resolution raster image on a higher resolution output device does not improve the image quality. The following industry standard raster formats are supported: s BMP s JPG s PCX s PNG s TIF Windows Bitmap Format Joint Photo Experts Group ZSoft Picture Format Portable Network Graphics Tagged Image File Format

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If you desire other formats, use a paint type program to convert one of these into the other format. There are many commonly available programs on the Internet as shareware which can do the job. For more extensive editing capabilities, PaintShop Pro or Adobe PhotoShop can most certainly be used. Note: We do not provide native support for the GIF format due to patent (4,558,302) issues involved with the Lempel Ziv Welch (LZW) compression algorithm owned by Unisys Corporation. When using raster images, you must choose a DPI (dots per inch) value which will determine the resolution. With raster images it is very easy to produce extremely large files. Be careful to note the Image Bytes parameter value given on the last line of the group box. If you attempt to construct an image size that is larger than your available resources permit, you will receive an error message or your system may lock up. Not all of the raster formats support all of the different color and compression options. Also, some formats do not store the DPI information for absolute scaling. If one format does not work for your application, just try another.

Vector Images Vector images are mathematical formula representations of the artwork. They contain coordinates and special commands unique to each format. They can be both color or black & white. The resolution of the image is virtually infinite, and will print with the full resolution of the final printing device. While vector images are sometimes a less portable form of graphic representation, they are extremely efficient and provide the highest quality resolution. The following industry standard vector formats are supported: s WMF Windows Metafile Standard s WMF Windows Metafile Placeable s EMF Windows Enhanced Metafile s EPS EncapPostScript B&W & TIF s EPS EncapPostScript CMYK & TIF s AI Adobe Illustrator Format s PDF Acrobat Portable Document Format

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Fonts When dealing with vector formats, the issue of fonts becomes very important. If the file you are producing will only be used on your computer system, then the font issue is somewhat irrelevant. However if the generated files are to be viewed on other computers, then you must choose fonts for your designs which will be available as well on those computers. Typically you will need to use standard Windows TrueType fonts such as MS-Sans, Arial, etc. Editing & Placing Vector Images Vector formats provide the most powerful editing capabilities. You can modify the content, change the colors, reassign fonts, or add/delete items from the artwork. Unfortunately, they also produce the most trouble with portability and have a nasty habit of locating any and all bugs in the other application's import filters. However, with a little experimentation and testing you should be able to determine which formats and applications will achieve the desired results. For best editing, use the AI format with Adobe Illustrator. WMF Formats If you will be importing WMF files into other graphics applications, you may often need to use the WMF-Placeable format, and not the WMF-Standard. The placeable format contains an additional header which many applications require. Both WMF formats contain full RGB color information. The fonts used in your design must be available on the computer where the WMF file is used. Note: Many applications do not handle rotated text correctly in the WMF format. EMF Format This is the new 32-Bit version of the previous 16-Bit WMF format. This version has many improvements over the old WMF format. When possible, use this format instead of the WMF. The EMF format contains full RGB color information. The fonts used in your design must be available on the computer where the file is used.

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EPS Formats The EPS format is very popular for professional graphics. They contain PostScript vector code to produce the final high resolution output, and also contain a low resolution TIF raster image preview. The two EPS formats provide both gray scale Black&White or full CMYK color. The fonts used in your design must be available on the computer where the file is used. AI Format The Adobe Illustrator format technically requires Adobe fonts. If you have assigned TrueType fonts in the program to some text items, you will receive a warning message when you open the AI file in Adobe Illustrator of an unknown font. However, you can easily reassign the font as needed in Illustrator or other drawing programs. Other graphics programs often ignore the font name information altogether. The fonts used in your design should be available on the computer where the file is used. PDF Format The Adobe Acrobat PDF format is becoming heavily used on the Internet for documentation download. The format is very powerful, very efficient, and viewable by almost everyone using the free Acrobat Reader. The files also use ZIP compression which makes them very small and easy to attach to emails. While the PDF format contains the ability to embed the fonts directly, this function is not supported at this time with this version of the program. Therefore, the fonts used in your design should be available on the computer(s) where the file is used. However, if the font is not available on the computer, Acrobat Reader will substitute or synthesize the closest font automatically.

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11.4 Copy Graphics to Clipboard

The Utilities | Export Graphics to Clipboard menu item will open a dialog which transfers the graph artwork to the Windows Clipboard. The tool button as shown above on the Utilities toolbar can also be used to activate this item. This function can be very useful when you wish to paste the graphics into another open application program. The graphics can be stored in the clipboard in on eof three different formats: EMF, WMF, or BMP. The EMF and WMF are vector formats, while the BMP format is a raster image. Not all programs can place some types of images, but most graphically oriented programs should take one of these. It should be noted that the Windows Clipboard can only hold one item at a time. When you transfer an item to the clipboard, the previous item is discarded. When the dialog opens, the title of the active graph window appears.

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The example below shows a schematic transferred to the Clipboard, as seen in the Clipboard Viewer.

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11.5 Copy Component Data to Clipboard

The Utilities | Copy Component Data to Clipboard menu item will open a dialog which transfers the circuit component data to the Windows Clipboard. The tool button as shown above on the Utilities toolbar can also be used to activate this item. Using this function allows you to paste the data into another program if needed. Component data can be very extensive, with hundreds or even thousands of lines of text. If you have a need for this data, this is probably the easiest way to obtain a copy. The data is also contained in the LCD file itself. It should be noted that the Windows Clipboard can only hold one item at a time. When you transfer an item to the clipboard, the previous item is discarded. When the dialog opens, the title of the active graph window appears. To copy the data simply click Ok. An example of component data is shown on the next page.

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11.6 View Clipboard

The Utilities | View Clipboard menu item will open a special viewing dialog which allows you to inspect the contents of the Windows clipboard. The tool button as shown above on the Utilities toolbar can also be used to activate this item. The viewing window will be adjusted to the size of the program's client area. To close the viewer simply click the Close button in the upper right corner. The viewer will also display the format of the data within the clipboard in the title caption. This may be text, a raster image, vector image, or a proprietary format. Depending on the type of data the display may be text or graphical. It should be noted that the Windows Clipboard can only hold one item at a time. When you transfer an item to the clipboard, the previous item is discarded. A sample of the viewer is shown on the following page.

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11.7 Curve Capture

The Utilities | Curve Capture menu item will open a dialog which will capture a data curve from a raster image file. The tool button as shown above on the Utilities toolbar can also be used to activate this item.

It sometimes happens that you have a printed graph, or image file, that contains curve data you would like to use in the program. Printed graphs can be transferred to file form by use of a scanner. This dialog provides the capability to distill vector curve data directly from a raster image. In order to perform this operation, three basic requirements must be met: • The image file must be a BMP format. • The curve(s) in the image must be colored differently than other items. • The graph axis should be square with the image boundary. The first requirement can easily be achieved by use of a Paint program, which can perform the needed file conversion. If the original file format was TIF, JPG, PCX, GIF, etc. use of a Paint program is required to convert the file to BMP. Many such programs are commonly available on the Internet as shareware. The second requirement involves image color. The capture process picks the curve out of the image by a color matching technique. The color of the curve must be somewhat unique to enable it to be identified from other items in the image. For handling images that are Black & White, they must be imported into a Paint program where the curve can be colored manually as needed. The last requirement is that the graph on the image not be rotated or skewed. The processing routines assume that the graphical image is square with the edges.

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Graph Image The large region displays the raster image currently loaded. The display is always a 1:1 pixel ratio, and has scroll bars on both axis. The Load File button will open a dialog to select the BMP file you wish to load. The path of the currently loaded file is shown adjacent to the button. Cursor Parameter Selection There are four parameters which must be defined with the image: Lower Left coordinate, Upper Right coordinate, the Left Curve Color, and the Right Curve Color. The color panel next to the Curve buttons displays the currently selected color for the curves. Two curves (Left/Right) will be captured from the image. To set a parameter, click one of the four toggle buttons, and move the mouse cursor over the image. A different cursor will appear which denotes the parameter to be set. Click the left mouse button and the parameter will be defined at that cursor location. The button will then reset. If you wish to cancel a parameter, click the button again and it will reset.

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For curve color, the color panels will be updated with the color of the pixel at the cursor location. For the two coordinates, a marker will be dropped on the image at the cursor location. Reference Data Point, Upper Right / Lower Left Each of these two group box displays coordinate information based on two selected points on the graph image. You must choose two points at opposite corners of the graph: Lower Left, and Upper Right. Along with the X/Y coordinates of these two reference points, you must define the represented horizontal and vertical parameter values of the graph in the edit boxes. The horizontal value is usually frequency, but the vertical values will depend on the type of graph curve being captured. Horz Data, Left Vert Data, & Right Vert Data Understanding the use of these three group boxes is key to the proper import of external data. Each panel corresponds to a data parameter. Typically this may be frequency, magnitude, and phase. If you have only frequency and magnitude, use the phase selection for the Right Vert Data anyway. The type of data and units prefix is critically important to define what it is you are capturing. Always verify that the Units field displays the exact units that the image contains. For example, a voltage measurement could have a magnitude curve with data in units of Volts, dBV, or dBm. The program treats each of these differently. Linear/Log would be used for Volts, and the dB selection would be required for dBV or dBm. For dB units, the dB Ref value then defines whether it is dBV (1.000V) or dBm (0.775V). Note: Please pay close attention to whether you have linear or log axis data. Library Curve The data that is obtained from the capture process will be written to a Guide Curve entry. The entry is selected from one of the 99 possible choices in this list box. The default name given to the entry will be Capture: Filename, and the curve will be enabled for display. Scan Direction The curve scanning process can be performed from either the Top Down or from the Bottom Up. This can be significant if there are other colors on the image similar to that of the curves. Scanning from either direction may avoid picking up other similar colored pixels above or below the curve.

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Color Match The slider controls a tolerance matching value in ±% for pixel colors scanned in the image. The current value is displayed above. If the value is zero, then pixels will only be selected as part of the curve if their color matches the exact Curve Color selection described above. A higher tolerance value will allow more latitude in pixel matching. The Preview button will run the curve scanning process, and draw a sample curve on top of the image. This shows you how the pixel curve colors will be mapped. The Clear button will erase the preview curve. The small color button allows you to change the color used for the preview curve and LL/UR markers. Using the Capture Dialog The first step is to load the desired file with the Load File button. Once the file is loaded you should probably next go to the Horizontal and Vertical group boxes to select the type of graph and the frequency axis. The two LL/UR reference coordinates must now be defined. Click the Lower Left button, and then select a reference point in the lower left corner of the graph. A small LL marker will be placed on the image. Next do the same thing for the upper right marker. A UR marker will be placed on the image. The two graphics below illustrate this process.

Once the two reference point coordinates are defined, go to the editing fields for the frequency/vertical parameters and enter the appropriate graph values at these two locations. Now the color representing the curve must be chosen. Click the Curve button at the top, and then select a point somewhere along the curve as shown here on the left. For some images there may be many different shades of color around the curve. The curve may have soft edges. Selecting different points on the curve may pick slightly different colors. 332
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The last step is to choose a color matching tolerance on the slider. For a reasonable starting value choose ±10%. The proper choice for this parameter depends on how much color purity is in the image, or color noise. You can now click the Preview button and observe the curve mapping. For this example the curve was captured perfectly with a tolerance of 10% as shown here on the left. If the slider is now changed to 5% color matching, and the Preview button clicked again, the resulting curve shows downward spikes. The tolerance was too tight, and the mapping fell through to a similar color below the desired curve. Now if the slider is adjusted to 20% color matching, the resulting curve shows upward spikes. This is because the mapping process found pixel colors above the desired curve within the color tolerance. The scanning was from top to bottom. These examples illustrate the important use of the color matching tolerance. It is a trial and error process to discriminate between color variations, color noise, and the color of the desired curve. The selection of curve color, adjustment of the color matching slider, and use of the scan direction, are all filtering mechanisms to pull out the desired curve from the background image.

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Once you are satisfied with the preview, you can click Ok to write the final data to the selected Library Curve entry. In some cases where the image is very dirty, you may not be able to remove all spikes from the captured curve. In these cases you can use the Curve Editor utility to clean up the curve data afterwards. The final captured curve is shown below.

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11.8 Curve Editor

The Utilities | Curve Editor menu item will open a dialog which provides graphical editing and creation of curve data. The tool button as shown above on the Utilities toolbar can also be used to activate this item. The Curve Editor is a specialized drawing program which allows you to modify or create Guide Curves by editing an array of control points or nodes. This special edit curve is drawn as an array of straight line segments between the nodes. Nodes can be added, deleted, or moved to create virtually any desired curve shape. The edit curve can also be created by reading the data of an existing Guide Curve entry, or can be used to write a Guide Curve entry. The number of nodes on the edit curve is typically different than a Guide Curve due to editing. The Curve Editor is also equipped to display existing Guide Curves from the system along with the edit curve. Many different alignment snap tools are provided for editing the nodes. You can snap to the grid, guidelines, or existing curves. A scale system is provided independent of the main system. The Curve Editor operates on two different types of curves: Left Vertical, and Right Vertical. An individual edit curve is provided for each of these types of data. You may edit only a single curve, or both of the two curves depending on your requirements. The curve list box provides selection of the library curve for the read/write. This special list box shows the type of data contained in each curve. Any curve which is currently being displayed on the graph is denoted by Red vertical lines between the zones of each curve entry.

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Curve Editor Screen When the editor dialog window first appears, it is automatically sized to cover the majority of the program's screen. This is a dialog window, and you cannot use other features outside this dialog while it is open. The Curve Editor is virtually a program itself, with its own menu and toolbar. Vertical scale controls are located on the toolbar along with several controls for reading/writing Library Curves located on the status bar at the bottom. The graph area displays a grid using the current system scale for the horizontal axis, and a vertical axis dependent on scale settings and type of data. Two rulers are displayed in Black on the left and top sides of the graph. The right and bottom sides contain scroll bars when necessary. The graph displays the edit curve as straight line segments drawn between nodes which appear as dots. When a node is unselected it is colored Gray. When a node is selected, it becomes Red. More than one node can be selected simultaneously. Library Curves can also be shown on the graph, along with guidelines pulled from the rulers. 336
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Control Menu This menu contains operations similar to those listed on most File type menus. However since the Curve Editor is part of the overall program, and does not handle files directly, this menu is named Control. New This menu item will create/initialize a new set of the two graph edit curves using the current system frequency range. The two edit curves will be given 10 nodes each with flat line values at the center of the grids. This operation is generally used when first starting an editing project, to move the nodes into the system frequency range. Save This menu item will save all the current settings and parameters of the Curve Editor into an internal buffer. An initial Save is performed automatically when the dialog is opened. This item can be used at any time during editing to update the internal buffer with the latest parameters and settings. Both of the edit curves are saved, in addition to guidelines and scale settings. A tool button is provided for this menu item as well. Revert This menu item will restore all the previously saved settings and parameters of the Curve Editor. An initial Save is performed automatically when the dialog is opened, so the internal buffer always has at least the original data. A tool button is provided for this menu item as well. Cancel This menu item reflects the usual Cancel button found on a dialog window. Using this item exits the Curve Editor dialog without saving your changes. Using the Close button in the right corner of the dialog is equivalent. Ok This menu item reflects the usual Ok button found on a dialog window. Using this item exits the Curve Editor dialog and saves your changes. You must select this item if you wish to and retain your changes to the edit curves when you exit the dialog.

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Graph Menu This menu contains the two selections of the currently active editing graph. You can move to a different graph to edit each of the different sets of edit nodes for each of the different types of data. The scale and ruler values will change to match each graph and type of data.

Node Menu This menu provides the basic node operations of Insert, Delete, and Select All. Tool buttons are also provided for each of these menu items. Insert This menu item begins an insert mode and changes the cursor to the node insert icon. You can move the cursor to any location, click the left mouse button, and a new node will be inserted. Nodes are always inserted between two closest nodes. To exit the insert mode, you can select the item again, press the ESC key, or use the right mouse button and choose Edit Mode from the popup menu. Note: Another method of inserting nodes is also supported, while in the normal editing mode. By simply pressing the Insert key a node will be placed at the present cursor location. Delete This menu item begins a delete mode and changes the cursor to the node delete icon. You can move the cursor to any existing node, click the left mouse button, and the node will be deleted, whether or not it is selected. If you are not within the capture range of a node, an error message will appear. To exit the delete mode, you can select the item again, press the ESC key, or use the right mouse button and choose Edit Mode from the popup menu. Note: Another method of deleting nodes is also supported, while in the normal editing mode. By simply pressing the Delete key, all currently selected nodes will be deleted. This is the fastest means to delete many nodes at once.

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Show Menu This menu allows you to selectively enable/disable various items for display. When displaying Library Curves, only those curves which are enabled for display on the system graph will be shown. Guidelines are pulled from the rulers and can be enabled/disabled using this menu item. The Delete Guidelines menu item will destroy all of the guidelines. Guidelines can also be deleted individually by moving them back to rulers. To create a guideline, move the cursor over a ruler, click and hold the left mouse button, and drag the guideline on to the graph. Guidelines can be repositioned at any time.

Snap Menu This menu allows you to selectively enable/disable different objects to be used for snap alignment. Snapping the cursor to an object occurs when moving a node or guideline and the cursor is near the object. The cursor will jump to the object, and remain on the object for small cursor movements. Large movements will break the cursor away from the object. The horizontal axis is typically frequency on both graphs. However, since the vertical axis has different units for each graph, the vertical axis is given the generic name of Value. When snap is enabled both for a frequency (horizontal) object and value (vertical) object, the cursor will be snapped to the common intersection whenever possible. When snapping to a Library curve, tracking may become difficult if the slope of the curve reaches high values. This can happen on the nulls of elliptic response or similar sharp transitions. The vertical density of points may be too low to provide continuous tracking. Snapping to the grid occurs at both major and minor divisions. The number of divisions on the Curve Editor graphs are the same as those defined for the main system graph.

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View Menu This menu provides different commands for changing the display scale factor. The Zoom In and Zoom Out menu items will change the cursor icon and allow you to drag a rectangle around a region of the graph to zoom. The Zoom NNN% items provide instant zoom to the specified value. The center of the graph will be maintained. Redraw will refresh the display. Tool buttons are provided for each of these menu items. Note: An alternate method of instant zoom is also provided using the Add/Sub keys in the numeric keypad on the keyboard. Add will ZoomIn and Sub will ZoomOut.

Popup Menu The popup menu is activated when you right click the mouse button. This menu will appear locally at the cursor position. The first item Edit Mode is only active when a mode other than edit is currently in operation, such as zoom or node insert/delete. This item will change the mode back to edit and restore the default cursor. The Question item activates an information mode, and changes the cursor to a question mark. When the cursor is moved to an object on the graph and clicked, a message box will appear describing the object. This same function can be activated by clicking on the [?] panel in the upper left hand corner of the graph. This function is very useful if you wish to know the name of a curve on the graph, or need to know its exact frequency or value. Clicking on a blank region of the graph will display general information about the number of nodes and guidelines. The frequency and value of the first and last nodes is also displayed. The ZoomIn and ZoomOut provide instant zoom without changing the cursor. Insert Node, Delete Node, and Select All perform identically to the functions listed on the main menu. The same is true of Save and Revert.

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Tool Buttons On the left of the toolbar, 16 tool buttons are located. These functions are identical to the previously described menu items. Moving the cursor over each of the buttons will display a hint which describes each button. The numeric field gives the number of node points in the editing curve. Scale and Smooth Buttons A group of scale controls for the vertical value are located on the right side of the toolbar. These operate in a similar fashion to the vertical graph controls in the Scale Parameters dialog of the main program. The smooth button will cause the currently selected points to be smoothed.

Guide Curve list box & Read/Write Buttons The controls necessary to input/output data to the Guide Curve library are located on the lower left of the status bar. The list box is used to select a single Curve for reading or writing. When a guide curve is being displayed on the graph the separator lines are shown in Red instead of the normal Gray. When the buttons are clicked a dialog will be presented for operations on the selected curve.

Cursor Readouts As the cursor is moved around the graph, the frequency and vertical value will be displayed in the center of the status bar. The remainder of the status bar is used to display system messages.

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Read Curve Dialog This dialog appears when the Read button is clicked. The group box at the top gives the data for the currently selected guide curve. The group box in the center gives the data for the current editing curve node points. The min/ max horizontal values and the number of points (nodes). The last group box provides three options for controlling how the guide curve data will be read into the editing curve. Automatic quadratic interpolation between guide curve points is provided. Use Curve points This option is probably the most commonly used. In this case a new editing curve is created with horizontal values identical to the selected guide curve. The number of node points will be the same as the number of points in the curve, and with identical horizontal values. Note: Some nodes may be off the graph if the horizontal range of the curve is wider then the graph range. For example, if your curve has data from 10Hz40kHz and the graph only covers 20-20kHz then some nodes at the hi/lo extremes of the range would not be visible for editing on the graph. Keep existing Node points This option will maintain the existing horizontal node locations, but read new vertical values from the curve. This assumes that the current positions of the editing curve nodes are meaningful for the data you are reading. This special option is used in rare cases where you do not wish to change the horizontal locations of the editing nodes. Equal density across scale range points. This option creates a new editing curve with even spacing (log or linear) of horizontal values across the range currently shown on the graph. The number of points is defined by the user in the adjacent edit field. Note: This option is often used to read the guide curve and generate an editing curve which is realigned to the current range of the graph.

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Write Curve Dialog This dialog appears when the Write button is clicked. The group box at the top gives the data for the current editing curve. The min/max horizontal values and the number of points (nodes). The group box in the center gives the data for the currently selected guide curve. The last group box provides three options for controlling how the edit curve data will be written into the guide curve. Automatic quadratic interpolation between node points is provided. Keep existing Curve points This option will maintain the existing horizontal guide curve locations, but read new vertical values from the editing curve (nodes). This assumes that the current positions of the guide curve points are meaningful for the data you are writing. The scale units in the curve must match those of the graph. This option is used where you do not wish to change the horizontal data within the guide curve. Use Node points This option is rarely used. In this case a new guide curve is created with values identical to the nodes in the editing curve. The number of guide curve points will be the same as the number of nodes, and with identical values. Note: Due to editing of the nodes, the horizontal spacing may not be uniform. This option will create a guide curve which is an exact copy of the nodes. Equal density across scale range points. This option creates a new guide curve with even spacing (log or linear) of horizontal values across the range currently shown on the graph. The number of points is defined by the user in the adjacent edit field. Note: This option is often used to read the node edit curve and generate a guide curve which is realigned to the current horizontal range of the graph, and with uniform spacing of points.

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Question / Information Clicking on the small square panel in the upper left corner of the graph activates a query function. The cursor will be changed to a question mark. When you then click on an object in the graph, or an empty area of the graph itself, a message box will then display information about the object. An example is shown above. Different kinds of information will be displayed depending on the type of object selected. Drag Scrolling If you hold down the Shift key on the keyboard while clicking and moving with the left mouse button, the graph page will be dragged across the screen. The drag cursor will appear as shown here on the left. Note: Scrolling is disabled at 1X zoom since there are no scroll bars.

Guidelines Guidelines can be pulled out of the rulers in the normal fashion. Move the mouse cursor over a ruler, and then click and hold the left mouse button. The guideline can then be dragged out of the ruler on to the graph. Guidelines can be repositioned at any time by dragging, and can be removed by dragging them back into the rulers.

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Node Editing Before a node can be moved it must first be selected. When a node is selected, its color changes from Gray to Red. In order to select a single node the cursor must be moved within the capture range of the node. When the cursor is in the capture range it will change from the arrow to the crosshair as shown below. You can then Click the left mouse button to select the node.

Nodes can be deselected by clicking on a different node, an empty area of the graph, by rectangular selection of different nodes, or by using the ESC key. Multiple nodes can be selected by drawing a rectangle around them, as shown here on the left. To append more nodes to other currently selected nodes, hold down the CTRL key while selecting more nodes by either the single click or rectangle methods. Selected nodes can also be removed from a group by the same method.

Once the nodes are selected, click and hold the left mouse button over one of the selected nodes and move. All selected nodes will be moved by the same change in cursor position. When a move operation is started, the cursor is automatically aligned to the centered of the primary node being dragged by the mouse. The arrow keys can also be used to move the node. Selected nodes can also be deleted using the DELETE key. Using the INSERT key will add nodes between any two existing selected or unselected nodes at the cursor position.

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Reading Library Curves Reading an existing library curve is one means of obtaining reasonable starting values for a set of editing nodes. In some cases you may desire all of the original guide curve points, and in other cases you may wish to use a smaller number of points for easier editing. The user must decide how much node density/ resolution is desired. The three samples below show a Library Curve being read using 20, 40, and 80 points. The choice of density depends on your application. In some cases you may wish to transfer hundreds of data points, and in other cases only a few. You can always add or remove points as well during the remaining editing.

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Writing Library Curves Library curves can be written as an exact copy of the nodal edit curve data, or realigned to a uniform spacing of different density/resolution. How the points are written to the selected guide curve entry is controlled entirely by the user in the Write Curve dialog. However special considerations apply regardless. All nodes must have consecutive frequencies (horizontal data). With the exception of the end nodes, each interior node must have adjacent nodes above and below. The sample here shows a node backcrossing over a lower frequency node. This is an invalid condition. The program will check your node data when you attempt to write a curve, and inform you if this condition exists. Although the Curve Editor is always reading/writing with data in two different vertical arrays, you may only be editing or interested in the data of a single array, and ignoring the data in the unneeded vertical array. It is not required that you edit the nodes in both of the vertical arrays, but only the array required. When writing the curve data, you may or may not have edit nodes which cover the entire frequency range. If the end nodes do not reach the ends of the frequency range, the final end values will be extrapolated in the library curve. The sample here shows a node curve that does not reach the low frequency limit, and the resulting library curve after being written. The end node value is used to complete the curve to the end frequency. After the curve is written, it is also enabled for display. If you have enabled the Show Guide Curves in the menu, it will immediately appear in the graph.

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11.9 Air Core Inductor Designer

The Utilities | Air Core Inductor Designer menu item will open a dialog for the design of air core inductors The tool button as shown above on the Utilities toolbar can also be used to activate this item.

Air core inductors are commonly used in passive crossovers. This dialog contains built-in design formulations to produce coil designs based on a few simple parameters. In most cases the design should turn out to be within about ±10% of the desired value. The Profile selection can be chosen for the internal radius equal to the height or equal to twice the height. The Winding selection should be selected as loose for hand wound coils or tight for machine wound coils. Then enter the desired inductance value and the series resistance. Reducing the resistance will produce larger coils with larger gauge wire. The coil design data can then be read in the fields below. The wire gauge is computed as a decimal value which you will need to round to the nearest standard value. The picture displays the definitions of the various parameters. The parameter usage should be self explanatory.

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12.1 Opamp Models

The Library | Opamp Models menu item will open a dialog which manages the opamp models used in the program. The tool button as shown above on the Library toolbar can also be used to activate this item. Each opamp model is a set of nine numeric parameters which mathematically define the fundamental AC characteristics of a particular opamp. These models can then be assigned (loaded) into any opamp component in the circuit schematic. The use of mathematical models, rather than sub-circuit models, dramatically increases the speed of circuit analysis for large filter simulation. Each opamp library is stored as an individual file on disk, and can contain up to 500 different models. The number of library files is unlimited. At any given time, a single active library is loaded into the program. Models from the active library can be loaded into circuit components. Since the model parameters are stored within each component, changing the active library will not affect existing schematic components. Numerous opamp libraries are provided with the program, containing many different types of industry standard devices. The libraries are generally organized by manufacturer. However, additional opamps and libraries can be easily created by the user. The parameters needed for the opamp models are derived from common data sheets found in most manufacturer's data books. In some cases the data may be found in tables, while in others the data is provided in graph form. It is not uncommon for some devices to have incomplete specifications which do not provide all of the needed parameters. In these cases it is often helpful to consult the data books of different manufacturers who also produce the same device. Not all manufacturers provide the same quantity of data for each device. If no data can be found for a particular parameter, you will probably need to use a best guess value.

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Opamp Library This group box provides a large data grid, which displays the model data contained in the currently active opamp library. The name of the active library is shown directly below the grid. Each line represents one opamp model and contains a name, description, and the various numeric parameters. The data grid is equipped with powerful sorting capabilities. By clicking on the column headers the data may be sorted by any parameter, either by increasing or by decreasing value. Moreover, the column order can be changed simply by dragging one of the column headers to a new location. Opamp Data In this group box a set of four graphs are shown, which display the numeric parameter data of the selected model in curve form. When a different model is selected in the data grid above, the graphs will be updated. The four graphs are: Loop Gain, Phase Margin, Voltage Noise, and Current Noise. Viewing these graphs provides additional validation of the model parameters.

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File Operations The four buttons located at the lower right corner of the Opamp Library group box handle library file operations. These include: Load, Save, Merge, and New. Library files always have an extension of FSL and should reside in the ...\Library folder. Other locations can be used, but it is probably best to keep all library files in a common location. Since there are different types of library files used by the system, all with the same extension, it is best to start the file name with the word OpampXXX when you save an opamp library file. This will allow you to easily determine the type of library in the future. Note: The previously active library file will be automatically loaded each time the program is launched. The library file must reside in the ...\Library folder. Load Library Clicking this button will present another dialog to select a library file to load as the active library. Save Library Clicking this button will present another dialog which allows you to assign a file name and save the active library to disk. If you have made changes to the active library, you must use this option to save your changes to a library file on disk. Note: Closing the dialog with the Ok button retains your changes for the remaining operation of the program, but does NOT save the changes to disk. Use Save. Merge Library Clicking this button will present another dialog to select a library file to merge with the existing entries in the active library. The name of the active library will be changed to OpampNewLib.Fsl, and should be renamed when you later save the library to disk. New Library Clicking this button will delete all existing model entries in the active library, and append a single default entry. The name of the active library will be changed to OpampNewLib.Fsl, and should be renamed when you later save the library to disk.

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Adding/Copying/Deleting Models The three buttons located at the lower left corner of the Opamp Library group box handle the addition or removal of model entries. Each library can contain a maximum of 500 models. The changes you make to the active library are retained for the current execution of the program, when you close the dialog with the Ok button. However, they are not saved to disk, and will be lost when the program is opened the next time. In order to make your changes to the library permanent, you must use the Save button to update the file on disk. Add Model Clicking this button will append another entry at the bottom of the data grid. The new entry will be given a temporary name and description, along with default parameter values. You can then edit the names and values using your actual data. Copy Model Clicking this button will copy the currently selected model, and append the copy to another entry at the bottom of the data grid. The new name will have an underscore placed in front. This is useful if you wish to create a new model similar to an existing model. You can then edit the parameters as desired. Delete Model Clicking this button will delete the currently selected entry in the data grid.

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Entering Parameter Data Parameters for the opamp model describe input/output impedance, the complex gain function, and the voltage/current noise. A single dominant pole model is used with additional delay. Most opamps behave in a similar manner, however high frequency opamps can have a more complex transfer function. In these cases the dominant pole model serves as an approximation to the actual gain function. You can generally adjust the model parameters to match the most important region of the frequency range.

The model parameters are defined as: Name: A short text identifier. This is displayed inside the opamp symbol and is generally the model name of the original device. Any additional notes about the model can be placed in this field. The maximum open loop gain in dB that it reaches at 0Hz. The gain bandwidth is the frequency where the open loop gain falls to 0dB. The difference in degrees between the phase at the GBW frequency and -180. The open loop differential input impedance. The open loop output impedance. The mid/high frequency input noise voltage density in V/RtHz. The mid/high frequency input noise current density in A/RtHz. The low frequency corner of the flicker noise voltage in Hz. The low frequency corner of the flicker noise current in Hz.

Description: DC Gain: GBW:

Phase Margin:

Rin: Rout: Enoise: Inoise: Freq-En: Freq-In:

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The sample data sheet below demonstrates a typical specification for a common opamp. The circled items shows the parameters which were chosen for the model data. In the case of voltage gain, the value is given in linear units of Volt/Volt (1500V/mV), and must be converted into dB (124dB). It is also possible to create different model versions of the same opamp. This can be used to represent temperature variations, grade differences, or voltage supply variations.

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Many of the parameters also appear on graphs within the data sheet. The corner frequencies of the voltage and current flicker noise are taken from the graph data below. These parameters are probably the most difficult to find on some data sheets. Opamps which are not specifically designed for low noise operation have limited noise specifications, if any. The phase margin is also often displayed on a graph. Typically a Bode plot of openloop gain and phase is provided. In the graph below the phase margin is clearly described for the reader, and illustrates the difference between 180 Degrees and the phase at the GBW frequency.

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The resulting dialog graphs are now shown below. The scale values are calculated automatically by the program, depending on the parameter requirements of the model. The graphs provide a quick means of double checking the data, and verify that the parameters are producing the correct response curves.

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12.2 Potentiometer Tapers

The Library | Potentiometer Tapers menu item will open a dialog which manages the pot tapers used in the program. The tool button as shown above on the Library toolbar can also be used to activate this item. Each pot taper curve consists of a set of straight line segments. The number of segments is variable, depending on the detail required to represent the shape of the actual curve. Each curve segment is defined using rotation/resistance control points. A taper can be defined using up to 100 control points. These tapers can then be assigned (loaded) into any pot component in the circuit schematic. The taper curves can be very detailed, and accurately represent the true characteristics of a particular taper. Real pots typically have dead zones near their rotational ends, which are due to the landing pads of the end terminals. Each taper library is stored as an individual file on disk, and can contain up to 500 different tapers. The number of library files is unlimited. At any given time, a single active library is loaded into the program. Tapers from the active library can be loaded into circuit components. Since the Taper parameters are stored within each component, changing the active library will not affect existing components. Numerous taper libraries are provided with the program, containing many different types of industry standard curves. The libraries are organized by manufacturer. However, additional tapers and libraries can be easily created by the user. The control points needed for the taper curves must usually be derived by hand from measuring printed charts found in most manufacturer's catalogs. In some cases the data may be found in tables, but rarely with sufficient detail. The process of measuring data from taper charts is more of an art than a science. The stock libraries were built by scanning the pages of catalogs into raster image files, and then processing these files in a paint program. The charts were aligned, and then measurements taken directly via pixel coordinates.

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Taper Library This group box provides a large data grid, which displays the taper entries contained in the currently active taper library. The name of the active library is shown directly below the grid. Each line represents one pot taper and contains a name, description, and the number of control points. The data grid is equipped with powerful sorting capabilities. By clicking on the column headers the data may be sorted by any parameter, either by increasing or by decreasing value. Moreover, the column order can be changed simply by dragging one of the column headers to a new location. Taper Data This group box contains another data grid for editing/displaying the control points, and a pictorial graph of the actual taper curve. When a different taper is selected in the data grid above, the graph will be updated. Viewing the graph provides visual validation of the control point data.

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File Operations The four buttons located at the lower right corner of the Taper Library group box handle library file operations. These include: Load, Save, Merge, and New. Library files always have an extension of FSL and should reside in the ...\Library folder. Other locations can be used, but it is probably best to keep all library files in a common location. Since there are different types of library files used by the system, all with the same extension, it is best to start the file name with the word TaperXXX when you save a taper library file. This will allow you to easily determine the type of library in the future. Note: The previously active library file will be automatically loaded each time the program is launched. The library file must reside in the ...\Library folder. Load Library Clicking this button will present another dialog to select a library file to load as the active library. Save Library Clicking this button will present another dialog which allows you to assign a file name and save the active library to disk. If you have made changes to the active library, you must use this option to save your changes to a library file on disk. Note: Closing the dialog with the Ok button retains your changes for the remaining operation of the program, but does NOT save the changes to disk. Use Save. Merge Library Clicking this button will present another dialog to select a library file to merge with the existing entries in the active library. The name of the active library will be changed to TaperNewLib.Fsl, and should be renamed when you later save the library to disk. New Library Clicking this button will delete all existing taper entries in the active library, and append a single default entry. The name of the active library will be changed to TaperNewLib.Fsl, and should be renamed when you later save the library to disk.

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Adding/Copying/Deleting Tapers The three buttons located at the lower left corner of the Taper Library group box handle the addition or removal of taper entries. Each library can contain a maximum of 500 tapers. The changes you make to the active library are retained for the current execution of the program, when you close the dialog with the Ok button. However, they are not saved to disk, and will be lost when the program is opened the next time. In order to make your changes to the library permanent, you must use the Save button to update the file on disk. Add Taper Clicking this button will append another entry at the bottom of the data grid. The new entry will be given a temporary name and description, and zero control points. You can then edit the name and description to your actual data. Adding control points is covered in the following section. Copy Taper Clicking this button will copy the currently selected taper, and append the copy to another entry at the bottom of the data grid. The new name will have an underscore placed in front. This is useful if you wish to create a new taper similar to an existing taper. You can then edit the parameters as desired. Delete Taper Clicking this button will delete the currently selected entry in the data grid. Note: Choose a short taper name, since this will be displayed on the schematic in the pot symbol. The stock libraries have the first letter of the manufacturer's name assigned, and then R for rotary or S for slide.

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Editing Control Points Three buttons are provided below the control point data grid: Add, Delete, and Update. The Add button will append another control point to the end of the list. You may then change the rotation or resistance values as needed. The Delete button will remove a control point. The Update button transfers the control point data into the active library above and updates the graph display. Use the Update button when you have finished editing a series of control points and wish to have the program read the list. The list will then be checked for errors and sorted by rotation. The resistance values must describe a monotonic curve. Values must progress from 0 to 100 and cannot back track below previous values. Also, both parameters must contain entries for the ends of the range at 0 and 100. Duplicate rotation entries are not allowed. The program will check for many different types of errors and inform you of any problems. Measuring Taper Charts The sample chart here demonstrates a typical specification for a common potentiometer taper. Actually, this graph shows six different tapers. These are all variations of Log style tapers, and denote the resistance percentage at 50% rotation. The chart was scanned and then imported into a paint program. Pixel measurements were taken off the image to obtain control points with suitable resolution. The following six dialog graphs illustrate the final results.

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Taper 5A

Taper 10A

Taper 15A

Taper 20A

Taper 25A

Taper 30A

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13.1 Parameters

The Scale | Parameters menu item will open a dialog which controls all of the horizontal and vertical scales used for the graphs in the program. This dialog allows you to specify the range and resolution of each scale. The shortcut key F7 or tool button as shown above on the Scale toolbar can also activate this item. The Scale Parameters dialog consists of three principal groups of controls: Horizontal Scales and Left Vertical and Right Vertical Scales. A different scale is defined for each type of curve units. The horizontal group box provides control over the frequency, time, or angle unit scales. The left vertical group box controls a wide variety of different types of unit scales. The right vertical is defined for phase data. Labeling of the scales is by default handled automatically. If you wish to perform manual labeling, go to the File | Preferences dialog and disable Automatic Labels.

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Horizontal Freq Scale This is one of the most commonly used scales in the program. You can choose Linear or Log axis, rectangular or circular (polar) plots, the range, Units, and the divisions. Nyquist type plots are produced by using the polar selection. For Log scales, the Min Range value must not be zero. Linear scales can use any value for the Lo/Hi frequency parameters. However Log scales will have the Lo/Hi frequency values rounded towards their nearest major division. This produces Log grids with much better readability. For example, entering a value of 23k would be adjusted to 20k. You could choose 20k or 30k for the end frequency, but fractional values are not allowed. Using the Prefix you can produce units of kHz, uHz, MHz etc. When the scale is Linear the Major Div and Minor Div values will be enabled. For Log grids only the minor division value is relevant. A data grid is displayed with three buttons: Make, Clear, Sort. Once you have selected the type of scale and the Lo/Hi end frequencies, clicking Make will generate a suitable list of labels for the scale. The generated labels are then listed in the data grid. The auto generated labels are placed at major divisions for Linear scales, and at 1-2-5 locations for Log scales. If you wish to delete the entire label list, click the Clear button. Single labels can be deleted simply by erasing the text in the desired entry. Additional labels can be added using the empty locations further down the list. Clicking the Sort button will sort the list based on the frequency represented in the label text. Note: The labeling controls will be disabled if the Automatic Labels option is enabled in File | Preferences.

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Horizontal Time Scale The time scale appears with the Transient tab data. The time scale is always Linear. The Min and Max parameters define the ends of the scale. In most cases the Min time is set to zero. The Major Div and Minor Div values describe the design of the horizontal grid. Using the Prefix you can produce units of mSec, uSec, nSec etc. A data grid is displayed along with three buttons: Make, Clear, Sort. Once you have defined the Min/Max time values, clicking Make will generate a suitable list of labels for the scale. The generated labels are then listed in the data grid. The generated labels are placed at the major divisions of the horizontal grid lines. If you wish to delete the entire label list, click the Clear button. Single labels can be deleted simply by erasing the text in the desired entry. Additional labels can be added using the empty locations further down the list. Clicking the Sort button will sort the list based on the time value represented in the label text. Note: The labeling controls will be disabled if the Automatic Labels option is enabled in File | Preferences.

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Horizontal Angle Scale The angle scale appears when displaying Polar tab data. The angle scale is always Linear. The Min and Max parameters define the ends of the scale. These are fixed at -180 deg and +180 deg. The Major Div and Minor Div values control the design of the horizontal grid. There are two different plotting choices: rectangular or circular. The circular plot is most commonly used for polar plots, but rectangular plots are also used. A data grid is displayed along with three buttons: Make, Clear, Sort. Once you have defined the Min/Max time values, clicking Make will generate a suitable list of labels for the scale. The generated labels are then listed in the data grid. The generated labels are placed at the major divisions of the horizontal grid lines. If you wish to delete the entire label list, click the Clear button. Single labels can be deleted simply by erasing the text in the desired entry. Additional labels can be added using the empty locations further down the list. Clicking the Sort button will sort the list based on the time value represented in the label text. Note: The labeling controls will be disabled if the Automatic Labels option is enabled in File | Preferences.

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Vertical Scales There are seven different unit tabs which mainly follow the various left vertical units and graph titles. A scale tab is defined for every possible type of vertical data used within the program. The operation and use of the fields in these tabs are essentially identical for all of them. For this reason, only the Voltage tab will be described here as an example. All others are similar. s Axis There are three choices for the type of axis: Linear, Log, and dB. If the Linear or Log selections are used, the curves will be plotted in units of Volts. If the dB selection is used, the curves are plotted in dBV or dBm, depending on the dB Reference chosen. s Polarity If you are using a Linear axis, then you have a choice of either: Bipolar, Positive, or Negative scale range. A Bipolar scale means that zero is in the center of the scale, and the range might be +1.0 to -1.0 volts. A Positive scale means that zero is at the bottom and might contain a range such as +1.0 to 0.0 volts. A Negative scale means that zero is at the top and might contain a range such as 0.0 to -1.0 volts. s Range The Max and Min values here define the range of the scale. Depending on other parameters in the tab, one of these parameters may be disabled. If you are using a Log axis, the Min value cannot be zero or negative. s dB When the dB axis is in use, two parameters here are enabled: dB per Division and dB Reference. The number of dB per major division controls the resolution of the scale. The dB reference defines the 0dB value. For volts it is either 1.000 (dBV) or 0.775 (dBm). Different tab units have different dB reference choices.

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s Divisions When the axis is Linear or dB the Major Div and Minor Div values will be enabled. For Log axis only the minor divisions are relevant. s Units Using the Prefix you can produce units of mVolts, uVolts, nVolts etc. This is only enabled when either Linear or Log axis is chosen. When a dB axis is in use, this is disabled. The units field displays the total combined unit label for the scale. s Labels A data grid is displayed along with three buttons: Make, Clear, Sort. Once you have defined the other parameter values, clicking Make will generate a suitable list of labels for the scale. The generated labels are then listed in the data grid. The generated labels are placed at the major divisions of the vertical grid lines. If you wish to delete the entire label list, click the Clear button. Single labels can be deleted simply by erasing the text in the desired entry. Additional labels can be added using the empty locations further down the list. Clicking the Sort button will sort the list based on the time value represented in the label text. Note: The labeling controls will be disabled if the Automatic Labels option is enabled in File | Preferences.

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13.2 Auto

The Scale | Auto menu item provides automatic adjustment of the vertical scale in the graph for the currently displayed units. The shortcut key F8 or the tool button as shown above on the Scale toolbar can also be used to activate this item. This feature is heavily utilized. The Auto scale function analyzes the currently displayed library curves, and determines the required Max/Min range parameters to display the highest levels of any curve. This function is commonly used to quickly bring the curves into view. The Left Vertical scale is always controlled by this function. However control of the Right Vertical is optional depending on the setting of Auto/Up/Dn Right Vertical Data in File | Preferences.

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13.3 Up

The Scale | Up menu item will increase the vertical scale range for the currently displayed scale units. The tool button as shown above on the Scale toolbar can also be used to activate this item. This feature is heavily utilized. The Scale Up function instantly increases the display range. For dB scales, the Max /Min ranges are increased by the value per division. For fixed scales, the range is increased to the next appropriate increment. Note: Increasing the scale moves curves down. The Left Vertical scale is always controlled by this function. However control of the Right Vertical is optional depending on the setting of Auto/Up/Dn Right Vertical Data in File | Preferences.

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13.4 Down

The Scale | Down menu item will decrease the vertical scale range for the currently displayed scale units. The tool button as shown above on the Scale toolbar can also be used to activate this item. This feature is heavily utilized. The Scale Down function instantly decreases the display range. For dB scales, the Max /Min ranges are decreased by the value per division. For fixed scales, the range is decreased to the next appropriate decrement. Note: Decreasing the scale moves curves up. The Left Vertical scale is always controlled by this function. However control of the Right Vertical is optional depending on the setting of Auto/Up/Dn Right Vertical Data in File | Preferences.

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14.1 Zoom In / Zoom Out

The View | Zoom In / Zoom Out menu items will change the display scale factor on the currently active graph window. The tool buttons as shown above on the View toolbar can also be used to activate these items, or the shortcut keys Shift+Add and Shift+Sub. The shortcut keys Add/Sub are the +/- keys in the numeric keypad. Each zoom operation increases or decreases the scale factor by 115%. The maximum zoom level is 800%. The current zoom level is displayed in the Status Bar, located at the bottom of the window. The center position of the graph will be maintained during zoom changes.

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14.2 Zoom 1X / 2X / 4X / 8X

The View | Zoom 1X / 2X / 4X / 8X menu items will change the display scale factor on the currently active graph window. The tool buttons as shown above on the View toolbar can also be used to activate these items, or the shortcut keys Shift+F1, Shift+F2, Shift+F4, and Shift+F8. Each zoom operation forces the scale factor to a preset value of: 100%, 200%, 400%, or 800% respectively. The maximum zoom level is 800%. The current zoom level is displayed in the Status Bar, located at the bottom of the window. The center position of the graph will be maintained during zoom changes. However when the 100% zoom level is selected, the graph alignment will be reset to the upper left corner of the window.

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14.3 Redraw / Redraw All

The View | Redraw / Redraw All menu items will redraw the active graph window, or all the graph windows respectively. The tool buttons as shown above on the View toolbar can also be used to activate this item, or the shortcut key Ctrl+R or Ctrl+Alt+R . The Redraw functions are frequently called by other internal functions in the program. Under normal conditions the graph window is redrawn as required automatically. However this function can be used to redraw the window manually if needed.

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15.1 Tile Horizontal

The Window | Tile Horizontal menu item will arrange the non-minimized graph windows into a horizontally tiled arrangement. The tool button as shown above on the Window toolbar can also be used to activate this item. Tile horizontal uses most of the horizontal pixel width for each graph. Depending on the number of non-minimized windows, vertical and horizontal tiling may perform similarly. An example of horizontal tiling is shown on the following page.

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15.2 Tile Vertical

The Window | Tile Vertical menu item will arrange the nonminimized graph windows into a vertically tiled arrangement. The tool button as shown above on the Window toolbar can also be used to activate this item. Tile vertical uses most of the vertical pixel width for each graph. Depending on the number of non-minimized windows, vertical and horizontal tiling may perform similarly. An example of vertical tiling is shown on the following page.

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15.3 Cascade All

The Window | Cascade All menu item will arrange the nonminimized graph windows into an overlapping staircase arrangement. The tool button as shown above on the Window toolbar can also be used to activate this item. Cascading the child windows allows for easy viewing of their title bars. An example of cascading windows is shown on the following page.

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15.4 Minimize All

The Window | Minimize All menu item will minimize all of the graph windows into icons, and arrange them along the bottom of the main window. The tool button as shown above on the Window toolbar can also be used to activate this item. Minimizing all of the child windows can be helpful if you wish to remove most of the windows from display, and then normalize only a couple windows. An example of minimizing the windows is shown on the following page.

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15.5 Normal All

The Window | Normal All menu item will normalize (restore) all of the graph windows. The tool button as shown above on the Window toolbar can also be used to activate this item. Normalizing all of the child windows can be helpful if you wish to restore many previously minimized graph windows. When the windows are restored, their position may not be optimal. You will typically need to use one of the tiling or cascade functions to organize the windows as you desire. An example of normalizing the windows is shown on the following page.

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15.6 Arrange Icons

The Window | Arrange Icons menu item will neatly arrange all of the minimized graph window icons along the bottom of the main window. The tool button as shown above on the Window toolbar can also be used to activate this item. This function has no effect if none of the graph windows are minimized. Several of the other window organization functions perform this operation automatically as well. An example of arranging the icons of the graph windows is shown on the following page.

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15.7 Graph Window List
The Window menu contains a listing at the bottom of all the graph windows. These are MDI (Multiple Document Interface) child windows, and only a single child window can be active (focused) at any given time. The active graph window has a check mark placed near the item. You can change the active window to any other by selecting one of the other windows in the list. If the selected window is minimized, it will be highlighted but not restored to its normal state. This can be done by clicking on the title bar of the minimized graph window, and selecting Restore.

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16.1 Show All
The Toolbars | Show All menu item will display all of the toolbars, and the Toolbox. Toolbars can appear in any of three locations: the top control bar, the Toolbox, or as single floating windows. The location of each toolbar will be checked. If the toolbar is outside the main program window, it will be brought within the bounds of the program window. This function along with the Hide All can be used to locate toolbars which are off the screen, and force them back into view.

An example with all of the toolbars visible is shown on the following page.

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16.2 Hide All
The Toolbars | Hide All menu item will remove all of the toolbars, and the Toolbox. Toolbars can be removed from any of three locations: the top control bar, the Toolbox, or as single floating windows. When a toolbar is added or removed, the control bar (or tray) will resize. When all of the toolbars are removed, the control bars will collapse down to minimal height. This function along with the Show All can be used to locate toolbars which are off the screen, and force them back into view. An example with all of the toolbars removed is shown on the following page.

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16.3 Menu Toolbars
There are 12 toolbar items listed which correspond to the functions provided on other menu columns. Each of these items will enable/ disable an associated toolbar. The various toolbars are shown below. Toolbars can be positioned at any of three locations: the top control bar, the Toolbox, or as single floating windows. When a toolbar is added or removed, the control bar (or tray) will resize. When all of the toolbars are removed, the control bars will collapse down to minimal height. The user may arrange the toolbars in whatever fashion is desired. Generally only the most heavily used functions have toolbars enabled for display. Displaying all of the toolbars on small screen size (800x600) can use up valuable pixels. If you have a large screen, then more toolbars can probably be displayed without difficulty. Toolbars can be arranged in single rows or multiple rows.

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16.4 Status Bar
The status bar is shown along the bottom of the main window. The bar is sub divided into a number of different smaller panels. These panels will now be described from left to right.

Zoom This panel shows the current zoom level of the main graph in percent. Abs/Rel These two buttons are used to switch the tracking cursor between absolute and relative readout mode. When the cursor is in switched to relative mode, a marker is dropped at the current position of the cursor. When the cursor is moved, the readouts display the relative difference between the reference position and the new position. Library The two buttons System and Guide can be used to select the library containing the curve to be tracked by the cursor. The curve select spin buttons and edit field will pertain to entries in this library. Curve Select Spin Button This panel contains a spin button for changing which library curve the cursor is tracking. When stepped, it will skip any curve numbers which are not currently being displayed. You can also change the curve by using the keyboard arrow keys Up/Dn. Curve Name This panel displays the name of the curve that the cursor is tracking. If the cursor is not on a curve, then N/A will appear.

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Curve Line Sample This panel contains a sample of the curve line as it is drawn on the graph. This is the library curve that the cursor is tracking. When curves are drawn in different colors, it is easy to indentify which curve the cursor is currently tracking by this sample line segment. Horizontal Data This panel displays current horizontal value of the cursor at the present position. Usually this is frequency. Vertical Data This panel displays current vertical value of the cursor at the present position. Usually could be voltage, dB, SPL, Impedance etc. Left/Right Vertical Data These two buttons control which portion of the library curve to track, either the Left or Right vertical data. Left data is generally magnitude and Right data is typically phase. Progress Meter The next panel contains a progress meter that will show a 0% to 100% display when an operation is in progress. System Message The final large field will display system messages as needed during program operation.

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16.5 ToolBox
The ToolBox is a floating window which contains a control bar or tray. This enables multiple toolbars to be dropped into the control bar and moved as a group. If the ToolBox contains no toolbars, the size is reduced to a minimum as shown below. As toolbars are dragged and dropped onto its control bar, the size is automatically increased. Using the ToolBox provides a means of creating a floating toolbar array, rather than the fixed locations provided at the top and bottom of the screen. There are countless ways that the toolbars can be arranged in the program. When the ToolBox is hidden, any toolbars contained within it remain checked on the menu and the ToolBox is unchecked. If you cannot find a toolbar, remember to check the ToolBox to see if it is contained there.

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17.1 Contents
The Help | Contents menu item will open the help system and display the contents panel. This item can also be activated by using the F1 shortcut key. The contents panel provides a table of contents for the help file. This function is most commonly used when you wish to browse the help file by different subjects.

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17.2 Index
The Help | Index menu item will open the help system and display the Index panel. The index panel provides a listing of the topics which have been indexed in the help file. This function is most commonly used when you wish to search for key words. The Find panel can also be used for this purpose.

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17.3 Glossary
The Help | Glossary menu item will open the help system and display the glossary selection buttons. The glossary is an alphabetical listing of definitions for many of the terms used throughout the program. Clicking on a letter button will open a popup window with a list of words beginning with that letter. Select one of the words and another popup window will be displayed with the definition. The Glossary can also be accessed by clicking the Glossary button in the toolbar.

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17.4 About Modules
The Help | About Modules menu item will display a dialog which lists the binary modules used in the program. These include the main EXE and any other special DLLs called by the program. This listing allows you to examine the date codes and version numbers of each module. This can be important for future upgrades and diagnostic troubleshooting.

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17.5 About Program
The Help | About Program menu item will display a dialog which gives a wide array of different information. This includes the user name and serial number, hardware system, operating system, and program version. A URL is also provided which will launch your web browser and take you to the manufacturer's web site. An Email address is also provided which will launch your Email application and begin a message to our technical support department. The last function generates a text file which contains all of the information which might be involved with technical support issues. The file SYSCONFIG.TXT is written to the program directory. This file may be requested when providing assistance. It can be attached to an Email or faxed.

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Appendix

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Appendix A: SI Units
Floating point numbers can be entered in any of three forms: real number format, scientific format, or engineering format. Examples of each are: 2400.75 2.40075E3 or 2.40075D3 2.40075K (real) (scientific) (engineering)

A floating point number must not contain spaces. Therefore do not place spaces between suffixes and other digits. Note that the scientific format supports the use of either the E or D character to separate the exponent. Lowercase is also supported. The engineering format is used entirely throughout the program for numeric display. These are single character multiplier suffixes which appear at the end of a floating point value. Note that in virtually all of the suffix chars the following convention is used: upper case is used for multipliers greater than unity, and lower case is used for multipliers smaller than unity. The only exception is the kilo suffix where both cases are supported (K or k). The entire list of SI multipliers is shown below.
SI Multipliers Name Value Suffix Name Value Suffix kilo mega giga tera peta exa zeta yotta 10+3 10
+6

K,k M G T P E Z Y

milli micro nano pico femto atto zepto yocto

10-3 10
-6

m u n p f a z y

10+9 10
+12

10-9 10
-12

10+15 10
+18

10-15 10
-18

Use of the exa suffix E can lead to confusion since the standard scientific notation uses the letter E as well, e.g. 1.234E+5. The program assumes that if the E character is the last character in the number, it is treated as the exa multiplier 10+18. If additional numeric values follow E then it is treated as scientific format.

10+21 10
+24

10-21 10
-24

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Appendix B: References
The subject of filter design is very diverse with many specializations. Thousands of books have been written on the subject. It is far beyond the scope of this program to provide background information on all of the different types of filters, and their theory. If you wish additional theoretical or application information regarding filter design, please consult one or more of the excellent books available in this field. The following pages contain a small sample of some of the books which may be helpful. It should be noted that even classic engineering text books do not remain in print forever. Many of the books listed may indeed be out-of-print. However it is often the case that many of these books may still be found in various technical bookstores around the world and in many university libraries. In other cases similar books may be currently offered which are in-print.

s Technical Book Stores If you live in a large city you may have a technical bookstore in your area. If not, there are many sources now available on the Internet where these types of books can easily be found. The following sources may be helpful: Amazon.com P.O. Box 80185 Seattle, WA 98108-0185 USA (also England, Germany, etc.) Internet: www.amazon.com Powell's Technical Bookstore 40 NW 10th Avenue Portland, OR 97209 USA Tel: 503-228-3906 Internet: www.powells.com Brian’s Books P.O. Box 10026 120 Jersey Ave. Suite #301 New Brunswick, NJ 08906-0026 USA Tel: 732-249-6492 Internet: www.briansbooks.com

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s Active Analog Filters S. Natarajan, Theory and Design of Linear Active Networks Macmillian Publishing, 1987 ISBN: 0-029-49730-2 G. Temes, S. Mitra, Modern Filter Theory and Design John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1973 ISBN: 0-471-85130-2 S. K. Mitra, Analysis and Synthesis of Linear Active Networks John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1969 ISBN: 0-471-61180-8 M. G. Ellis, Electronic Filter Analysis and Synthesis Artech House, 1994 ISBN: 0-890-06616-7 D. Lancaster, Active-Filter Cookbook Sams, 1975. ISBN: 0-672-21168-8 S. Niewiadomski, Filter Handbook CRC Press, 1989. ISBN: 0-849-37131-7 A. Williams, Electronic Filter Design Handbook McGraw-Hill, 1981 ISBN: 0-070-70430-9 M. S. Ghausi, K. R. Laker, Modern Filter Design: Active RC & Switched Cap Prentice-Hall, 1981. ISBN: 0-135-94663-8

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s Passive Analog Filters A. I. Zverv, Handbook of Filter Synthesis John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1967 ISBN: 0-471-98680-1 S. Niewiadomski, Filter Handbook CRC Press, 1989. ISBN: 0-849-37131-7 A. Williams, Electronic Filter Design Handbook McGraw-Hill, 1981 ISBN: 0-070-70430-9

s Switched Capacitor Filters S. Natarajan, Theory and Design of Linear Active Networks Macmillian Publishing, 1987 ISBN: 0-029-49730-2 M. S. Ghausi, K. R. Laker, Modern Filter Design: Active RC & Switched Cap Prentice-Hall, 1981. ISBN: 0-135-94663-8 P. V. Mohan, Switched Capacitor Filters Prentice-Hall, 1995 ISBN: 0-138-79818-4 H. Baher, Microelectronic Switched-Capacitor Filters John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1996 ISBN: 0-471-95404-7

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s Digital Filters S. K. Mitra, J. F. Kaiser, Handbook for Digital Signal Processing John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1993 ISBN: 0-471-61995-7 T. W. Parks, C. S.Burrus, Digital Filter Design John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1987 ISBN: 0-471-82896-3 D. F. Elliott, Handbook of Digital Signal Processing Academic Press, 1987 ISBN: 0-122-37075-9 L. R. Rabiner, B. Gold, Theory & Application of Digital Signal Processing Prentice-Hall, 1975 ISBN: 0-139-14101-4 E. C. Ifeachor, B. W. Jervis, Digital Signal Processing Addison-Wesley, 1993 ISBN: 0-201-54413-X A. Antoniou, Digital Filters: Analysis and Design McGraw-Hill, 1979 ISBN: 0-070-02117-1 J. Candy, G. Temes, Oversampling Delta-Sigma Data Convertors IEEE Press, 1992 ISBN: 0-879-42285-8 P. P. Vaidyanathan, Multirate Systems and Filter Banks Prentice-Hall, 1993 ISBN: 0-136-05718-7 R. E. Crochiere, L. R. Rabiner, Multirate Digital Signal Processing Prentice-Hall, 1983 ISBN: 0-136-05162-6

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Appendix C: Key Not Found - Troubleshooting
Multi-Mode-Key (MMK) Troubleshooting If you have received this error message when attempting to start the program, then the program was not able to access the authorization key. Please make sure the key is attached to an LPT port. If the key is attached to an LPT port, then some other problem is preventing the program from accessing the key. Problem Identification While the robust MMK design has provided exceedingly good compatibility proven over many years of use, problems with key access on an LPT port can never be completely eliminated. This can be caused by a wide range of circumstances beyond our control. However in almost all cases these issues can be resolved easily once the cause of the problem is identified. The modern personal computer environment is very diverse with unlimited options and configurations, dependent on the operating system, computer, drivers, external devices, and the user's own configuration and setup. It is especially important to be aware of any devices or drivers which may also be attempting to and/ or do utilize the LPT port. The most common problem associated with a hardware lock is the display of an application message: Key Not Found. The obvious problem is of course that the key is attached to the computer. The possible reasons behind the application's lack of ability to reach and properly communicate with the key is the subject of the following sections. Unfortunately there is no single quick and easy answer that will fit all situations. The different possibilities must be explored individually. The following sections provide a catalog of causes which have occurred in the past. Some of the items may not apply to your operating system, configuration, or product. If specific notes are made regarding operating systems or products, then that section only applies to the restrictions cited. If no restrictions are given, then the section potentially applies in all circumstances. Please read or ignore the sections which do or do not apply to your individual situation.

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Printer Drivers and operating modes Some printer drivers may support multiple modes of operation such as bidirectional, IEEE-1284, Polling, etc. It is possible that certain modes may cause a problem. You may wish to visit the Printers/Properties dialog in the Control Panel and try changing the configuration. Another method is to temporarily reassign the printer to the port FILE which will remove it's activity from the LPT port. Printer Ports not Numbered in Sequence Make sure that the LPT ports are given symbolic names in sequence without gaps. For example, if you have two LPT ports they should be LPT1 and LPT2. Port names such as LPT1, LPT3 will cause problems. You can change the names in some OS's in the Control Panel / Device Manager. LPT port may not have sufficient TTL Pull-Up current The MMK derives it's power from the parallel port lines when they transition to +5V However some computers, often laptops, they have greatly reduced . pull-up current and fail to provide enough voltage to operate the key reliably. Power saving modes can also cause this behavior. In these cases it may be necessary to connect a printer through the key to the LPT port. Printers or other port devices provide additional pull-up current from their LPT inputs. Another driver has taken over the port. Not all LPT devices are designed to share the port as a bus, but rather treat it as their own dedicated connection. Some scanner drivers have been known to poll their device continuously once every second, even when not in active use. This causes corrupted data traffic for key access. If you have such a device operating on the LPT port, try a test and disable that driver. If the other driver is demanding full time use of the port, then you may have no choice but to add another port to your computer. LPT port set for ECP mode in CMOS The MMK will operate in any of the Standard, EPP, or ECP parallel port modes. However many other drivers do not handle ECP mode correctly. This can leave the port in a state unusable by the MMK. If you are using ECP mode, you may wish to try setting the port to EPP or Standard. These modes are typically changed in the CMOS configuration of the computer.

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Key Fails first try, then works on later trys Typically there are two possible causes for this: (1) the MMK is not receiving enough pull-up current on the LPT lines, (2) some other device is leaving junk data in the LPT buffer. Try connecting a printer to the port. That will provide extra pull-up current. Also, keep in mind that when you have failed port activity from some other device, there is the potential for junk bytes to be left in the LPT buffer. That may cause the next access to fail, but should be clear after that. ERROR-6021..Key Found but has invalid PIN Check If you receive this error every time you access the key, you should try the key on another computer. If the same error is reported there, then the internal data of the key has been corrupted. Contact the factory for repair procedures. This corruption can sometimes be caused by launching the program while printing a document to the LPT port. Launching the program opens the key, and then the simultaneous printer traffic causes corruption. Under Win9X exclusive LPT access cannot be secured, and thus this can be the result. Please avoid launching the program with other LPT port traffic. Verifying the 32-Bit NT Driver is loaded and running To verify that the 32-bit kernel driver is loaded and running, go to the Start Menu, select Run, and type in RegEdt32. Locate the following key: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\MMK_NTD. If you do not find the MMK_NTD registry key, then reinstall the software. The key will have a PortCount value, and is the number of LPT ports found indicating the driver is loaded and running. For each port there will be a pair of values such as PortBase0/PortSpan0, PortBase1/PortSpan1, etc. depending on the number of ports. If your entries are similar than the driver is operating normally.

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Index
A
About Box 1iv, 5 About Modules 423 About Program 425 Absolute 13 AC analysis 66 active library 351 Add 155 Add Components 19 Add Wire Vertex 20 Adding/Deleting Tapers 362 Adobe (ATM) 26 Adobe (ATM) fonts 26 Adobe Illustrator 319 AFL 130 AI 319 algorithms 22 Allpole 215, 229, 235 Allpole filters 215, 229, 235 Amoeba 192 Amplitude Response 34 Analog: Allpole Filters 215 Analog: Approximation 225 Analog: Elliptic Filters 219 Analog: Inverse IIR Transform 223 analytic data 161 analyze/calculate 197 Any Value 49 Any Value Precision 206 AP1 77 AP2 80 Append Select Components 19 Application Manual 7 arbitrary data 165 arithmetic operations 277 Arrange Icons 399 ASCII columns 313 asymptotic slope 280 asymptotic slopes 293 Authorization Key 4, 5 Authorization Key Installation 5 Auto Backup Design Files 141 Automatic Labels 367 Automatic Tail Correction 280 Axis 371

B
Background color 159 backgrounds 142 BAK 141 BEQ 87 Bessel 218, 232 Binary 98, 103 Binary Math Operations 277 blinking rate 140 BMP 318 Bode plot 357 border 159 BP1 81 BR1 82 Buffer Component 89 Butterworth 3dB 217, 232 Butterworth 6dB 218, 232

C
Capacitor Component 52 Capture Dialog 332 Cascade 246 Cascade All 393 Cauer 222, 239 CCW 61 Chebyshev 215, 218, 229, 232

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Index

Chebyshev II 222, 239 child windows 393 Circuit | Calculate 197 Circuit | Information 193 Circuit | Optimizer 179 Circuit | Parameters 175 Circuit | Z Scaling 195 Circuit Components 39 Circuit Editing 18 Clipboard 323 Clipboard Viewer 324 clockwise 61 CMY 24 Coefficient 96, 102 coefficient precision 248 Color Format 318 Color Match 332 Color Select Dialog 23 Color Space 25 company name and personal name complex impedance 63 Component Editing 43 Component Nodes 141 component snap 178 Compression 318 configuration data 133 consecutive frequencies 345 Constraint Optimization 181 control bar 407 Control Bar Texture 142 Control Bars 11 convergence speed 192 convex 188 Convex optimization 188 Copy 148 copy buffer 149 Copy Components 19 counter clockwise 61 coupling coefficient 59

CPU 3 crosshair 343 cubic 169, 309 Current Noise 352 cursor 13 Cursor Style 140 Curve Averaging 295 Curve Capture 329 Curve Editor 335 Curve Editor Screen 336 Curve Line Sample 412 Curve Select Spin Button 411 Custom circuit 193 Custom Colors 24 Cut 147 CW 61 Cyan-Magenta-Yellow 24

D
171 Data Curves 161 Data Node Component 47 data points 197 Data Realign 309 data realignment 310 data sheet 356 data sheets 351 Data Splice 307 Data Transfer 305 dB per Division 371 dB Reference 371 DC Gain 66, 355 Delay Offset 270 Delay Phase Transform 285 Delay Ripple 217, 231 Delete 150 Delete Components 19 Delete Wire Vertex 19 denominator 102

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Design File Data 141 Editor | Edit 152 DGL 129 Editor | Pack 154 differential input impedance 66 Editor | Paste 149 digital FIR filter 95, 101 Editor | Select All 151 Digital-FIR: Frequency Sampling FilEditor | Undo 153 ters 255 Editor Path 140 Digital-FIR: Optimal Approximation elliptic class 219, 235 Filters 259 Elliptic Family Descriptions 222 Digital-FIR: Window Method Filters 253 elliptic filter 219, 235 Digital-IIR: Bilinear Transform 247 Email 1iv, 425 Digital-IIR: Convolution Transform 251 EMF 317 Digital-IIR: Invariant Transform 243, 249 EncapPostScript 319 Digital-IIR: Matched-Z Transengineering 429 form 235, 241, 245 engineering format 22 display scale factor 383 engineering notation 21 Enhanced Metafile 319 distill vector curve data 329 division lines 159 Entering Numerical Values 22 DLLs 423 EPS 317 Equal Ripple 222, 239 docked 11 Error Limit 185 Dolph-Chebyshev 253 Even Order Filter Type 222 Dot Component 45 Double Click Editing 141 EXE 423 double clicks 15 Exit 143 downhill search 188 Exponentiation 96, 267, 271 DPI 319 Export 98 drag or pan 17 Export Curve Data File 315 Drag Scrolling 342 Export Graphics to Clipboard 323, 325, 327 E Export Graphics to File 317 Extended Colors 24 Edit 152 Edit Component 19 Editing Command Keys 19 Editing Control Points 363 Editor 138 Editor | Add 155 Editor | Copy 148 Editor | Cut 147 Editor | Delete 150

F
Factor MaxPhase 97 Factor MinPhase 97 Family 216 Fast Fourier Transform 289 Fax 1iv FDNR Component 58

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Index

ferrite core inductors 57 File | Editor 138 File | Exit 143 File | Import Circuit Data 128 File | Import Target Data 129 File | New 115 File | Open 116 File | Open Graph Setup 133 File | Preferences 140 File | Print 135 File | Reopen 117 File | Revert 127 File | Save 118 File | Save Graph Setup 134 File | SaveAs 125, 126 Filter Type 263 finite coefficient effects 95, 101 Finite zero 238 FIR approximation 259 FIR Filter Component 95 fixed point formats 103 flicker noise 67, 355 floating point 21, 103 floating ToolBox 18 floating window 11, 413 floating windows 407 focus 18 font 27 Font Select Dialog 26 format, engineering 429 format, scientific 429 Frame Parameters 159 Freq-En 355 Freq-In 355 frequency axis 33, 34, 35, 36, 39 frequency domain 291 frequency, magnitude, and phase 314 Frequency Sampling Filters 255 Frequency Translation 267, 273

Frequency-Dependent-Negative-Resistor 58 FSD extension 116 FSG 134

G
gain function 66 ganging 210 gated measurements 307 Gaussian 218, 233, 253 GBW 66, 355 Generator Component 69 ghost grid 178 GIF 319 global characteristics 140 Global Editing 49 global minima 188 global optimization 188 Graph | Data Curves 161 Graph | Guide Curves 165 Graph | Notes & Comments 171 Graph | Parameters 159 Graph Control Bar 12 Graph Select Toolbar 141 Graph Window List 401 graph windows 395 graphical editing 335 graphics applications 317 Graphics dimensions 159 Grid Parameters 159 grids 18 Ground Component 48 Group Delay 33 group delay 279 group delay ripple 215, 229 Group Delay Transform 283 Guide Curves 165 guidelines 335

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H

halftones 136 Help 7 Help | About Modules 423 Help | About Program 425 Help | Contents 417 Help | Glossary 421 Help | Index 419 HEQ 86 Hex 98, 103 hill climbing 189 Horizontal Angle Scale 370 horizontal data points 169, 309 Horizontal Frequency Scale 368 Horizontal, Left Vertical, and Right Vertical J Data 314 JPG 318 Horizontal Scales 367 horizontal scrolling 17 K Horizontal Time Scale 369 Kaiser 253 Hot Spots 15 HP½ 84 L HP1 76 HP2 79 Labeling of the scales HSV 24 Labels 372 Hue-Saturation-Value 24 landscape 135 Hydra 192 LCD 116

Impulse response 290 inductance 59 Inductor Component 55 Infinite zero 238 input/output impedance 66 integrator 91 Internet 1iv interpolation 169, 309 Introduction to Optimization 188 inverse Chebyshev 222, 239 Inverse Fast Fourier Transform 291 inverted 271 isolated voltage/current sources 73 Iteration Limit 181

367

I
icons 395 identification information 171 IIR Filter Component 101, 107 Imag (sin) 276 Impedance Component 63 Impedance Scaling 196 Import Circuit Data 128 Import Curve Data File 313 Import Target Data 129 Impulse Response 36

leakage capacitance 62 LEAP-4 131 LEAP_CD. INI 140 LEAP_CD.INI 143 LEAP4 DGL 129 Left vertical 305 Legendre 218, 232 LEQ 85 Library 349 Library | Opamp Models 351 Library | Potentiometer Taper 359 line attributes 162, 166

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Index

linear 169, 309 linear frequency resolution 290 Linear Phase 215, 218, 229, 232 Linear Phase Bipolar 263 Linear scales 368 LL/UR reference coordinates 332 Lo/Hi Temperature limits 199 Load Library 361 local minima 189 log 169, 309 Log axis 368 Loop Gain 352 LP½ 83 LP1 75 LP2 78 LPT port 5

M
magnification 137 magnitude 162 Magnitude Offset 267, 268 Magnitude Response 31 Magnitude Ripple 217, 231 major 18 Major Div 159, 368 Major/Minor grids 178 Map region 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39 marking 45 mathematical operations 267 Maximally Flat 222, 239 Maximum Phase 263 maximum scaling factor 98 MCP Butterworth 233 MCP Chebyshev 233 MCP Equal Ripple 222, 239 MCP Factor 230 MCP Maximally Flat 222, 239 MDI (Multiple Document Interface) 401

MDI application 12 Medusa 192 Menu Toolbars 409 Merge 353 Minimize All 395 Minimum Phase 263 Minimum Phase Transform 279 Minimum System Requirements 3 minor 18 Minor Div 159, 368 Mirroring 280 mirroring 44 Model 68 monotonic 363 Move Components 19 Move Wire Vertex 19 multi-section controls 210 Multiple Critical Pole 230 Multiple Critical Pole (MCP) 222, 239 multipliers 21 multipliers, SI 429 mutual inductance 59

N
N-dimensional 189 nalog: S Root Editor 229, 235, 241, 243 near field measurements 307 new design 115 Node Editing 343 nodes 44, 335 noise current density 67 Noise Density 35 noise voltage density 67 nonconvex 188 Normal All 397 note lines 171 Note region 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39 NOTEPAD.EXE 138, 140

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Notes & Comments 171 number, real format 429 numerator 102 Numeric Entry & Formats numeric values 21 Numerical Precision 22 Nyquist 368

21

O
Offset Binary 103 ON resistance 62 on-line help 1iv Opamp Models 351 Opamp Component 66 Opamp Data 352 opamp libraries 351 Open Graph Setup 133 open loop 66 Optimal Approximation Filters 259 Optimization Engines 192 Optimizer, Circuit 179 Optimizer, Using an 190 Order/Stages 193 output impedance 66

P
Pack 154 packed 147 Parallel 246 parallel printer port 5 Passband Ripple 221, 237 Paste 149 Paste Components 19 PCX 318 PDF 319 phase 162 Phase Margin 66, 352 Phase Offset 269, 270

Phase Offset, 267 Phase Response 32 Phase Transform 279 pixel ratio 330 plotter 26 PNG 318 PNL 130 point, Floating numbers 429 Polar Conversion 301 Polar Convertor 299 polar plots 370 Polarity 371 polynomial order 216, 230 Popup Menus 15 Portable Document Format 319 portrait 135 PostScript 317 Pot 60 pot tapers 359 Potentiometer Tapers 359 Potentiometer Component 60 PPM 49, 199 precision 49 Preferences 140 Prefix 372 primary inductance 59 Print 135 Printer Configuration 136 printer driver 137 printer/port selection 137 printing control 135 Printing of the grid 18 Processing | Monte Carlo Analysis 205 Processing | Potentiometer Analysis 209 Processing | Sensitivity Analysis 201 Processing | Thermal Analysis 199 program window 405

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Index

Q
quadratic 169, 309 Question 340 Quick View Scale from Data 141 Quick View Window 16 QuickView graph 141

R
random search 189 Range 371 Raster 317 raster formats 319 Raster Images 318 real 429 Real (cos) 276 Real, Integer, Hex, and Binary coefficients 99 real number 21 real number format 22 Realization 95, 101 Realization Form 246 Recommended System Requirements 3 record keeping 171 rectangular or circular plots 368 Red-Green-Blue 24 Redraw 385 reference datum 48 Reference Temperature 176, 199 References 431, 435 registration 4 registration number 5 Relative 13 Relative Cursor 141 Resequencing 154 Resistor Component 49 resolution of a curve 169, 309 reverse log 209 Revert 127

RGB 24 right mouse button 15 Right vertical 305 Rin 66, 355 Rotation 44 rotation 61 Rout 66 ruler 338

S
S values 202 Save Graph Setup 134 Scalar AVE 296 Scalar RMS 296 Scale | Auto 373 Scale | Down 377 Scale | Parameters 367 Scale | Up 375 scale factor 135 Scaling 137 Scaling Factor 196 Scan Direction 331 scanner 329 schematic page 178 Schematic Page Size 178 scientific 429 scientific format 22 SCN 91 scrolled 17 Scrolling & Panning 17 segment 44 select a single component 151 Select All 151 Select Component 19 Select Multiple Components 19 selected printer 136 Serial Number 4 serial number 5, 425

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setup file 134 sheet size 32 Show All 405 SI multipliers 21 SI suffixes 21 Sign-Magnitude 98, 103 Sin(x)/x 88 SINC 88 Skip First Column 314 Smooth Curve 267, 272 snap 335 snap grid 18 Software Installation 4 SPL-Z 305 Splash Screen 141 square 271 square root 271 Standard Colors 24 Start Menu 6 Status Bar 411 Step Response 37 Step response 292 Stopband Attenuation 221, 237 Summer Component 90 Switch Component 62 Switched Capacitor Network 91 Synchronous 218, 233 Synthesis circuit 193 SYSCONFIG.TXT 1iv, 425 System Requirements 3

T
Tail Correction 293 tap loading 209 Taper Charts, Measuring Taper Data 360 taper library 359 Tapers 209 tapers 60

363

taps 61 Target Align 14 Target Filters 213 Taylor Series 253 Technical Book Stores 431 Technical Support 1iv Tel 1iv tempco 49 Temperature 178 temperature coefficient 49, 176 temperatures Operating and Reference 176 terminate 143 Text Component 46 text file data 313 Text Parameters 160 TIF 318 Tile Horizontal 389 Tile Vertical 391 time domain 291 Title Block Data 171 tolerance 49 Tool Bars 11 Tool Buttons 11 Toolbars 405 ToolBox 11, 413 Toolbox 405, 407 Topology 209 Total Q 217, 231 Tracking Cursor 13 tracking cursor 140 Transfer Function Component 73 Transformation 216, 230 Transformer Component 59 Transition Attenuation Level 216 transition level 216, 231 Transitional 3dB, 6dB, 12dB 233 tray 407, 413 trays 11 TrueType 26, 321

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Index

turns ratio 59 Two's Complement TypeColor 27 TypeFace 27 TypeSize 27 TypeStyle 27

98, 103

U
Unary Math Operations 267 Underline 159 Undo 147, 153 Units 314 Units, SI 429 Untitled 115 URL 425 USB 5

Window Function 254 Window List 401 Window Method Filters 253 Windows colors 24 Windows Metafile 319 WinNT4 178 wiper 209 wiper loading 209 Wire Component 44 Wizard 118 WMF 317

Z
Z Scaling 195 Zero Insertion Factor 246 Zoom 1X / 2X / 4X / 8X 383 Zoom In / Zoom Out 381 zoom level 381 317

V
VanDerMaas 253 vector and raster image formats Vector AVE 296 vector fonts 26 Vector Images 319 Vector RMS 296 vertex 44 vertical data arrays 305 Vertical Scales 367, 371 vertical scrolling 17 video resolution 3 visible layout grids 178 Voice Coil Origin 119 Voltage Noise 352 voltage/current noise 66 voltage/current source 69

W
Web 1iv Win95 4

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