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06EC73

UNIT 1

1. What are the important applications of power electronics? (Dec 2011, Jun 2011, Jun 2010) Solution: Power Electronic Applications 1. COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS Heating Systems Ventilating, Air Conditioners, Central Refrigeration, Lighting, Computers and Office equipments, Uninterruptible Power Supplies (UPS), Elevators, and Emergency Lamps. 2. DOMESTIC APPLICATIONS Cooking Equipments, Lighting, Heating, Air Conditioners, Refrigerators & Freezers, Personal Computers, Entertainment Equipments, UPS. 3. INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS Pumps, compressors, blowers and fans. Machine tools, arc furnaces, induction furnaces, lighting control circuits, industrial lasers, induction heating, welding equipments. 4. AEROSPACE APPLICATIONS Space shuttle power supply systems, satellite power systems, aircraft power systems. 5. TELECOMMUNICATIONS Battery chargers, power supplies (DC and UPS), mobile cell phone battery chargers. 6. TRANSPORTATION Traction control of electric vehicles, battery chargers for electric vehicles, electric locomotives, street cars, trolley buses, automobile electronics including engine controls. 2. Mention and explain the different types of power electronics converter systems. Draw there input/output characteristics. Solution: 1. AC TO DC Converters (Rectifiers)

+ AC Input V oltage L ine Commutated Converter DC Output V 0(QC) -

SJBIT/Dept of ECE

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These are AC to DC converters. The line commutated converters are AC to DC power converters. These are also referred to as controlled rectifiers. The line commutated converters (controlled rectifiers) are used to convert a fixed voltage, fixed frequency AC power supply to obtain a variable DC output voltage. They use natural or AC line commutation of the Thyristors.

Fig1.4: A Single Phase Full Wave Uncontrolled Rectifier Circuit (Diode Full Wave Rectifier) using a Center Tapped Transformer

Fig: 1.5 A Single Phase Full Wave Controlled Rectifier Circuit (using SCRs) using a Center Tapped Transformer

Different types of line commutated AC to DC converters circuits are Diode rectifiers Uncontrolled Rectifiers Controlled rectifiers using SCRs. o Single phase controlled rectifier.

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o Three phase controlled rectifiers. Applications of Ac To Dc Converters AC to DC power converters are widely used in Speed control of DC motor in DC drives. UPS. HVDC transmission. Battery Chargers.

2. a. AC TO AC Converters or AC regulators.

The AC voltage controllers convert the constant frequency, fixed voltage AC supply into variable AC voltage at the same frequency using line commutation. AC regulators (RMS voltage controllers) are mainly used for Speed control of AC motor. Speed control of fans (domestic and industrial fans). AC pumps.

Fig.1.6: A Single Phase AC voltage Controller Circuit (AC-AC Converter using a TRIAC)

SJBIT/Dept of ECE

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V0 , f0 AC Input V oltage Vs fs Cyclo Converters V ariable F requency AC Output f0< fS

The cyclo converters convert power from a fixed voltage fixed frequency AC supply to a variable frequency and variable AC voltage at the output. The cyclo converters generally produce output AC voltage at a lower output frequency. That is output frequency of the AC output is less than input AC supply frequency. Applications of cyclo converters are traction vehicles and gearless rotary kilns.

3. CHOPPERS or DC TO DC Converters

The choppers are power circuits which obtain power from a fixed voltage DC supply and convert it into a variable DC voltage. They are also called as DC choppers or DC to DC converters. Choppers employ forced commutation to turn off the Thyristors. DC choppers are further classified into several types depending on the direction of power flow and the type of commutation. DC choppers are widely used in Speed control of DC motors from a DC supply. DC drives for sub-urban traction. Switching power supplies.

SJBIT/Dept of ECE

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4. INVERTERS or DC TO AC Converters

DC S upply

+ -

AC Output V oltage

The inverters are used for converting DC power from a fixed voltage DC supply into an AC output voltage of variable frequency and fixed or variable output AC voltage. The inverters also employ force commutation method to turn off the Thyristors. Applications of inverters are in Industrial AC drives using induction and synchronous motors. Uninterrupted power supplies (UPS system) used for computers, computer labs.

SJBIT/Dept of ECE

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3. Mention and explain the classification of power semiconductor switching device, on the bases of control characteristics. Give an examples. (Jun 2011, Dec 2010) Solution: The power semiconductor devices are used as switches. Depending on power requirements, ratings, fastness & control circuits for different devices can be selected. The required output is obtained by varying conduction time of these switching devices. Control characteristics of Thyristors:

SJBIT/Dept of ECE

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(Dec 2011)

The power converter operations are based mainly on the switching of power semiconductor devices and as a result the power converters introduce current and voltage harmonics (unwanted AC signal components) into the supply system and on the output of the converters.

SJBIT/Dept of ECE

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These induced harmonics can cause problems of distortion of the output voltage, harmonic generation into the supply system, and interference with the communication and signaling circuits. It is normally necessary to introduce filters on the input side and output side of a power converter system so as to reduce the harmonic level to an acceptable magnitude. The figure below shows the block diagram of a generalized power converter with filters added. The application of power electronics to supply the sensitive electronic loads poses a challenge on the power quality issues and raises the problems and concerns to be resolved by the researchers. The input and output quantities of power converters could be either AC or DC. Factors such as total harmonic distortion (THD), displacement factor or harmonic factor (HF), and input power factor (IPF), are measures of the quality of the waveforms. To determine these factors it is required to find the harmonic content of the waveforms. To evaluate the performance of a converter, the input and output voltages/currents of a converter are expressed in Fourier series. The quality of a power converter is judged by the quality of its voltage and current waveforms.

The control strategy for the power converters plays an important part on the harmonic generation and the output waveform distortion and can be aimed to minimize or reduce these problems. The power converters can cause radio frequency interference due to electromagnetic radiation and the gating circuits may generate erroneous signals. This interference can be avoided by proper grounding and shielding.

SJBIT/Dept of ECE

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UNIT 2

Power Transistor

1. With the necessary waveforms, explain the switching characteristics of a power Transister. (Dec 2011, Dec 2010) Solution: SWITCHING CHARACTERISTICS A forward biased p-n junction exhibits two parallel capacitances; a depletion layer capacitance and a diffusion capacitance. On the other hand, a reverse biased p-n junction has only depletion capacitance. Under steady state the capacitances do not play any role. However under transient conditions, they influence turn-on and turn-off behavior of the transistor. Transient Model Of BJT

SJBIT/Dept of ECE

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Due to internal capacitances, the transistor does not turn on instantly. As the voltage V B rises from zero to V1 and the base current rises to IB1, the collector current does not respond immediately. There is a delay known as delay time td, before any collector current flows. The delay is due to the time required to charge up the BEJ to the forward bias voltage V BE(0.7V). The collector current rises to the steady value of I CS and this time is called rise time t r. The base current is normally more than that required to saturate the transistor. As a result excess minority carrier charge is stored in the base region. The higher the ODF, the greater is the amount of extra charge stored in the base. This extra charge which is called the saturating charge is proportional to the excess base drive. This extra charge which is called the saturating charge, is proportional to the excess base drive and the corresponding current Ie.

Ie IB I CS ODF .I BS

s BS

I BS

I BS ODF 1

s

Saturating charge QS

s e

I (ODF 1) where

When the input voltage is reversed from V1 to -V2, the reverse current IB2 helps to discharge the base. Without IB2 the saturating charge has to be removed entirely due to recombination and the storage time t s would be longer. Once the extra charge is removed, BEJ charges to the input voltage V2 and the base current falls to zero. t f depends on the time constant which is determined by the reverse biased BEJ capacitance. ton td tr

toff

ts t f

(Dec 2011)

2. Compare the BJT and MOSFET. Solution: Comparison of MOSFET With BJT

Power MOSFETS have lower switching losses but its on-resistance and conduction losses are more. A BJT has higher switching loss bit lower conduction loss. So at high frequency applications power MOSFET is the obvious choice. But at lower operating frequencies BJT is superior. MOSFET has positive temperature coefficient for resistance. This makes parallel operation of MOSFETs easy. If a MOSFET shares increased current initially, it heats up faster, its resistance increases and this increased resistance causes this current to shift to other devices in parallel. A BJT is a negative temperature coefficient, so current shaving resistors are necessary during parallel operation of BJTs. In MOSFET secondary breakdown does not occur because it have positive temperature coefficient. But BJT exhibits negative temperature coefficient which results in secondary breakdown. Power MOSFETs in higher voltage ratings have more conduction losses.

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Power MOSFETs have lower ratings compared to BJTs . Power MOSFETs 500V to 140A, BJT 1200V, 800A.

3. Discuss the different methods of providing isolation of gate drive circuits from power circuit. (Dec 2011) Solution: Necessity Driver circuits are operated at very low power levels. Normally the gating circuit are digital in nature which means the signal levels are 3 to 12 volts. The gate and base drives are connected to power devices which operate at high power levels. There are two ways of floating or isolating control or gate signal with respect to ground. Pulse transformers Optocouplers

Pulse Transformers Pulse transformers have one primary winding and can have one or more secondary windings. Multiple secondary windings allow simultaneous gating signals to series and parallel connected transistors. The transformer should have a very small leakage inductance and the rise time of output should be very small. The transformer would saturate at low switching frequency and output would be distorted.

SJBIT/Dept of ECE

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Optocouplers Optocouplers combine infrared LED and a silicon photo transistor. The input signal is applied to ILED and the output is taken from the photo transistor. The rise and fall times of photo transistor are very small with typical values of turn on time = 2.5 s and turn off of 300ns. This limits the high frequency applications. The photo transistor could be a darlington pair. The phototransistor requires separate power supply and adds to complexity and cost and weight of driver circuits.

Optocoupler + 1 Vg1 RB 1 R1 R R2 Q1 0 +VCC ID R3 1 Q3 G RG ID D M1 S RD G + VDD -

4. What is the necessity of base drive control in power transistors? Explain proportional base control. Solution: This is required to optimize the base drive of transistor. Optimization is required to increase switching speeds. t on can be reduced by allowing base current peaking during turn-on, on,

F

F

(Jun 2011)

ICS forced IB

saturation region. toff can be reduced by reversing base current and allowing base current peaking during turn off since increasing I B 2 decreases storage time. A typical waveform for base current is shown.

IB1 IBS 0 t IB

-IB2

Power Electronics

06EC73

Some common types of optimizing base drive of transistor are Turn-on Control. Turn-off Control. Proportional Base Control. Antisaturation Control Proportional Base Control This type of control has advantages over the constant drive circuit. If the collector current changes due to change in load demand, the base drive current is changed in proportion to collector current. When switch S1 is turned on a pulse current of short duration would flow through the base of transistor Q1 and Q1 is turned on into saturation. Once the collector current starts to flow, a corresponding base current is induced due to transformer action. The transistor would latch IC N on itself and S1 can be turned off. The turns ratio is 2 . For proper operation N1 IB of the circuit, the magnetizing current which must be much smaller than the collector current should be as small as possible. The switch S1 can be implemented by a small signal transistor and additional arrangement is necessary to discharge capacitor C1 and reset the transformer core during turn-off of the power transistor.

f

(Jun 2011)

of transistor.

b. If the manufacturers specified is in the range of 8 to 40, calculate the minimum overdrive factor (ODF). c. Obtain power loss PT in the transistor.

SJBIT/Dept of ECE

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RB VCC

0.75 , 11 , 200V

1.5V , RC

Solution (i)

IB

I CS

min

2.26 A

I CS

Therefore

I BS

18.09 8

I CS IB

(ii)

ODF

IB I BS

11.33 2.26

5.01

(iii)

PT

VBE I B VCE I C

f

(Dec 2010)

of transistor.

e. If the manufacturers specified is in the range of 8 to 40, calculate the minimum overdrive factor (ODF). f. Obtain power loss PT in the transistor.

SJBIT/Dept of ECE

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RB VCC

0.75 , 11 , 200V

1.5V , RC

Solution (i)

IB

I CS

min

2.26 A

I CS

Therefore

I BS

18.09 8

I CS IB

(ii)

ODF

IB I BS

11.33 2.26

5.01

(iii)

PT

VBE I B VCE I C

7. The of a bipolar transistor varies from 12 to 75. The load resistance is RC 1.5 . The dc supply voltage is VCC=40V and the input voltage base circuit is VB=6V. If VCE (sat) =1.2V, VBE (sat) =1.6V and RB=0.7 determine a. The overdrive factor ODF. b. The forced Solution

f.

(Jun 2010)

ICS

I BS

I CS

min

40 1.2 1.5

2.15 A

25.86 A

25.86 12

SJBIT/Dept of ECE

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Also

IB

VB VBE ( sat ) RB

IB I BS

(a)

Therefore Forced

ODF

I CS IB

6.28 2.15

4.11

2.92

25.86 6.28

(c)

PT

VBE I B VCE I C

PT PT

1.2 25.86

8. Explain the steady state characteristics of Power MOSFET and compare this with power BJT. (Jun 2010) Solution:

0V and VDS is applied and current flows from drain to source similar to

type substrate and attracts hole from p-type substrate. Therefore recombination occurs and will reduce the number of free electrons in the n-channel for conduction. Therefore with increased negative gate voltage I D reduces. For positive values, Vgs , additional electrons from p-substrate will flow into the channel and establish new carriers which will result in an increase in drain current with positive gate voltage.

SJBIT/Dept of ECE

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Drain Characteristics

Transfer Characteristics

9. With necessary sketches, explain briefly the switching characteristics of IGBT. (Jun 2011) Solution: SWITCHING CHARACTERISTIC OF IGBT Figure below shows the switching characteristic of an IGBT. Turn-on time consists of delay time td on and rise time t r .

SJBIT/Dept of ECE

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VGE VGET

t

td(on) VCE 0.9 VCE 0.1 VCE tr td(off) tf

Fig. : Switching Characteristics

The turn on delay time is the time required by the leakage current I CE to rise to 0.1 I C , where

I C is the final value of collector current. Rise time is the time required for collector current to rise from 0.1 I C to its final value I C . After turn-on collector-emitter voltage VCE will be very small during the steady state conduction of the device.

The turn-off time consists of delay off time td

off

during which collector current falls from I C to 0.9 I C and VGE falls to threshold voltage VGET . During the fall time t f the collector current falls from 0.90 I C to 0.1 I C . During the turn-off time interval collector-emitter voltage rises to its final value VCE . IGBTs are voltage controlled power transistor. They are faster than BJTs, but still not quite as fast as MOSFETs. the IGBTs offer for superior drive and output characteristics when compared to BJTs. IGBTs are suitable for high voltage, high current and frequencies upto 20KHz. IGBTs are available upto 1400V, 600A and 1200V, 1000A.

SJBIT/Dept of ECE

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06EC73

UNIT 3

Introduction to Thysistors

1. Draw the transistor model of a thyristor and derive an expression for the anode current in terms of the common base current gain of the transirtor. (Dec 2011, Dec 2010) Solution: Two Transistor Model

IC IC IE IB IB IE IC IE 1 IB I CBO 1 I CBO I CBO

The SCR can be considered to be made up of two transistors as shown in above figure. Considering PNP transistor of the equivalent circuit,

IE1

I A , IC I B1

I C1 , IA 1

1

, I CBO I CBO1

I CBO1 , I B

I B1 1

SJBIT/Dept of ECE

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IC I C2 I C2

I C2 , I B

2 k 2

I B2 , I E2 I CBO2 IG

IK

IA

IG 2

IA

I CBO2

I C2 IA

I B1

2 g

I CBO1 I CBO 2

1 2

Two transistors analog is valid only till SCR reaches ON state Case 1: When I g

0,

IA

I CBO1 1

1

I CBO2

2

The gain

IE IA Ig

I K . In this case, with I g

1 2

0,

1. 1.

If however the reverse leakage current is increased by increasing the applied forward voltage, the gains of the transistor increase, resulting in From the equation, it is seen that when

1 2 1 2

This explains the increase in anode current for the break over voltage VB 0 .

Case 2: With gate current I g applied. When sufficient gate drive is applied, we see that I B2

I g is established. This in turn results

in a current through transistor T2 , these increases 2 of T2 . But with the existence of a current through T, is established. Therefore, IC2 2I 2 2Ig ,

IC1

1 B1

2 B2

2 g

base drive of T2 is increased which in turn increases the base drive of T1 , therefore regenerative feedback or positive feedback is established between the two transistors. This causes

1 2

to tend to unity therefore the anode current begins to grow towards a large

value. This regeneration continues even if I g is removed this characteristic of SCR makes it suitable for pulse triggering; SCR is also called a Lathing Device.

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(Dec 2011)

dv across the thyristor is limited by using snubber circuit as shown in figure (a) dt below. If switch S1 is closed at t 0 , the rate of rise of voltage across the thyristor is limited

The

by the capacitor C S . When thyristor T1 is turned on, the discharge current of the capacitor is limited by the resistor RS as shown in figure (b) below.

Fig.3.18 (a)

Fig.3.18 (b)

Fig.3.18 (c)

SJBIT/Dept of ECE

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The voltage across the thyristor will rise exponentially as shown by fig (c) above. From fig. (b) above, circuit we have (for SCR off)

VS i t RS 1 i t dt Vc 0 C

for t 0

Therefore Also

i t

VS e RS

t

s

, where

RS CS

VT t

VT t

VS i t RS

VS VS e RS

t

s

t

s

RS

t

Therefore At t = 0, At t

s

VT t

VS VS e

VS 1 e

VT 0

,

0 0.632VS

s s

VT

Therefore

dv VT dt

RS VS . ITD

VT 0

0.632VS RS CS

And

It is possible to use more than one resistor for figure (d) below. The that ITD

VS R1 R2

dv is limited by R1 and C S . R1 dt

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Fig.3.18 (d)

The load can form a series circuit with the snubber network as shown in figure (e) below. The damping ratio of this second order system consisting RLC network is given as,

RS

0

R 2

CS LS L

and resistance respectively. To limit the peak overshoot applied across the thyristor, the damping ratio should be in the range of 0.5 to 1. If the load inductance is high, RS can be high and C S can be small to retain the desired value of damping ratio. A high value of RS will reduce discharge current and a low value of C S reduces snubber loss. The damping ratio is calculated for a particular circuit

Fig.3.18 (e)

di PROTECTION dt

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di . As an example let us consider the dt circuit shown above, under steady state operation Dm conducts when thyristor T1 is off. If T1 di is fired when Dm is still conducting can be very high and limited only by the stray dt di inductance of the circuit. In practice the is limited by adding a series inductor LS as dt di VS shown in the circuit above. Then the forward . dt LS

3. Sketch the gate characteristics of SCR and explain different regions of gate characteristics. Also indicate different regions, different voltages, and different currents on gate characteristics. (Jun 2011) Solution: Thyristor Gate Characteristics

Fig. 3.6 shows the gate trigger characteristics.The gate voltage is plotted with respect to gate current in the above characteristics. I g(max) is the maximum gate current that can flow through the thyristor without damaging it Similarly V g(max) is the maximum gate voltage to be applied. Similarly Vg (min) and Ig(min) are minimum gate voltage and current, below which thyristor will not be turned-on. Hence to turn-on the thyristor successfully the gate current and voltage should be

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Ig(min) < Ig < Ig(max) Vg (min) < Vg < Vg (max) The characteristic of Fig. 3.6 also shows the curve for constant gate power (P g). Thus for reliable turn-on, the (Vg, Ig) point must lie in the shaded area in Fig. 3.6. It turns-on thyristor successfully. Note that any spurious voltage/current spikes at the gate must be less than V g (min) and I g(min) to avoid false triggering of the thyristor. The gate characteristics shown in Fig. 3.6 are for DC values of gate voltage and current.

(Jun 2011)

A simple resistance triggering circuit is as shown. The resistor R1 limits the current through the gate of the SCR. R2 is the variable resistance added to the circuit to achieve control over the triggering angle of SCR. Resistor R is a stabilizing resistor. The diode D is required to ensure that no negative voltage reaches the gate of the SCR.

vO

LOAD

a i R1

R2

vS=Vmsin t

D

VT

Vg

VS

Vmsin t 3 2 4 t

VS 3 2 4 t

VS 3 2 4 t

Vg

Vgt

Vg

Vgp=Vgt t

Vg

Vgp>Vgt

Vo

Vgp

Vgp

Vgt

t Vo t

t Vo

t io io 270

0

io t

VT

VT

VT

3 t 90 (a)

0

4 t t <90 (c)

0

2 =90 (b)

0

SJBIT/Dept of ECE

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(b)

= 900

(c)

< 900

Vm R1

Vm . I gm

0 , we need to ensure that the voltage drop across resistor R does not exceed

Vgm

Operation Case 1: Vgp

Vgt

Vgp , the peak gate voltage is less then Vgt since R2 is very large. Therefore, current I flowing

through the gate is very small. SCR will not turn on and therefore the load voltage is zero and vscr is equal to Vs . This is because we are using only a resistive network. Therefore, output will be in phase with input. Case 2: Vgp

Vgt , R2

optimum value.

Vgt , we see that the SCR is triggered at

900 (since Vgp reaches its peak at 900 only). The waveforms shows that the load voltage is

zero till 900 and the voltage across the SCR is the same as input voltage till it is triggered at 900 . Case 3: Vgp

Vgt , R2

small value.

The triggering value Vgt is reached much earlier than 900 . Hence the SCR turns on earlier than VS reaches its peak value. The waveforms as shown with respect to Vs

Vm sin t .

SJBIT/Dept of ECE

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At

,VS

Vgp sin

Therefore

sin

Vgt Vgp

But

Vgp

Vm R R1 R2 R

Therefore

sin

Vgt R1 R2 R Vm R

5. Distinguish between : (i) Latching current and holding current. (ii) Converter grade thyristor and inverter grade thyristor. (iii) Thyristor turn off time and circuit turn off time. (Dec 2010, Jun 2010)

Solution: Latching current and holding current. Latching current is the minimum amount of current required to maintain the thyristor in on state immediately after a thyristor is turned on and Holding current is a minimum current that is required to maintain the thyristor in on-state not allowing it to turn off. Converter grade or Phase Control thyristors: These devices are the work horses of the Power Electronics. They are turned off by natural (line) commutation and are reverse biased at least for a few milliseconds subsequent to a conduction period. No fast switching feature is desired of these devices. They are available at voltage ratings in excess of 5 KV starting from about 50 V and current ratings of about 5 KA. The largest converters for HVDC transmission are built with series-parallel combination of these devices. Conduction voltages are device voltage rating dependent and range between 1.5 V (600V) to about 3.0 V (+5 KV). These devices are unsuitable for any 'forced-commutated' circuit requiring unwieldy large commutation components. The dynamic di/dt and dv/dt capabilities of the SCR have vastly improved over the years borrowing emitter shorting and other techniques adopted for the faster variety. The requirement for hard gate drives and di/dt limting inductors have been eliminated in the process. Inverter grade thyristors: Turn-off times of these thyristors range from about 5 to 50 secs when hard switched. They are thus called fast or 'inverter grade' SCR's. The SCR's are mainly used in circuits that are operated on DC supplies and no alternating voltage is available to

SJBIT/Dept of ECE Page 27

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turn them off. Commutation networks have to be added to the basic converter only to turnoff the SCR's. The efficiency, size and weight of these networks are directly related to the turn-off time, tq of the SCR. The commutation circuits utilised resonant networks or charged capacitors. Quite a few commutation networks were designed and some like the McMurrayBedford became widely accepted.

(iii) Thyristor turn off time and circuit turn off time.

The turn off time of a thyristor is defined as the time between the instant anode current becomes zero and the instant SCR regains forward blocking capability. During time t q, all the excess carriers from the four layers of SCR must be removed. This removal of excess carriers consists of sweeping out of holes from outer p layer and electrons from outer n layer. Circuit turn off time is defined as the time during which a reverse voltage is applied across the thyristor during its commutation process. 6. With the help of neat circuit diagram and waveforms, explain RC firing circuit used with half controlled rectifier. (Jun 2010) Solution: RC Half Wave Capacitor C in the circuit is connected to shift the phase of the gate voltage. D1 is used to prevent negative voltage from reaching the gate cathode of SCR. In the negative half cycle, the capacitor charges to the peak negative voltage of the supply Vm through the diode D2 . The capacitor maintains this voltage across it, till the supply voltage crosses zero. As the supply becomes positive, the capacitor charges through resistor R from initial voltage of Vm , to a positive value. When the capacitor voltage is equal to the gate trigger voltage of the SCR, the SCR is fired and the capacitor voltage is clamped to a small positive value.

vO

LOAD

+ R D2 VT

vS=Vmsin t

VC C

D1

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vs - /2 0

Vmsin t V gt 0 a vc a t

vs - /2 0 vc a vo t 0 vT vc Vm

Vmsin t Vgt 0 a vc t

vo

Vm t

vT Vm -Vm (a) t

0 -Vm (b) (2 + )

When the resistor R is large, the time taken for the capacitance to charge from Vm to Vgt is large, resulting in larger firing angle and lower load voltage. Case 2: R Small

When R is set to a smaller value, the capacitor charges at a faster rate towards Vgt resulting in early triggering of SCR and hence VL is more. When the SCR triggers, the voltage drop across it falls to 1 1.5V. This in turn lowers, the voltage across R & C. Low voltage across the SCR during conduction period keeps the capacitor discharge during the positive half cycle. Design Equation From the circuit VC write vs

Vgt Vd 1 . Considering the source voltage and the gate circuit, we can

I gt R VC that is vS

I g R Vgt Vd 1 . Therefore

vs Vgt Vd 1 I gt

. The RC time constant for zero output voltage that is maximum firing angle

T . 2

SJBIT/Dept of ECE

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UNIT 4

Controlled Rectifiers

1. With the necessary circuit and waveforms, explain the principle of operation of single phase full converter with R-L load, Derive the expression for the average output voltage. (Dec 2010, Jun 2011) Solution: Single Phase Full Wave Full Converter With R,L, & E Load

Waveforms of Single Phase Full Converter Assuming Continuous (Constant Load Current) & Ripple Free Load Current

iO Ia

iT1

& iT2

Ia

Ia t

iT3

& iT4

Ia t

To Derive an Expression for the Average DC Output Voltage of a Single Phase Full Converter assuming Continuous & Constant Load Current

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Power Electronics

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The average dc output voltage can be determined by using the expression VO dc Vdc 1 2

2

vO .d

0

t ;

The o/p voltage waveform consists of two o/p pulses during the input supply time period of 0 to 2 radians. Hence the Average or dc o/p voltage can be calculated as

VO dc VO dc VO dc Vdc Vdc Vdc 2 2 2Vm 2 2Vm Vm sin t.d cos t cos t

Maximum average dc output voltage is calculated for a trigger angle and is obtained as Vdc max Vdc max Vdm Vdm 2Vm 2Vm cos 0 00 2Vm

The normalized average output voltage is given by Vdcn Vn VO dc Vdc max 2Vm Vdcn Vn Vdc Vdm cos cos

2Vm

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2. With the circuit diagram, and waveform, explain the principle of operation of dual converter, with and without circulating current. (Dec 2010) Solution:

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3. What are the advantages and drawbacks of circulating current mode of operation of a dual converter. (Dec 2010) Solution: Advantages of Circulating Current Mode Of Operation The circulating current maintains continuous conduction of both the converters over the complete control range, independent of the load. One converter always operates as a rectifier and the other converter operates as an inverter, the power flow in either direction at any time is possible. As both the converters are in continuous conduction we obtain faster dynamic response. i.e., the time response for changing from one quadrant operation to another is faster. Disadvantages of Circulating Current Mode Of Operation There is always a circulating current flowing between the converters. When the load current falls to zero, there will be a circulating current flowing between the converters so we need to connect circulating current reactors in order to limit the peak circulating current to safe level. The converter thyristors should be rated to carry a peak current much greater than the peak load current.

4. Explain with the help of wave forms, 1- semi converter (half bridge converter) with R load. Derive an expression for Vo(avg) and Vo(rms). (Dec 2011) Solution:

Single Phase Half-Wave Thyristor Converter with a Resistive Load

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Equations:

vs Vm VS vO Vm sin t i/p ac supply voltage

max. value of i/p ac supply voltage Vm RMS value of i/p ac supply voltage 2 vL output voltage across the load

When the thyristor is triggered at t vO vL Vm sin t ; t to vO Load current; t to R Vm sin t iO iL I m sin t ; t to R Vm Where I m max. value of load current R iO iL

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5. Explain the operation of single phase semi converter with highly inductive load. Derive the expression for V(dc) and V(rms). (Jun 2010) Solution: Single Phase Full Wave Half Controlled Bridge Converter (Single Phase Semi Converter)

Thyristor T1 is triggered at t t signals of T1 & T2 , at t , at 2 t 3 ,... ,... Thyristor T2 is triggered at The time delay between the gating radians or 1800

> 900

Waveforms of single phase semi-converter with general load & FWD for

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Thyristor T1 and D1 conduct from t = to Thyristor T2 and D2 conduct from t = ( + ) to 2 FWD conducts during t = 0 to , to ( + ) , .. Load Voltage & Load Current Waveform of Single Phase Semi Converter for Continuous load current operation

vO

0 iO

Vm

t 0 ( ) ( )

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(i) To Derive an Expression for The DC Output Voltage of A Single Phase Semi Converter with R, L, & E Load & FWD For Continuous, Ripple Free Load Current Operation

VO dc VO dc VO dc VO dc VO dc

1

t 0

vO .d

t t

1 Vm Vm Vm

; cos

Vdc can be varied from a max. value of For 2Vm to 0 by varying from 0 to .

(ii) RMS O/P Voltage VO(RMS)

1 1 cos 2

VO RMS

2 2 Vm sin 2 t.d 2 V 2

2 m

1 2

t

1 2

VO RMS

1 cos 2 t .d sin 2 2

t

1 2

VO RMS

Vm 1 2

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UNIT 5

Commutation

1. What do mean by commutation? Explain briefly the different types of commutation (Dec 2010) Solution: The process of turning off a conducting thyristor is called commutation. Types: Self Commutation Resonant Pulse Commutation Complementary Commutation Impulse Commutation External Pulse Commutation. Load Side Commutation. Line Side Commutation. 2. Explain the self commutation with the help of neat sketch and obtain the expression for the capacitor voltage and current. (Dec 2011, Dec 2010, Jun 2010) Solution: In this type of commutation the current through the SCR is reduced below the holding current value by resonating the load. i.e., the load circuit is so designed that even though the supply voltage is positive, an oscillating current tends to flow and when the current through the SCR reaches zero, the device turns off. This is done by including an inductance and a capacitor in series with the load and keeping the circuit under-damped. Figure 5.3 shows the circuit. This type of commutation is used in Series Inverter Circuit.

R Load

Vc(0) + C

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At t

0 , when the SCR turns ON on the application of gate pulse assume the current

in the circuit is zero and the capacitor voltage is VC 0 . Writing the Laplace Transformation circuit of figure 5.3 the following circuit is obtained when the SCR is conducting.

R I(S)

sL

1 VC(0) S CS + - + C

V S

Fig.: 5.4.

V VC 0 I S S R sL 1 CS

CS V VC 0 S RCs s 2 LC 1

C V VC 0 LC s 2 s R L 1 LC

V VC 0 L R 1 2 s s L LC

V VC 0 L s

2

R s L

1 LC

R 2L

R 2L

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V VC 0 L s R 2L

2

1 LC

R 2L

A s

Where

2 2

V VC 0 L

R , 2L

1 LC

R 2L

I S

A s

2 2

i t A e

t

sin t

i t

t V VC 0 2 R e L sin t L

V VC 0 L

(ii) Expression for voltage across capacitor at the time of turn off Applying KVL to figure 1.3

vc

vc

V vR VL

V iR L di dt

Substituting for i,

vc V R A e

t

sin t L

d A e dt

sin t

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vc

R A

sin t L

cos t

sin t

vc

R sin t

L cos t L sin t

vc

R sin t R sin t 2

L cos t L

R sin t 2L

vc

L cos t

Substituting for A,

vc t

V VC 0 L V VC 0

R sin t 2 R sin t 2L

t

L cos t

vc t

cos t

.

SCR turns off when current goes to zero. i.e., at Therefore at turn off

vc V

V VC 0

cos

vc

VC 0

e

R

Therefore

vc

V VC 0

e 2L

That is

R 2L

1 LC

i 1 LC V sin L t LC

But

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Therefore

V t LC sin L LC

C t sin L LC

and capacitor voltage at turn off is equal to 2V. Figure 5.5 shows the waveforms for the above conditions. Once the SCR turns off voltage across it is negative voltage. Conduction time of SCR .

C L

Current i

/2

2V V Capacitor voltage t

Gate pulse t

Fig. 5.5: Self Commutation Wave forms of Current and Capacitors Voltage

3. Calculate the values of RL and C to be used for commutating the main SCR in the circuit shown in figure 1.24. When it is conducting a full load current of 25 A flows. The minimum time for which the SCR has to be reverse biased for proper commutation is 40 sec. Also find R1 , given that the auxiliary SCR will undergo natural commutation when its forward current falls below the holding current value of 2 mA. (Dec 2011)

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IL

Main SCR

Fig. 5.24

Solution In this circuit only the main SCR carries the load and the auxiliary SCR is used to turn off the main SCR. Once the main SCR turns off the current through the auxiliary SCR is the sum of the capacitor charging current ic and the current i1 through R1 , ic reduces to zero after a time tc and hence the auxiliary SCR turns off automatically after a time tc , i1 should be less than the holding current. IL Given That is

25 A

25 A

V RL 100 RL

Therefore

RL tc

4 40 sec 0.693RLC

6

That is Therefore

40 10

0.693 4 C

40 10 6 4 0.693

C 14.43 F

V should be less than the holding current of auxiliary SCR. R1 100 Therefore should be < 2mA. R1 i1

Therefore That is

R1

100 2 10

R1

50 K

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4. An impulse commutated thyristor circuit is shown in figure 5.29. Determine the available turn off time of the circuit if V = 200 V, R = 10 and C = 5 F. Voltage across capacitor before T2 is fired is V volts with polarity as shown. (Dec 2010, Jun 2010)

+ C V + T1 VC(0) T2 R

Fig. 5.29

VC(O) - + C V T2

i(t)

Fig. 5.30

1 Cs

VC(0) s +

I(s)

+ V s R

Fig. 5.31

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I S

1 V VC 0 s 1 R Cs

C V VC 0

I S

1 RCs

I S

V VC 0 R s 1 RC

VC s

I s

1 VC 0 Cs s

VC 0 s

VC s

1 V VC 0 1 RCs s RC

V VC 0 s

VC s

V VC 0 1 s RC

VC 0 s

VC s

V s

V s 1 RC

t RC

VC 0 1 s RC

VC 0 e

t RC

vc t

V 1 e

V

t

Therefore

vc t

V 1 2e

RC

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V vC(t) t

VC(0) tC

Fig. 5.32

At t

tc , vc t

0

tc

Therefore

0 V 1 2e

RC

1 2e

tc

RC

tc tc

RC ln 2 10 10 10 6 ln 2

tc

69.3 sec .

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UNIT 6

AC Voltage Controller

1. Draw the circuit diagram of a single phase AC voltage controller and explain the principle of ON-OFF control, with the help of relevant wave forms. Derive the expression for rms output voltage in terms of rms supply voltage. ( Dec 2011) Solution: Principle of On-Off Control Technique (Integral Cycle Control) The basic principle of on-off control technique is explained with reference to a single phase full wave ac voltage controller circuit shown below. The thyristor switches T1 and T2 are turned on by applying appropriate gate trigger pulses to connect the input ac supply to the load for n number of input cycles during the time interval tON . The thyristor switches T1 and

T2 are turned off by blocking the gate trigger pulses for m number of input cycles during the

time interval tOFF . The ac controller ON time tON usually consists of an integral number of input cycles.

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Vs

wt

Vo io wt

ig1

Gate pulse of T1 wt

ig2

Gate pulse of T2 wt

Fig.: Waveforms

RL = Load Resistance

To derive an expression for the rms value of output voltage, for on-off control method.

1 TO

tON

Vm 2 Sin2 t.d

t 0

VO RMS

Vm 2 TO

1 Cos 2 2

tON

tON

Sin 2 t.d

0

Substituting for

Sin2

VO RMS

Vm 2 TO

1 Cos 2 t d 2

VO RMS

Vm 2 2 TO

tON

tON

d

0

t

0

Cos 2 t.d

VO RMS

SJBIT/Dept of ECE

Vm 2 2 TO

tON

t

0

Sin 2 t 2

tON

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VO RMS

Now

Vm 2 2 TO

tON 0

tON T , 2T ,3T , 4T ,5T ,..... & tON 2 , 4 , 6 ,8 ,10 ,......

Where T is the input supply time period (T = input cycle time period). Thus we note that sin 2 tON 0

VO RMS

VO RMS

Vm 2

Vm 2 tON 2 TO

Vi RMS tON TO

Vm tON 2 TO

VS tON TO

Where Vi RMS

tON TO

VO RMS

VS n

nT nT mT

n n m

m n

VS k

2. Distinguish between ON-OFF control and phase control of AC voltage controller. (Jun 2010) Solution: ON/OFF Advantages: 1. As the SCRs turn on and off at the zero crossing instants of ac supply, the supply current does not get distorted. Therefore no additional harmonic components are introduced due to switching of SCRs. 2. Disturbance to the neighbouring electronic circuits due to EMI is minimum. This is because the switching takes place at zero crossing instants. 3. External commutation components are not required. Disadvantages: 1. The SCRs and triac are turned on at =0. Therefore these devices are being underutilized, because SCRs or triac can be turned on at any value from 0 0 to 1800. This virtue of these devices is not being exploited.

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2. Precise control of heat or intensity cannot be achieved. 3. Explain the single phase bidirectional AC voltage controller with resistive load with waveform. (Dec 2011) Solution: Single phase full wave ac voltage controller circuit using two SCRs or a single triac is generally used in most of the ac control applications. The ac power flow to the load can be controlled in both the half cycles by varying the trigger angle ' ' . The RMS value of load voltage can be varied by varying the trigger angle ' ' . The input supply current is alternating in the case of a full wave ac voltage controller and due to the symmetrical nature of the input supply current waveform there is no dc component of input supply current i.e., the average value of the input supply current is zero. A single phase full wave ac voltage controller with a resistive load is shown in the figure below. It is possible to control the ac power flow to the load in both the half cycles by adjusting the trigger angle ' ' . Hence the full wave ac voltage controller is also referred to as to a bi-directional controller.

Fig 6.7: Single phase full wave ac voltage controller (Bi-directional Controller) using SCRs

The thyristor T1 is forward biased during the positive half cycle of the input supply voltage. The thyristor T1 is triggered at a delay angle of ' ' across the load resistor RL and the output voltage vO

0

to

radians .

radians. The

Considering the ON thyristor T1 as an ideal closed switch the input supply voltage appears

vS during

t

load current flows through the ON thyristor T1 and through the load resistor RL in the downward direction during the conduction time of T1 from to radians. At t , when the input voltage falls to zero the thyristor current (which is flowing through the load resistor RL ) falls to zero and hence T1 naturally turns off . No current flows in the circuit during

t

to

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The thyristor T2 is forward biased during the negative cycle of input supply and when thyristor T2 is triggered at a delay angle halfcycle of input from , the output voltage follows the negative

t 2 the input supply voltage falls to zero and hence the load current also falls to zero and thyristor T2 turn off naturally.

Instead of using two SCRs in parallel, a Triac can be used for full wave ac voltage control.

Fig 6.8: Single phase full wave ac voltage controller (Bi-directional Controller) using TRIAC

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vS Vm sin t

2VS sin t ;

vO

for

vL Vm sin t ;

t to

and

to 2

t

Vm sin t RL

to

I m sin t ;

and

to 2

4. A single phase full wave controller has an input voltage of 230 V (RMS) and a load resistance of 10 ohm. The firing angle of thyristor is 2 . Find a. b. c. d. e. f. Solution

2 900 , VS 120 V, R 6

Average output voltage. RMS output voltage. The Average thyristor current. The rms current value of the thyristor. Diode average current. Diode rms current.

(Dec 2010)

VO VS

sin 2 2 sin180 2

1 2

VO 120

VO

1 2

1 2

84.85 Volts

IO VO R 84.85 14.14 A 6

Load Power

P O

SJBIT/Dept of ECE

2 IO R

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PO 14.14 6 1200 watts Input Current is same as Load Current Therefore I S I O 14.14 Amps

Input Supply Volt-Amp Therefore Input Power Factor =

Load Power Input Volt-Amp 1200 1696.8 0.707 lag

VS I S

Each Thyristor Conducts only for half a cycle Average thyristor current IT

Avg

IT

1

Avg

2 R

Vm sin t.d

Vm 1 cos 2 R

Vm

2VS

2 120 1 cos 90 2 6

4.5 A

RMS

IT

RMS

1 2

Vm2 sin 2 t d R2

Vm2 2 R2

1 cos 2 t d 2

1 2

Vm 1 2R

sin 2 2

2VS 1 2R 2 120 1 2 6

sin 2 2

1 2

sin180 2 2

1 2

10 Amps

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5. What is an ac voltage controller? With the help of circuit diagram and waveform, explain the principle of phase control. (Jun 2011) Solution: Principle of AC Phase Control The basic principle of ac phase control technique is explained with reference to a single phase half wave ac voltage controller (unidirectional controller) circuit shown in the below figure. The half wave ac controller uses one thyristor and one diode connected in parallel across each other in opposite direction that is anode of thyristor T1 is connected to the cathode of diode D1 and the cathode of T1 is connected to the anode of D1 . The output voltage across the load resistor R and hence the ac power flow to the load is controlled by varying the trigger angle . The trigger angle or the delay angle refers to the value of t or the instant at which the thyristor T1 is triggered to turn it ON, by applying a suitable gate trigger pulse between the gate and cathode lead. The thyristor T1 is forward biased during the positive half cycle of input ac supply. It can be triggered and made to conduct by applying a suitable gate trigger pulse only during the positive half cycle of input supply. When T1 is triggered it conducts and the load current flows through the thyristor T1 , the load and through the transformer secondary winding. By assuming T1 as an ideal thyristor switch it can be considered as a closed switch when it is ON during the period t to radians. The output voltage across the load follows the input supply voltage when the thyristor T1 is turned-on and when it conducts from to radians. When the input supply voltage decreases to zero at t , for a resistive load the load current also falls to zero at t and hence the thyristor T1 turns off

t

at t . Between the time period t to 2 , when the supply voltage reverses and becomes negative the diode D1 becomes forward biased and hence turns ON and conducts. The load current flows in the opposite direction during

t

to 2 radians when D1 is ON

and the output voltage follows the negative half cycle of input supply.

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6. With the necessary waveforms explain the single phase Full wave controller with inductive load. Derive the expression for the rms output voltage. (Jun 2011) Solution: The operation and performance of a single phase full wave ac voltage controller with RL load. In practice most of the loads are of RL type. For example if we consider a single phase full wave ac voltage controller controlling the speed of a single phase ac induction motor, the load which is the induction motor winding is an RL type of load, where R represents the motor winding resistance and L represents the motor winding inductance. A single phase full wave ac voltage controller circuit (bidirectional controller) with an RL load using two thyristors T1 and T2 ( T1 and T2 are two SCRs) connected in parallel is shown in the figure below. In place of two thyristors a single Triac can be used to implement a full wave ac controller, if a suitable Traic is available for the desired RMS load current and the RMS output voltage ratings.

Fig 6.11: Single phase full wave ac voltage controller with RL load

The thyristor T1 is forward biased during the positive half cycle of input supply. Let us assume that T1 is triggered at t , by applying a suitable gate trigger pulse to T1 during

the positive half cycle of input supply. The output voltage across the load follows the input

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supply voltage when T1 is ON. The load current iO flows through the thyristor T1 and through the load in the downward direction. This load current pulse flowing through T1 can be considered as the positive current pulse. Due to the inductance in the load, the load current iO flowing through T1 would not fall to zero at become negative. The thyristor T1 will continue to conduct the load current until all the inductive energy stored in the load inductor L is completely utilized and the load current through T1 falls to zero at

t

t

, where

t ) at which the

of the positive half cycle of input supply to the point where the load current falls to zero. The thyristor T1 conducts from

t

to

waveforms of the input supply voltage, the gate trigger pulses of T1 and T2 , the thyristor current, the load current and the load voltage waveforms appear as shown in the figure below.

is the extinction angle which depends upon the load inductance value.

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Waveforms of single phase full wave ac voltage controller with RL load for Discontinuous load current operation occurs for i.e., , conduction angle . and ;

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Fig 6.14: Waveforms of Input supply voltage, Load Current, Load Voltage and Thyristor Voltage across

T1

To Derive an Expression For rms Output Voltage VO RMS of a Single Phase Full-Wave Ac Voltage Controller with RL Load.

When O , the load current and load voltage waveforms become discontinuous as shown in the figure above.

VO RMS 1

1 2

Vm 2 sin 2 t.d

Output vo

Vm sin t , for

to

, when T1 is ON.

1 2

VO RMS

Vm 2

1 cos 2 t d 2

VO RMS

Vm 2

cos 2 t.d

VO RMS

Vm 2 2

Vm 2 2

sin 2 t 2

sin 2 2 sin 2 2

VO RMS

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VO RMS

Vm

1 2

sin 2 2

sin 2 2

1

VO RMS

Vm 1 2

sin 2 2

sin 2 2

The RMS output voltage across the load can be varied by changing the trigger angle . For a purely resistive load L

tan

1

0.

L R

0 ;

Extinction angle

radians 1800

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UNIT 7

DC Chopper

1. Give the classification of choppers. Explain class E chopper with circuit and quadrant diagram. (Dec 2010, Jun 2010) Solution: Classification Of Choppers Choppers are classified as Class A Chopper Class B Chopper Class C Chopper Class D Chopper Class E Chopper Class E Chopper

CH1

D1 i0 + R L

CH3 E

D3

V CH2

v0 D2

CH4

D4

v0 CH2 - D4 Conducts D1 - D4 Conducts CH1 - CH4 ON CH4 - D2 Conducts i0 CH3 - CH2 ON CH2 - D4 Conducts D2 - D3 Conducts CH4 - D2 Conducts

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When CH1 and CH4 are triggered, output current iO flows in positive direction through CH1 and CH4, and with output voltage Vo = V. This gives the first quadrant operation. When both CH1 and CH4 are OFF, the energy stored in the inductor L drives io through D2 and D3 in the same direction, but output voltage Vo = -V. Therefore the chopper operates in the fourth quadrant. When CH2 and CH3 are triggered, the load current io flows in opposite direction & output voltage Vo = -V. Since both io and VO are negative, the chopper operates in third quadrant.

When both CH2 and CH3 are OFF, the load current iO continues to flow in the same direction D1 and D4 and the output voltage VO = V. Therefore the chopper operates in second quadrant as VO is positive but io is negative. 2. Explain the principle of operation of a step up chopper with suitable circuit diagram and waveforms. Derive the expression for average output voltage of step up chopper. (Dec 2011, Dec 2010, Jun 2010) Solution: Principle of Step-up Chopper

I +

L O A D

D +

V Chopper

VO

Step-up chopper is used to obtain a load voltage higher than the input voltage V. The values of L and C are chosen depending upon the requirement of output voltage and current. When the chopper is ON, the inductor L is connected across the supply. The inductor current I rises and the inductor stores energy during the ON time of the chopper, tON. When the chopper is off, the inductor current I is forced to flow through the diode D and load for a period, tOFF. The current tends to decrease resulting in reversing the polarity of induced EMF in L. Therefore voltage across load is given by

dI i.e., VO V dt A large capacitor C connected across the load, will provide a continuous output voltage . Diode D prevents any current flow from capacitor to the source. Step up choppers are used for regenerative braking of dc motors. VO V L

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Assume the average inductor current to be I during ON and OFF time of Chopper. When Chopper is ON Voltage across inductor L V Therefore energy stored in inductor = V .I .tON Where tON ON period of chopper.

When Chopper is OFF (energy is supplied by inductor to load) Voltage across L VO V Energy supplied by inductor L where tOFF VO V ItOFF OFF period of Chopper.

VItON VO VO Where

T VO

tON V

tOFF

T T tON

VO Where d

3. A Chopper circuit is operating on TRC at a frequency of 2 kHz on a 460 V supply. If the load voltage is 350 volts, calculate the conduction period of the thyristor in each cycle. (Dec 2011) Solution:

V 460 V, Vdc = 350 V, T T Output voltage

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Chopping period

Vdc

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Conduction period of thyristor T Vdc tON V 0.5 10 3 350 tON 460 tON 0.38 msec

4. With neat circuit diagram and waveform, explain the operation of Jones chopper (Jun 2011) Solution:

T1 T2

D V L2 L1 + R FWD v0 L

Fig. 2.35: Jones Chopper Figure 2.35 shows a Jones Chopper circuit for an inductive load with free wheeling diode. Jones Chopper is an example of class D commutation. Two thyristors are used, T 1 is the main thyristor and T2 is the auxiliary thyristor. Commutating circuit for T 1 consists of thyristor T2, capacitor C, diode D and autotransformer (L1 and L2). Initially thyristor T2 is turned ON and capacitor C is charged to a voltage V with a polarity as shown in figure 2.35. As C charges, the charging current through thyristor T 2 decays exponentially and when current falls below holding current level, thyristor T 2 turns OFF by itself. When thyristor T1 is triggered, load current flows through thyristor T 1, L2 and load. The capacitor discharges through thyristor T1, L1 and diode D. Due to resonant action

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of the auto transformer inductance L2 and capacitance C, the voltage across the capacitor reverses after some time. It is to be noted that the load current in L1 induces a voltage in L2 due to autotransformer action. Due to this voltage in L2 in the reverse direction, the capacitor charges to a voltage greater than the supply voltage. (The capacitor now tries to discharge in opposite direction but it is blocked by diode D and hence capacitor maintains the reverse voltage across it). When thyristor T 1 is to be commutated, thyristor T2 is turned ON resulting in connecting capacitor C directly across thyristor T1. Capacitor voltage reverse biases thyristor T1 and turns it off. The capacitor again begins to charge through thyristor T 2 and the load for the next cycle of operation. The various waveforms are shown in figure 2.36

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Ig

Gate pulse of T2

Gate pulse of T1

Gate pulse of T2 t

IL

Voltage across T1

tC

5. A dc chopper in figure 2.25 has a resistive load of R 10 and input voltage of V = 200 V. When chopper is ON, its voltage drop is 2 V and the chopping frequency is 1 kHz. If the duty cycle is 60%, determine Average output voltage RMS value of output voltage Effective input resistance of chopper Chopper efficiency. (Jun 2011)

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Chopper

i0

R v0

Fig. 2.25 Solution V = 200 V, R 10 , Chopper voltage drop, Vch Average output voltage

Vdc Vdc d V Vch 0.60 200 2 118.8 Volts

2V , d = 0.60, f = 1 kHz.

VO VO

I dc Vdc R 118.8 11.88 Amps 10

Ri

V IS

V I dc

Output power is

PO

1 T

dT

2 v0 dt R

PO

1 T

dT

V Vch R

dt

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PO

d V Vch R

PO

0.6 200 2 10

1 T 1 T

dT

2352.24 watts

Input power,

Pi

ViO dt

0 dT

PO

V V Vch dt R

PO

dV V Vch R

2376 watts

2352.24 100 99% 2376

(Jun 2011)

Solution: Methods of Control The output dc voltage can be varied by the following methods. Pulse width modulation control or constant frequency operation. Variable frequency control. Pulse Width Modulation In pulse width modulation the pulse width tON of the output waveform is varied keeping chopping frequency f and hence chopping period T constant. Therefore output voltage is varied by varying the ON time, tON . Figure 2.3 shows the output voltage waveforms for different ON times.

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V0 V tON tOFF t T V0 V

t tON tOFF

Fig. 2.3: Pulse Width Modulation Control Variable Frequency Control In this method of control, chopping frequency f is varied keeping either tON or tOFF constant. This method is also known as frequency modulation. Figure 2.4 shows the output voltage waveforms for a constant tON and variable chopping period T. In frequency modulation to obtain full output voltage, range frequency has to be varied over a wide range. This method produces harmonics in the output and for large tOFF load current may become discontinuous.

v0 V

tON T v0 V tON T

tOFF t

tOFF t

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UNIT 8

Inverters

1. Explain the performance of inverters. (Dec 2011)

The converters which converts the power into ac power popularly known as the inverters,. The application areas for the inverters include the uninterrupted power supply (UPS), the ac motor speed controllers, etc.

The inverters can be classified based on a number of factors like, the nature of output waveform (sine, square, quasi square, PWM etc), the power devices being used (thyristor transistor, MOSFETs IGBTs), the configuration being used, (series. parallel, half bridge, Full bridge), the type of commutation circuit that is being employed and Voltage source and current source inverters. The thyristorised inverters use SCRs as power switches. Because the input source of power is pure de in nature, forced commutation circuit is an essential part of thyristorised inverters. The commutation circuits must be carefully designed to ensure a successful commutation of SCRs. The addition of the commutation circuit makes the thyristorised inverters bulky and costly. The size and the cost of the circuit can be reduced to some extent if the operating frequency is increased but then the inverter grade thyristors which are special thyristors manufactured to operate at a higher frequency must be used, which are costly.

2. With a neat circuit diagram, explain the principle of variable DC link. (Dec 2011, Dec 2010) Solution: The circuit diagram of a variable DC-link inverter is shown in Fig.8.18. This circuit can be divided into two parts namely a block giving a variable DC voltage and the second part being the bridge inverter itself.

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The components Q, Dm, Land C give out a variable DC output. L and C are the filter components. This variable DC voltage acts as the supply voltage for the bridge inverter.

The pulse width (conduction period) of the transistors is maintained constant and the variation in output voltage is obtained by varying the DC voltage. The output voltage waveforms with a resistive load for different dc input voltages are shown in Fig. 8.19. We know that for a square wave inverter, the rms value of output voltage is given by, V0 (rms) = Vdc volts Hence by varying Vdc, we can vary V0 (rms) One important advantage of variable DC link inverters is that it is possible to eliminate or reduce certain harmonic components from the output voltage waveform.

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The disadvantage is that an extra converter stage is required to obtain a variable DC voltage from a fixed DC. This converter can be a chopper.

The circuit diagram of current source inverter is shown in Fig. 8.14. The variable dc voltage source is converted into variable current source by using inductance L.

The current IL supplied to the single phase transistorised inverter is adjusted by the combination of variable dc voltage and inductance L. The waveforms of base currents and output current io are as shown in Fig. 8.15. When transistors Q1 and Q2 conduct simultaneously, the output current are positive and equal to + IL. When transistors Q3 and Q4 conduct simultaneously the output current io = - IL. But io = 0 when the transistors from same arm i.e. Q( Q4 or Q2 Q3 conduct simultaneously.

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The output current waveform of Fig. 8.15 is a quasi-square waveform. But it is possible to Obtain a square wave load current by changing the pattern of base driving signals. Such waveforms are shown in Fig. 8.16.

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5. Explain the principle of operation of single phase half bridge inverter. Solution:

(Dec 2010)

Principle of Operation: 1. The principle of single phase transistorised inverters can be explained with the help of Fig. 8.2. The configuration is known as the half bridge configuration. 2. The transistor Q1 is turned on for a time T 0/2, which makes the instantaneous voltage across the load Vo = V12. 3. If transistor Q2 is turned on at the instant T0/2 by turning Q1 off then -V/2 appears across the load.

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Fig. Load voltage and current waveforms with resistive load for half bridge inverter.

6. Write and explain the performance parameters of an inverter. (Dec 2010,Jun 2010) Solution: Performance parameters of inverters The output of practical inverters contains harmonics and the quality of an inverter is normally evaluated in terms of following performance parameters: Harmonic factor of nth harmonic. Total harmonic distortion. Distortion factor. Lowest order harmonic. Harmonic factor of nth harmonics HFn: The harmonic factor is a measure of contribution of indivisual harmonics. It is defined as the ratio of the rms voltage of a particular harmonic component to the rms value of fundamental component.

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Distortion Factor DF

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