UNIT I INTRODUCTION Introduction - Need for quality - Evolution of quality - Definition of quality - Dimensions of manufacturing and service quality

- Basic concepts of TQM - Definition of TQM – TQM Framework - Contributions of Deming, Juran and Crosby – Barriers to TQM.

Introduction The definition of quality depends on the role of the people defining it. Most consumers have a difficult time defining quality, but they know it when they see it. For example, although you probably have an opinion as to which manufacturer of athletic shoes provides the highest quality, it would probably be difficult for you to define your quality standard in precise terms. Also, your friends may have different opinions regarding which athletic shoes are of highest quality. The difficulty in defining quality exists regardless of product, and this is true for both manufacturing and service organizations. Think about how difficult it may be to define quality for products such as airline services, child day-care facilities, college classes, or even textbooks.

Today, there is no single universal definition of quality. Some people view quality as ―performance to standards.‖Others view it as ―meeting the customer’s needs‖ or ―satisfying the customer.‖ Let’s look at some of the more common definitions of quality.

Need for Quality Management :

By definition of ISO (Int'l Org. for Standardization) - TQM is a mgmt approach for an org.

which is centered on quality and is based on the participation of all members to aim at long-term success thru customer satisfaction (main) and also to its members and the society in whole.

TQM in Large-scale industries:

- Reduction in wastage: TQM ensures things are done rite the 1st time, so this reduces wastage and defects. - Quality Assurance: TQM guarantees that all the products and even operations in the org. are of a certain quality standard. This promotes trust to the consumers and also maintains a healthy environment for employees. - Customer-based: TQM focuses on the needs of the customers and can be used effectively, o make changes to the existing product design to meet such needs. Failure Analysis: TQM is a statistical tool also. Hence provides a learned person with the faults and failures in various process. This in turn can be used to make corrective progress. Definition of quality Today, there is no single universal definition of quality. Some people view quality as ―performance to standards.‖Others view it as ―meeting the customer’s needs‖ or ―satisfying the customer.‖ Let’s look at some of the more common definitions of quality. • Conformance to specifications measures how well the product or servic meets the targets and tolerances determined by its designers. For example, the dimensions of a machine part may be specified by its design engineers as 3.05 inches. This would mean that the target dimension is 3 inches but the dimensions can vary between 2.95 and 3.05 inches. Similarly, the wait for hotel room service may be specified as 20 minutes, but there may be an acceptable delay of an additional 10 minutes. Also, consider the amount of light delivered by a 60 watt light bulb. If the bulb delivers 50 watts it does not conform to specifications. As these examples illustrate, conformance to specification is directly measurable, though it may not be directly related to the consumer’s idea of quality.

• Fitness for use focuses on how well the product performs its intended function or use. For example, a Mercedes Benz and a Jeep Cherokee both meet a fitness for use definition if one considers transportation as the intended function. However, if the definition becomes more specific and assumes that the intended use is for transportation on mountain roads and carrying fishing gear, the Jeep Cherokee has a greater fitness for use. You can also see that fitness for use is a user-based definition in that it is intended to meet the needs of a specific user group. • Value for price paid is a definition of quality that consumers often use for product or service usefulness. This is the only definition that combines economics with consumer criteria; it assumes that the definition of quality is price sensitive. For example, suppose that you wish to sign up for a personal finance seminar and discover that the same class is being taught at two different colleges at significantly different tuition rates. If you take the less expensive seminar, you will feel that you have received greater value for the price. • Support services provided are often how the quality of a product or service is judged. Quality does not apply only to the product or service itself; it also applies to the people, processes, and organizational environment associated with it. For example, the quality of a university is judged not only by the quality of staff and course offerings, but also by the efficiency and accuracy of processing paperwork Psychological criteria is a subjective definition that focuses on the judgmental evaluation of what constitutes product or service quality. Different factors contribute to the evaluation, such as the atmosphere of the environment or the perceived prestige of the product. For example, a hospital patient may receive average health care, but a very friendly staff may leave the impression of high quality. Similarly, we commonly associate certain products with excellence because of their reputation; Rolex watches and Mercedes-Benz automobiles are examples.

Dimensions of Manufacturing and Service quality : Defining quality in manufacturing organizations is often different from that of services. Manufacturing organizations produce a tangible product that can be seen, touched, and directly measured. Examples include cars, CD players, clothes, computers, and food items. Therefore, quality definitions in manufacturing usually focus on tangible product features. The most

common quality definition in manufacturing is conformance, which is the degree to which a product characteristic meets preset standards. Other common definitions of quality in manufacturing include performance—such as acceleration of a vehicle; reliability—that the product will function as expected without failure; features—the extras that are included beyond the basic characteristics; durability—expected operational life of the product; and serviceability—how readily a product can be repaired. The relative importance of these definitions is based on the preferences of each individual customer. It is easy to see how different customers can have different definitions in mind when they speak of high product quality.

In contrast to manufacturing, service organizations produce a product that is intangible. Usually, the complete product cannot be seen or touched. Rather, it is experienced. Examples include delivery of health care, experience of staying at a vacation resort, and learning at a university. The intangible nature of the product makes defining quality difficult. Also, since a service is experienced, perceptions can be highly subjective. In addition to tangible factors, quality of services is often defined by perceptual factors. These include responsiveness to customer needs, courtesy and friendliness of staff, promptness in resolving complaints, and atmosphere. Other definitions ofquality in services include time—the amount of time a customer has to wait for the service; and consistency—the degree to which the service is the same each time For these reasons, defining quality in services can be especially challenging. Dimensions of quality for manufacturing versus service organizations are shown in below Table 5-1.

MANUFACTURING ORGANISATION Conformance to specifications Performance Reliability Features -


Consistency Responsiveness to customer needs Courtesy/friendliness

companies such as Toshiba and Sony led the way. and quality control charts were used to monitor the production process.Durability Serviceability Evolution of quality : - Timeliness/promptness Atmosphere Evolution of quality provides high degree of assurance that manufacturer will consistently produce medical devices that:Are safe Perform as intended Comply with customer requirements Comply with regulatory requirements Have the appropriate degree of quality BASIC CONCEPTS OF TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT : The concept of has existed for many years. companies had to make major changes in their quality programs. with the help of so-called ―quality gurus. manufacturers such as Toyota and Honda became major players. quality became more statistical in nature. However. in the 1970s and 1980s many U. quality was seen as a concept that affected the entire organization. though its meaning has changed and evolved over time. In the auto industry. during World War II.‖ the concept took on a broader meaning. To survive. In the early twentieth century. Quality began to be viewed as something that encompassed the entire organization. Since all functions were responsible for product quality and all shared the costs of poor quality. industries lost market share to foreign competition. A new concept of quality was emerging. In the 1960s. quality management meant inspecting products to ensure that they met specifications. In the 1940s. Before then quality was still viewed as something that needed to be inspected and corrected. Statistical sampling techniques were used to evaluate quality. Many hired consultants and instituted quality training programs for their employees. The meaning of quality for businesses changed dramatically in the late 1970s. In the consumer goods market. not only the production process. One result is that quality began to have a strategic . These foreign competitors were producing lower-priced products with considerably higher quality.S.

The term used for today’s new concept of quality is total quality management or TQM. designed to build quality into the product and process design. such as poor workers or miscalibrated machinery. concern.meaning. Companies in every line of business are focusing on improving quality in order to be more competitive. You can see that the old concept is reactive. Edwards Deming is often referred to as the ―father of quality control. successful companies understand that quality provides a competitive advantage. Shewhart studied randomness and recognized that variability existed in all manufacturing processes. the importance of quality is demonstrated by national quality awards and quality certifications that are coveted by businesses. competition based on quality has grown in importance and has generated tremendous interest. Shewhart was a statistician at Bell Labs during the 1920s and 1930s. Figure 53 presents a timeline of the old and new concepts of quality. They put the customer first and define quality as meeting or exceeding customer expectations. designed to correct quality problems after they occur.‖ W. He developed quality control charts that are used to identify whether the variability in the process is random or due to an assignable cause. He stressed that eliminating variability improves quality. Next. CONTRIBUTIONS BY QUALITY GURUS To fully understand the TQM movement. The new concept is proactive. and he is often referred to as the ―grandfather of quality control. Today. we look at the individuals who have shaped our understanding of quality. In many industries quality excellence has become a standard for doing business. His work created the foundation for today’s statistical process control. After World War II he assisted many Japanese . and enthusiasm. Companies that do not meet this standard simply will not survive. Their philosophies and teachings have contributed to our knowledge and understanding of quality today. As you will see later in the chapter. Since the 1970s. Walter A. we need to look at the philosophies of notable individuals who have shaped the evolution of TQM. Shewhart Walter A.‖ He was a statistics professor at New York University in the 1940s.

serve as management guidelines.companies in improving quality. Drive out fear. higher profits. Strive to reduce intradepartmental conflicts. Avoid numerical goals. Institute on-the-job training. and increased productivity may grow. (a) Eliminate work standard quotas for production. create trust. The points cultivate a fertile soil in which a more efficient workplace. The first is the role management should play in a company’s quality Dr. Alternatively. Eliminate exhortations for the work force. A number of elements of Deming’s philosophy depart from traditional notions of quality. industries and economics are always changing. The Japanese regarded him so highly that in 1951 they established the Deming Prize. instead. originally presented in out of the Crisis. It was almost 30 years later that American businesses began adopting Deming’s philosophy. . Build quality into a product throughout production. an annual award given to firms that demonstrate outstanding quality. Include everyone in the company to accomplish the transformation. (b) Eliminate MBO. and how to improve them. Work to constantly improve quality and productivity. Deming's famous 14 Points. Create and communicate to all employees a statement of the aims and purposes of the company. Remove barriers that rob people of pride of workmanship Educate with self-improvement programs. End the practice of awarding business on the basis of price tag alone. Adapt to the new philosophy of the day. focus on the system and morale. Teach and institute leadership to improve all job functions. try a longterm relationship based on established loyalty and trust. learn the capabilities of processes. Substitute leadership methods for improvement. instead.

Cooperation. Dr.Dr. poor service. Deming espouses his Theory . Deming based his new business philosophy on an ideal of cooperation. it must adopt an evolutionary philosophy. the use of better equipment and a more intense worker-oriented method of inspection will markedly improve productivity and lower costs. to meet a series of quality standards. Deming's points: The first of the 14 Points charges management with establishing continual improvement through the redefinition of the company's purposes. Theory of Profound Knowledge -. Part of the evolutionary mentality is to abandon practices that. In the fifth point. despite their obvious short term benefits. and negative attitudes from the company.In order to promote cooperation. Quite simply. and constantly replenish its resources for growth and improvement through innovation and research. a product should be monitored by the workers. Deming urges companies to establish loyal ties with suppliers of quality equipment. the third point bars shoddy workmanship. In the long term. In order to accomplish these goals.Comments on some of Dr. Dr. a company must develop a consistent. Point five condemns mass inspection procedures as inefficient. ultimately detract from the company's effectiveness. Instead. compete well. A company cannot expect to ignite and feed a quality revolution from which it will prosper for all time. the company must survive. such a philosophy prevents stagnation and arms the company for the uncertain future. As a result. active plan that involves its entire labor force in the drive toward total quality. the company often purchases low quality equipment. throughout the assembly process. for that reason. a company must harness the power of every worker in its employment. Deming states that only a commitment to a process of continual improvement truly rewards. Point number four specifically warns against this scenario: the purchasing department of a company consistently patronizes those vendors who offer the lowest prices. In order to fulfill its own potential.

employ sensible methods such as rigorous on-the-job training programs. spread profit to workers as teams. Edwards Deming . thus stimulated and empowered. Profound knowledge involves expanded views and an understanding of the seemingly individual yet truly interdependent elements that compose the larger system. eliminate fear. workers better understand their jobs--the specific tasks and techniques as well as their higher value. he stated that the majority--85 percent--of a worker's effectiveness is determined by his environment and only minimally by his own skill. Deming believed that every worker has nearly unlimited potential if placed in an environment that adequately supports. and revenge from the workplace. You must know what to work on. decency. sincerity. form the company into a large team divided into sub-teams all working on different aspects of the same goal. In the resulting company. anger. and nurtures senses of pride and responsibility. forever changed the world of management. A manager seeking to establish such an environment must: employ an understanding of psychology--of groups and individuals. and personal responsibility. The ideas of W.of Profound Knowledge. envy. the company. "It is not enough to just do your best or work hard.W. however. Edwards Deming may seem common or obvious now. educates. barriers between departments often give rise conflicting objectives and create unnecessary competition. Deming's ideas (and personal example) of hard work. they perform better. The expense pays for itself.". they've become embedded in our culture of work. eliminate tools such as production quotas and sloganeering which only alienate workers from their supervisors and breed divisive competition between the workers themselves. not individuals. Dr.

In 1941. . Deming affected a quality revolution of gargantuan significance on American manufacturers and consumers. Upon completion of the 1940 census. From physics. Dr. thus. Dr.Biography As the sun rose on the 20th century. To fund his education. He would live through most of the century. For more than forty years his firm served its clientele--manufacturers. and in 1917. 000 people per year. Dr. This led towards a doctorate in physics from Yale University. trucking companies. in physics and mathematics. Deming began to introduce Statistical Quality Control into industrial operations. Edwards entered the University of Wyoming. he and two other experts began teaching Statistical Quality Control to inspectors and engineers. Deming in 1940. railways. Census Bureau hired Dr. He graduated in 1921. governments. after his departure from the Census Bureau. The teachings of Dr. Through his ideas. For over ten years. As a professor emeritus. W. telephone companies. and research organizations. product quality improved and. Deming gravitated towards statistics. Edwards Deming would become a colossus of modern management thinking.S. his four-day seminars reached 10. census takers. a baby was born to the Deming family in a small town in Iowa. he worked as a janitor. and have a tremendous impact on its second half. The U. hospitals. The Demings moved from Iowa to Wyoming. Deming conducted classes on sampling and quality control at New York University.S. just at the time that the Bureau shifted its procedure from a complete count to a sampling method. Deming started his own private practice in 1946. and went on to the University of Colorado. where he received a M.

the University of South Carolina. Rivier College. Out of the Crisis (MIT/CAES. Dr. the University of Alabama. 1986) and The New Economics (MIT/CAES. Deming received the degrees L. shipbuilding and electronics. Harvard University. honorius causa. and the Madeleine of Jesus from Rivier College. the University of Colorado. and the successful application of his worldwide teachings.popular satisfaction. and Sc. the National Academy of Sciences lauded him with the Distinguished Career in Science award. George Washington University. Yale University. Ohio State University. and videotapes profile his life.D. the Emperor of Japan bestowed on Dr. Dr. films. Fordham University. and Shenandoah University. From the University of Wyoming. Wilks Award from the American Statistical Association and election to the National Academy of Engineering. He was elected in 1986 to the Science and Technology Hall of Fame in Dayton. Deming authored several books and 171 papers. Oregon State University. Dr. The Union of Japanese Science and Engineering (JUSE) saluted its teacher with the institution of the annual Deming Prize for significant achievement in product quality and dependability. Deming was a member of the International Statistical Institute. In 1960. . and. Miami University. 1994) have been translated into several languages. he won the Wilbur Lucius Cross Medal. His books. Deming contributed directly to Japan's phenomenal export-led growth and its current technological leadership in automobiles. He was inducted into the Automotive Hall of Fame in 1991. Stateside. In 1983. His influential work in Japan--instructing top executives and engineers in quality management--was a driving force behind that nation's economic rise. Deming the Second Order Medal of the Sacred Treasure. the American University. From Yale University. Cleary College.L. President Reagan honored him with the National Medal of Technology in 1987. the University of Maryland. Myriad books. Dr. his philosophy. Deming received the Samuel S. in 1988. the American Society for Quality Control awarded him the Shewhart Medal in 1956. Clarkson College of Technology. Dr.D.

Their philosophies and teachings have contributed to our knowledge and understanding of quality today. · Product · Process · System · People · Leadership . One idea may be to look at new industry philosophies around continuous improvement. respecting societal values and beliefs. Definition of TQM: Total Quality Management is a management approach that tries to achieve and sustain long term organizational success by encouraging employee feedback and participation. The adoption of 'way of working' philosophies and 'lean' philosophies and how they tie in with TQM. satisfying customer needs and expectations. buzzwords such as 'empowerment'. and obeying governmental statutes and regulations. we need to look at the philosophies of notable individuals who have shaped the evolution of TQM. look at how attitudes of employees are improved with 'growth involvement' An interesting was the 'Fish Philosophy'. Five Pillars of TQM are.BARRIERS TO QUALITY MANAGEMENT : To fully understand the TQM movement. but may help you to find research alternatives. I appreciate that this does not directly answer your question. 'training' and 'knowledge-sharing' may be useful in researching seminars on such topics.

Installation and product service. production and service at the most economic levels which allow for full customer satisfaction. Marketing 2. Machines and Mechanization 8. Engineering 3. Motivation 6. Purchasing 4. <Strong>Fundamental factors affecting Quality: (9 M’s) 1. Manufacturing 5. so as to enable marketing. quality maintenance and quality improvement efforts of various groups in an organization continuously. Materials 7. Market 2. Men 5. Modern Information Methods 9. Shipping 7. Mechanical 6. Mounting Product Requirements Benefits of TQM: Customer satisfaction oriented benefits: . engineering.Total Quality Management is an effective system for integrating the quality development. The TQM is applied to many stages of Industrial Cycle which are listed below: 1. Money 3. Management 4.

Improvement in employee morale and quality consciousness 5. Recently the name was changed into Americn Society for Quality (ASQ). . Reduction in operating losses 3. Reduction in liability exposure Historical Review: The history of quality control is undoubtedly as old as industry itself. Improvement in market place acceptance Economic improvement oriented benefits: 1. In 1924. developed the area of acceptance sampling as a substitute of 100% inspection.A. Improvement in product service 6.1. Improvement in production flow 4. Improvement in product quality 2. This chart is considered to be the beginning of statistical quality control. Later in the same decade.Romig. Shewhart of Bell Telephone Laboratories developed a statistical chart of the control of product variables. In 1946. W.G. both of Bell Telephone Laboratories. the American society for Quality Control was formed. Reduction in operating costs 2. Reduction in field service costs 4. Improvement in product design 3. H.Dodge and H.F.

who taught Japanese about applying PDCA cycle (Deming Cycle) came to India in early 1950s. Walter Shewhart. visited India for a short period of three months during 1947-48 and initiated the SQC movements in Indian companies. . quality has been a tradition but not in a consolidated form. the father of Quality Control .Edward Deming. Quality Movement in India: Before Independence in India.Edwards Deming emphasized about the management’s responsibility to achieve quality. In 1960’s the first quality control circles were formed for the purpose of quality improvement. the father of Statistical Quality Control. the founder of quality movement in Japan was invited by CII to come to India to address Indian Industry in 1986.In 1950’s W. The TQM movement in USA in 1980s triggered quality movement in India in the year 1982 and Quality Circle was born. The quality movement was consolidated in the 1980s in the Indian Industries to bring out synergy of resources by the pioneering efforts of Confederation of Indian Industries (CII) Dr.W. After 1990’s the ISO became the model for a quality management system world wide. In the late 1980’s the automotive industry began to emphasize statistical process control. Prof. Ishikawa . CII organized a first major seminar with Joseph Juran in 1987.

led by the Prime Minister of India and the ― Quality Summit ‖ organized by CII has now become an annual feature across the country. Indian companies started to get the ISO 9000 certifications. The chief executives of these companies formed a National Committee on Quality. CII organized and launch of National Quality Campaign in 1992. From the year 1991. CII organized training programmes in ISO 9000 quality systems for international standards and certification in the year 1989. The future thrust on quality movement in India would be based on: Application Research (Industry and Academics) Experience Sharing ISO certifications Environmental protection.CII provided a focus and an impetus to the quality movement by forming a TQM division in 1987. safety and consumer protection for quality enhancement. CII set up the TQM division with the help of 21 companies who agreed to support the journey of TQM in India. The year 1987 brought the ISO 9000 standards into reality and visible strategies emerged. By then the focus was shifted from quality circles to quality management. The concept of TQM spread over the service sector and technology apart from engineering applications. CII also launched the first newsletter on Quality. .

Supplier Rating. Empowerment. Quality statements . Recognition and Reward. 40 Strategic Planning: There are seven basic steps to strategic quality planning. Customer retention Employee involvement – Motivation. Kaizen .Customer focus – Customer orientation. Team and Teamwork.Continuous process improvement – PDSA cycle. a) Customer needs b) Customer positioning c) Predict the future d) Gap analysis e) Closing the gap . Performance appraisal . 5s. Customer complaints. Supplier selection. Customer satisfaction.UNIT II TQM PRINCIPLES 9 Leadership – Strategic quality planning.Supplier partnership – Partnering.

personnel. 2. 1. therefore like people's opinion Quality Costs: All organizations make use of the concept of identifying the costs needed to carry out the various functions – product development. allowing organizations to do the right thing at the right time. except for the . marketing.f) Alignment g) Implementation Strategic planning can be performed by any organization. It can be highly effective. Quality Planning: Quality planning is the pre-determined activities in order to achieve conformation to the requirements.A. it is far from simple. production etc. every time. · Develop a product that can respond to those needs · Optimize the product features to meet our and customer needs .Juran has the following steps: · Identify the customers · Determine their needs · Translate those needs into our language. Until the 1950’s this cost concept had not been extended to quality function.. The quality planning procedure given by Joseph. it is not an objective statistic. Many organizations are finding that strategic quality plans and business plans are inseparable. but more of feeling and attitude. 3.

b) External failure costs . Some people equated quality cost with the cost of attaining quality. implicit costs. But. Categories of Quality Cost: Many companies summarize quality costs into four broad categories.The cost incurred in keeping failure and appraisal costs to a minimum. d) Prevention costs . the widely accepted thing is ―Quality cost is the extra cost incurred due to poor or bad quality of the product or service‖. a) Internal failure costs .. During the 1950’s the concept of ―Quality Cost‖ emerged.The cost incurred in determining the degree of conformance to quality requirement. Different people assigned different meanings to the term.e. They are. Sometimes we can also include the hidden costs i.departmental activities of inspection and testing. some people equated the term with the extra incurred due to poor quality. c) Appraisal costs .The cost associated with defects that are found after product is shipped to the customer. Traditional Quality cost model Emerging Quality Cost Model Higher quality doesn't mean higher costs .The cost associated with defects that are found prior to transfer of the product to the customer.

Analysis Techniques for Quality Costs: i. Pareto Analysis CUSTOMER SATISFACTION Customers are important asset to the organization.The companies estimate quality costs for the following reasons : a) To quantifying the size of the quality problem in the language of money improves communication between middle managers and upper managers. To attain this level. the organization should examine their quality system to respond to their ever changing customer's needs. c) To identify the opportunities for reducing customer dissatisfaction and associated threats to product salability. satisfied customers will buy more.TQM implies an organizational drive with meeting or exceeding customer needs. . customer satisfaction is considered as a measure of quality. and buy more frequently. Trend Analysis ii. and pay their bill promptly. In a manufacturing and service organization.Understanding the customer's needs and expectations is essential to winning new business. b) To identify major opportunities for cost reduction.

the one who purchase the product.. 1. 6. it should be compared with the level of satisfaction they have with competitor's product are service. Internal customers . 4.A simple definition of customer satisfaction is illustrated below Teboul model Characteristics of customer satisfactionand feeling. it requires five times of effort to win a new customer than retaining a present customer. Types of customers. CUSTOMER RETENTION Customer retention represents the activities that produces the necessary customer satisfaction which in turn creates the customer loyalty. 5. Customer rettention is the connection between customer satisfaction and the bottom line.each of them receives a product or service and in exchange. so an organization must determine its return on the service invesment. both internal and external. For this the important service elements that significantly improve revenues and market share shuld be determined. 2. In this context customer retention is important for organizational sucess. One survey indicates. it is difficult to measure. it is subjective by nature. or the who influences the sale of theproduct. the measurement of customer satisfaction is not precise. . World-class companiesknoe that continuous improvement and customer satisfaction should go hand-in-hand. because of this subjective nature. external customers .one who uses the product or service.e. providers a product or service. Improved service to the customer is a costlier affair. customer retention moves customer satisfaction to the next level by determining what is truly important to the customers and making sure that the customer satisfaction system focuses valuble resources on things that are important to the customer. One basic concept of TQM is focus on customers. the customer satisfaction should not be viewed in vacuum. i.

'more inspection' is not a corrective action. Work to identify process and materuial variations and then eliminaste the root cause. Handling the customer complaints 1.This customer dissatisfaction become a measure for organizational process improvement measures.investigaste customer's experiences by actively receiving the customer feedback and then acting promptly. the assignment of process im[provement teams. and they are important in gaining data on customer perceptions. as well as the results of all inquiries and solutions. 8. Shared vision Three types of sourcing . analyze complaints. identify customer's expectations in advance rather than afterward through complaint analysis. analyzed. Trust iii. Communicate complaint information. develop procedures for complaint resolution that include empowering front-line employee. 2. 4. a senior manager should contact the customer and strive top resolve the concern 6. and acted upon to again win over customer's confidence. Three key elements to a partnering relationship i. Afetr receiving the response. Every single complaint should be accepted. A disatisfied customer can easily become a lost customer because of their frustrations. try to put them in a category for speedy response. to all people in the organization.Since more than 50% of the dissatisfied customers will buy again if they are complaint has been heard and resolved. 5. 3.CUSTOMER COMPLAINTS Unlike the customer's feedback the customer complaints are reactive. Long-term commitment ii. By adopting a positive approach the complaints can be seen as an oppurtunity to obtain information and provide a positve service to the customer. Establish customer satsfaction measures and constantly monitor them 7. 9. provide a monthly complaint report to the quality council for their evalution and if needed.

The supplier has an effective quality system and improvement program such as ISO/QS 9000. The supplier maintains high technical standards and has the capability of dealing with future technological innovations. at low cost and suited to the .a) Sole sourcing b) Multiple sourcing c) Single sourcing Ten conditions for the selection and evaluation of suppliers I. The supplier has a stable management system. VI. II. Quality is ―a predictable degree of uniformity and dependability. customer means anyone who is impacted by the product or process. The supplier understands and appreciates the management philosophy of the organization. ―Fitness for use‖ is an alternative short definition. The supplier has the capability to produce the amount of production needed or can attain that capability. There is no danger of the supplier breaching corporate secrets. V. The supplier has a track record of customer satisfaction and organization credibility. A short definition that has achieved acceptance is: ―Quality is Customer Satisfaction‖. VII. Definition of Quality: The dictionary has many definitions of ―quality‖. and those supplied meet the quality specifications. III. X. The supplier can supply precisely those raw materials and parts required by the purchaser. the supplier is easily accessible in terms of transportation and communication. Here. The supplier is sincere in implementing the contract provisions. IV. In addition. The price is right and the delivery dates can be met. IX. VIII.

Quality is a relative term. According to ISO 8402. present and future. Manufacturing Industries Service Industries Product Features Accuracy Performance Timeliness Reliability Completeness Durability Friendliness and courtesy Ease of use Anticipating customer needs Serviceability Knowledge of server Esthetics Availability Reputation Reputation .market‖. generally used with reference to the end-use of a product. Quality should be aimed at the needs of the consumer. Broadly quality is: a) Fitness for use b) Grade c) Degree of preference d) Degree of excellence e) Conformity to requirements Dimensions of Quality : The following are the components reveal the dimensions of quality. quality is ―the totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs‖.

it aims at better meeting of organizational goals at all levels. Employee involvement is one approach to improve quality and productivity.EMPLOYEE INVOLVEMENT Japanese management emphasizes the need to consider employee as a valuble resources rather than treating them as a mere tools for production. HERZBERG'S TWO FACTOR THEORY Herzberg extends the Maslow's theory by using empirical research oin employee motivation. they will immedietly revert back to the previous level if they feel threatned. THEORIES OF MOTIVATION He explained the motivation interms of a heirarchy of needs and that there were five levels. . It is not an replacement for management nor is it the final word in quality improvement. achievement. These are survival. In addition he found that bad feelings were associated with preventable dissatisfiers or hygiene factors (extrinsic factors) like low salary. minimal fringe benefits. It is important to note that as employees move up the heirarchy. illdefined organizational policies and mediocre(ordinary) supervision. security. poor working conditions. and self-actualization. advancement and the work itself. He found that people were motivated by the motivators ( intrinsic factors) like recognition. social. esteem. responsibility. He also explained that the presence of extrinsic factors( for example good working condition) does not produce any motivation but their absence will create dissatifaction among employees. Motivation Knowledge fo motivation helps us to understand the utilization fo employee involvement to achieve process improvement.

Mcgregor's Theory X and Theory Y How to motivate work force 1. and the commitment to take the responsibility and ownership to improve the process and initiate the necessary steps to satisfy customer requirements within well defined boundaries in order to achieve organizational values and goals. Develop intersting work 7. Celebrate sucess EMPOWERMENT The dictionary meaning of the term empowerment is to invest people with authority. they do that sucessfully in their personal lives every day.This empowerment helps greatly in eliminating resistence to changes. .In a same manner the absence of intrinsic factors ( for example advancement) does not produce any dissatisfaction but their presence will provide strong level of motivation. Most people appreciate and value the trust and respopnsibility. An operational definition is as follows: Empowerment is an environment in which people have the ability. Know thyself 2. Communicate 8. Establish a positive attitude 4. people generally want to be more in charge of their own jobs and carrers. afterall. the confidence. Empowerment is nothing unusual. Know your employees 3. Monitor progress 6.Its purpose is to tap the enourmous potential that lies within every worker. Share the goals 5.

thus not only responsible but also accountable. Each member of the team have special ability that can be used for the problem. The organization must enable its employees. Three conditions are necessary for empowering employees 1. TEAMS Teams are very effective in solving all quality and productivity problems.Many processes are so complex that one person cannot able solve completely. whole is greater than sum of its parts.e.Team work is better than sum of its member contribution. employee becomes process owner. which means distributing or entrusting work to others. Types of teams · Process improvement teams · cross-functional teams · natural work teams · self-directed/ self managed teams .Empowerment is different from delegation or job enrichment. The system needs to change to the new paradigm( model/standard) 3. Teams provide the vehicle for improved communication. Teamwork is the cumulative actions of the team during which each member of the team subordinates his interests and opinions to fulfill the objectives or goals of the group. especially in meeting ever-changing customer needs. Team builds a rapport with each other that allows everyone to do a better job. Based on the synergic effect.i. Team is defined as a group of peopleworking together to achieve common objectives or goals..In empowerment employee is held responsible for accomplishing a whole task. Many heads are better than one. Everyone must understand the need for change 2.

Phases of a Continuous Process Improvement Cycle are a) Identify the opportunity b) Analyze the process c) Develop the optimal solutions d) Implement . CONTINUOUS PROCESS IMPROVEMENT The basic ways for a continuous process improvement are Reduce resources Reduce errors Meet or exceed expectations of downstream customers Make the process safer Make the process more satisfying to the person doing it.Characteristics of successful teams Sponsor Team charter Team competition training ground rules clear objectives accountability well-defined decision procedures resources trust effective problem solving open communication appropriate leadership balanced participation cohesiveness.

Step 4: Act Take action based on what you learned in the step 3. The Deming’s PDSA cycle is a well-known model for continual process improvement. Improvement PDSA CYCLE The steps in the PDSA cycle are The basic Plan-Do-Study-Act is an effective improvement technique. Step 1: Plan for TQM Quality having become one of the twentieth century’s most important management ideas. and plan the change. Step 3: Study Review the implementation. 1st. If not. The evolution of TQM into and a full blown . Step 1: Plan Recognize an opportunity. If the change was successful. Plan carefully what is to be done 2nd. has exorcised – driven out – the traditional business as well as graduate management school notion that a company’s success means making products and offering services quicker and cheaper. Step 2: Do Implement the change. Act on the results by identifying what worked as planned and what didn’t. analyze the results and identify learnings.e) Study the results f) Standardize the solution g) Plan for the future JURAN TRILOGY Three components of the Juran Trilogy are i. TQM has replaced this notion with the business principle that making products better is the best way to make them quicker and cheaper and that what you do to make quality better anywhere in an organization makes it better everywhere in the organization. The terms are defined below. The PDSA cycle for sustainable development of TQM shown in Fig. and providing a product service net to try to catch those that do not work well (Feigenbaum. incorporate the learnings from the test into wider changes. do it. Planning ii. selling them hard. 1 is made up of four steps. go through the cycle again. Carry out the plan 3rd. It teaches organizations to plan an action. Study the results 4th. study to see how it conforms to the plan and act on what has been learned. Control iii. 1999).

2. had discontinued with TQM. Those companies wishing to remain competitive and improve their quality systems are recommended the use of ISO 9000 as a foundation for a much broader system of TQM. Feigenbaum (1983) and Juran (1986). 3. managers need to understand the nature and purpose of TQM. 2002). 4. 2003). The study concluded that the size of the firm. Education for the top management and coordinating body members on total quality principles and philosophy. China. The preparation of such a document may constitute: 1. while the remaining 67 firms reported varying degree of success. Creation of a co-ordination body. Deming (1986).management took shape through the works of Crosby (1979). customer satisfaction and does not just achieve product quality assurance (Magd et al. Development of a vision. (1997) conducted a four nation study (US. the nature of the customer base and the holding of ISO 9000 series certification has had no significant effect on TQM outcomes for this cohort. mission and policy statements. This is based on the fact that ISO 9000 is an important part of TQM. (2002) conducted an empirical study in Hong Kong and developed an instrument by using the perceptions and experiences of TQMbased companies. ISO 9000: 2000 versions adopt TQM philosophy with stronger focus on customer satisfaction and an effective process-oriented approach emphasizing on continual performance improvement. Rao et al. Selection and trial run of the first improvement project. Step 3: Study and measure the level of TQM implementation . its relationship to ISO 9000. The adoption of TQM in an organization has to start from a strategy for implementation involving the planning and preparation of document detailing the way forward (Yusof & Aspinwall 2000a). and the potential benefits that can accrue from its implementation. and the implementation of both the approaches will lead to organizational success and competitive advantage. Clearly the new revised standard is a step forward towards TQM. predominantly small in size. In particular. The primary focus of TQM philosophy is on the hands and minds that employ the tools and techniques rather than the tools and techniques themselves (Antony et al. The authors concluded that the training and education is the most critical success factor for the successful implementation of TQM in Hong Kong organizations. Antony et al... The research has highlighted some necessary antecedents for TQM success. India and Mexico) and concluded that ISO 9000 registered companies have better quality management practices and enjoy better quality results than companies that are planning to get registered and are not interested in registration. Appraising the company’s current level of quality management Implementation Step 2: Implement TQM Taylor and Wright (2003) conducted a longitudinal study of TQM implementation for a cohort of 109 firms in UK over a 5-year period and found that 42 firms.

you should concentrate on standardizing best practice in your work area. Standardize: (Seiketsu) Once the first three 5S’s have been implemented. Saraph et al. Sustain: (Shitsuke) This is by far the most difficult S to implement and achieve. The TQM implementation level in Singapore organizations was at a medium level and in the organizations in the United Arab Emirates was found to be low. 5S simplifies your work environment. Kaizen Kaizen is a Japanese word for the philosophy that defines management’s role in continuously . 1989). the next step is to thoroughly clean the work area. and then testing the instrument for reliability and validity. and increase efficiency and organization. Sort – (Seiri) the first S focuses on eliminating unnecessary items from the workplace. create positive impressions on customers. Once fully implemented. For each CSF the actual level of TQM practice is represented by the average of the QAPs ratings for that CSF. Manifestation of CSFs results in generation of Quality-related Action Programs (QAPs). (1995) in United Arab Emirates and Quazi et al. the CSFs must be operationalized for effective TQM implementation. the 5S process can increase morale. providing a measurement scale for the QAPs. A vector of the averages for all the CSFs represents the level of TQM implementation for the organization as a whole (Saraph et al. Shine: (Seiso) Once you have eliminated the clutter and junk that has been clogging your work areas and identified and located the necessary items. (1989) study was replicated by Badri et al. (1998) in Singapore.Regardless of which TQM model is adopted. The measurement of TQM involves selecting a list of QAPs to measure each CSF.. reduces waste and non-value activity while improving quality efficiency and safety. Set In Order (Seiton) is the second of the 5Ss and focuses on efficient and effective storage methods. 5S 5S Philosophy focuses on effective work place organization and standardized work procedures.

Aesthetics The criteria to evaluate the performance measures Simple _ Few in number Developed by users Relevance to customer Improvement Cost Visible TimelyAligned . Determine which processes need to be improved. Quantity ii. vii. effective. Function vi. Time iv. iii. The characteristics used to measure the performance of a particular process i. iv. The objectives of Performance measures i. ii. Accuracy v. Establish baseline measures and reveal trends. Service vii. Indicate process gains and losses.encouraging and implementing small improvements involving everyone. It is the process of continuous improvement in small increments that make the process more efficient. vi. Determine the overall performance of the organization. under control and adaptable. Compare goals with actual performance. Provide information for individual and team evaluation. v. Cost iii. Provide information to make informed decisions.

Supplier Rating : It depends on the characteristics used to measure the performance of a particular process i. applications to manufacturing. The seven tools of quality i. Time iv. Cost iii. Service vii. service sector including IT – Bench marking – Reason to bench mark. methodology. Quantity ii. Process Flow Diagram . Accuracy v. Types. Function vi. Aesthetics The criteria to evaluate the performance measures Simple _ Few in number Developed by users Relevance to customer Improvement Cost Visible Timely Aligned UNIT III TQM TOOLS & TECHNIQUES I 9 The seven traditional tools of quality – New management tools – Six-sigma: Concepts. Bench marking process – FMEA – Stages. Pareto Diagram ii.

Affinity Diagram ii. Cause and Effect Diagram iv. Scatter Diagrams The new seven management tools i. Prioritization Matrices vi. Matrix Diagram v. Process Decision Program Chart vii.iii. Interrelationship Digraph iii. Tree Diagram iv. Control Charts vii. Check Sheets v. Activity Network diagram . Histogram vi.

identify the vital few process input variables that affect key product output variables (―Finding the knobs‖). Control .Make changes to process settings. redesign processes. 4. Improve . 3.improvement opportunity with an emphasis on increasing customer satisfaction. The essence of benchmarking is the process of borrowing ideas and adapting them to gain competitive advantage.Benchmarking Benchmarking is a systematic method by which organizations can measure themselves against the best industry practices. It is a tool for continuous improvement. to reduce the number of defects of key output variables. etc.determine process capability Analyze . standardize processes to maintain levels.Implement process control plans. Planning Analysis Integration Action Maturity Six Sigma Define . 5. 2. . Measure . install real-time process monitoring tools. BENCHMARKING PROCESS 1.

get the customer point of view 8. give them a authority to solve problems 20. deliver what is promised 9. recognize and reward performance.organise processes 5. it can be provided before. 22. and enthusiastic employees.optimize the trade fo between time and personal attention 14. write documents in customer friendly language. front-line people 17. be sure they are adequetly trained.SERVICE QUALITY Customer service is the set of activities anorgaqnization uses to win and retain customers' satisfaction. serve them as internal customers 21.write down the requirements 3. . identify each market segment 2. meet the customer's expectations 7.respond to all complaints 11.communicate the requirements 4.organize the physical spaces Customer care 6. knoweledgble. Elements of customer service are: Organization 1. make the customer feel valued 10. and after the sale fo the product.over respond to the customer. minimize the number of contact points. 12. challenge them to develop better methods. 15 provide pleasant. Communication 13. during.provide a clean and comfortable customer reception environment. 19. hire people who like people 18. 16.

Leadership 23.lead by example 24. listen to the front line employee 25. strive for continuous process improvement.

The three key elements to a partnering relationship Long-term commitment Trust Shared vision The three types of sourcing • Sole sourcing • Multiple sourcing • Single sourcing

UNIT IV TQM TOOLS & TECHNIQUES II 9 Quality circles – Quality Function Deployment (QFD) – Taguchi quality loss function – TPM – Concepts, improvement needs – Cost of Quality – Performance measures.


Quality Function Deployment is a planning tool used to fulfill customer expectations. It is a disciplined approach to product design, engineering, and production and provides in-depth evaluation of a product.

Quality Function Deployment (QFD) was developed to bring this personal interface to modern manufacturing and business. In today's industrial society, where the growing distance between producers and users is a concern, QFD links the needs of the customer (end user) with design, development, engineering, manufacturing, and service functions.

QFD is: 1. Understanding Customer Requirements 2. Quality Systems Thinking + Psychology + Knowledge/Epistemology 3. Maximizing Positive Quality That Adds Value 4. Comprehensive Quality System for Customer Satisfaction 5. Strategy to Stay Ahead of The Game As a quality system that implements elements of Systems Thinking with elements of Psychology and Epistemology (knowledge), QFD provides a system of comprehensive development process for: Understanding 'true' customer needs from the customer's perspective What 'value' means to the customer, from the customer's perspective Understanding how customers or end users become interested, choose, and are satisfied Analyzing how do we know the needs of the customer Deciding what features to include Determining what level of performance to deliver Intelligently linking the needs of the customer with design, development, engineering, manufacturing, and service functions Intelligently linking Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) with the front end Voice of Customer analysis and the entire design system QFD is a comprehensive quality system that systematically links the needs of the customer with various business functions and organizational processes, such as marketing, design, quality, production, manufacturing, sales, etc., aligning the entire company toward achieving a common goal. It does so by seeking both spoken and unspoken needs, identifying positive quality and business opportunities, and translating these into actions and designs by using transparent analytic and prioritization methods, empowering organizations to exceed normal expectations and provide a level of unanticipated excitement that generates value. The QFD methodology can be used for both tangible products and non-tangible services, including manufactured goods, service industry, software products, IT projects, business process development, government, healthcare, environmental initiatives, and many other applications.

Categories of Quality Cost:

Many companies summarize quality costs into four broad categories. They are, a) Internal failure costs - The cost associated with defects that are found prior to transfer of the product to the customer. b) External failure costs - The cost associated with defects that are found after product is shipped to the customer. c) Appraisal costs - The cost incurred in determining the degree of conformance to quality requirement. d) Prevention costs - The cost incurred in keeping failure and appraisal costs to a minimum. Sometimes we can also include the hidden costs i.e., implicit costs. Traditional Quality cost model

Emerging Quality Cost Model Higher quality doesn't mean higher costs

The companies estimate quality costs for the following reasons : a) To quantifying the size of the quality problem in the language of money improves communication between middle managers and upper managers. b) To identify major opportunities for cost reduction. c) To identify the opportunities for reducing customer dissatisfaction and associated threats to product salability.

Total Productive Maintenance ( TPM ): It can be considered as the medical science of machines. Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) is a maintenance program which involves a newly defined concept for maintaining plants and equipment. The goal of the TPM program is to markedly increase production while, at the same time, increasing employee morale and job satisfaction. TPM brings maintenance into focus as a necessary and vitally important part of the business. It is no longer regarded as a non-profit activity. Down time for maintenance is scheduled as a part of the manufacturing day and, in some cases, as an integral part of the manufacturing process. The goal is to hold emergency and unscheduled maintenance to a minimum. Why TPM ? TPM was introduced to achieve the following objectives. The important ones are listed below. Avoid wastage in a quickly changing economic environment. Producing goods without reducing product quality.

Employees must be empowered to initiate corrective action. Breakdown maintenance : It means that people waits until equipment fails and repair it. The differences between TQM and TPM is summarized below. used in TQM are used to implement and optimize TPM. Produce a low batch quantity at the earliest possible time. and 3. It is software oriented Equipment ( Input and cause ) Employees participation and it is hardware oriented Elimination of losses and wastes. etc. Total commitment to the program by upper level management is required in both programmes 2. Such a thing could be used when the equipment failure does not significantly affect the operation or production or generate any significant loss other than repair cost. Category TQM TPM Object Quality ( Output and effects ) Systematize the management. Similarities and differences between TQM and TPM : The TPM program closely resembles the popular Total Quality Management (TQM) program. 2. Goods send to the customers must be non defective. Mains of attaining goal Target Quality for PPM Types of maintenance : 1. benchmarking. 1. Changes in employee mind-set toward their job responsibilities must take place as well. documentation.Following are the similarities between the two. Many of the tools such as employee empowerment. A long range outlook must be accepted as TPM may take a year or more to implement and is an on-going process.Reduce cost. Preventive maintenance ( 1951 ): .

History: TPM is a innovative Japanese concept. predictive maintenance is condition based maintenance. Weakness of current machines are sufficiently studied ( on site information leading to failure prevention. servicing and cleaning equipment and replacing parts to prevent sudden failure and process problems. It manages trend values. The origin of TPM can be traced back to 1951 when preventive maintenance was introduced in Japan. the equipment service life can be prolonged by doing preventive maintenance. Periodic maintenance ( Time based maintenance . however with the automation of Nippondenso. Maintenance group took up only essential maintenance works. periodic inspection or equipment condition diagnosis. safety and ease of manufacturing ) and are incorporated before commissioning a new equipment. Compared to periodic maintenance.It is a daily maintenance ( cleaning. . TPM . Predictive maintenance : This is a method in which the service life of important part is predicted based on inspection or diagnosis. design to retain the healthy condition of equipment and prevent failure through the prevention of deterioration. in order to use the parts to the limit of their service life. Equipment with design weakness must be redesigned to improve reliability or improving maintainability 4. It is further divided into periodic maintenance and predictive maintenance. So the management decided that the routine maintenance of equipment would be carried out by the operators. 2a. ( This is Autonomous maintenance. one of the features of TPM ). Preventive maintenance is the concept wherein. oiling and re-tightening ). However the concept of preventive maintenance was taken from USA. to measure deterioration. designed to monitor conditions through an on-line system. maintenance became a problem as more maintenance personnel were required.TBM) : Time based maintenance consists of periodically inspecting. operators produced goods using machines and the maintenance group was dedicated with work of maintaining those machines. inspection. Nippondenso was the first company to introduce plant wide preventive maintenance in 1960. by measuring and analyzing data about deterioration and employs a surveillance system. Corrective maintenance ( 1957 ) : It improves equipment and its components so that preventive maintenance can be carried out reliably. easier maintenance and prevents of defects. Just like human life is extended by preventive medicine. Maintenance prevention ( 1960 ): It indicates the design of a new equipment. 3. 2b.

S Maintain a accident free environment. Adoption of life cycle approach for improving the overall performance of production equipment. The maintenance crew went in the equipment modification for improving reliability. The modifications were made or incorporated in new equipment. The . Develop Multi-skilled and flexible workers. Thus Nippondenso of the Toyota group became the first company to obtain the TPM certification. so that there are no customer complaints. Improving productivity by highly motivated workers which is achieved by job enlargement. TPM Targets: P Obtain Minimum 80% OPE. M Increase the suggestions by 3 times. C Reduce the manufacturing cost by 30%. This lead to maintenance prevention. The aim of productive maintenance was to maximize plant and equipment effectiveness to achieve optimum life cycle cost of production equipment. D Achieve 100% success in delivering the goods as required by the customer. Obtain Minimum 90% OEE ( Overall Equipment Effectiveness ) Run the machines even during lunch.Thus Nippondenso which already followed preventive maintenance also added Autonomous maintenance done by production operators. Motives of TPM 1. Thus all employees took part in implementing Productive maintenance. involving the employees participation. by the Japanese Institute of Plant Engineers ( JIPE ). 2. ( Lunch is for operators and not for machines ! ) Q Operate in a manner. The use of voluntary small group activities for identifying the cause of failure. Uniqueness of TPM The major difference between TPM and other concepts is that the operators are also made to involve in the maintenance process. possible plant and equipment modifications. 3. By then Nippon Denso had made quality circles. Based on these developments Nippondenso was awarded the distinguished plant prize for developing and implementing TPM. Thus preventive maintenance along with Maintenance prevention and Maintainability Improvement gave birth to Productive maintenance.

MTBF . neat and attractive. Zero Breakdown and Zero accidents in all functional areas of the organization. 2. 6. 6. The workers get a feeling of owning the machine. 4. Follow pollution control measures. Involve people in all levels of organization. MTTR . Achieve goals by working as team. Direct benefits of TPM 1.MTTR ) / MTBF. . OEE ( Overall Equipment Efficiency ) : OEE = A x PE x Q A . 3. 2. Form different teams to reduce defects and Self Maintenance. in the required quality. Favorablechange in the attitude of the operators. Rectify customer complaints. ) 5. Reducethe manufacturing cost by 30%. 5. Higher confidence level among the employees. 7. Availability is proportion of time machine is actually available out of time it should be available. Achieve Zero Defects. 4. Indirect benefits of TPM 1.Mean Time To Repair. Satisfy the customers needs by 100 % ( Delivering the right quantity at the right time. 3.concept of "I ( Production operators ) Operate. TPM Objectives 1. 3.Mean Time Between Failures = ( Total Running Time ) / Number of Failures. 2. Reduce accidents.5 or 2 times. A = ( MTBF . Horizontaldeployment of a new concept in all areas of the organization. Keep the work place clean. Share knowledge and experience. Increase productivity and OPE ( Overall Plant Efficiency ) by 1.Availability of the machine. You ( Maintenance department ) fix" is not followed.

PREPARATORY STAGE : STEP 1 . quality maintenance etc. autonomous maintenance. Suppliers as they should know that we want quality supply from them.Announcement by Management to all about TPM introduction in the organization : Proper understanding. sisters . STEP 3 . commitment and active involvement of the top management in needed for this step. Rate efficiency (RE) : Actual average cycle time is slower than design cycle time because of jams. STEP 4 . STEP B . after which announcement is made to all. Which is percentage of good parts out of total produced sometimes called "yield".Establishing the TPM working system and target : Now each area is benchmarked and fix up a target for achievement. Publish it in the house magazine and put it in the notice board. Q .Refers to quality rate. Related companies and affiliated companies who can be our customers. etc. as part of it. STEP 5 . Senior management should have awareness programmes.A master plan for institutionalizing : Next step is implementation leading to institutionalizing wherein TPM becomes an organizational culture. Steps in introduction of TPM in a organization : Step A . Send a letter to all concerned individuals if required. Achieving PM award is the proof of reaching a satisfactory level.Setting up TPM and departmental committees : TPM includes improvement. It is given by RE X SE.PE .. Take people who matters to places where TPM already successfully implemented. Some need intensive training and some just an awareness.INTRODUCTION STAGE This is a ceremony and we should invite all. STEP 2 .Performance Efficiency. When committees are set up it should take care of all those needs. Output is reduced because of jams Speed efficiency (SE) : Actual cycle time is slower than design cycle time machine output is reduced because it is running at reduced speed.Initial education and propaganda for TPM : Training is to be done based on the need.

STAGE D .INSTITUTIONALISING STAGE By all there activities one would has reached maturity stage. Of these four activities are for establishing the system for production efficiency. one for initial control system of new products and equipment. Some may learn from us and some can help us and customers will get the communication from us that we care for quality output. STAGE C .IMPLEMENTATION In this stage eight activities are carried which are called eight pillars in the development of TPM activity. Organization Structure for TPM Implementation : Pillars of TPM . Also think of challenging level to which you can take this movement. one for improving the efficiency of administration and are for control of safety.concerns etc. sanitation as working environment. Now is the time for applying for PM award.

Discipline .5S : TPM starts with 5S. Problems cannot be clearly seen when the work place is unorganized. Making problems visible is the first step of improvement.PILLAR 1 . Cleaning and organizing the workplace helps the team to uncover problems. Japanese Term Seiri Seiton Seiso Seiketsu Shitsuke English Translation Organisation Tidiness Cleaning Standardisation Discipline Equivalent 'S' term Sort Systematise Sweep Standardise Self .

Priority Frequency of Use Less than once per year. and only one place". scrap etc. This standards are implemented for whole organization and are tested / Inspected randomly.Standardization : Employees has to discuss together and decide on standards for keeping the work place / Machines / pathways neat and clean. and heavy items occupy the bottom position in the racks.Sort out : This means sorting and organizing the items as critical. grease. useless. following work procedures. SEISO . important. Unwanted items can be salvaged.Organise : The concept here is that "Each items has a place. As a result of this step. SHITSUKE .Shine the workplace : This involves cleaning the work place free of burrs. waste. Store away from the workplace Low Average Store together but offline High Locate at the workplace SEITON . Critical items should be kept for use nearby and items that are not be used in near future. name plates and colored tags has to be used. This includes wearing badges. or items that are not need as of now. the search time is reduced. SEIKETSU . Once per week Once Per Day How to use Throw away. For this step. To identify items easily. The items should be placed back after usage at the same place. should be stored in some place.Self discipline : Considering 5S as a way of life and bring about self-discipline among the employees of the organization. oil. .SEIRI . punctuality. Vertical racks can be used for this purpose. Once per month. dedication to the organization etc. frequently used items. No loosely hanging wires or oil leakage from machines. the worth of the item should be decided based on utility and not cost. Once per year< At least 2/6 months.

Policy : 1. 3. 4. Stepwise implementation of JH activities.JISHU HOZEN ( Autonomous maintenance ) : This pillar is geared towards developing operators to be able to take care of small maintenance tasks. thus freeing up the skilled maintenance people to spend time on more value added activity and technical repairs. 3. Educate the employees about abnormalities in equipments. Autonomous inspection 7. Its advantages. 1. Standardization and 8. Uninterrupted operation of equipments. Eliminating the defects at source through active employee participation. Preparation of employees. Initial cleanup of machines : o o Supervisor and technician should discuss and set a date for implementing step1 Arrange all items needed for cleaning . The operators are responsible for upkeep of their equipment to prevent it from deteriorating. 2. Prevent the occurrence of 1A / 1B because of JH. Reduce oil consumption by 50% 3. General inspection 6. Autonomous management. 2. Take counter measures 4. Fix tentative JH standards 5. Initial cleanup of machines. Reduce process time by 50% 4. Train the Employees : Educate the employees about TPM. Flexible operators to operate and maintain other equipments. 2.PILLAR 2 . 2. JISHU HOZEN Targets: 1. Increase use of JH by 50% Steps in JISHU HOZEN : 1. JH advantages and Steps in JH. Each of the above mentioned steps is discussed in detail below.

g. what and how. Machine parts should be modified to prevent accumulation of dirt and dust. Instead of opening a door for inspecting the machine. Make note of area which were inaccessible. Dust. inspection and lubrication and it also should include details like when. employees should clean the equipment completely with the help of maintenance department. JH schedule has to be made and followed strictly. acrylic sheets can be used. Tentative Standard : o o 5. After acquiring this new knowledge the employees should share this with others. hinge door can be used. Parts which have never given any problem or part which don't need any inspection are removed from list permanently based on experience. New methods of cleaning and lubricating are used. This is necessary to improve the technical skills of employees and to use inspection manuals correctly. If there are many screw to open a fly wheel door. Each employee prepares his own autonomous chart / schedule in consultation with supervisor. bolts. The employees are trained in disciplines like Pneumatics. hydraulics. E. Following are the things that has to be taken care while cleaning. Finally close the open parts of the machine and run the machine. This avoid defects due to poor JH. Inaccessible regions had to be reached easily. drives. loose wires. Autonomous Inspection : o o o o o . nuts and Safety. Contents of tag is transferred to a register. Pink tag is placed where the aid of maintenance department is needed. To prevent work out of machine parts necessary action must be taken. unfastened nits and bolts and worn out parts. By acquiring this new technical knowledge. General Inspection : o o o o 6. Inspection that is made in preventive maintenance is included in JH. Schedule should be made regarding cleaning. stains. electrical. Including good quality machine parts. Counter Measures : o o o 4. lubricant and coolant. o o o 3. White tags is place where problems can be solved by operators. oils and grease has to be removed.o o o o On the arranged date. the operators are now well aware of machine parts. They are Oil leakage. After clean up problems are categorized and suitably tagged.

The principle behind is that "a very large number of small improvements are move effective in an organizational environment than a few improvements of large value. Check and Act ) cycle must be implemented for Kaizen.KAIZEN : "Kai" means change. Autonomous Management : o o PILLAR 3 . Kaizen Policy : 1. Extensive use of PM analysis as a tool for eliminating losses. OEE and OPE and other TPM targets must be achieved by continuous improve through Kaizen.o The frequency of cleanup and inspection is reduced based on experience. Upto the previous stem only the machinery / equipment was the concentration. and "Zen" means good ( for the better ). Tools used in Kaizen : 1. PM analysis . Necessary items should be organized. These activities are not limited to production areas and can be implemented in administrative areas as well. but carried out on a continual basis and involve all people in the organization. Relentless pursuit to improve over all plant equipment effectiveness. Work environment is modified such that there is no difficulty in getting any item. PDCA ( Plan. defects and unavoidable downtimes. By using a detailed and thorough procedure we eliminate losses in a systematic method using various Kaizen tools. relentless pursuit to achieve cost reduction targets in all resources 3. However in this step the surroundings of machinery are organized. It also aims to achieve 30% manufacturing cost reduction. Focus of easy handling of operators. Do. Standardization : o o o o 8. Kaizen requires no or little investment. measurement and adjustments. Practice concepts of zero losses in every sphere of activity. Necessary spares for equipments is planned and procured. 2. 7. Kaizen Target : Achieve and sustain zero loses with respect to minor stops. such that there is no searching and searching time is reduced. 5. 4. Basically kaizen is for small improvements. Kaizen is opposite to big spectacular innovations. This pillar is aimed at reducing losses in the workplace that affect our efficiencies. Everybody should follow the work instructions strictly.

Kaizen summary sheet. Start up loss 5.operating at low speeds. jig and tool breakage loss 16. Defect / rework loss 8. Kaizen pursues efficient equipment. As one of the pillars of TPM activities. Line organization loss 12. Kaizen activities try to thoroughly eliminate 16 major losses. that is extremes of productivity and aims at achieving substantial effects. Operating motion loss 11. Why . TPM aims at maximization of machine utilization and not merely machine availability maximization. Yield loss. The objective of TPM is maximization of equipment effectiveness. Setup / adjustment losses 3. Energy loss 15. Scheduled downtime loss 9. Loses that impede effective use of production resources Loses that impede human work efficiency Losses that impede equipment efficiency Category .2. operator and material and energy utilization. Failure losses . 16 Major losses in a organisation: Loss 1. Die. Summary of losses 4.Breakdown loss 2. Cutting blade loss 4.Why analysis 3. Kaizen register 5. Management loss 10. Measurement and adjustment loss 14. 6. Logistic loss 13. Speed loss . Minor stoppage / Idling loss. 7.

PLANNED MAINTENANCE : It is aimed to have trouble free machines and equipments producing defect free products for total customer satisfaction. A single cause is rare .Classification of losses : Aspect Sporadic Loss Chronic Loss This loss cannot be easily identified and solved.a combination of causes trends to be a rule The frequency of loss is more. PILLAR 4 . equipment and methods. 1. Preventive Maintenance 2. This breaks maintenance down into 4 "families" or groups which was defined earlier. Achieve and sustain availability of machines . Remedy Easy to establish a remedial measure Impact / Loss A single loss can be costly The frequency of occurrence is low and occasional. Cause-effect relationship is simple to trace. Causation Causes for this failure can be easily traced. Policy : 1. Corrective Maintenance 4. Breakdown Maintenance 3. quality assurance and maintenance people are required. Maintenance Prevention With Planned Maintenance we evolve our efforts from a reactive to a proactive method and use trained maintenance staff to help train the operators to better maintain their equipment. Frequency of occurrence Corrective action Usually the line personnel in the production can attend to this problem. Specialists in process engineering. Even if various counter measures are applied This type of losses are caused because of hidden defects in machine.

Equipment evaluation and recoding present status.2. Six steps in Planned maintenance : 1. much like Focused Improvement. Evaluation of planned maintenance. 4. 5. Focus is on eliminating non-conformances in a systematic manner. PILLAR 5 . Restore deterioration and improve weakness. Reduce maintenance cost by 20 % 4. Policy : 1. Defect free conditions and control of equipments. Zero equipment failure and break down. Target : 1. Ensure availability of spares all the time. We gain understanding of what parts of the equipment affect product quality and begin to eliminate current quality concerns. 3. Improve reliability and maintainability of machines. QM activities to support quality assurance. The condition are checked and measure in time series to very that measure values are within standard values to prevent defects. Optimum maintenance cost. The transition of measured values is watched to predict possibilities of defects occurring and to take counter measures before hand. 3. Reduces spares inventory. based on the basic concept of maintaining perfect equipment to maintain perfect quality of products. Building up information management system. parts and members and map out plan. 2. 2. QM activities is to set equipment conditions that preclude quality defects. 3. 4. Transition is from reactive to proactive (Quality Control to Quality Assurance). Improve reliability and maintainability by 50 % 3. select equipment. Prepare predictive maintenance system by introducing equipment diagnostic techniques and 6. Focus of prevention of defects at source . then move to potential quality concerns. 2. Prepare time based information system.QUALITY MAINTENANCE : It is aimed towards customer delight through highest quality through defect free manufacturing.

Product wise defects 2. Occurrence trend in beginning and the end of each production/process/changes. Occurrence trend with respect to restoration of breakdown/modifications/periodical replacement of quality components. Reduce in-process defects by 50 % 3. The actual record of the settings/conditions during the defect occurrence. Customer end line rejection 2. Target : 1.4. method. Severity of the defect and its contribution . The standard settings/conditions of the sub-process 3. The operating condition for individual sub-process related to men.TRAINING : It is aimed to have multi-skilled revitalized employees whose morale is high and who has eager to come to work and perform all required functions effectively and independently. Data requirements : Quality defects are classified as customer end defects and in house defects. ( fool proof system ) 5. For customer-end data. ladle/furnace lining etc. (Like pattern change. Field complaints. PILLAR 6 . we have to get data on 1. In-house. Focus on poka-yoke. Achieve and sustain customer complaints at zero 2. Education is . Effective implementation of operator quality assurance. Location of the defect with reference to the layout 4.major/minor 3. In-line detection and segregation of defects. 6.) 6. Magnitude and frequency of its occurrence at each stage of measurement 5. material and machine. 2. Reduce cost of quality by 50 %. Data related to processes: 1. data include data related to products and data related to process Data related to product : 1.

2. Target : 1. Phase 2 : Know the theory but cannot do. Office TPM must be followed to improve productivity. Training the employees for upgrading the operation and maintenance skills. The goal is to create a factory full of experts. Evaluation of activities and study of future approach. The different phase of skills are Phase 1 : Do not know. KK. Achieve and sustain downtime due to want men at zero on critical machines. Office TPM addresses twelve major losses. 4. efficiency in the administrative functions and identify and eliminate losses. Preparation of training calendar. PM). Policy : 1. Training curriculum / tools /assessment etc conductive to employee revitalization 4. Phase 3 : Can do but cannot teach Phase 4 : Can do and also teach. Establish of training system for operation and maintenance skill up gradation. 3. "Know-How" to overcome a problem what to be done. 5. Steps in Educating and training activities : 1. Creating a training environment for self learning based on felt needs. skills and techniques.given to operators to upgrade their skill. PILLAR 7 .OFFICE TPM : Office TPM should be started after activating four other pillars of TPM (JH. Focus on improvement of knowledge. 3. QM. Training to remove employee fatigue and make work enjoyable. This they do without knowing the root cause of the problem and why they are doing so. By experience they gain. Processing loss . Achieve and sustain zero losses due to lack of knowledge / skills / techniques 3. 2. This includes analyzing processes and procedures towards increased office automation. Aim for 100 % participation in suggestion scheme. Kick-off of the system for training. Hence it become necessary to train them on knowing "Know-why". It is not sufficient know only "Know-How" by they should also learn "Know-why". 6. 2. Setting policies and priorities and checking present status of education and training. The employees should be trained to achieve the four phases of skill. They are 1.

impact of failure on people. o o o o o o o o o o o Basic and Secondary Functions . sales leading to high inventories 3. 1: no effect on output. MIS. Cost loss including in areas such as procurement. Idle loss 5.protect occupant from noise Failure Mode . marketing. (scale: 1-10. TPM co-ordinate plans and guides the sub committee Failure Mode and Effective Analysis(FMEA) is a systematic tool for identifying: effects or consequences of a potential product or process failure. telephone and fax lines 9. 8: serious effect.g. Methods to eliminate or reduce the chance of a failure occurring. Time spent on retrieval of information 10.refers to cause of the failure. Members representing all support functions and people from Production & Quality should be included in sub committee. FMEA generates a living document that can be used to anticipate and prevent failures from occurring. equipment driver dissatisfaction. Severity is a rating corresponding to the seriousness of an effect of a potential failure mode. 5: moderate effect. Office equipment breakdown 8. Failure Cause .physical description of a failure. Basic Function: ingress to and egress from vehicle Secondary functions . Communication loss 4. Communication channel breakdown. Head of Finance. Purchase etc should be heading the subcommittee. Accuracy loss 7.2. accounts. noise enters at door-to-roof interface Failure Effects . insufficient door seal. 10: hazardous effect) Occurrence is a rating corresponding to the rate at which a first level cause and its resultant failure mode will occur over the design life of . Expenses on emergency dispatches/purchases To support functions e. Non availability of correct on line stock status 11. Customer complaints due to logistics 12. Set-up loss 6.verb~noun descriptions of what product (process) does.

a smaller company might assign one quality improvement team. 5: might detect failure. iv. v. Provide information for individual and team evaluation. 10: failures certain) Detection is a rating corresponding to the likelihood that the detection methods or current controls will detect the potential failure mode before the product is released for production for design. . Establish baseline measures and reveal trends. (scale: 1-10. over the design life of the product. 5: occasional failure. Determine the overall performance of the organization. Compare goals with actual performance. or for process before it leaves the production facility. or before any additional process controls are applied. . vii. ii. (scale: 1-10. 8: high # of failures likely.the system. 10: almost certain not to detect failures) Analysis Techniques for Quality Costs: i. . Determine which processes need to be improved. Trend Analysis ii. Larger firms might assign several. . 1: will detect failure. Pareto Analysis The objectives of Performance measures i. 1: failure unlikely. Provide information to make informed decisions. Representatives who are selected to be quality-lead team members should possess the following attributes: . Indicate process gains and losses. Quality improvement teams focus on . In establishing quality improvement teams. Areas where quality improvement teams could begin investigating for possible improvement are: ♦Increased Employee Value ♦Informed Employees ♦Technical Training ♦Quality Training ♦Employee Suggestions ♦Employee Participation ♦Higher Quality of Artistry ♦Personal Development Good QIT member qualities are . possibly with one quality lead team as a guide for the other teams. iii. vi.

difficulty interfacing with other parts. for example. Great. Long term costs to the manufacturer would include brand reputation and loss of customer satisfaction leading to declining market share. Where as statisticians before him focused on improving the mean outcome of a process. Traditionally manufacturers have considered only the costs of quality up to the point of shipping out the product. Now if you were to plot the costs versus the diameter of a nut. etc) m = Target Value for y k = Constant (defined below) . you would have a quadratic function. or standard deviation) from the target (m). Taguchi recognized that in an industrial process it is vital to produce a product on target . with a minimum of zero at the target diameter. so what is the actual loss function? Think for a moment about how the costs of quality would vary with the products deviation on either side of the mean. car windshields that have the target average mean are useless if they each vary significantly from the target specifications.♦commitment to quality. concentration. and that the variation around the mean caused poor manufactured quality. and the success of the organization ♦good communication and interpersonal skills ♦a ―big picture‖ view of the organization and of the industry ♦a strong commitment to learning and change ♦representation of a different area and level of the organization They are statistical methods developed by Genichi Taguchi to improve the quality of products. What are the losses to society from poor quality? Taguchi's key argument was that the cost of poor quality goes beyond direct costs to the manufacturer such as reworking or waste costs. For example. Loss function for one piece of product: Where: L = Loss in Dollars y = Quality Characteristic (diameter. Taguchi aims to quantify costs over the lifetime of the product. We expect therefore that the loss (L) will be a quadratic function of the variance (σ. or the need to build in safety margins. customer satisfaction. Other costs to the consumer would include costs from low durability. Next we will walk though the derivation of the Taguchi Loss Function. but Taguchi modified the function to represent total losses. The squared-error loss function has been in use since the 1930's.

or action taken by the customer to account for a defective product at either end of the specification range. is found by substituting y = m + Δ0 into the loss function: Now we can solve for the constant k. Smaller-the-Better Characteristic 3. it also puts this unitless value into monetary units. Larger-the-Better Characteristic .The cost of the counter measure. Since we are not usually concerned with only one piece of product. Ao. Quality Loss Function for Various Quality Characteristics There are three characteristics used to define the quality loss function: 1. Substituting k into the loss function and then rearranging in terms of Cp. the loss function for multiple units is The process capability index (Cp) is used to forecast the quality level of non-defective products that will be shipped out. Taguchi Loss Function: The Taguchi quality loss function is a way to assess economic loss from a deviation in quality without having to develop the unique function for each quality characteristic. As a function of the traditionally used process capability index. Nominal–the-Best Characteristic 2. The Cp has been used in traditional quality control and is defined rather abstractly as: where represents the tolerance of the product.

An example of this characteristic is the thickness of a windshield in a car. There is a specified upper and lower limit. The equation used to describe the loss function of one unit of product: Where: L = Loss in Dollars y = Output Value m = Target Value of Output k = Proportionality Constant The proportionality constant (k) for nominal-the-best characteristics can be defined as: Where: A0 = Consumer Loss (in Dollars) Δ0 = Maximum Deviation from Target Allowed by Consumer When there is more than one piece of product the following form of the loss function is used: = Mean Squared Deviation A graphical representation of the Nominal Characteristic is shown below.Each of these characteristic types is defined by a different set of equations. . which is different from the general form of the loss function equation. the loss (L) increases. with the target specification being the middle point. Quality is in this case is defined in terms of deviation from the target value. There is no loss when the output value is equal to the target value (y = m). As the output value (y) deviates from the target value (m) increasing the mean squared deviation. Nominal–Defined upper and lower boundries For a nominal characteristic. there is a defined target value for the product which has to be achieved.

An example of this characteristic is minimization of heat losses in a heat exchanger.Better In the case of Smaller-the-Better characteristic. Minimizing this characteristic as much as possible would produce a more desirable product.Smaller-the. The equation used to describe the loss function of one unit of product: Where: k = Proportionality Constant y = Output Value The proportionality constant (k) for the Smaller-the-Better characteristic can be determined as follows: A0 = Consumer Loss (in Dollars) y0 = Maximum Consumer Tolerated Output Value A graphical representation of the Smaller-the-Better characteristic is below. . the ideal target value is defined as zero. The loss is minimized as the output value is minimized.

An example of this characteristic is maximizing the product yield from a process. as the loss is minimized as the output value is maximized. and the ideal target value is infinity. The only difference between the two is the deffinition of y0. The equation used to describe the loss function of one unit of product: Where: k = Proportionality Constant y0 = Minimum Consumer Tolerated Output Value The proportionality constant (k) for the Larger-the-Better characteristic can be calculated by using the equation given for the Smaller-the-Better proportionality constant. it is preferred to maximize the result. For this characteristic type. This characteristic is the opposite of the Smaller-the-Better characteristic.Larger-the-Better The Larger–the-Better characteristic is just the opposite of the Smaller-the-Better characteristc. . A graphical representation of the Larger-the-Better characteristic is shown below.

Since it is very difficult to quantify the loss to society for a defective product after customer purchase. the quality loss function can be used to determine how much it costs the manufacturer to fix the defective product before shippment. there was no set method for determining optimal tolerances for a given process. Before Taguchi. Δ0 is a value for every product characteristic at which 50% of customers view the product as defective.Specifying Tolerances for a Process A manufacturer is responsible for only shipping products that meet certain specifications. Taguchi's method determines tolerances that aim for a balance between losses to the manufacturer and the customer. This causes negative feedback from customers. Worked out Example 1 Suppose you are manufacturing green paint. Products that do not meet these determined specifications are defective and cannot be shipped for sale. The quality loss function is the basis for determining tolerances for a process. is the average loss occuring at this point. and compare that value to the cost that the defective product would have on the customer (society). A0. Your target is 200g of pigment in each gallon of paint. reducing losses in the market. but they would also result in increased costs to manufacturers. The functional tolerance. Taguchi predicts the quality level. not the deviation between products. The problem that often occurs is products that barely meet specifications are shipped and fail after customer purchase. is $10 per gallon from . To determine a specification for the pigment. resulting in a loss to the company. The customer loss. HomePainto. tolerance is defined as the deviation from the target. which results in losses to the manufacturer and ultimately society. In quality engineering. More stringent tolerances would result in fewer products failing on customers. To do determine these tolerances. The average cost to the consumer. The standard to fix this problem is to tighten up the tolerances. you must determine both a functional tolerance and customer loss. manufacturers have a determined level of tolerance for deviation from the desired target specification. In aiming to meet these specifications.

should the manufacturer spend the $1 to adjust the paint? The manufacturing tolerance is determined by setting L = $1. Worked out Example 2 Expanding on the first paint example. lets decide what the manufacturing tolerance should be. The paint becomes unsatisfactory if it is out of the range . At what pigment level. they are saving 1$ of reworking costs but imparting a cost . dollars/ gallon of paint This figure is a rough approximation of the cost imparted to society from poor quality. Calculate the loss imparted to society from a gallon of paint with only 185g of pigment.returns or adjusting the pigment. If the paint manufacturer ships the product from example 1 with 185g of pigment. dollars/ gallon of paint As long as the paint is within of pigment. Suppose the off-target paint can be adjusted at the end of the line for $1 a gallon. the factory should not spend $1 to adjust the pigment at the end of the line . The manufacturing tolerance is the economic break-even point for reworking scrap. The manufacturing tolerance represents a break-even point between the manufacturer and the consumer and sets limits for shipping the product. because the loss without the rework will be less than $1.

50 on society. but also losses to society C) They put the losses in Yen instead of Dollars D) They calculate the cost per product . loss of marketshare and returned products.of $22. Multiple Choice Question 1 How do Taguchi's methods differ from traditional ways of calculating losses due to poor quality? A) They average losses over a 12 month period of time B) They include not only losses to the manufacturer up to the point of shipping. These additional costs will surface through loss of customer satisfaction and thus brand reputation.

.ISO 9000-2000 Quality System – Elements.QS 9000 – ISO 14000 – Concepts. Improved Quality awareness throughtout the organisation. Registration can improve service performance and reduce uncertainty. Responsibilities and Authorities among all. Quality auditing. Worldwide Recogination. Employee involvement and thus commitment.UNIT V QUALITY SYSTEMS 9 Need for ISO 9000. Regular assessments ensure the organization continually uses. NEED FOR ISO 9001:2008 QMS CERTIFICATION Certification to ISO 9001:2008 QMS increases the Customer's confidence in Supplier's Quality and Delivery Commitments. monitors and improves their processes. Clearity in Roles. Requirements and Benefits – Case studies of TQM implementation in manufacturing and service sectors including IT. Documentation. ISO 9001:2008 QMS is universally recogonised and hence helps in penetrating New Markets Globally.

New Delhi. Rohini. Afghanistan has achieved ISO 9001 : 2008 Q M S Certification. Mayur Vihar.. India has achieved . District Jail. Onicra Credit Rating Agency of India Ltd. India has achieved ISO 9001:2008 QMS Certification. With this. Kabul. New Delhi. Neda Telecommunications becomes the first company in Afghanistan to achieve the certification to 2008 version of ISO 9001 Quality Management System Standard.LATEST NEWS Neda Telecommunications. Salwan Public School. Delhi. India has achieved ISO 9001:2008 QMS Certification.

1. New Delhi. Tihar. Tihar Jail. India has achieved ISO 9001:2000 QMS Certification. New Delhi. Delhi. Recruitment Cell working under 4th Battalion of Delhi Armed Police. Delhi. New Delhi. India has achieved ISO 9001:2000 QMS Certification. Asaf Ali Road.ISO/IEC 27001 ISMS Certification. District Passport Center. Central Public Relation Office. India has achieved ISO 9001:2000 QMS Certification. India has achieved ISO 9001:2000 QMS Certification. 3. New Delhi. India has achieved . New Delhi. Delhi Traffic Police (Notice Branch). Delhi. Central Jail No. Tihar. India has achieved ISO 9001 : 2000 QMS Certification. Central Jail No. Delhi. Drug De-Addiction Centre at Central Jail Hospital.

ISO 9001:2000 QMS Certification. uses a simple process-based structure. but apply to the processes that create them. The ISO 9000 quality management systems (QMS) standards are not specific to products or services. The most important revised standard. The standards are generic in nature so that they can be used by manufacturing and service industries anywhere in the world. a federation of 132 national standards bodies. they underwent a major overhaul in 2000. is consistent with the . which is more generic than the old 20-element structure of ISO 9001:1994. ISO 9001:2000. New Delhi. The Orchid (Hotel). First released in 1987 and revised in a limited manner in 1994. India has achieved ISO 14001:2004 EMS Certification. ISO 9000 ISO 9000 is a series of quality management systems standards created by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).

and heat treating. International automotive suppliers no longer have to satisfy multiple national automotive quality standards. Organizations that register to ISO 14001. providing a framework for organizations to demonstrate their commitment to environmental responsibility. This standard combines ISO 9001:2000 with automotive sector-specific requirements from the American QS-9000.plan-do-check improvement cycle used in the ISO 14000 environmental management systems standards. An EMS enables an organization to control the environmental aspects and impacts of its activities. plating or other finishing services directly relating to original equipment manufacturer (OEM) customers. . released in 1996. is a global series of environmental management systems (EMS) standards. accredited organizations that review the organization’s quality manual and other documentation to ensure that they meet the standard. British and Japanese automakers also contributed to its development. Once implemented. It is a tangible expression of a firm’s commitment to quality that is internationally understood and accepted. production materials. and environmental performance evaluation. such as hardware. ISO 9001:2000 registration gives the organization the benefit of an objectively evaluated and enforced quality management system. an EMS will improve compliance with legislative and regulatory requirements. French EAQF and Italian AVSQ quality standards. German VDA 6. ISO/TS 16949 applies to all internal and external suppliers of production or service parts. the most important of the ISO 14000 standards. and experience fewer regulatory audits by correcting environmental problems. ISO/TS 16949 ISO/TS 16949 is the international automotive quality management systems (QMS) standard. products and services by establishing targets and objectives related to identified environmental management goals. reduce exposure to liability. ISO 9001:2000 addresses an organization’s quality management system requirements. reduce waste and create a more positive public image.1. ISO 14000 ISO 14000. prevent pollution. are able to prevent environmental disasters and government sanctions. lifecycle assessment. ISO 14000 supporting documents include environmental labeling. environmental aspects in product standards. in order to demonstrate its capability to meet customer requirements. released in 1999 and revised in 2002 to align with ISO 9001:2000. demonstrate sound environmental management practices. which were often contradictory and led to redundant audits. and applies to all generic product categories. and audit the firm’s processes to ensure that the quality management system described in the documentation is in place and is effective. processed materials and services. ISO 9001:2000 registration is carried out by registrars. software. painting. and adopts the process management structure widely used in business today.

OHSAS 18001 OHSAS 18001. VDA 6. includes many of the QS-9000 sector-specific requirements. . OHSAS 18001 contains requirements in such areas as planning. molds. it fully embraces ISO 9001:1994. Chrysler has mandated that its tooling and equipment suppliers register to this standard. BMW. requires all of its production and service parts suppliers to register to VDA 6. Porsche. and contains sector. Audi. Adam Opel and Ford-Were.1 VDA 6. risk assessment and hazard identification. robotics and assembly. Applicable customer-specific requirements are audited as part of ISO/TS 16949 registration and the particular automaker(s) are listed on the supplier’s registration certificate. Seat and Skoda. sets forth quality system requirements for Big Three tooling and equipment suppliers.V. Audi. The Volkswagen Group. Big Three tooling and equipment suppliers must conform to the TE Supplement. consisting of Volkswagen. along with automotive sector-specific requirements. but is organized into a distinct set of elements in two areas: Management. released in 1991. plating. These elements incorporate portions of the ISO 9001:1994 quality system model and the ISO 9004-1 quality system guidelines. Mercedes-Benz. In addition.1 has also incorporated requirements from QS-9000 and the French EAQF automotive quality standard. and Product and Process.Each participating automaker has customer-specific requirements for unique and specific product needs that could not be harmonized.1. (VDA). with input from major manufacturers and suppliers. The majority of VDA 6. along with some coolants and lubricants. This standard affects companies that manufacture or supply components and other products to such German automotive manufacturers as Volkswagen. developed by a group of European standards bodies. suppliers with design responsibility must comply with German Road Traffic Law.and customer-specific requirements for manufacturers of tools.1 is based on the ISO 9000 quality management systems standards. TE Supplement The TE (Tooling and Equipment) Supplement to QS-9000. VDA 6. Developed by the Chrysler/Ford/General Motors Supplier Requirements Task Force. is the quality system standard of the German automobile industry. dies. released in 1996. is an occupational health and management systems (OHSMS) standard designed to create a safer workplace. It was developed by the Verbrand der Automobilindustrie e.1.

7. reduce liability. 2. 5. There are eleven values and concepts in the Baldrige Criteria listed below:1. emergency preparedness and response. 5.consultation and communication. Customer Satisfaction. the Malcolm Baldrige Criteria is a set of guidelines written and used as a yardstick to assess if an organization is able to meet a business excellence level. It has been adopted by many big and small business organizations and government bodies to perform their bjectives. TQM in IT industries : Total Quality Management is a set of philosophy that act like a principles of management. and accidents and incidents. Process management. it deal with elements like Management Commitment. with OHSAS 18001 offering a possible framework for such a standard. 2. Within the TQM principles. 4. 4. Debate over the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) developing an OHSMS standard continues. operational control. ISO may revisit the matter in the future. eliminate or minimize workplace injuries. OHSAS 18001 is ideal for a company that wants to make occupational health and safety a priority. and increase employee productivity. 6. Employee involvement. etc that are aimed to manage your business in a more holistic manner With the same token. Leadership Strategic Planning Customer and Market Focus Information and Data Analysis Human Resource Management and Development Process Management Business Results Take a closer look and you may notice that the Baldrige Criteria are build upon a set of values and concepts as opposed to how TQM Principles are used in Total Quality Management. and decrease absenteeism and lost work hours by preventing injuries and accidents. 3. Visionary Leadership Customer-Driven Excellence Organizational and Personal Learning Valuing Employees and Partners Agility . The Baldrige Criteria has seven categories which of its own clearly states its objectives and guidelines. 3. The seven categories are listed below:1. workers’ compensation and medical treatment costs.

Managing for Innovation 8. Systems Perspective To ensure the application of these values and concepts. they are embodied in the detail Baldrige Criteria categories mentioned above. Management by Fact 9. Focus on Results and Creating Value 11. . Public Responsibility and Citizenship 10.6. The objective for a yearly changes to the criteria is to ensure it is reviewed and kept current to the business and enviornment changes and needs. the detail criteria for each category has changed every year. Each category has set up its own criteria to the highest standard of Business Excellence. Focus on the Future 7. While the values and concepts remain quite unchanged over the years.

and other process functions and product features. and inserts aerospace industry-specific requirements. characteristics. apply to meat. . due to the elimination of multiple audited governmental standards. European Union. New Zealand and Japan. endorsed by the United Nations Codex Alimentarius. Flowdown includes specifications for parts or assembly designs. as close to 100 percent as possible. though suppliers still have to meet additional federal requirements. seafood and poultry plants. enforced by such agencies as the US Department of Agriculture's Food and Safety Inspection Service (FSIS) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points (HACCP) Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points (HACCP). This industry-generated standard also takes the place of programs the government has dropped. HACCP requires the following seven principles to be followed:        Conduct a hazard analysis Identify critical control points (CCPs) Establish critical limits for CCPs Establish monitoring procedures Establish corrective actions Establish verification procedures Establish record keeping procedures HACCP requirements. By becoming registered to AS9100 and ISO 9000. The prime aerospace contractors consider AS9100 a major step in the history of quality management in the aerospace field. AS9100 takes the ISO 9001:2000 quality management systems standard covering every step and department of the manufacturing process. Australia. Canada. continually improve quality and boost customer satisfaction. also support AS9100. inspections. AS9100 is designed to reduce defects in the supplier chain. companies dealing with aerospace prime contractors and the government enjoy a competitive advantage. is a scientific process control system for eliminating contaminants at critical areas in the food production and distribution process. such as the Defense Department and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The major difference is a drop in compliance costs and time for suppliers. and other food processing and handling facilities. released in 1999 and revised in 2001 to align with ISO 9001:2000. HACCP helps to prevent. grocery stores. is the international ISO 9000 derivative for suppliers to the aerospace industry. AS9100 AS9100. restaurants. Government agencies. To ensure safer food. harmful contamination in the food supply. AS9100 also addresses flowdown of aerospace prime contractors’ quality management system requirements to suppliers and their subcontractors.

distribution and installation. components. services to the client. set product safety technical requirements. packaging and label control. review of requests. In addition. under which the company must establish a quality assurance program and its medical devices must meet specifications and controls to guarantee they are safe and effective for intended use. The CE Marking is affixed to products after they are successfully tested for conformity to applicable directives. Current Good Manufacturing Practices (CGMP) Manufacturers of medical devices that plan to distribute products in the U. device evaluation and records. The other 3 non-EU countries in EFTA. are required to adhere to Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Current Good Manufacturing Practices (CGMP). electromagnetic compatibility. are members of the EEA. so suppliers can spend more time improving the manufacturing process in an industry that puts a top priority on safety and quality. machinery. control of records. ISO/IEC 17025 ISO/IEC 17025.S. accommodation and . along with technical competency requirements. Iceland and Norway. Other directives include low voltage. ISO/IEC 17025 covers such matters as quality system. toys. Switzerland. is not part of EEA. personal protection equipment. All ISO 9000 requirements that are relevant to the scope of testing and calibration laboratory QMS have been incorporated into ISO/IEC 17025. tenders and contracts. although part of European Free Trade Association (EFTA). The most important of these apply to medical devices. The EEA consists of the 27-nation EU. personnel. internal audits.‖ CGMP covers quality assurance programs and organization. equipment. buildings. are technically competent and can generate technically valid results. contains all the requirements that testing and calibration laboratories must meet to demonstrate that they operate quality management systems (QMS). CE Marking The CE Marking is required to sell any product manufactured or distributed under European Union (EU) New Approach Directives in the European Economic Area (EEA). production and process controls. boilers. designed to eliminate technical barriers to trade in Europe. The New Approach Directives. released in 1999. subcontracting of tests and calibrations. purchasing services and supplies. Liechtenstein. simple pressure vessels. The FDA monitors medical device problem data and inspects the operations and records of device manufacturers to determine CGMP quality assurance compliance. explosives and recreational craft.The regulatory burden is lightened. document control. construction products. telecom terminal equipment.

software and services specific quality system measurements. The standard covers such areas as document control. which apply to information systems used by organizations in industry and commerce. TL 9000 TL 9000. hardware (H). services (V). BS 7799 BS 7799. access control and compliance with legal requirements. common telecommunications industry measurements. There are no services and software (VS) elements. There are two parts to the standard. production. development. delivery. developed by the British Standards Institution (BSI). audited and used for registration. Organizations seeking BS 7799 registration must assess security risks. A supplier is only required to implement the additional elements that fit its scope of operations. BS 7799-2 is a specification standard that sets ISMS requirements that can be implemented. QS-9000 or ISO/TS 16949 registration if the auditor is working for both an accreditation body and a registrar. equipment. select controls and develop guidelines. and hardware and services (HV). released in 1999 and revised in 2001 to align with ISO 9001:2000. hardware and software (HS). software products. is the telecommunications industry derivative of ISO 9000. including information processing technology in the area of networks and communications. provides a comprehensive set of information security management systems (ISMS) controls. and hardware. handling of test and calibration items. sampling. . asset classification and control. ISO/IEC 17025 accreditation can occur at the same time as ISO 9000. BS 7799-1 is a guidance document that is the basis for the international information security guidance standard. TL 9000’s structure contains five levels of QMS requirements and measurements. physical and environmental security. and services. common telecommunications industry quality system requirements (QSRs). and reporting the results. measurement traceability. hardware. TL 9000’s telecommunications sector-specific QSRs are divided into six categories and marked accordingly: common (C). communications and operations management. software (S). security policy and organization. They are ISO 9001:2000. ISO/IEC 17799.environmental conditions. ISO/IEC 17025 accreditation is a more thorough process than ISO 9000 registration because it recognizes a laboratory’s competence to produce technically valid results as well as its QMS conformance. When a laboratory is part of a larger facility. installation and maintenance of hardware. Conformance to TL 9000 decreases time to market and improves the total cost of ownership throughout the supply chain. software and services specific QSRs. This standard harmonizes telecommunications quality management system (QMS) requirements for the design. test and calibration methods and method validation.

shareholders and consumers. and the efficiency and level of success of the supplier’s business processes and activities. discrimination. developers and evaluators in developing or procuring products or systems with IT security functions. software update quality. released in 1999. human rights. These requirements apply to both security functions of IT products and systems. Developed by the nonprofit Council on Economic Priorities Accreditation Agency (CEPAA). The registration scope may be for hardware. labor. with the assistance of a wide range of business. and not force employees to regularly work more than 48 hours a week. including the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the Convention on the Rights of the Child. system outages. on-time delivery. services or any combination thereof. SA 8000 provides a means to improve working conditions and meet the social challenges of economic globalization. provide a safe working environment. The CC can also be used as a guide by IT consumers. or a limited and defined product line. software. contains mechanisms for continuous improvement and provides a marketing edge with better labor practices. SA 8000 Social Accountability (SA) 8000. is the first international standard dealing with the workplace environment. defining Common Criteria (CC) used to evaluate security properties of information technology (IT) products and systems. These performance measurement tools are important from the customer’s point of view and include hardware return rates. SA 8000 certification enables a company to project a positive image and good reputation to clients. disciplinary practices and management. is the first international information technology security evaluation criteria standard. certification and audit experts.Only a hardware and software company that offers a service must implement all sector-specific requirements. It requires employers to pay wages sufficient to meet workers' basic needs. number of problem reports. . a combination of units. an organizational unit. and assurance measures used during security evaluation and validation. invoice accuracy. industry. several facilities. Enforcing humane conditions in factories may also lead to higher quality products on the market. suppliers. such as operating systems. This standard gives the general public confidence in the ethical production of the products they buy. TL 9000 breaks ground by establishing cost and performance based measurements that measure the reliability and quality performance of hardware. freedom of association. applications and other hardware. released in 1997. an individual facility. ISO/IEC 15408 ISO/IEC 15408. and based on several existing international human rights standards. software and services. Other SA 8000 elements address health issues. firmware and software. employees. computer networks. not employ child or forced labor. distributed systems. TL 9000 registration may encompass an entire company.

Achieving this Six Sigma level reduces the cost of defects from 20-30 percent to 1 percent of revenues. Supply Chain Management integrates every aspect of product development and design. Evaluation and validation is an assessment of a PP. on time and at the right price. ST or TOE against CC security requirements. product testing and evaluation facilities. while driving out excess inventory and unnecessary costs.S. costs go down. A supply chain is the network of companies linked together in supplier to customer relationships across a product life cycle from raw material to final consumption.4 Defects Per Million Opportunities (DPMO) for Critical-To-Quality (CTQ) characteristics in a manufacturing or service process. not individual companies. producing competitive advantages throughout the product life cycle. Supply Chain Management optimizes and synchronizes material. approved by the NIAP Validation Body and placed on the NIAP Approved Laboratories List Supply Chain Management Supply Chain Management recognizes that competition is now across supply chains. commercial testing laboratories accredited by National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP). and assures that the Common Evaluation Methodology (CEM). The right product gets delivered to the right place. There is a reduced need for testing and inspection. . An implementation-independent set of security requirements for a category of TOEs that meet specific consumer needs is a user Protection Profile (PP). The ISO/IEC 15408 CC is implemented in the U. Six Sigma Six Sigma is a statistically oriented approach to process improvement. monitors the quality of evaluations. A set of security requirements and specifications used to evaluate or validate a TOE is a developer Security Target (ST). information and cash flow from raw material to final consumption. Information technology security evaluations are conducted by Common Criteria Testing Laboratories (CCTLs). designed to reach a quality level of less than 3. which addresses evaluation methodology and procedures. by the National Information Assurance Partnership (NIAP) Common Criteria Evaluation and Validation Scheme (CCEVS). is used consistently across government-accredited. an IT product or system is known as a Target of Evaluation (TOE). at the right time and at the right price.During a security evaluation or validation. However. process. cycle time decreases and customer satisfaction goes up as companies are able to deliver the highest quality product. the closer a company is to the final customer. Any organization in the supply chain network can initiate a supply chain program and realize benefits. the better it is positioned to lead a Supply Chain Management program. which sets standards.

including Statistical Process Control (SPC). Define quality. such as new product development. List the barriers of TQM .Six Sigma uses a variety of tools. Materials Requirement Planning (MRP) UNIT – I PART –A 1. 2. Total Quality Management (TQM) and Design of Experiments (DOE). It can be coordinated with other major initiatives and systems.

Define the concept of Deming philosophy 7. What is fitness of use? 10. 5. What are the dimensions of quality? 4. 8. What are terms that affects quality in manufacturing organization 4. 3.3. Name the criteria for manufacturing organization. Factors that helps in improving the quality. 9. What is quality planning? 2. What is meant by support service? PART-B 1. . Compare manufacturing and service organization 6. Discuss in detail about the basic concepts of quality. Explain in detail about the need for TQM 5. Explain the dimensions of total quality management. 2. UNIT – II PART-A 1. Describe the barriers of TQM. Differentiate customer satisfaction and retention. Define TQM.

How to achieve the best quality through the customer? 3. 4. 4. What is meant by empowerment? 5. 2. Write shortnotes on a. 7. UNIT . Define Employee involvement.3. Describe in detail about employee benefits? 5. 10.III PART-A 1. 6. Define 5s concept. Leadership b. 2. What is meant by six sigma? . What is meant by performance appraisal? PART-B 1. Differentiate recognition and reward. Quality statements. Describe in detail about 5s Kaizen concepts with example. How will you retain the customer? 9. Advantages of continuous process. How will you measure the supplier rating? 8. Explain the concept of PDSA cycle. List the seven traditional tools.

Describe the seven traditional tools of TQM. PART-B 1. List the reasons to benchmark? 9. What is meant by FMEA? 8. Discuss the various types of diagrams that are used to improve the quality? 5. What is meant by QFD? .IV PART-A 1. Name any 3 methods in six sigma concepts. Define benchmark. 3. 4. Draw Pareto diagram 6.3. Name the terms in benchmarking process. 10. Explain the various methods of six sigma with example. 4. What is meant by benchmark process? Explain. List the seven traditional tools. Define Affinity diagram 5. 2. 7. Explain how the management tools are used in manufacturing industry? UNIT . 2. Differentiate single sourcing and multiple sourcing.

5. What is meant by Taguchi Quality loss function? 6. PART . 5. Describe the concepts of QFD. Write shortnotes on a. improvement needs UNIT-V 1. What is TPM? 8. Why ISO 9000 is needed? .3. 3. Give three characteristics used to define the quality loss function 9. Explain the concepts of TPM. Define cost of quality 4. 2. List the points for improvement needs. List the performance measures.B 1. 7. traditional tools b. 10. What are the requirements of improvement needs. How to measure the cost of quality? Explain with neat diagram. Explain Quality Loss Function for Various Quality Characteristics with example. 4. Use of Taguchi quality loss function.

10. Define ISO9000-2000. What is meant by auditing? 9. What is ISO 14000? 4. Explain the concept of Malcome Bridge criteria. 6. 2. 3. What is meant by Malcolm Baldrige Criteria? PART-B 1. Why auditing is required to improve the quality? Explain. . Advantages of ISO14000. List some IT companies which has ISO standards. requirements and advantages of ISO standards.2. 7. Describe in detail about the concept of hazard analysis? Explain the concepts. Define hazard analysis. 5. List 4 benefits of ISO 9000. What are the requirements for ISO? 8. Describe in detail about ISO9000 and ISO 14000. 4. 3.

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