# Ir.

TRI TJAHJONO, MT/INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE
OTTO CYCLE
The Otto cycle is the theoretical cycle for the spark-ignition (SI) engine
0-1 suction stroke 1-2 compressed isentropically 2-3 heat is added at constant volume
3-4 isentropic expansion 4-1 the heat is rejected
Consider 1 kg of air.
Heat added during process 2-3 = c
v
(T
3
- T
2
)
Heat rejected during process 4-1 = c
v
(T
4
– T
1
)

Work done = heat added – heat rejected
= c
v
(T
4
– T
2
) – c
v
(T
4
– T
1
)
Thermal efficiency,
supplied heat
done work
η ·
Or
( )
) T T ( c
) T T ( c T T c
2 3 v
1 4 v 2 3 v

− − −
· η
) T T (
) T T (
1
2 3
1 4

− ·
Now compression ratio
2
1
v
v
= Expansion ratio
r
v
v
3
4
·
For ideal gas
RT pv ·
and . t tan cons pv ·
γ
These equations yield
1
4
3
1
3
4
1
2
1
1
2
r
T
T
v
v
v
v
T
T

− −
· ·

,
`

.
|
·

,
`

.
|
·
γ
γ γ
21
Ir. TRI TJAHJONO, MT/INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE
1 γ
1 2
1 γ
4 3
r T T and r T T
− −
· · ∴
Hence, substituting
( ) ( )
1 1
1 4
1 4
1
1
1
4
1 4
r
1
1
r T T
T T
1
r T r T
T T
1
− − − −
− ·

− ·

− ·
γ γ γ γ
η
The efficiency can also be expressed in terms of temperatures T
3
and T
4
.
Now, since
4
3
2
1
v
v
v
v
·
, it follows that
4
1
3
2
4
3
1
2
T
T
T
T
or
T
T
T
T
· ·
4
1
3
2
T
T
T
T
·
and hence,
4
1 4
3
2 3
4
1
3
2
T
T T
T
T T
or
T
T
1
T
T
1

·

− · −
Therefore,
3
4
2 3
1 4
T
T
T T
T T
·

Hence, substituting, in (a) we get
2
1
3
4
T
T
1
T
T
1 − · − · η
Otto cycle efficiency at different compression ratios and γ
Helium (γ = 1.66) monoatomic gas
Argon (γ = 1.97) monoatomic gas
22
-1
Ir. TRI TJAHJONO, MT/INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE
Mean effective pressure (mep) of Otto cycle
Let clearance volume be unity, i.e, V
2
= V
3
= 1, and V
1
– V
4
= r
and
α ·
2
3
p
p
Now
4
3
1
2
p
p
r
p
p
· ·
γ
α · · ∴
1
4
2
3
p
p
p
p
Work done = area of the p-v diagram
1
v p v p
1
v p v p
1 1 2 2 4 4 3 3

·
γ γ
]
]
]

,
`

.
|
− −

,
`

.
|

· 1
r p
p
r p 1
r p
p
r p
1
1
1
2
1
4
3
4
γ
( ) ( ) [ ] 1 r p 1 r p
1
r
1
1
1
4
− − −

·
− − γ γ
γ
( )( )
1 4
1
p p 1 r
1
r
− −

·
− γ
γ
( ) ( )
1
p p 1 r p
1 4 1

− −
·
γ
α
Length of the diagram 1 r − ·
23
Ir. TRI TJAHJONO, MT/INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE
diagram the of length
diagram the of area
mep · ∴
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) 1 r 1
1 r 1 r p
1
1
− −
− −
·

γ
α
γ
1. Two Stroke
24
Exhaust blow down
Scavenging
Crankcase
Inlet valve
Spark plug
Transfer port
Deflector
P
3
V
V
C
V
S
1
5
2
4
Ideal diagram
Piston travel in
uncovering port
P
V
Actual diagram
Ir. TRI TJAHJONO, MT/INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE
2. The Diesel Cycle
Work done in compression 1-2 = area 1256 Heat supplied in 2-3 = area 2365
Work done in expansion 3-4 = area 23456 heat rejected in 4-1 = area 4156
Net work done = area 1234
The thermal efficiency of the ideal Diesel cycle is given by
η

·
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
2 3
1 4
v
p
2 3
1 4
p
v
2 3 p
1 4 v 2 3 p
T T
T T
c
c
1
1
T T
T T
c
c
1
T T c
T T c T T c

− ·

− ·

− − −
·

,
`

.
|

− ·
2 3
1 4
T T
T T 1
1
γ

,
`

.
|

− ·
1
T
T
1
T
T
T γ
T
1
2
3
1
4
2
1
For isentropic compression and expansion process
1
4
3
3
4
1 γ
1
2
2
1
v
v
T
T
and
v
v
T
T
− −

,
`

.
|
·

,
`

.
|
·
γ
For constant pressure heat addition 2-3,
2
3
2
3
v
v
T
T
·
Also v
4
= v
1
25
T
s
2
1
T
T
:
Ir. TRI TJAHJONO, MT/INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE
Thus γ
γ γ

,
`

.
|
·

,
`

.
|
·

,
`

.
|
·
− −
2
3
1
2
3
2
3
1
1 2
4 3
2
3
1
4
v
v
v
v
v
v
v / v
v / v
T
T
T
T
Substituting these values in Eq.(the thermal efficiency), we get
( )

,
`

.
|

− ·

1
T
T
1 v
v / v
1
1
2
3
2
1
2 1
γ
γ
η
( )

,
`

.
|

− ·

1
1
r
1
1
1
ρ γ
ρ
η
γ
γ
Note that the efficiency of the Diesel cycle differs from that of Otto cycle only by the
bracketed term, which is always greater than unity (except when ρ = 1 and there is no heat
addition).Thus the Diesel cycle always has a lower efficiency than the Otto cycle of the same
compression ratio.
Fig ..Efficiency of the Diesel cycle for various cut-off ratios and compression ratios.
Mean Effective Pressure (mep) of Diesel cycle.
Work done = area of the p-v diagram
( )
1
v p v p
1
v p v p
v v p
1 1 2 2 4 4 3 3
2 3 2

+ − ·
γ γ
( )
( )
1
r p p r p p
1 p
1 2 4 3
2

− − −
+ − ·
γ
ρ
ρ
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) [ ] 1 r 1
1
p
1
r 1 p r p 1 1 p
1 2
1
2
1
2 2
− − −

− − − + − −
·

− −
γ γ
γ γ γ
ρ ρ γ
γ γ
ρ ρ γ ρ
diagram indicator the of length
diagram indicator the of area
mep ·
( ) ( ) [ ]
( ) ( ) 1 r 1
1 r 1 p
1
2
− −
− − −
·

γ
ρ ρ γ
γ γ
26
Ir. TRI TJAHJONO, MT/INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE
( ) ( ) [ ]
( ) ( ) 1 r 1
1 r 1 r p
1
1
− −
− − −
·

γ
ρ ρ γ
γ γ γ
27