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Simulation > … > FLUENT - Laminar Pipe Flow - Problem Specification
FLUENT - Laminar Pipe Flow - Problem Specification
Added by Steve Weidner , last edited by Benjamin J Mullen on Apr 27, 2011 17:58
Author: Rajesh Bhaskaran, John Singleton, Cornell University Problem Specification 1. Pre-Analysis & Start-Up 2. Geometry 3. Mesh 4. Setup (Physics) 5. Solution 6. Results 7. Verification & Validation Exercises
Consider fluid flowing through a circular pipe of constant radius as illustrated above. The pipe diameter D = 0.2 m and length L = 8 m. The inlet velocity Ū z = 1 m/s. Consider the velocity to be constant over the inlet cross-section. The fluid exhausts into the ambient atmosphere which is at a pressure of 1 atm. Take density ρ = 1 kg/ m 3 and coefficient of viscosity µ = 2 x 10 -3 kg/(ms). The Reynolds number Re based on the pipe diameter is
where Ū z is the average velocity at the inlet, which is 1 m/s in this case.
Solve this problem using FLUENT via ANSYS Workbench. Plot the centerline velocity, wall skin-friction coefficient, and velocity profile at the outlet. Validate your results. Note: The values used for the inlet velocity and flow properties are chosen for convenience rather than to reflect reality. The key parameter value to focus on is the Reynolds number. Go to Step 1: Pre-Analysis & Start-up See and rate the complete Learning Module Go to all FLUENT Learning Modules
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Simulation > … > FLUENT - Laminar Pipe Flow - Pre-Analysis & Start-Up
FLUENT - Laminar Pipe Flow - Pre-Analysis & Start-Up
Added by Steve Weidner , last edited by Benjamin J Mullen on Feb 08, 2012 23:31
Author: Rajesh Bhaskaran, John Singleton, Cornell University Problem Specification 1. Pre-Analysis & Start-Up 2. Geometry 3. Mesh 4. Setup (Physics) 5. Solution 6. Results 7. Verification & Validation Exercises
Step 1: Pre-Analysis & Start-up
Preliminary Analysis We expect the viscous boundary layer to grow along the pipe starting at the inlet. It will eventually grow to fill the pipe completely (provided that the pipe is long enough). When this happens, the flow becomes fully-developed and there is no variation of the velocity profile in the axial direction, x (see figure below). One can obtain a closed-form solution to the governing equations in the fully-developed region. You should have seen this in the Introduction to Fluid Mechanics course. We will compare the numerical results in the fullydeveloped region with the corresponding analytical results. So it's a good idea for you to go back to your textbook in the Intro course and review the fully-developed flow analysis. What values would you expect for the centerline velocity and the friction factor in the fully-developed region based on the analytical solution? What is the solution for the velocity profile?
We'll create the geometry and mesh in ANSYS 12.1 which is the preprocessor for FLUENT, and then read the mesh into FLUENT and solve for the flow solution. Start ANSYS FLUENT Prior to opening ANSYS, create a folder called pipe in a convenient location. We'll use this as the working folder in which files created during the session will be stored. For this simulation Fluent will be run within the ANSYS Workbench Interface. Start ANSYS workbench: Start> All Programs> Ansys 12.1> Workbench The following figure shows the workbench window.
Higher Resolution Image Management of Screen Real Estate This tutorial is specially configured, so the user can have both the tutorial and ANSYS open at the same time as shown below. It will be beneficial to have both ANSYS and your internet browser displayed on your monitor simultaneously. Your internet browser should consume approximately one third of the screen width while ANSYS should take the other two thirds as shown below.
you can press the Alt and Tab keys simultaneously to toggle between ANSYS and your internet browser.8.4-M1) Powered by Atlassian Confluence 3. Go to Step 2: Geometry See and rate the complete Learning Module Go to all FLUENT Learning Modules This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.2. the Enterprise Wiki .0 United States License Adaptavist Theme Builder (4.4.Click Here for Higher Resolution If the monitor you are using is insufficient in size.
In order to load the necessary files.Laminar Pipe Flow . Geometry 3. Solution 6. to save the project at this point.Search Cornell SimCafe Home Simulation > … > FLUENT .Geometry Added by Steve Weidner . then (Click) File > Open > "pipe_laminar. Click on the "Save As. Verification & Validation Exercises Step 2: Geometry Care to skip the geometry and meshing steps? README If you would prefer to skip the geometry and mesh steps.wbpj" . then extract the files to your working directory. Pre-analysis & Start-Up 2.Laminar Pipe Flow . Saving It would be of best interest. Lastly.. Download the "zip" file. John Singleton. click here to skip ahead to Step 4 of the tutorial. Mesh 4. Results 7. then you can download the necessary files here. Setup (Physics) 5. go to the Workbench Project Page . 2012 23:19 Author: Rajesh Bhaskaran. . last edited by Benjamin J Mullen on Feb 08. Cornell University Problem Specification 1." button.Geometry Browse/Manage Login FLUENT .
and drag the icon into the empty space in the Project Schematic . Fluid Flow(FLUENT) Project Selection On the left hand side of the workbench window. We will work through each step from top down to obtain the solution to our problem. a "LaminarPipeFlow" file and a folder called "LaminarPipeFlow_files" will appear. you will not be able to access your project. If you do not have BOTH. When you save in ANSYS a file and a folder will be created. as shown below. Save the project as "LaminarPipeFlow" in your working directory. This is the place where you will organize your project. In order to reopen the ANSYS files in the future you will need both the ". you will see a toolbox full of various analysis systems. At the bottom of the window. Your ANSYS window should now look comparable to the image below. you see an empty work space. To the right. For instance if you save as "LaminarPipeFlow". which is located on the top of the Workbench Project Page . Analysis Type In the Project Schematic of the Workbench window. right click on Geometry and select Properties .. . each cell of the system corresponds to a step in the process of performing CFD analysis using FLUENT. Rename the project to Laminar Pipe. you see messages from ANSYS. Left click (and hold) on Fluid Flow (FLUENT) . Since we selected Fluid Flow(FLUENT).wbpj" file and the folder.
Under Advance Geometry Options . Launch Design Modeler In the Project Schematic . change the Analysis Type to 2D as shown in the image below. . double click on Geometry to start preparing the geometry.The properties menu will then appear to the right of the Workbench window.
ANSYS Design Modeler will be opened. Click Here for Higher Resolution Under the Details View table (located in the lower left corner). Creating a Sketch Start by creating a sketch on the XYPlane . The P implies that the cursor is directly over a point of intersection. (Make sure that you see a letter P at the origin before you click.1m and set H2=8m. set V1=0. Dimension the geometry as shown in the following image. This will bring up the Sketching Toolboxes .At this point. use the default dimensioning tools. Click Here for Select Normal View Demo In the Sketching toolboxes. Use the default meter unit and click OK . select Rectangle . select XYPlane .) At this point you should have something comparable to the image below. Dimensions At this point the rectangle will be properly dimensioned. a new window. Under Sketching Toolboxes . create a rough Rectangle by clicking once on the origin and then by clicking once somewhere in the positive XY plane. You will be asked to select desired length unit. Click Here for Select Sketching Toolboxes Demo Click on the +Z axis on the bottom right corner of the Graphics window to have a normal look of the XY Plane. select Dimensions tab. . Under Tree Outline . In the Graphics window. then click on Sketching right before Details View .
Go to Step 3: Mesh See and rate the complete Learning Module Go to all FLUENT Learning Modules . first (Click )Concept > Surface From Sketches as shown in the image below. Save your work thus far in the Workbench Project Page .as shown in the image below. Click Here for Higher Resolution Surface Body Creation In order to create the surface body. select Sketch1 as Base Objects and then under Surface body select the thickness to 0. This will create a new surface SurfaceSK1 . Finally click Generate to generate the surface. At this point. you can close the Design Modeler and go back to Workbench Project Page .1m and click Apply . Under Details View .
Geometry 3. That is. The first way is to (Right Click) Mesh > Generate Mesh . Solution 6. Launch Mesher In order to begin the meshing process. as shown in the image below. Mesh 4. Results 7. go to the Workbench Project Page . Pre-Analysis & Start-Up 2. 2012 23:16 Author: Rajesh Bhaskaran.Laminar Pipe Flow . . Setup (Physics) 5. Default Mesh In this section the default mesh will be generated.Laminar Pipe Flow .Mesh Browse/Manage Login FLUENT . Cornell University Problem Specification 1. This can be carried out two ways.Mesh Added by Steve Weidner . the pipe will be divided into 100 elements in the axial direction and 5 elements in the radial direction. last edited by Benjamin J Mullen on Feb 08. Verification & Validation Exercises Step 3: Mesh In this section the geometry will be meshed with 500 elements.Search Cornell SimCafe Home Simulation > … > FLUENT . then (Double Click) Mesh . John Singleton.
We are interested in creating a grid style of mesh that can be mapped to a rectangular domain.The second way in which the default mesh can be generated is to (Click) Mesh > Generate Mesh as can be seen below. Either method should give you the same results. In order to incorporate this meshing style (Click) Mesh Control > Mapped Face Meshing as can be seen below. This meshing style is called Mapped Face Meshing . The default mesh that you generate should look comparable to the image below. the default mesh has irregular elements. For. Note that in Workbench there is generally at least two ways to implement actions as has been shown above. Mapped Face Meshing As can be seen above. simplicity's sake the "menu" method of implementing actions will be solely used for the rest of the tutorial. .
In order to obtain the specified number of divisions Edge Sizing must be used. . first click on the pipe body which should then highlight green. The divisions along the axial direction will be specified first. generate the mesh by using either method from the "Default Mesh" section above. In order to do so. This process is shown here Now. (Click) Apply in the Details of Mapped Face Meshing table. Next. First. Now.Now. (Click) Mesh Control > Sizing as shown below. Edge Sizing The desired mesh has specific number of divisions along the radial and the axial direction. You should obtain a mesh comparable to the following image. as shown below. the Mapped Face Meshing still must be applied to the pipe geometry. an Edge Sizing needs to be inserted.
except select the left and right side . Both sides should highlight green. . the geometry and the number of divisions need to be specified. Now. the edge sizing in the the radial direction will be specified.Now. Next. Follow the same procedure as for the edge sizing in the axial direction. Then. change Type to Number of Divisions as shown in the image below. At this point. First (Click) Edge Selection Filter . set Number of Divisions to 100 as shown below. hit Apply under the Details of Sizing table as shown below. Then hold down the "Control" button and then click the bottom and top edge of the rectangle.
As it turns out. in the mesh above there are 540 elements. the edges of the geometry will be given names so one can assign boundary conditions in Fluent in later steps. Radial Sizing Create Named Selections Here. You should then obtain the following 500 element mesh. when there should be only 500.instead of the top and bottom and set the number of division to 5. You should obtain the following mesh. as shown below. Next. . In order to get the desired 500 element mesh the Behavior needs to be changed from Soft to Hard for both Edge Sizing's . In order to carry this out first Expand Mesh in the tree outline then click Edge Sizing and then change Behavior to Hard under the Details of Edge Sizing table. generate the mesh using either method from the "Default Mesh" section above. The top side of the rectangle will be called "PipeWall" and the bottom side of the rectangle will be called "CenterLine" as shown in the image below. The left side of the pipe will be called "Inlet" and the right side will be called "Outlet". Then set the Behavior to Hard for Edge Sizing 2 . Then. Mesh statistics can be found by clicking on Mesh in the Tree and then by expanding Statistics under the Details of Mesh table. generate the mesh by using either method from the "Default Mesh" section above.
go to the Workbench Project Page and click the Update Project button. right click the left side of the Select the left edge and right click and select Create Named Selection . rectangle and choose Create Named Selection as shown below. Next. Exit & Update First save the project. Then click on the left side of the rectangle and it should highlight green. as shown below.In order to create a named selections first (Click) Edge Selection Filter . . Now. create named selections for the remaining three sides and name them according to the diagram. Then. . close the Mesher window. Next. Go to Step 4: Setup (Physics) See and rate the complete Learning Module . Enter Inlet and click OK . Save.
Setup (Physics) 5.Setup (Physics) Added by Javier Gutierrez Gallardo . John Singleton.Search Cornell SimCafe Home Simulation > … > FLUENT .26 version.Setup (Physics) Browse/Manage Login FLUENT .Laminar Pipe Flow . Step 4: Setup (Physics) Your current Workbench Project Page should look comparable to the following image. Cornell University Problem Specification 1.3.Laminar Pipe Flow . Geometry 3. Mesh 4. Pre-Analysis & Start-Up 2. Solution 6. Results 7. Regardless of whether you downloaded the mesh and geometry files or if you created them yourself. Verification & Validation Exercises Useful Information Click here for the FLUENT 6. 2012 23:21 Author: Rajesh Bhaskaran. you should have checkmarks to the right of Geometry and Mesh . last edited by Benjamin J Mullen on Feb 08. .
Next. but also the range of magnitudes that can be represented. This indicates that the Setup process has not yet been completed. After you click Update . The downside of using double precision is that it requires more memory. the mesh and geometry data need to be read into FLUENT. each floating point number is represented using 64 bits in contrast to the single-precision solver which uses 32 bits. To read in the data (Right Click) Setup > Refresh in the Workbench Project Page as shown in the image below. In the double-precision solver. Launch Fluent Double click on Setup in the Workbench Project Page which will bring up the FLUENT Launcher . a question mark should appear to the right of the Setup cell. . The extra bits increase not only the precision.The Double Precision option is used to select the double-precision solver. When the FLUENT Launcher appears change the options to "Double Precision". and then click OK as shown below.
We will work from top to bottom of the Problem Setup items to setup the physics of our boundary-value problem. . you should obtain the following output in the Command pane. we have the Graphics pane and. the Command pane. In order to obtain the statistics about the mesh (Click) Mesh > Info > Size .Click Here for Higher Resolution Twiddle your thumbs a bit while the FLUENT interface starts up. This is where we'll specify the governing equations and boundary conditions for our boundary-value problem. the mesh will be checked to verify that it has been properly imported from Workbench . we see various items listed under Problem Setup . as shown in the image below. Then. On the right hand side. On the left-hand side of the FLUENT interface. below that. Check and Display Mesh First.
the mesh display options will be discussed. You should see no errors in the Command Pane. In order to carry out the mesh checking procedure (Click) Mesh > Check as shown in the image below. FLUENT will be asked to check the mesh for errors. The output states that there are 500 cells. In order to bring up the display options (Click) General > Mesh > Display as shown in the image below. which is a good sign. Note that the Named Selections created in the meshing steps now appear. as shown below. . that the mesh has been verified. Note that in FLUENT elements are called cells. Now. The previous step should cause the Mesh Display window to open. Next.The mesh that was created earlier has 500 elements(5 Radial x 100 Axial).
Now. For instance. Once. skinny rectangle displayed in the graphics window corresponds to our solution domain. Clicking Display will show all the currently selected surface entities in the graphics pane. make sure all 5 items under Surfaces are selected. then close the Mesh Display window. if you select wall . Some of the operations available in the graphics window to interrogate the geometry and mesh are: Translation: The model can be translated in any direction by holding down the Left Mouse Button and then moving the mouse in the desired direction. The long. all the 5 boundaries have been selected click Display . Unselect all surfaces and then select each one in turn to see which part of the domain or boundary the particular surface entity corresponds to (you will need to zoom in/out and translate the model as you do this). outlet . Zoom In: Hold down the Middle Mouse Button and drag a box from the Upper Left Hand . and centerline and then click Display you should then obtain the following output in the graphics window. Clicking on a surface name in the Mesh Display menu will toggle between select and unselect.Click Here for Higher Resolution You should have all the surfaces shown in the above snapshot. The selects all of the boundaries while the button next to Surfaces button deselects all of the boundaries at once.
First. as shown in the image below. the Viscous Model options are set to laminar. We need to solve the energy equation only if we are interested in determining the temperature distribution.. For incompressible flow. In order to open the Energy Model Options Models > Energy-Off > Edit. In order to open the Viscous Model Options Models > Viscous . So leave the Energy Equation set to off and click Cancel to exit the menu. . Use these operations to zoom in and interrogate the mesh. The properties of the fluid were specified in the Problem Specification section. Zoom Out: Hold down the Middle Mouse Button and drag a box anywhere from the Lower Right Hand Corner to the Upper Left Hand Corner . the Energy Model parameters will be specified. . Define Material Properties Now. Under General > Solver > 2D Space select Axisymmetric as shown in the image below. By default.Corner to the Lower Right Hand Corner over the area you want to zoom in on. the properties of the fluid that is being modeled will be specified.. Click Here for Higher Resolution Next...Laminar > Edit. Now. so no changes are needed. the Viscous Model parameters will be specified. the axisymmetric nature of the geometry must be specified.. the energy equation is decoupled from the continuity and momentum equations. .. Click Cancel to exit the menu. Define Solver Properties In this section the various solver properties will be specified in order to obtain the proper solution for the laminar pipe flow. In order to create a new fluid (Click) Materials > Fluid > Create/Edit. We will not deal with temperature in this example.
. . Define Boundary Conditions At this point the boundary conditions for the four Named Selections will be specified. Close the window. as shown in the following image. Inlet Boundary Condition In order to start the process (Click) Boundary Conditions > inlet > Edit.In the Create/Edit Materials menu set the Density to 1kg/m^3 (constant) and set the Viscosity to 2e-3 kg/(ms) (constant) as shown in the image below. Click Here for Higher Resolution Click Change/Create .. The boundary condition for the inlet will be specified first.
select outlet in the Boundary Conditions menu. click OK to close the Velocity Inlet menu.Click Here for Higher Resolution Note that the Boundary Condition Type should have been automatically set to velocityinlet . the velocity at the inlet will be specified. as shown below. . Click Here for Higher Resolution Then. and set the Axial-Velocity (m/s) to 1 m/s. In the Velocity Inlet menu set the Velocity Specification Method to Components . Outlet Boundary Condition First. as shown below. Now.
then set it to pressure-outlet .Click Here for Higher Resolution As can be seen in the image above the Type should have been automatically set to pressure-outlet . If the Type is not set to pressure-outlet . Now. as shown below. Click Here for Higher Resolution As can be seen in the image above the Type has been automatically set to wall which is not . Centerline Boundary Condition Select centerline in the Boundary Conditions menu. no further changes are needed for the outlet boundary condition.
select pipe_wall in the Boundary Conditions menu. as shown below. Then click OK to accept "centerline" as the zone name. Pipe Wall Boundary Condition First. Click Here for Higher Resolution When the dialog boxes appear click Yes to change the boundary type. . as shown below.correct. Change the Type to axis .
Save In order to save your work (Click)File > Save Project as shown in the image below.Click Here for Higher Resolution As can be seen in the image above the Type should have been automatically set to wall . . then set it to wall . Now. no further changes are needed for the pipe_wall boundary condition. If the Type is not set to wall .
In order to implement the second order scheme click on Solution Methods then click on Momentum and select Second Order Upwind as shown in the image below.Search Cornell SimCafe Home Simulation > … > FLUENT .3.Solution Browse/Manage Login FLUENT . Setup (Physics) 5. Verification & Validation Exercises Useful Information Click here for the FLUENT 6. Geometry 3. last edited by Benjamin J Mullen on Feb 08. Results 7. Pre-Analysis & Start-Up 2.26 version. Cornell University Problem Specification 1.Laminar Pipe Flow . 2012 23:23 Author: Rajesh Bhaskaran. John Singleton. .Laminar Pipe Flow . Step 5: Solution Second Order Scheme A second-order discretization scheme will be used to approximate the solution. Solution 6.Solution Added by Javier Gutierrez Gallardo . Mesh 4.
In order to carry out the initialization click on Solution Initialization then click on Compute from and select inlet as shown below.Click Here for Higher Resolution Set Initial Guess Here. Click Here for Higher Resolution . the flow field will be initialized to the values at the inlet.
x-velocity . Click Here for Higher Resolution Lastly.. This completes the initialization. change the residual under Convergence Criterion for continuity . as can be seen below. click the Initialize button. We'll iterate the solution until the residual for each equation falls below 1e-6. all to 1e-6. Execute Calculation . Click Here for Higher Resolution Next.and y-velocity . Set Convergence Criteria . FLUENT reports a residual for each governing equation being solved. as shown in the image below. The residual is a measure of how well the current solution satisfies the discrete form of each governing equation.Then. In order to specify the residual criteria (Click) Monitors > Residuals > Edit. click OK to close the Residual Monitors menu. ..
Actual number of convergence steps may vary slightly. Go to Step 6: Results See and rate the complete Learning Module Go to all FLUENT Learning Modules . After running the calculation. Click Here for Higher Resolution As a safeguard save the project now. as shown below. Click Here for Higher Resolution The residuals fall below the specified convergence criterion of 1e-6 in about 48 iterations. as shown in the image below. you should obtain the following residual plot. To specify the maximum number of iterations click on Run Calculation then set the Number of Iterations to 100. save the project once again. to running the calculation the maximum number of iterations must be set. click on Calculate two times in order to run the calculation.Prior. The residuals for each iteration are printed out as well as plotted in the graphics window as they are calculated. Click Here for Higher Resolution At this point. Now.
Results Browse/Manage Login FLUENT .Laminar Pipe Flow .26 version. Results 7. click on Graphics & Animations .Results Added by Javier Gutierrez Gallardo . Setup (Physics) 5. Mesh 4.Search Cornell SimCafe Home Simulation > … > FLUENT . 2012 23:28 Author: Rajesh Bhaskaran. the plot can be reflected about the .3. The laminar pipe flow was modeled asymmetrically. The vector display is more intelligible if one makes the arrows shorter as follows: Change Scale to 0. Geometry 3.Laminar Pipe Flow . double click on Vectors which is located under Graphics . click on Display . Next. however. (Click here to review the zoom functionality discussion in step 4. last edited by Benjamin J Mullen on Feb 08. Pre-Analysis & Start-Up 2. Then. Let us plot the velocity vectors for the entire domain to see how the flow develops downstream of the inlet. Cornell University Problem Specification 1. Zoom into the region near the inlet.) The length and color of the arrows represent the velocity magnitude. Solution 6. John Singleton. or on selected surfaces. First. Step 6: Results Velocity Vectors One can plot vectors in the entire domain.4 in the Vectors menu and click Display . Verification & Validation Exercises Useful Information Click here for the FLUENT 6.
. only the axis (or centerline) surface is listed since that is the only symmetry boundary in the present case. as shown below. Select axis (or centerline) and click Apply . Higher Resolution Image Under Mirror Planes . as shown below. Thus. the velocity outside the boundary layer increases. shown below.. Higher Resolution Image The velocity vectors provide a picture of how the flow develops downstream of the inlet. This indicates that the slowing of the flow in the near-wall region results in an injection of fluid into the region away from the wall to satisfy mass conservation. one vector is . Your vector field should have been reflected across the axially axis as. Note the sloping arrows in the near wall region close to the inlet. In order to carry this out (Click) Display > Views.axial axis to get an expanded sectional view. Then click Close to exit the Views menu. By default. As the boundary layer grows. the flow near the wall is retarded by viscous friction.
. and X is set to 1 and Y is set to 0. > Set Up. Your Solution XY Plot should look exactly the same as the following image.. This tells FLUENT to plot the x-coordinate value on the abscissa of the graph.1. This can be seen by turning on the grid in the vector plot: Select Draw Grid in the Vectors menu and then click Display in the Grid Display as well as the Vectors menus. See section 27.. we'll plot the variation of the axial velocity along the centerline. select Velocity. Please note that X Axis Function and Y Axis Function describe the x and y axes of the graph . This finishes setting up the plotting parameters. Velocity vectors are the default. select centerline under Surfaces since we are plotting the axial velocity along the centerline. as shown below. but you can also plot other vector quantities.. Finally.3 of the user manual for more details about the vector plot functionality.. Higher Resolution Image In the Solution XY Plot menu make sure that Position on X Axis is selected .. for the first box underneath Y Axis Function and select Axial Velocity for the second box.drawn at the center of each cell. In order to start the process (Click) Results > Plots > XY Plot. Centerline Velocity Here. Next. which should not be confused with the x and y directions of the pipe.
Next. as shown below. At this point the graph will be modified such that the fully developed regions results are truncated. Enter 1 for Minimum and 3 for Maximum under Range . Higher Resolution Image In the graph that comes up. . deselect Auto Range . That is. This is the fully-developed flow region. The plot of the axial velocity as a function of distance along the centerline now appears.Solution XY Plot menu should look exactly the same as the image below. the range of the axes will be reconfigured.Higher Resolution Image Now. which is located under Axis . Open the Solution XY Plot menu. Check the boxes next to Major Rules and Minor Rules under Options .. click Plot . we can see that the velocity reaches a constant value beyond a certain distance from the inlet. which is located under Options . Higher Resolution Image Then. At this point your Axes . select X . At this point the grid lines will be turned on in order to help estimate where the flow becomes fully developed. then click on Axes. .. The boxes under Range should now be accessible.
At this point your Axes . Now. one can see that the fully-developed region starts at around x =3m and the centerline velocity in this region is 1. that the X axis has been formatted. click Apply . Go to the Solution XY Plot menu and click Plot to plot the graph again with the new axes extents. Higher Resolution Image We have now finished specifying the range for each axis. we will save the data from the plot and a picture of the plot. we will move on to formatting the Y axis.0 for Maximum under Range . the graph can be replotted.8 for Minimum and 2. Higher Resolution Image From the image above. Then.Solution XY Plot menu should look exactly the same as the image below. so click Apply and then Close .Higher Resolution Image Lastly. The data from the . Select Y under Axis and once again deselect Auto Range under Options . Saving the Plot In this section. enter 1. Also select Major Rules and Minor Rules to turn on the grid lines in the direction.93 m/s . At this point.
choose one of the following three options: EPS .eps. the quality of the image is not particularly good. However. You can now copy this file onto a disk or print it out for your records. which will offer the best viewable image quality. After selecting your desired image format and associated options.this will offer a high resolution image of your graph.. or vel. this is the best choice. In order to save the plot data open the Solution XY Plot menu and then select Write to File . Click on Write. EPS allows you to save the file in vector mode.if you have a postscript viewer. After selecting EPS . so this is not recommended if you do not have a lot of room on your storage device.tif. However.xy as the X Y File Name. click on Save. and then enter vel.. close the Solution XY Plot menu. choose Vector from under File Type . vel. Lastly. Coefficient of Skin Friction . click OK .. the image file generated will be rather large. Under Format ..this is small in size and viewable from all browsers. Verify that the image file has been created in your working directory. we'll save a picture of the plot. .jpg depending on your format choice and click OK . TIFF . as shown below.. which is located under Options . Check that this file has been created in your FLUENT working directory. The Plot button should have changed to Write. Enter vel. Next. First click on File then click Save Picture . JPG .plot will be saved first. .. At this point.
as shown below. There you can see the following excerpt on the skin friction coefficient as well as the equation for calculating it. which tells us how to set the reference values used in calculating the skin coefficient. Click on the first link (normally. In order to set the reference values. Let's probe the online help for information on calculating the coefficient of skin friction. Click on the link for Reference Values panel. click on Reference Values .FLUENT provides a large amount of useful information in the online help that comes with the software. . In order to access the online help first (click) Help > Users Guide Index as shown in the following image. Click on S in the links on top and scroll down to skin friction coefficient . you would have to go through each of the links until you find what you are looking for).
(Alternately. Higher Resolution Image Now. The Options and Plot Direction can be left as is since we are still plotting against the x distance along the pipe.. At this point. and then Skin Friction Coefficient in the box under that. Uncheck the Write to File check box under Options . . set Compute From to inlet . only select pipe_wall . Check that density is 1 kg/m 3 and velocity is 1 m/s .. to tell FLUENT to calculate the reference values from the values at inlet. Under the Y Axis Function . pick Wall Fluxes.Then. since we want to plot to the window. you could have just typed in the appropriate values). Under Surfaces . . your Solution XY Plot menu should look exactly like the following image. Your Reference Values should look the same as the following screen snapshot. reopen the Solution XY Plot menu.
... Velocity Profile In this section we will plot the velocity at the outlet as a function of the distance from the center of the pipe. In order to start the process (Click) Results > Plots > XY Plot. Set the range of the X axis from 1to 8 by selecting X under Axis . select Write to File under Options and click Write.. Higher Resolution Image We can see that the fully developed region is reached at around x=3. Enter cf.Higher Resolution Image Now.54. . then click Close . and 8 under Maximum in the box (remember to deselect Range Auto-Range first if it is checked).. Then. Click on Axes. Click Apply . In order to save the data from this plot.xy for XY File and click OK . first reopen the Solution XY Plot menu. Click Apply . You should obtain the following plot... Lastly. > Set Up.. as shown below.0m and the skin friction coefficient in this region is around 1. within the Solution XY Plot menu and re-select Auto-Range for the Y axis. click Plot in the Solution XY Plot menu. the ranges of each axis will be specified. entering 1 under Minimum .
for the first box underneath X Axis Function . under Plot Direction . profil e_fdev. Save the file to your working directory.Higher Resolution Image For this graph. uncheck Position on X Axis under Options and choose Position on Y Axis instead. (Don't forget to click apply before selecting a different axis). Next. click on Axes in the Solution XY Plot menu. so the graph will plot. Then. the y axis of the graph will have to be set to the y axis of the pipe (radial direction). should look exactly like the image below. which is located under Surfaces . and select the file that you just downloaded. click Plot in the Solution XY Plot . select outlet . To make the position variable the radial distance from the centerline.. In order to plot the theoretical results.. Lastly. uncheck the Write to File check box under Options .. To plot the axial velocity on the x axis of the graph. Then. It is of interest to compare the velocity profile with the theoretical parabolic profile. first click here to download the necessary file. Next. and select Axial Velocity for the second box.xy . change X to 0 and Y to 1. select Velocity.. Your Solution XY Plot .Solution XY Plot menu. To plot the position variable on the y axis of the graph. Higher Resolution Image Next. change both the x and y axes to Auto-Range . go to the Solution XY Plot menu and click Load File. Click Close in the Axes .
6. select Write to File under Options and click Write.0) to (x1. Enter profile.6m (x/D=3) and x=0. Enter x0 =0. Click Create .xy for XY File and click OK .12m (x/D=6) to the previous plot.menu. We'll create a straight line from (x0.6.y1)=(0. In order to create the profiles.0.6. Enter line1 under New Surface Name . In order to save the data from this plot. .1). how results compare relatively well with the theoretical parabolic profile. . Higher Resolution Image Notice. y1 =0.. we will add profiles at x=0. first reopen the Solution XY Plot menu. First. y0 =0. To see how the velocity profile changes in the developing region. Then. we must first create vertical lines using the Line/Rake tool.y0)=(0. You should then obtain the following figure. Select Line Tool under Options .1.x1 =0.6. (Click) Surface < Line/Rake as shown in the following image..
create a vertical line called l ine2 at x=1. Your symbols might be different from the ones below. open the Solution XY Plot menu. Now..2.2. button. select line1 and line2 .0. Zoom into the region near the inlet to see the line created at x=0. (Click here to review the zoom functionality discussion in step 4. (Click) Display > Mesh .) The white vertical line appearing to the right is li ne1 .y0)=(1.. Click Display . Make sure Node Values is selected under Options . we can plot the velocity profiles at x=0. This displays all surfaces but not the mesh cells. Higher Resolution Image Lastly. You can change the symbols and line styles under the Curves.6m (x/D=3) and x=0. Note that line1 appears in the list of surfaces. Similarly.6m. Display it in the graphics window to check that it has been created correctly. your Solution XY Plot menu should look exactly like the following image. .To see the line that you just created.1). Higher Resolution Image The profile three diameters downstream is fairly close to the fully-developed profile at the outlet. First. Now.2.12m (x/D=6) along with the outlet profile. (x0. as shown in the image below. click Plot and you should obtain the following output. Select all surfaces except default-interior .0) to (x1.y1)=(1. Under Surfaces . Click on Help in the Curves menu if you have problems figuring out how to change these settings. in addition to outlet .
4.0 United States License Adaptavist Theme Builder (4.4-M1) Powered by Atlassian Confluence 3. The coarse grid used here doesn't capture the boundary layer development properly and under predicts the development length. In FLUENT.If you redo this plot using the fine grid results in the next step. you'll see that this is not actually the case.8. you can choose to display the computed cell-center values or values that have been interpolated to the nodes. and the interpolated values are displayed. the Enterprise Wiki . Go to Step 7: Verification & validation See and rate the complete Learning Module Go to all FLUENT Learning Modules This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3. the Node Values option is turned on. By default.2. Node-averaged data curves may be somewhat smoother than curves for cell values.
Display Contour 1. Contours of >> Dynamics Pressure >> Display >> Close . Results >> Graphics and Animations >> Contours >> Set Up… 2.
Results >> Reports >> Surface Integrals >> Set Up… .Calculate Average Velocity 1.
Surfaces >> outlet >> Compute >> Close .2. Report Type >> Facet Average 3.
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