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BASIC GEOLOGY
BASIC GEOLOGY

Explain the main types of rocks Identify rocks by their lithology Explain the two main physical properties of reservoir rocks Describe four geological components of a prospect Illustrate different types of petroleum reservoirs Describe structural features that affect drilling List methods used for evaluation during drilling

Geology is the science that deals with the history and structure of the earth and it’s life forms,

especially as recorded in the rock record

During drilling rock characteristics and associated drilling conditions can change many times

An understanding of the anticipated geology is essential for properly designing the well and then

drilling it efficiently and safely.

ERA

PERIOD

EPOCH

SUCCESSION OF LIFE

 

Quaternary

Recent

 

0 1 Million Years

Pleistocene

0 – 1 Million Years Pleistocene
 

Pliocene

CENOZOIC

Miocene

Tertiary

Oligocene

65 Million Years

Eocene

Paleocene

 
 

Cretaceous

Cretaceous

MESOZOIC

Jurassic

Triassic

 

Permian

 
Permian

Pennsylvanian

Mississippian

PALEOZOIC

Devonian

Silurian

Ordovician

Cambrian

PRECAMBRIAN

 
PRECAMBRIAN
Note the . In it is a nannofossil on the surface of this foraminifera Microfossils found

Note the

Note the . In it is a nannofossil on the surface of this foraminifera Microfossils found

. In it is a nannofossil on the surface of this foraminifera

Note the . In it is a nannofossil on the surface of this foraminifera Microfossils found
Note the . In it is a nannofossil on the surface of this foraminifera Microfossils found

Microfossils found or extracted from drill cuttings are the primary tool used by the oil industry for age dating geologic strata.

IGNEOUS: Rocks formed by solidification of hot mobile material termed magma.

Intrusive (solidifies underground) Extrusive (volcanic eruption)

METAMORPHIC: Rocks formed by the transformation, in the solid state, of pre-existing igneous or sedimentary rocks as a result of high temperature and pressure.

SEDIMENTARY: Rocks formed from accumulations of sediment, which may consist of rock fragments of various sizes, the remains of animal and plants, the product of chemical action or evaporation , or a combination of these.

  • Non- Igneous Metamorphic

Reservoir

Reservoir

Sedimentary

Reservoir Reservoir Reservoir Reservoir
Reservoir
Reservoir
Reservoir
Reservoir

Argillaceous

Arenaceous

Carbonates

Evaporites

Other

Shale, Clay, Claystone Sandstone, Siltstone Limestone, Dolomite Anhydrite, Salt Pyrite, Mica, Chert, Coal

The Character of Rock Formations

 

Shale

 

Sandstone

 

Limestone

 

Calcareous shale

 

Anhydrite

 

Argillaceous Limestone

 

Quartz

 

Conglomerate

 

Clay

 

Dolomite

 

Lignite

Porosity

(ɸ)

It is the percent volume of pore space

It is a measure of a
(k) fluid’s ability to flow

Permeability

through a porous media

Porosity (ɸ):

Percent Porosity =100×

bulk volume -

 

grain volume

 

bulk volume

Percent Porosity =100 ×

pore volume

  bulk volume  

ABSOLUTE POROSITY: The percent of total voids in the rock compared to the total rock volume

EFFECTIVE POROSITY: The percent of interconnected void spaces in the rock compared to the total rock volume

Oil In Place (Barrels) = 7,758 x V o x ф(1-S w )

Where, V o = Volume of oil bearing rock in acre-feet Ф = Effective porosity, fraction S w = Water saturation, fraction

Permeability (k):

It is a measure of a fluid’s ability to flow through

a porous media

Linear horizontal flow

Q = A

k

ΔP

×

μ

L

Radial horizontal flow

Q = 2π

hk

ΔP

×

μ

Ln

rw re

Where, Q = flow rate, cc/sec A = cross-sectional area of rock, cm 2 k = permeability, Darcy = viscosity of the fluid, cp P = differential pressure, atm L = length over which P applies, cm h = thickness of medium, cm re = external radius rw = well radius

Bulk Density (b ):

It is the weight per unit volume of rock In sedimentary rocks it is less than the density of the matrix material due to rock porosity Under normal compaction, the bulk density increases with depth Unit of measurement is gm/cc

Example:

Take rock with a specific gravity of 2.7 and a porosity of 10%. The pores are filled with salt water having a

specific gravity of 1.05. The bulk density of the shale

would then be (.9) (2.7) + (.1) (1.05) = 2.53

Source Rock Reservoir Seal

Trap

SOURCE ROCK: Organic deposit that, when heated, release oil and/or gas. These deposits are usually formed in marine and lacustrine environments. Most common rock type is shale.

RESERVOIR: Container that holds sufficient volumes of oil and/or gas. Most common rock types include sandstone, limestone, and dolomite.

SEAL: Barrier that inhibits movement of oil and/or gas. Common rock types that act as seals are evaporites and shales.

TRAP:

Refers to the three dimensional

geometric configuration of the reservoir

and associated seal.

Anticlinal Trap Anticlinal Trap (Impermeable) Potential Migration Route Faults & Fractures Unconformities Salt Faces and Welds
Anticlinal Trap
Anticlinal Trap
(Impermeable)
Potential
Migration Route
Faults & Fractures
Unconformities
Salt Faces and Welds
Porous and Permeable Beds
Flow of gas and oil from the source rock to the trap. Expulsion of oil and

Flow of gas and oil from the source rock to the trap. Expulsion of oil and gas from the source rock occurs because of volume increase during generation that fractures the shale.

Migration is usually upward through subsurface fractures due to buoyancy (gas and oil are lighter than water).

Anticline

Anticline Fault Trap Stratigraphic Trap Salt Dome

Fault Trap

Anticline Fault Trap Stratigraphic Trap Salt Dome

Stratigraphic Trap

Anticline Fault Trap Stratigraphic Trap Salt Dome

Salt Dome

Anticline Fault Trap Stratigraphic Trap Salt Dome
Gas Oil Seal Water Reservoir Oil rock
Gas
Oil
Seal
Water
Reservoir
Oil
rock

Fault trap requires:

Dipping Beds

Juxtaposition of impermeable beds and/or

Smear/gouge seal as beds move past each other

Normal Fault Hanging wall moves down relative to Footwall

A B A C B C Foot wall Hanging wall
A
B
A
C
B
C
Foot wall
Hanging wall

Section will be missing “faulted

out” with normal faults

Reverse Fault Hanging wall moves up relative to Footwall

A A B B C C Foot wall Hanging wall
A
A
B
B
C
C
Foot wall
Hanging wall

Section will be repeated with reverse faults

Dome - An anticlinal structure, elliptical or circular in outline. Often formed by intrusion of igneous

Dome - An anticlinal structure, elliptical or circular in outline. Often formed by intrusion of igneous or diapiric sedimentary rock from below.

Cap Rock? Salt Dome
Cap Rock?
Salt Dome

The Science that deals with the composition and physical phenomena of the earth and it’s liquid

and gaseous environments

Most commonly: Earth Magnetism, Gravity, and Seismic Vibrations

Vibrator Truck Vibrator Truck (Energy Source) (Energy Source) Recording Truck Recording Truck Geophone Geophone (Receivers) (Receivers)
Vibrator Truck
Vibrator Truck
(Energy Source)
(Energy Source)
Recording Truck
Recording Truck
Geophone
Geophone
(Receivers)
(Receivers)
Returning
Returning
Returning
Returning
Sound
Sound
Sound Waves
Sound Waves
Waves
Waves
American Petroleum Institute, 1986

DIP

The angle at which a stratum or any planar feature is inclined from the horizontal The dip is at right angles to the strike

Structural features that affect drilling performance:

Dip angle Strike angle Faults Fractures Vugs Intercalation and lamination Uplifted Tectonic stresses and their direction

STRIKE

The course or bearing of the outcrop of an inclined bed or structure on a level surface; the direction or bearing of a

horizontal line in the plane of an inclined

stratum, joint, fault, cleavage plane, or other structural plane

It is perpendicular to the direction of the dip

Strike - parallel to the long axis of a structure or parallel to the direction or

Strike - parallel to the long axis of a structure or parallel to the direction or trend taken by a structural element. Perpendicular to dip direction.

Dip - the maximum angle of a surface or structural element from horizontal. Dip direction is perpendicular to strike.

Description and analysis of cuttings Mud weight - in & out Gas detection and measurement Detection of hydrocarbon shows Logging while drilling Rate of penetration Torque and drag Directional measurements Temperature of drilling fluid Chemical analysis of drilling fluid Coring

KB/RT - 25’ +1000’ KB/RT - 75’ SEA 0’ LEVEL -1000’ -2000’ -3000’ -4000’ -5000’
KB/RT - 25’
+1000’
KB/RT - 75’
SEA
0’
LEVEL
-1000’
-2000’
-3000’
-4000’
-5000’

7025’

Measured Depth (MD)

5075’

Measured Depth (MD)

6525’

True Vertical Depth (TVD)

5075’

True Vertical Depth (TVD)

-5000’

Subsea True Vertical Depth (SSTVD)

-5000’

Subsea True Vertical Depth (SSTVD)

 

3000’

Below Mud Line (BML)