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INTRODUCTION ........................................................................5 WORD FORMATION ................................................................7 COMPOUND WORDS ......................................................9 PREFIXED AND SUFFIXED WORDS ............................16 WORD USAGE ........................................................................29 COMPLEX VERBS ..........................................................31 IDIOMATIC PHRASES ....................................................37 PREPOSITIONS ..............................................................48 SYNONYMS ....................................................................56 COLLOCATIONS ............................................................66 ENGLISH IN USE ....................................................................81 SPELLING and PUNCTUATION ....................................83 EXTRA WORD ................................................................91 LEXICAL CLOZE PASSAGES ........................................98 STRUCTURAL CLOZE PASSAGES ............................103 DISCOURSE CLOZE PASSAGES ................................109 FORMAL vs. INFORMAL LANGUAGE ..........................113 ANSWER KEYS ....................................................................117 APPENDIX 1 REGISTER TIPS ..................................137 APPENDIX 2 COMPLEX VERBS TIPS......................139 APPENDIX 3 COLLOCATIONS..................................142 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY ........................................143

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III. Complete the following sentences with suitable compounds. Initial letters are provided to help you. 1. Clark is usually avoided by his office mates for he is b-h and keeps telling them how intelligent he is. 2. My team are using this new h-l equipment to make their work easier and finish the construction sooner. 3. I never go shopping with Frank as I know he is l-f and I may end up being wrongly accused of shoplifting. 4. The main office has received a number of complaints about inhuman treatment from d-t workers all over the country. 5. Harry, our kind neighbour, asked us to give him n-m grass for his stallions. 6. Bill encouraged Dana to remain optimistic as he had a feeling she would be an u-a-c pop singer and eventually his words became reality. 7. Given his figure he should wear only d-b suits. 8. My daughters math homework for tomorrow consists of two m-b geometry problems. 9. His putting in a word for her was supposed to be a w-m intention but unfortunately she interpreted it in the wrong way. 10. It was not the heavy traffic that prevented me from arriving on time but the l-l mist.


I. Fill in the gaps with words made from the ones in capitals. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. The questions in the test were not so ... as they were supposed to be. ELEMENT The policy of not becoming involved in the affairs of other countries is called ISOLATE This contemporary author is quite famous for his style. NOVEL Conditions for participation in the contest are enumerated LEAF The newcomers were kindly invited to in the social life of the community. TAKE Students usually rely too much on their memory and dont study as much as they should. PHOTO


7. 8. 9. 10.

This knife is of poor quality as it is not made of steel. STAIN We all know that his deed can be qualified as offence. TREASON The babys kept his parents awake all night. WAIL The person who plays the timpani is called a TIMPANI

VI. Rewrite the following sentences replacing the underlined words with a phrasal verb. Certain sentences allow more than one variant. He is usually very secretive about everything he does; you can never make him tell you anything. 2. At the carnival all the guests came dressed in clothes similar to those worn by the characters in the book. 3. The young man was sent to a boarding school in Switzerland without even being asked when he was fourteen. 4. It was conspicuous that Greg was the most intelligent member of his team. 5. The detectives intention was to find whatever information he could in the victims office outside office hours. 6. The preconceived idea according to which girls do not make as much progress as boys do no longer stands. 7. It is hoped that a new computer lab in our school will make our students more enthusiastic and motivated. 8. You do not need to give me a lift; Ill just make a taxi stop by waving at its driver. 9. The paint on the walls is so old that it has started to break away from them in small pieces. 10. The movie had not finished when I noticed Harry falling asleep. 1.

IV. Rewrite the following sentences replacing the underlined words with an idiom containing the word in capitals. 1. 2. Ever since the company lost a big deal because of his incompetence, he is not in his bosss favour any longer. BLACK I was told to wait until they gave me permission to start. GREEN

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She is definitely not the type of woman who would accept a low paid job in an office or a restaurant. PINK 4. The manager of the new department was accused of stealing money from the company. WHITE 5. Our athlete has most chances to win the gold medal in the Olympics this year. RED 6. You can argue about this hot issue all you want but it will be in vain because she will stick to her own opinion. BLUE 7. She always says other peoples jobs are better than hers or that others have more money than she does. GREENER 8. After retirement, older people resort to the money specially saved for this period. GREY 9. When the explosion was heard, all the children in the classroom screamed very loudly. BLUE 10. Put your request in writing and well see about that later. BLACK

II. Complete the sentences with ABOVE or OVER. 1. The beauty center is located in the same building but the supermarket. 2. Last night temperatures were not freezing level. 3. Mother asked Sean to spread a white cloth the table. 4. His behavior has always been reproach. 5. The bodyguard was holding a huge umbrella the actresss head. 6. Please look the hedge and tell us what you see. 7. The wrong doer is thought to have escaped the border some time ago. 8. Will you please sprinkle some salt the salad for me? 9. The man was sad and disappointed as he hadnt been able to rise the rank of sergeant. 10. The little boy was afraid to jump the stream and started crying.


I. LOUD Complete the sentences with one of the synonyms in the box below. rowdy, booming, deafening, loud, noisy, raucous, piercing, thunderous, ear-splitting 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. The noise was as bomb shells exploded all over the town. Two of the boys were thrown out of the concert hall for behaviour. Mother was woken up by a bang she heard outside. A silence followed after the terrible news was broadcast. The man just sat there and sipped his drink ignoring the voices around him. The announcement that she will run for Congress was greeted with applause. The speaker made himself heard by everyone in the conference room thanks to his voice. Our grandparents would rather live in the country rather than in a city as they totally dislike places. A scream came from the next room so we went to check it out.

I. Find one word only which can be used appropriately in all three sentences making up a set. Its form may change in some cases. 1. a) We truly hope our representatives will sign the contract today as hundred jobs are at b) Please drive another into the ground so that our tent will be better supported. c) In the past, suspected witches used to be burnt at the a) Please dont write anything in the . Our teacher will make notes there. b) The British voted by a large to keep their own currency.


6 c) We would like to know the of error in this case. 3.

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a) We would have liked to have this photo b) Doriss mother is a small- woman always dressed up smartly. c) Jerry is going to buy a pair of silver- glasses for his brother today. a) This young actress will play the of Juliet at the National Theatre the next season. b) You dont have a straight in your hair. c) Her not coming back since Christmas is only of the problem. a) Losing weight is a of motivation and ambition. b) The police are going to him about the crime. c) Sean raised a delicate at last nights meeting. a) The children were promised to be taken to a game b) They state they condemn our actions without c) Ive just remembered I havent made a hotel so far. a) Which do you usually work? b) Lately there has been a marked in attitudes towards the HIV infected people. c) I was about to into the third gear when I heard a loud bang at the rear of my car. a) With all due , madam, I believe you are wrong. b) With to the issue we talked about yesterday, it remains to be seen. c) Todays youth dont treat the old with a) At first our small business was quite but in time it became very profitable. b) What is the time? My watch seems to be a few minutes c) If you dont speed up you should drive on the lane.







10. a) If you had used a fishing , you wouldnt go home empty-handed. b) We have bought only jars of mustard weighting 250 grams c) They have cast their wide to get the appropriate location for the exhibition.



I. Underline the correct homograph in each sentence. He booked a birth/berth on the train from Cluj to Bucharest last week. Have you ever tasted place/plaice? The man was coming down the street with a slow, stiff gait/gate. It is a fact that wars and disaster have provided a rich seam/seem of drama for writers. 5. The bride insisted that her cake should have five tears/tiers. 6. Hordes/Hoards of children on rollers made crossing the street difficult. 7. The peasants mules brayed/braid when they saw him approaching. 8. Terry answered the waiter he would like to have row/roe. 9. Sunlight seemed to gild/guild the babys face. 10. The captain said somebody must have seen the boy/buoy and swerved just in time. III. Read carefully the text below. Some of the lines are correct but others contain a spelling or a punctuation error. Find the error and write it next to the numbers provided. For the lines which are correct indicate this with a tick (9). The lines (0) and (00) are done as examples. Airline food reaching new heights Examples: 0 00 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 00 . With 9 1. 2. 3. 4.

At a high altitude, taste buds lose sensitivity with a traveler's ability to taste 33% gone, airline meals must be more robustly seasoned on the ground and wines more agressive on the palate. Since no one consumes more airline food then business travelers, menu planning for repeat pasengers is a constant challenge for airlines with long-haul routes we are treating in-flight dining like in-flight entertainment, because the food has to work hard to keep passengers entertained said Ben Boyd, spokesman for Singapore Airlines. "We need to satisfy a number of objectives. Its also a vehicle for creating a point of contact. The way a meal is presented creates an oportunity to interact with passengers. "To meet the taste challenge carriers conduct costly and labor-intensive tests, some in kitchens that have a sealed room

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to replicate in flight pressure and humidity conditions. On long-distance flights, menus are changed regularlly and tailored to ethnic preferences on given routes which requires considerable research and attention to very specific guidelines. "Meals must taste like this look like this ..., acording to detailed instructions," said the vice president of aircraft catering for Emirates.

Read carefully each of the texts below. Some of the lines are correct but others contain an unnecessary word. Find the extra word and then write it next to the numbers provided. For the lines which are correct indicate this with a tick (9) in the box. The lines (0) and (00) are done as examples. A. Athens Examples: 0 00 9 the

0 00 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Bathed in the light of Attica, Athens is a crossroads: a place where mountain meets the sea, East meets West, a turbulent history meets the contemporary business world. Against this background, it is not hardly surprising that the city should have its own vital rhythms, which never to fail to astonish other Europeans. Athenians pour very the same intense energy into their entertainment as into their work, and they have developed the temperament characteristic to of the citizens of any great modern Mediterranean metropolis. A city so like Athens - chaotic, non-conformist, free - is not an easy place to come to go grips with. A city where an ancient sense of measure co-exists with the chaos of the modern world, and the relaxed Mediterranean temperament with the more inhuman rhythms of international business. Why this should be so, of course, it is obvious: Athens is and has always been a busy crossroads. Since its first settlement it has never, despite of myriad historical adventures and tremendous population fluctuations over a span of one more than five


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thousand years, ceased to be a city. Perhaps it and all begins with this magical situation: the centre of Attica, a whole cosmos wherein everything exists and everything intersects with, to create at their epicentre a basin protected by mountains.


I. Read the text below and decide which word best fits each numbered space by circling it. Long-Term Impact of Toxins Toxic pollution in the Great Lakes usually (1) few immediate health risks. But (2) experts say swimming and drinking are safe, they admit that the long-term impact of many of the toxins (3) into the lakes still isnt understood. Among the substances dumped most into the Great Lakes watershed are lead and nickel, both of (4) are suspected of causing cancer and other health problems. Others, such as barium, have been (5) to threats such as increased blood pressure and brain swelling. But while (6) of harmful chemicals are present in the lakes, they generally are so (7) that people face very little risk of being sickened by them. Industrial polluters are required by the government to dilute the chemicals before they are released, so even water near waste pipes isnt supposed to pose a danger. But what happens once those toxics get into the water is harder to (8) . Some, such as nitrates and ammonia, (9) away and break down within days. Others, such as lead, can (10) up in lake bed (11) and dont easily break down. Environmentalists say that creates a risk of new toxic hot (12) in the lakes. Still others, such as PCBs and mercury, build up in animals, which means the levels people are exposed to when eating fish are concentrated and more harmful. Mercury is linked to immune (13) and brain damage. PCBs are thought to cause cancer. Yet researchers dont fully understand the risks of many pollutants. Among them are manganese and copper, two of the toxins dumped most often into the Great Lakes. The government (14) it hasnt been able to (15) a conclusion about whether they cause cancer. 1. 2. 3. 4. A puts A when A draining A which B poses B until B moving B who C lays C while C toiling C what D lies D how D existing D whose

10 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. A launched A galore A dilated A measure A dig A mould A dregs A spots A conditions A recognises A arrive B lingered B sufficient B dipped B rectify B drift B pile B lees B spades B failures B faces B reach C garbled C plenty C diffused C survey C dupe C plan C lice C spoons C disorders C admits C ride

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D linked D profuse D diluted D tune D dodge D pole D sediments D spiders D illnesses D fears D drive


I. Read the text below and fill in the numbered blanks with the missing word. Use only one word for each space. Under a Spell Most people credit Noah Webster, the American lexicographer, (1) the differences in spelling between American and British English. He published The American Spelling Book in 1788 later to be called The Elementary Spelling Book and (2) the following 40 years the book went (3) about 300 editions. It sold more than 60 million copies by the end of the 19th century. In 1828, he published the American Dictionary of the English Language, (4) cemented his reputation (5) the foremost lexicographer of his day. Websters success has led many (6) believe he had a major influence on spelling norms in America. However, many characteristics of American English spelling were already (7) established. Center and theater, for example, were not new when Webster put (8) in his dictionary. Webster also recommended some pretty radical spellings, (9) as soop, fantom, tuf, hed, medecin and tung. Most Americans ignored Websters more screwy ideas. (10) in the best linguistic traditions, common sense and everyday usage had (11) impact on the American spelling system than Websters preaching about correct spellings. The final irony is that after Websters death in 1843, Charles and George Merriam bought the rights (12) his dictionaries and published the first Merriam-Webster dictionary in 1847. It (13) this dictionary, not Websters original, that became a runaway success (14) over America, and it left (15) all of Websters wackier spellings thank goodness.




II. Instructions as above. Youth Cheerleading Uniforms Cheerleaders first began (1) into their cheers at the University of Minnesota. Flash cards were first used at Oregon State University. Both of these events coincided with the great surge of women in the cheerleading game, during the 1920s. Then, in the 1930s, both universities and high schools began (2) Pompons fast became a symbol of cheerleading and the most important part of the youth cheerleading uniform. Later, in the 1940s, the men went off to war and women began (3) . Youth Cheerleading Uniforms began (4) more like that we would recognize today, but the evolution was far from complete and would accelerate in the decades to follow. Cheerleading workshops actually began in the 1950s as a way of raising the standards of cheerleading, and making it more of an American institution. Then the top ten teams began (5) , making sure that a good cheerleading team would be forever a part of American sport. Cheerleading as a sport in its own right really took off in the 1970s, and it was around then that youth cheerleading uniforms really began (6) . Indeed, not much has really changed since then, apart from the materials that youth cheerleading uniforms are made from. Technology in fabrics has meant that lightweight, colorful and resilient cheerleading uniforms now compliment this distinctive sport. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. to evolve to increase womens awareness to incorporate pompons into their youth cheerleading uniforms to count cheerleading as part of their work to be different form mens sports to be ranked in 1967 to take on a shape and style to incorporate gymnastics and tumbling acts to become part of the American dream


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III. For questions 1-13 read carefully text A - the informal note made by the representative of a company about an unsatisfactory stay at a hotel. Use the information in the note to complete the numbered gaps in text B - the formal letter of complaint which follows. Use no more than two words for each gap. A. INFORMAL NOTE Dear Kelly, I was hugely disappointed by the arrangements for the conference and the accommodation at the Savoy hotel last week. Please write a letter to the manager of the hotel letting him know how we feel about it. These were the main problems: z not enough chairs in the conference room; had to bring in stools from the bar z no overhead projector in the conference room. Forced to buy one. z a cleaning woman was not polite to one of the guests. Can give her name. z no warm water and had to heat cold water for washing z too cold both in conference hall and in the guests rooms z no room service though we expected to find one; its a four-star hotel z wont recommend this hotel to anyone I know. Can we get our money back? Thanks, Brenda B. FORMAL LETTER OF COMPLAINT Dear Sir/Madam, I am writing (1) of Global Online, the company whose last conference was held at your hotel, to (2) the poor service we received last week. (3) with, the conference hall was not fully-equipped as it had been advertised. On the contrary, the room in question was not appropriate at all for holding conferences due to the (4) number of chairs - we had to (5) stools for our guests from the hotels bar and to the fact that there was no overhead projector available, which forced us to (6) one. Furthermore, the accommodation did not meet the four-star standard as well. Although we expected to enjoy the high quality of the room



service, we were informed that no such service was (7) . Apart from that, the warm water system being under repair at the moment, we saw ourselves forced to heat cold water every day. I must also mention the fact that the hotels central heating system did not function and my guests complained about their rooms and the conference hall being too cold. With reference to the quality of the service provided by your cleaning staff, I must add that it was far beyond our expectations. Upon one of my guests request of an extra blanket, one member of your (8) refused to assist him in a very rude manner. I will be happy to (9) you with her name. All in all, our stay at your hotel was beyond our expectations and, therefore, I will recommend it to none of my (10) . To conclude, I feel we (11) to at least a partial (12) and I look forward to hearing from you as soon as possible. Yours (13) , Kelly Taylor