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The computers are performing many of routine activities in today society. Man has invented many electronic devices but the computers have greater impact on society than any other electronic device. In earlier days the computers were used to so compute or to calculate. The problem, which early had to solve, were mostly mathematical. Today computers are used in weather forecasting and for reserving seats in flights or railways and even to cut the shapes out of sheet metal. Computers act upon information in computing terminology this is called as data. They process data according to step-by-step instruction and gives out data as output. In brief computer can be defined as electronic machine that accepts the data and process the data according to the instructions and provide the results as output. Data comes in various shapes and sizes depending upon the types of computer application. A computer can store process and retrieve data and when needed. That is why many people call the computer as Data Processor. The spate of inventions during last decade led to the development of personal computers. They become versatile and they have brief case. They have become indispensable for engineers, doctors, teachers, managers, businessmen, administrators, students and just every one. What computers can do: 1. Computers perform complex calculations rapidly with higher accuracy. 2. Computers can store a large amount of data and information. 3. Provide information to the user. 4. Automatically correct or modify by providing signals certain paramameters of a system under control. 5. Computers provide information to the user. 6. Computers can draw and prints graphs. Computer: It is an electronic device, which performs arithmetic and logical Operations. Computer is a high speed electronic device which is used to perform various arithmetic and logical operations. Computer can accept the data as input to store and the process then for out put result. Computer is used to store and process large amount of data and provides information to the user. They are used to perform a large number of calculations rapidly and accurately. The word computer came from “Compute”. It is a greek word, in greek compute means, calculate.
Features of computer: Speed: A computer is very speed and very fast calculating device in a few seconds, it can do a lot of work. It maintains the same speed right from the beginning till the end. The computer speeds will be measured in MIPS. Storage capacity: The computer has large storage capacity to store a large volume of data. The computer has two memory capacity which is divide into two aspects called Internal Memory and External Memory. The internal memory has not sufficient to store large capacity of data where external memory is used to store large capacity of data. With this feature computer has become has popular. Accuracy: Computer can perform very fast but without giving errors or wrong information. It provides the absolute result to the user after process the data. Automation: A computer can perform a particular work continuously without getting fail. Every operation should be done automatically by itself without getting any human interjection. Diligence (No Relax): Computer can perform or process by large volume o data and also work with without getting any rest. Versatility: One of the most wonderful things about a computer is a capable performing any task. It at one moment, it is processing the result of a particular examination, so every operation can perform by the using the computer. Application areas of computers: Computers help to store the information of employees in an office like employee member, name and address and help to prepare salaries list, in a few seconds. In hotels computers are used to store the work of preparing the bills of costumers gives rooms information also. Computers are used to prepare the reservation tickets of railways and airways and also help to the administration sites. In banks computers are used for office works the details of money depositors in banks or with draw by the costumer from his account, which will be store in a computer. 2
Weather Forecasting: -Computers is used to determine the forecast and make predications of rain, storms, and cyclones. Schools: - Computers can play the role of a teacher, they are used to display the drawing in science, maps in social studies they are used to conduct the quiz compete ions, computer are also used to like chess etc.
History of computers: There have significant technology changes and improvements from the earlier developments of computers to the present day computers it has undergone evolutionary changes right from its inception. The technology is changes so fast that it is becoming difficult for the professional to keep pace with it. As and when there is a big leap in the technologically advancement. It is put into next generation. We are presently in the era of fourth generation and are entering into fifth generation.
Generations of computers: They are five types: • First generation of computers: (1946-1955)
This generation of computers is based on the VACCUM TUBES technology, which are very delicate devices that control electronic signals. ENIAC: Eckert invented electronic numerical integrator and calculator and it. Advantages: 1) These are used for designing the digital computers. Disadvantages: 1) They are two bulkily in size and occupy a lot of space. 2) Generated so much of heat. 3) Frequently failure, when we are use. 4) Limited in use. The gradual development in computer technology is called generation. • Second generation of computers:- (1956-1965)
Advantages:1) Small in size 2) Produce less heat 3) Fast Processing Disadvantages:3
1. It requires frequently maintenance. 2. Very expensive. • Third Generation of computers:- (1966-1975)
Advantages:1. It is very small when we are comparing first and second generation technology. 2. Low Cost 3. Widely used for commercial applications. 4. It is very fast and more compact. Disadvantages:1. It requires AC 2. High advance technology is used for defining IC’s chips. • Fourth Generation:- (1976-1985)
Advantages:1. Small in size and very easy to out. 2. Fast Calculation 3. Low cost 4. Minimum maintenance is required. 5. used for general purpose. Disadvantages:1. It requires AC • Fifth Generation of computers (1986-onwards)
History of computers:• • • • • • • • • • In earlier days the computer was invented. Based on abacus tool it was designed. Abacus is a frame that is having movable beats string on the wire. The Chinese and Japanese develop it in 16th century. After this Jhon naphier was invented manual Calculating device. In 1642 Baise Pascal was invented Mechanical calculator, which is used for performing arithmetic operation. After various developments Charles Babbage was invented powerful machine is known as differential engine in 1822. And again Babbage was invented Analytical engine in 1833, which are used for performing all operations, so he was called as father of computers. He invented the first digital computers in 1846. It is called as ENIAC. Dr. Hermen Hollerith was invented punched card device in the year of 1887,which are used for accepting the data as input, this data is first record in a coded form by punching holes on 4
cards. After this technology we have to develop different of computers and getting more facilities in our daily life.
Generation of computers:
The gradual development in computer technology is known as generation of computers. Generation means such period of time to develop technology. These generations are classifying into five types. First generation of computers: This generation was started from (1946-55) These Computers are based on “Vacuum tubes” technology which are used fro control electrical signals. The ENIAC was developed in this generation. This technology is used for design as digital computer Types of computers: The computers are mainly classified into two types. They are; 1st Classification of computers 2nd Classification of Computers Based on the Operating principle and working capabilities, the computers are classified into three types. 1) Digital Computers 2) Analog Computers 3) Hybrid Computers Digital Computers: are operated by counting are all quantities are expressed in digits are Numbers. Analog computers: are operated by measuring than by counting it expresses all quantities Measurement. These computers are very powerful for solving differential equations. Hybrid Computers: It id partly analog and partly digital. Both features are mixing are Provide one computer technology. It is known as Hybrid. One computer technology. It is known as Hybrid. 2nd classification These computers are again classified into based on their size, storage capacity and working Speed. They are: 1.Micro computers 2. Mini computers. 5
1. A Micro Computer is the smallest general-purpose computer. These are called as self-content units. Hence these computers are cannot linked to other computer easily. These computers are design for the use by one person at a time. It process the data from 80000 to 100000 instructions per second. 2. A Mini computer is a medium sized computer, which is more expensive and powerful than micro. We have one difference e between that is to serve multiple users simultaneously. Hence there are very easy to link to large computers. 3. Mainframe Computers: These computers are having large storage capacity and high Speed of processing. They support a large number of terminals to use multiple users Simultaneously. 4. Super computer: These computers are having extremely large storage capacity and computing speed is 10 times faster than other computers. It performs MIPS. These super computer are solving large scale numerical values and scientific and engineering. The first super sonic computer in India is PARAM Input device: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Punched hole device OMR (Optical Mark reader) MICR (Magnetic In Character Reorganization) Mouse Keyboard
Output device: Monitor: 1. Monochrome Monitor (B/W) 2. Color Monitor V.D.U.: Visual Display Unit. 1. Text Mode 2. Graphic Mode Text Mode : 24 lines, 80 columns Graphic Mode : 400 lines 640 columns CGA card was invented by IBM Company in 1982 IBM stands for International Business machine. HGA Hercules Graphic Adapter, this was invented by Hercules company in 1982 E.G.A. Enhonsed Graphic Adapter, introduced by IBM Company in 1984. It supports 16 colors. V.G.A: Visual Graphic Adapter: It as developed by IBM Company in 1987. It supports 256 colors at same time with high resolution. S.V.G.A: Super Video Graphic adapter: This adapter was introduced by American group of company 1988.It displays the visual effectiveness with colors in pixels parts. 6
Bits and Bytes: The bits and bytes will measure the computer data. 1Bit – 1 or 0 4Bits – 1 nibble 2nibbles – 1 Byte 1024 Bytes – 1 Kilo Bytes 1024 KB – 1Mb 1024 MB – 1GB 1024 GB – 1TB Block Diagram of computers Basically we are having three devices in computer They are 1. Input devices 2.C.P.U 3. Out put devices Computer Hardware: is some set of physical components. Computer Software: is nothing but some collection of program Input Devices: This input device is used to feed the used data in the computer memory. These input devices are 4 types ; 1. Punched hole device 2. A cardpunch machine writes data into cards. Its look like a typewriter when punched sets holes in a card instead of printing. 3. OMR: It is used to detect the marks made by pencil r ink on specially design paper. These sheets are maintained used in competitive examinations. Which are having objective types question. MACR stands fro Magnetic Ink Character Reorganization which is used for identify codes and the customer account number on all free defined cheques. 4. Mouse: This mouse is also an input device. 5. Keyboard: This is very important component, which is used to feed the data. The keyboard is divided into four parts. a. Alphabetic keys b. Function Keys c. Numeric keypad d. Speed and combination key C.P.U: In this CPU we have 3 units. 1. Memory Unit 2. A.L.U 3. C.U (Control Unit) Memory Unit: The data entered into the computer it will be stores the given data in one place. This place is known as memory. This memory is also called as Main memory. This primary memory again classified into two types. They are 1. RAM 2.ROM 7
Ram: Random Access Memory while the program execution the data will be stored in one place. This is known as Ram. It will be stored the given data temporally. That is the data will be lost whenever the power switch off. This Ram is classified into two types: DRAM, SRAM DRAM: Dynamic Ram: It will be lost the data once power switch off. S.RAM: Static Ram: It does not loss the data when the power switch off. ROM: Read only Memory :In the memory the bios is permanently loaded during manufacturing time. It provides a non-vertile storage capacity. The data does not get erased when the power switch off. But can’t write data. This ROM is again classified into three types: 1. PROM: Programmable will be stored once the program will be stored the record information cannot be changed. 2. EPROM: Erasable programmable read only memory: It is similar to the PROM. But we can erase the program through ultra violet ray. 3. EEPROM: Electrical erasable programmable read only memory: Once the chip has been programmed it will erase through electrical signals. ALU Stands Arithmetic Logic Unit; This unit can perform all arithmetical and logical operation. After performing operations, the result is send back to the memory. CU: Control Unit: This unit always watch the data came are not from the input device to memory unit , and it also controls all system devices and checks power supply. Computer Languages Language is nothing but a media, which is used to communicate to the others. Computer language is an interface the user. The function of a computer was controlled a set of instructions if we want to communicate, we can use mainly three languages. These are three types: 1.High Level Language 2.Assembly Language 3.Low Level Language 8
Low-level Language: The language, which is understood by the computer, is known as low-level language or machine language. This is having electronic values, which can understand by the computer. Assembly Language: It is nemoic code language. It is also called as symbolic or code language. This language must be converted into low-level language. High Level Language: The language, which is understood by the user, is known as High Level Language. This language consists set of words and symbols. This is simply language. High level Languages is used for the following applications: 1.BASIC 2.FRONTAL 3.COBOL
Computer Software: Is nothing but some collections of programs, which are used to perform the particulars task or work. Software is can be classified into four types: 1.Operating System 2.Languages Process 3.Program Utility 4.Appilcation software Operating System can be classified into 2 types: 1. Single user – Dos 2. Multi user - Windows The software can execute their instructions automatically, which are strong in the computer. Operating System: The software that manages the resources of a computer system and schedules is called as operating system. The operating system is act an interface between the user program and hardware. Single User Operating system: This operating system can allow only one person to work with computer is known as single user operating system.
Multi user operating system: These operating systems, which allow multiple uses, work with the computer at the same time. Program Utility: By using the program we can perform required operations. Languages Process: What we give through keyboard, this must be converted into low-level language so the program will be return in other language. Complier: It is software, which will be process or converted into low-level language. It can arrange all statements as a unit. They are process at the same time. Interpreter: It should be converted the given data into low-level language statement by the statement. Assembler: It was all process the high level language data low level language. Based on their unique statements. Application software: Application is nothing but a package, which is used to perform particular operations. It was classified into two types: They are 1.Standard Application software 2.Normal Product Number system: Based on their ASCII vales the given high level data should be converted into low level language with the help of language process and number system. We are 1.Binary Number system 2.Decimal Number 3.Octal Number 4.Hexa Number ASCII: American Standard Code for Information Interchange. 10
We are having 256 ASCII Values starting from 0 to 255.
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