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PHONOLOGIES OF VARIOUS LANGUAGES

Maqsood Hasni
COTENTS

01- Preface

02- No language remains in one state


03- The common compound souds of languages
04- The identitical sounds used in Urdu
05- Some compound sounds in Urdu
06- Compound sounds in Urdu (2)
07- The Idiomatic association of Urdu and English
08- The exchange of sounds in some vernacular languages
9- The effects of Persian on Modern Sindhi
10- The similar rules of making plurals in indigious and
foreign languages
11- The common compounds of indigious and foreign
languages
12- The trend of droping or adding sounds
13- The languages are in fact the result of sounds
14- Urdu and Japanese sound’s similirties
15- Other languages have a natural link with Japanese’s
sounds

SUPLIMENTS

1- Present research is attached with the achievement of degree


2- Need changes in educational systems of the delovping countries
3- Man does not live in his own land
4- A person is related to the whole universe
5- Where ever a person
6- Linguistic set up is provided by poetry
7- How to resolve problems of native and second language
8- A student must be instigated to do something himself
9- Languages never die tillits two speakers
10- A language and society don’t delovp in days
11- Poet can not keep himself aloof from the universe
Preface

Money, woman and land have made man selfish and materialist. Man has been divided socially
by social chiefs, religiously by the cacique of religions, politically by the political pundits,
linguistically by the so called language researchers, and with respect to land by the landlords,
and this process is not new but centuries old. Man has been being divided for centuries. In spite
of having the same nature, needs and necessities, he is not close to other human beings. This
situation exists in the present advanced age with the old intensity. With respect to the above
mentioned facts, he is not hesitant in shedding blood of other men.

We can not deny the scientific and industrial progress made in the present era. This progress
proved helpful in the welfare and success of man. Despite all this progress, if man is not brought
close to other human beings, every proclamation of progress will be meaningless. Development
every kind stands worthless and purposeless. The need of time is that man should be brought
near to other man. They may understand one and others sorrows and lend a helping hand in
their hard time; they may enjoy themselves with the happiness of others.

It is my assertion, and I have also tested it on the anvil of experiment, that languages and dialects
are close to one and other with respect to sounds and many other characteristics. Men can be
brought closer to one another by searching out the similarities found in languages.

The research data presented in the next pages has been published in prominent periodicals and
digests of Urdu in Pakistan. It can also be sought out from different forums on internet in Roman
script. Professor Niamat Ali has translated it into English with his best interest, love and ability
that can be viewed on different forums of internet ie jalt, antimoon.com, thinkers. Talk, open2.net
etc.

This work has not only been tested on experiment but a lot of books have also been consulted
before bringing it on the media. Today the work is being presented before you with a deep sense
of mirth. I am also sure that the linguistic researchers will play their role in propagating this work
for the best interest of unity of human being.

I would like to mention here Dr. Nassar Qurashi, Dr. Najeeb Jamal, Dr. Hameed Yazdani, Dr.
Sabir Aafaqi, Dr. Mohammad Amin, Dr. Ghulam Shabir Rana, Prof Amjid Ali Shakar, Prof
Zahoor Ahamad Prof. Arshad Shahid and Dr. Mohammad Abdulla Qazi who always appreciate
and encourage me for my efforts. Dr. Syed Moen-ur-Rehman (late), Dr. Wafa Rashadi (late) and
Dr. Baidil Hiderri (late) can also be never forgotton by me. They had expressed their love
appreciation and kindness for me throughout their life. May Allah bless them every moment.
Prof. Niamat Ali helped me in translation. Prof. Younis Hasan lent me a heand in searching out
research material and my dearest Shahida Khanam edited “Lughat-e-Ghalib”.

On a personal level, my son, Dr. Syed Kanwar Abbas, inspite of his severe shortage of time stood
by me at every step. My lovely daughter Irha Maqsood prayed heart and soul for my success.
Last but not the least, my sweat heart, Razia Maqsood Hasni provided me congenial and pleasant
atmosphere throughout my research. She also helped me type the material. It is not possible for
me to thank my family who made sacrifices while I was on my table.
NO LANGUAGE REMAIN IN ONE STATE

It is commonly said that the language has no many structural dimensions. The determination of
alphabet with respect to writing (Composing) is not correct. The writing that is taught abides by
fixed and limited lines or rules. But sometimes, it becomes impossible to follow the lines or rules
as a whole. For example, a soldier is passed through the full training of military rules verbally
and practically with the
With respect to the construction and formation of alphabet, it is expectation that using these rules
he would fight against enemy and save himself. But there is nothing as foolish as this thing is. No
doubt, all the rules learnt in the training would help in fighting strategy but they cannot
guarantee success. In the battlefield a soldier has to do his task according to chance and condition
of the battle field.

The case of languages is not different from it. The learnt linguistic system and the way of writing
are cooperative in writing and speaking. While speaking, the proposed linguistic system and the
way of writing become worthless and meaningless. Here only the regular idiom is used and
along with it, the present need is kept under consideration. I very keenly tested and studied a lot
of hand writings written with hand, checked them according to the suggested and fixed lines. But
the letters did not remain limited to any rule. A,c,d,e,f,g,h,I,j,k,m,n,o,p,q,r,t,y followed no system
of lines. The same condition can be seen with the languages of Sub-continent. Arabic and Persian
are also not exceptions.

In English, some letters didn’t give the same sound e.g., but, put, university, umbrella, is, seen
etc. In many other languages the condition is the same.

In different passions and conditions, the sound of letters change. Or they become quite different
from each other.

In these passions and conditions, the instruments of sound and the helping instruments of sound
e.g. throat, palate, checks, nose, tongue, mouth, bronchitis, lungs don’t remain in their exact
position because they ever possess the capacity of shirking and stretching. In order to clear the
matter, it seems necessary to offer a few situations and conditions:

A
1- In rage the sound become heavy
2- In grief the sound becomes feeble and weak
3- In anxiety the sound becomes deranged and unbalanced
4- In illness the sound breaks
5- When there is some matter with the mind, tone
and pronunciation are changed because some passion is
related with each matter

1- Usual and good mood, the sound remains balanced


2- While laying in usual and good mood, the sound expends. While taking a turn, the
sound shrinks. Such changes can be guessed with an extreme consideration.
3- Some people are habitual of speaking while sleeping. Their talks are usually not
understood. Its reason is that the position of instruments of speaking is changed. Secondly, in the
absence of conscious effort, the arrangement of words, the stressing and non-stressing of syllabi
don’t remain under the accepted system of grammar.

C
1- While walking, sound makes a circle and the addition of “N”
is made to the words/sounds
2- While running the sound disperses
3- In running, leaping with rage the sound not only depresses
but also divided into odorless pieces
4- In running and leaping with joy, the function of
nostrils increases
D

1- Distance and opposite direction make the sound unclear


2- The change of direction disturbs the balance of the
sound and many forms of dispersion are created
4- In anger or in joy the tone and pronunciation are changed
5- Tone and pronunciation are also changed by speaking briskly

1- the system of sounds is affected because of some disability


in the organs and helping organs of sound
2- The diseases of organs of sound or their helpers
(Asthma,Bronchitis, the berating problem, Tuberculosis,
Phenomena, goiter, nose bone’s abnormal etc) effect the system
of sounds. In other words, new letters are created
3- The absence of all or at least the front 2 teeth changes
the sounds

The organs of speech or their helpers develop and adjust themselves according to the physical
condition or a region, its climate, etc. In this way, languages are deprived of many sounds of
foreign languages. Therefore, while speaking foreign languages, their original tone and
pronunciation are not maintained. Generally the difference of gender is also not sustained.

In short, there are a lot of things and matters that don’t let a system remain in its formal or
general or learnt discipline. There is a distance of heaven and earth between theory and practical.
In any big culture, thousands of mini-cultures are thriving in their circles with full independence.
The difference exists in the temperament and needs of nations. This difference casts its effects on
the original or real things. It is in no way useful to achieve results by ignoring the differences.
THE COMMOM COMPOUND SOUNDS OF LANGUAGES

The alphabets of languages are fixed words are formed of deformed with respect to these
alphabets. Words are used according to the need of point of view. With the change of point of
view, the use and meanings of words are also changed. With the change of times and conditions,
uses and meanings of words are also changed, so much so that their forms are changed even in
their own language this matter is not limited to the words of a language. The immigrant words
also face the same situation, they fail to sustain their original forms and meanings “Zindgi” is
called “Jindgi” in Maivat. In Urdu, we say “Tambakoo”, while in Punjabi it is “Tamakoo”, while
in Japani, it is “Tabakoo”. These are the change of forms; meanings are sustained. Countless
examples exit of the change with references to forms and meanings. This case is not limited only
to some languages. No language is exception to it. As the world comes closer, the action of the
changes of forms and meanings will take place with the same proportion. Discussion is not
required here with reference to this point. This matter will be discussed in some other article. At
present, the compound sounds of languages are the topic of our dissuasion.

For easiness in expression, languages make use of compound sounds. These compound sounds
are, in fact, part of their stock of sounds. Without these compound sounds, the matter of
expression remains at loss to get extension. These compound sounds are not limited to any one
language. Along with their original sounds, these languages make use of compound sounds with
respect to their own linguistics setup. These compound sounds, unlike the original sounds, are
not limited. Nor any regular list can be prepared of these sounds.

If the list of compound sounds is prepared, their number would reach hundreds. Some
compound sounds make up the deficieney of basic sounds. Thus these compound sounds save
expression from any still condition that may occur for luck of basic sounds. With reference to this
point, the need of preparing a list of compound sounds cannot be ignored/neglected. I could not
complete my work in this chapter. But a humble effort has been made (to advance) in this
direction.

I have discussed the linguistic communality of languages with refrence to sounds. I have not
included Chinese in this chapter. Chinese is the greatest language of the world. And it is the
severe need of the present times to work on chimish with respect to the common compund
sounds of the other languages of the wold. In this article, examples have been mentioned with
reference to the 36 common compund sounds:-
At, ur, ac / ic / ik / iq, ter, che, chi, ti, di, ion, ra, rda, ee, ba, t, ti, jin, gin, ji, ri, rdi, za, ai, sa, si,
tion, ga, gi, ki, la, li, ng, na, ni, i/y, ya.
Urdu has more than sixty basic sounds. It is devoid of the hundreds of compund sounds relating
to the other languages of the world. Urdu is the second greather language of the world and a
large number of nations, group clarres, sects, etc are making it the source of expression through
out the world. It would be a very subtle and useful service of mankind to search out common
compund sounds of the world by using Urdu as the base. It is my personal opinion that it would
not be a wrong opinion that it would not be a wrong action to declare the common compund
sounds the basic stock of languages. In this regard very excellent examples of Chinis and Japani
are before us. In other words, it would be easy to search out the linguistic communality of the
languages with these references.
At:

Urdu: Jamadaat, Havanaat, Nabataat


English: favourite, manuscript
Punjabi: Pat, rath, zaat, sogaat
Rajhastani: Samat
Bangla: Bhat/bhaat (rice)
Saraiki: Part (tray), sangat,
Gojri: Kahat, (Khat), chehat (jhati), kat
Hindi: Parbhat (morning), Bharat
Arabic: Saalat, Zakaat

Ar/Ar:

Urdu: Raftaar, Irtaka, sarkaar, sangaar


Brahvi: Kharwar (grain), Aranah
Punjabi: Bar, mar, Bazar,
Turkey: Birdaha (beer dah ha, once more)
English: Urgent, Urban
Rajhastani: Sukhban ka Bhartar, Artical
Daya nir mun
Arabic Rab, Rajay’oon, Arfa, Rafey, Naar (fire)
German: are adeur (fragrance) der gastgeber, (host)
Saraiki: Oraib (awry), Raab, Andhayara wisarna
Pushto: Aazaridal (grieved), Aarzaidal (cheap)
Persian: Sangsaar (stone to death), Sarij (thief), Maar,
Ramz, Raaz, Her (hot),
French: ane adeur (fragrance), Janvier (January)
IC / Ik/Ac:

Urdu: Tarik, Mubarak, Samajic


Brahvi: Koonjak (water hen), phalak, (flower)
English: Organic, magic, tragic
Pushto: Chalak (clever)
Arbic Razaq, Khlaq, Malac

Tar / ter

Urdu: Behtar, Kamter, Tars, Shatar, Shatranj


Persian: Dukhtar, Khatar, Akhtar
Punjabi: Sootar, Khatar, Chatar
English: Fighter, Master, Daughter, Salaghter
Pushto: Isteri, Mistery
Saraiki: Putter, Putri, Chitra
Gogri: Chitar,
Tarkay (by swimming)
Sindhi: Eeter
Hindi: Bhauter, Jamtar mantar
Bangali Estari
Cha:

Urud: Bagichah, Bailchah, Galeechah, chal


English: Charm, chalk
Turkey: Miinkiim, odugu Kadar cabuc mewm
kewn ohl duo huh
Kah dahr cha book
(As soon as possible)
Punjabi: Sancha, Khancha, Pancha, ocha
Japani: Karey da oocha oonoo nadas
(He does not take tea)
Pushto Dacha
Pothohari Chanani
Saraeki Chalay
Gojri Char
Persian Chadar
Mevati Chader

Chi:
Urdu: Sandookchi, Bandookchi, Karachi
English: Patchy, tuchy
Turkey: (chi) (my/ mine)

ci

Japani: Kun cheera (May the day pass in peace)


Hachi (eight)
Rajastani: Sanchi son lay aaj, Sanchi (true)

Choo,Chu
Urdu Choola, chuha, chuza
English Choose
Panjabi Chuwani, chucha, chunga, chuwa (rat)
Dogri Chachuwa
Pothohari Chichoo
Saraeki Choona
Gojri Choota
Persian Choob

De, Di, The

Urdu: Baby, Shadi, Abadi, Didar


English: Peady, hardy
Turkey: Simdi (Shim dee) (now)
Punjabi: Band,(Maid-servant),Pandi,(carrier),
handi, Gawandi,sarandi
(Neighbour), Sarande, Khundi
Germany: der govdine (veil), Freude machen
(to please)
Saraiki: Choondi, (In Punjabi also use this sound)
Gojri: Thendi, Khundi, Mundi, Dandi
Io:

English: Vision, division, season


Persian: Mai, Maiah, Mijgaan, majdah

Ra:

Urdu: Piyara, Sahara, Hamara, Tumhara, Heera


Brahvi: Juz namak or nij keh Maikarah, Kara
(Cultivate the land ave bitterly need
a piece of loaf/bread) Torah (loaf)
Punjabi: Para, Weera, Wehra, Kehra. (In Gojri also
use this sound)
Japani: Saryo Nara (Allah Hafiz, (Good-bye)
Karey kara (Those all men)
Arabic: Raas (head), Frash, Jorab (mozey)
Maivati: Rakhan (Rakhna)
Rajastani: Bhar laden ra oonth
Pushto: Raglay (come), Rasha (come), Jura (condition)

Ee/ai

Urdu: Eema, ejaad, larai, pitae


Punjabi: Gawai, Mahangai, Sikhai, qasae
Saraiki: Lagai (wife), Parai (Foreign)
German: Das Gebiet (area). Plesen (Pilot)
English: Fry, apply
Gojri: Bahi, Sahi, Kahi
Pothohari: Charkhi, Takni, Apni
Japani: Ippai (one cup)

Ba:

Urdu: Bahar, bar, (weight), Bazar, Baja


Punjabi: Bazar, Bamni (a worm), bha’ar
English: Ball, balm
Japani: Kun Ban wa (Good night)
Bain Kyoshi Takeray ba
To speak Japani is necessary),
Tabakoo
Persian: Ba (with) ba murad, ba hawala
Arabic: Misbah (lamp), Loban,
Saraiki: Bara (air), Bankari, Bah (fire)
Maivati: Bang
Pushto: Bandey, bar (luggeage), Kharbar

Ti/Te/Ty:

Urdu: Jhati, Ghati, miti, dumbi seti


Baithic (A room to sit)
English: Duty, beauty,
Daramatic, poetic, gernetic phonetic
Beautiful, Dutiful, Teach
French: Uite
Punjabi: Khoti, Soti, roti, totti, toti
Brahvi: Roti, boti
Pothuhari Khaloti, langgoti
Gojri: Dharti, Chati

Jin/ Gan:

Urdu: Darjin, Mazajin, Sajan


English: Hydrojen, Nitrogen
Punjabi: Sajjan
Germani: Frangen (to ask), Frangan (To start)
Hindi: Bhogan
Persian: Dargen
Japani: Kun Jun (soldier)
Urdu: Sahagan
English: begun, slogan
Punjabi: Jogan
Saraiki: Ogan, Jagan, Hagan

Ji

Urdu: Samaji, haji, paji


English: Strategy, Biology, idealogy
Saraiki: Bhaji
Punjabi: Khoji, Poonji
Japani: Gi bi ki (dictionary)

Ri/Ry:

Urdu: Hamari, Tumhari, Pyari


English: Battery, history
Punjabi: Bhoori, Khari, Lari (bride), Mari,
Saraiki: Kawari Bhari, Choorri (cured hair)
French: Libre (free), crine

Ra:

Urdu: Pakora, Kulhara, tokra


English: Electra, spectra
Punjabi: Sara (burnt), Shora, Wehra
Saraiki: Bhara, (Toure), Phara (wooden palnk)

Ri:
Urdu: Sari, Gari, Phalwari
English: Necessary, Compulsory
Punjabi: Mari, Tagri (strong)
Saraiki: Mari (palace), Kori (lier)

Wa
Urdu Hu’nawa, Wala, howa, kehwa
English Wall, warm, war
Pushto Wachooh
Punjabi Wari, warya
Saraeki Waat
Arabic Rawak
Persian Nawa

Za:

Urdu: Maza, Mirza, Riza


Pothuhari: Pizar (Shoe)
Saraiki: Zahir (evident)
Japani: Sorey dazshi (Is that a periodicle)
English: Bonanza, Stanza
Persian: Azar, Khazan
Arabic: Zaz yakh
Pushto: Saza (punishment), Darza

Zi:

Urdu : Pozi, Ferozi


English: Nazi, fantasy
Brahvi: Gazi
Turkey: Sizi as kadazimlataiz tivaiym.
Germani: die breise (separation)

Sa:

Urdu: Sahin, Sadgi, Samaan, Samde


English: Saw, Sance
Brahvi: Kadar Kumak, Nusha hna
(may nature protect you)
Punjabi: Sang (disguise), Sancha
Rajustani: Saga, sarey, sagey
Saraiki: Saen
Arabic: Hasa (Enening)
Persian: Sariq
French: le Samedi (week)
Maivati: Sanjh, Saro, Sath
Pushto: Aisa pasha (wait)
Chup o sa (be silent)
Gojri: Saran (all, whole)

Si: (Two sounds zay and see)

Urdu: Sunyasi, Piyasi, odasi, pardaysi


English: Agency, policy, democracy
Brahvi: Si (thirty)
Rajastani: Many to esi hyasi
French: Une accent (tone)
Germani: de franjose (French)
Maivati: sisi (bottle)

Shun:

Urdu: Roshan
Hindi Darshan
Persian: Gulshan
English: Action, nation, promotion
Japani: Shan Dashta (Earthquake came)
Germani: die koongugation
die komission (committee)
French: Une of fection (love)

Gay:

Urdu: Dhargay, Bhagay


English: Game, gay
Punjabi: Bugay, Thagay
Rajastani: Sagay, Lagay

Ja

Urdu Baja
English Jaw
Punjabi Jai, waja, Manja
Pothohari: Jawanh
Saraeki Waja
Gojri Sujha
Arabic Fanja
Persian Jaam

Jo

Urdu Jolani, Jowani, jogno


English Joke
Pushto Na’jorah
Punjabi Joga (Same in Saraeki and Gojri)
Pothohari Jor
Arbic Jowaf
Persian Jo

Joo, Ju

Urdu Jutha, Jang’joo


English Jupiter
Pushto Rowajuna
Punjabi Juthay
Pothohar Joora
Saraeki Hunju
Gojri Jooh
Arbic Joraab
Persian Joo
Gi:

Urdu: Saadgi, pakizgi, tazgi


English: Geaser, give
Punjabi: Changi, Sargi, Waji, Lagi
Rajastani: Mun ki lagi Bhujaey
Maivati: Jindgi (life)
Saraiki: Jogi, Rangi (coloured)

Ki:

Urdu: Barki, Silki, Harki


Punjabi Tharki
English: Stochiometry
Turki: Kiani (Keyme) (of some body)
Japani: Ogeen ki day, Datashi waga kawa eeki mas
(We go to school)
Brahvi: Shareeki-e-mal un bemali
Sa shray. (The combine a property
is very bad).
Germani: des Best oke (Knife, spoon)
Saraiki: Bharki (flame), Makki, sakki
Rajastani: Lay balam ki baat suni
Pothohari Mi’ki

La:

Urdu: La’obali, La’jawaab, La’zwal, shola


Brahvi: Lari (Motor, bus)
Punjabi: Baila, thaila, maila
Saraiki: Otala (confusion), Agla, Pehla
Arabic: La’raiba, La’alaha
French: Iola
Persian Lala

Li:

Urdu: Pamali, Rakhwali, Sali


English: Friendly, lovely, excitedly
Punjabi: Sawali, Boli, Jhali, olli
Brahvi: Loli (lor)
Saraiki: Otali (hurry) khali, choli
Rajastani: Sooraj ke chupian pali
French: homme poli (a kind mand)
Je ne parte pas (I don’t speak)
Turki: Tebrikler (Tabrecklehr)

Lo/Loo
Urdu Kuch tu bolo, Pura tolo,Tarkhalogy
Aaloo, kachaloo, bhaloo
English Biology, pithalogy
Punjabi Lolo, Lo’on Tamaloo, pataloo

Ng:

Urdu: Tang, Jang, Tarang, palang


English: Bouling, Thinking, Boating
Brahvi: Fiker utay sabak kining
Dagmatey jaderifinka
(Grief and worries destroy life)
Punjabi: Bang, Mung, tang, khang
Rajastani: Plang pe sutti jaey
Saraiki: Patang (Muth), Jaang (arm) Jang (thigh)
Persian: Gung (bumb) sang (stone)
Hindi Sangni (sathi,bivi, mahboba)

Na:

Urdu: Rona, sona, khana, nabhana, namaz


English: Banana
Punjabi: Namana, wanjana, lana, sarana
Saraiki: Lagana
Japani: Sayo nara (adieu)
Persian: Na’tawani, Na’saaz, naz
Arabic: Nar (Fire), Rabbana (Ay meray Rab)
Rajustani: Na Dhulat roey
Maivati: Mojoodnaha

Ni:

Urdu: Purani, Suhani, Mashar-dani


English: Necessary
Japani: Koni din waga a aremas
Punjabi: Madhani, Jaithani, Rani
Persian: Garani, Seeni (tray)
Saraiki: Pani (charity)

Ai, ay:

Urdu: Salai, Kurhai, Patai, larae


English: Apply, try, dry
Brahvi: Kupa, Jatai, Nadey
Punjabi: Laibhujai, Kamai, Piswai
Rajastani: Dooji Terya biah la ey
French: a peine

Ya:
Urdu: Borya, Soya, boya, mitaya
English: Yam, yaueght
Punjabi: Suhaya, Paraya
Saraiki: Angya
Rajastani: Dooji Terya biah la ey
Persian: Badban, Goyya
Arabic: Ya Nabi Allah, ya Allah
(In Arabic Ya is used
For calling)

THE IDENTICAL SOUNDS USED IN URDU


Expression is related with the system of organic/interrelated and strong sounds of a language.
Every sound gets attention or man’s attention is transferred to it or it is to get attention. The
languages that have not some sounds get their purpose fulfilled through alternative or
compound sounds. The flexibility of a language is directly related to the organism, gravity and
strength of the system of sounds. The linguistics flexibility widens the circles of expression.

Foreign words are adjusted so beautifully that they don’t seem foreign. Furthermore, when
foreign words are adjusted in a language, their meanings are also change. No Arab, can accept
‘Aasami’ as singular. Pailein, jugoon, Aadvicsain or Aadviyzain etc. will not be accepted as
English words by any English man. Jandgi, moto, mazo, hajoor etc. will not be recognized as
Urdu words by Urdu speakers. The Arab accepts hooras plural. Horain, shoroon are no words for
them. Taambakoo is not unknown to the Urdu speakers. While in Punjabi, Tamako and in Japani
Tabakoo are spoken. In other words, lose their real/original form. In new, other then language,
meanings are also changed.

Urdu contains more than sixty sounds in its stricpt. That’s why Urdu is the most flexible
language of the world. It has adopted countless local as well as foreign words by making proper
changes in them according to its own set up. Furthermore, in spite of so much flexibility, it is a
very easy task to learn Urdu. A slight exercise of a few days does not cause of disappointment.
After learning it, a link can be established with a huge population of the world.

In the follow following, sounds of Urdu are stated. Facility and ease, the relevant examples of the
sounds are also written. Urdu has the capacity to absorb more than stated sounds in it:

Alif ab, sarmaya, karmfarma


Bae Ball, tabiyat, habab, lab
Pae Pamal, tup, Alap
Tae Tabasam, ikhtayar refat
Tae Toot, Atal, Bant
Sae Sabat, Sawab, Waris
Jeem Janab, Ajnabi, jifa
Chae Church, charcha, charkh, kharch
Hai Hukam, hasan, Ahbab, jarah
Khaay Khabar, khatar, Akhwam, charkh
Dal dil, Dag, Adwar, Tadad
Zal Zikar, Zail, Zulafqar, Zakar
Ray Rubab, Azar, Kafir
Arry Jakra, Aaru
Zay Noroz, Zuban, Ajza
Dal Doll, dhol, Dalna
Yae Yalah, mejgaan, meya
Seen Sarab, khasta, piyas
Sheen Sharaab, sharaap, naqsha, jumbash
Suad Subh, saf, arsa, fursat
Zuad Zaeef, raza, raiz
Toen Talak, galat, khatar
Zoen Zalim, Haz, Ghaliz
An Ishq, aeb, tayush, maloom
Gaen Galit, magfrat, pag, tagafil
Fay faraq, refah, fikar, farez
Kaf Kalm, taqaza, warq, niqaab, yaqeen
Kaf kamzoor, takabar, tazkeer,ro’ak
Gaf Girya, pagla, sagar, rag
Laam lab, shola, wakeel
Meem Maihshar, umar, kadeem, kadamat
Wa Wafa, waqfa, wajahat,warm, hawa
Hay Halaq, kushta, shagufta, sada
Humza kisa-e-parina, julwa-e-gul, ja-e-pana
Ye Sadiqi, masiha, yakeen
Ye Kahey, laway, khaye,ja’ay
Bhay Bhool, bha’ay, bhala, bhula bhutka
Phay Phool, phawar, phir, phula
Thay Thaal, thana, thum, thak
Thay Thala, thath, thakar
Jhay Jogh, jharoka, jhar, jehangar
Shay Poosh, ushal, kush, shalka
Dhay Dhool, dhamaka, dhamal, dhoka
Dhay Dhal, dhanp, dhool
Rh Doorha, darhi, bhuri
Khay Khula, khiaal, khana
Ghay Ghayo, ghaeal, ghe, ghata
Zabar Hal, Zalim, Sakoon, salam, lazat, khalwat
Zeir Aalim, zamana, jumbi, Sabit
Ay In the form relativity zeir gives the sound of
ye. For example:
Hal-e-dil, Nisha-e-ulfat, Ja-e-pana
Pash Ustaad, uthna, boot, suljhao, uljhao
Jazam Naksh, shab, shabab, habab
Shad Aayam, lazzat, muhabat
Mud Aazmaish, Aaya, Aaluda
Tanween Fo’ran, jab’ran, Aad’tan, jawab’an, mazaj’an
Khari zabar Aadna, Aala, dawa
Khari zeir Gayanahi, nafsayhi, moshuba’bayhi
Aadgam bilgunna. The combination of noon and meem e.g. Umber, Dumbala, dumba, tambu
In murakab-e-utfi wa’o creates the sound of uoo: shab-o-rooz, jah-o-jalal, ezzat-ehtram, sabar-o-
shakir
Some compound sounds produce one sound i.e. aur, Aalif and wa’o have changed into an.

SOME COMPOUND SOUNDS IN URDU


Languages make their native words with their own sounds. But they use compound sounds to
pronounce some foreign words that cann’t be spoken in single native sounds. Though these
compounds are not basic, even then they have a great importance, and their need cann’t be
ignored. These compound sounds remove the olestace of expression of any type. We take Urdu
that has more than sixty sounds of its own. No other language enjoys itself with so many souns.
Its some native sounds are epressed by compound sounds by some other local and foreign
languages. For eample, English uses ion for zay-e-Farsi (ye), ch for chay, sh for sheen. However
the use of parallal sounds is also very common. For eample, Arabic uses bay for pay. It is the
behaviour not only of Arabic or Englih; other languages of the world are also no exception
behaviour.

In addition to its basic sounds, Urdu has a lot of other sounds. That is whay a lot of words of
other languages are there in its vocabulary. Because of these sounds, an Urdu speaking person
can converse in ever accent/intonation of the world. If there is some defect in the implements of
speaking, the compound sounds play their role.

In this essay, compound sounds of Ursu are being presented with their examoles so that the
etention and capacity of Urdu may be realized very well:

O Olaad, lay aao, banao


Oo Oonch, oopar
A Abba, jata, aaendah
Aa Aag, aaya, aao,
E Ejaz
Ee Eeman, eema
Ann Goreaan, kalian
Vain Aavain, javain
Aain has the same sounds
Ba Baja, baji, bahar
Bay Harbay, baynamaaz, bay’chai,
dhabay
Bi Gulabi, sharabi, faraybi
Bo Bolo, bon’n, bojh
Boo Kushboo, baad’boo
Boon Sharaboon, hajaboon
Bar Brabr, sabar, barbad
Ber Berya, berha
Pa Paband, pakhand, pamaal
Par Part, parbat, param aatma
Pay Darpay, mapay, seyapay
Pi Koppi, Lippi, seppi
Po poda, pon,
Poo Pooja, poonji, poora
Ta Juta, bota, khota, mota
Tar Akhtar, Fatar
Tay Jatay, aatay, khatay, sotay
Ti Jati, aati, piti, karti
Tuo Toujah, tuorano
Toon Batoon, ghatoon, ptoon
Sa Sani, saliss, saqeb
Si Warsi
Sir Sirka, kosir
Ta Sannat, gota, ghota, khota
Tay Ghatay, kharatay, sanatay
Tar Tamatar
Ti Ghati, roti, chati, baanti
To Tota
Toon Jatoon, ghatoon
Toein has the same sounds
Ja Jala, jaga, jadoo, Khawajah
Jar Gajar
Jo Jowaz, joya, jolaan
Joon Joota, Justajoo, joon ka toon
Ji Samaji, Baji, haji
Jay Maharajay, Bjay, khawajay
Cha Kharcha, chacha, baghicha,
nicha, oncha
Cho Chola, choola
Choo Chooha, choohan drechoon
Chi Bawarchi, Sandooqci, chahi
Chay Charchay, kharchay
Char Charcha, charkha, charba,
Charwaha
Ha Haji, Hakam, hajat, hajab, halat
Haan Khahaan
Har Harkat, harart
Hoo Hoor
Kha Khami, khatar
Khi Charkhi
Khay Patakhay
Kho Kushboo, Khoon
Khoo Khoob, khoo’gar
Khoon Shakoon
Khar Kharaab, Khach
Da Da’ad, Dada, Khoda soda
Day Eraday, Poday
Di Dadi, Barbadi, Shadi
Do Door, dugna
Doon Shahidoon, ommedoon
Dar Darbaar, darhaqeqat, darasal,
Darmeyan
Da Daci, dar, dakoo
Day Budday
Di Dadi, Chadi, buddi
Doo Dool
Doon Doong
Dar Darba, gidar
Ra Pora, hamara, tumhara
Ray Bicharay, saray, piyaray
Ri Sari, hamari, khari, niyari
Ro Rona, roka, rowaj, rovaeya
Roo Roop, robaroo
Roon Pokaroon, sonyaroon
Raan Doraan, bashiraan, shabiraan,
Za Taza, maza, piyaza
Zay Tazay, kharboozay, chooazy
Zi Tazi, piyazi naazi, razi
Zoo Tarazoo, bazoo
Os Ostara, ostaad
Zawaad and zoein have the same sounds
Es Essam
Sa Piyasa, sa’as
Say Piyasay, dalasay, khisay
Si Siyasi, piyasi, shanasi
So Soach, so’og
Soo Sooja, soojana, sooraj
Soon Barsoon, parsoon
Saan Insaan, aasaan
Sur Soraab
Sha Tamasha, Shabash, shaker, sharm
Shay Tamashay, bitashay
Shi Khushi
Sho Shokat, shosha
Shoo Shoom
Shoon Pishoon
Shaan Parrayshaan
Shar Sharbat
Shan Roshan
Sawaad has the same sounds
Fa Fatar, faqa, falaj
Fay Taefay
Fi Kafi
Fo Foqeat, fooq, foaj, fowara
Foon Waqfoon
Far Kafar, lofar, farmaesh
Qa Burqa
Qay Warqay, sadkay
Qi Harki, barqi
Qar Qarza
Qur Qurq
Qoo Qoowat
Qoon Ahmaqoon
Ka Larka, karka, dhamaka
Kay Larkay
Ki Larki
Ko Koela
Koo Koonj
Koon Sarkoon
Kaan Khoon chakaan
Kar Karara, karaya
Ga Gajar, gana, aagha
Gay Aagay
Gi Lagi, sargi
Go Gowah, guftagu
Goo Goonja
Gaan Miygaan, charagaan
Gar Gardan, Gardaab
Gir Girya, girja
La Lala, Pala, la’yaeni
Lay Piyalay, salay
Li Piyali, Wali, sahali
Lo Lok, aalocha
Loo Loomar, looch
Loon Baloon, khiyaloon
Lar Jhalar, kalar
Ma Majad, Mali, malik
May Surmay, soormay
Mi Mami, mummi
Mo Mota
Moo Moong, moo, moonas, moonga
Moon Mamoon
Mar Maraba, markaz
Na Marna, Jina, soona, khana, pina
Nay Sarhanay, poranay, othanay
Ni Purani, Pani, saani
No Nokar, no’bahaar
Noon Kirnoon, dewanoon, parwanoon
Nar Narm
Wa Hawa, howa, hawas
Way Jaway, khaway laway
Wi Girwi, taqwi
Won Ghahakoon
Ha Hakam, hoha, haan
Hay Kahay, gahay
Hi Rahi, sahi, tabahi
Huw Huwa, hawas
Hoo Bahoo
Hoon Bahoon
Har Bahar
Ya Samaya, othaya, gaya
Yo Piyo, aayo, khayo
Yoo Yoohanna, yoon
Yair Dair sawair
Yia Bhayia
Yee Bhayee
Yay layay
Yio Sanayio
Bha Bhabi
Bhi Abhi, gobhi
Bhoo Bhookay
Bhoon Bhoon
Pha Phaopha
Phi Phoophi
Phoo Phoolo
Tha Thali
Thay Mathay, hathay
Thi Hathi
Thoo Bathoo
Thoon Hathoon
Tha Thakar
Thay Parathay
Thi Kathi
Thar Tharak
Jha Jhalar, Jharoo
Jhay Sanjhay
Jhoo Jhoomar, jhoola
Cha Chach
Chay Achay
Choo Chookri
Dha Radha, Aadha,sadha
Dhay Aadhay, Kandhay
Dhi Aadhi
Dho Dhoka
Dhar Edhar, Odhar, kidhar
Dha Dhal, dhak
Dhay Budhay
Dhi Budhi
Dho Dhool
COMPOUND SOUND OF URDU(2)
To learn about any language and to get mastery over it, it is necessary to get awareness about its
singular and compound sounds. It becomes easy to express one’s thoughts about some affairs by
learning some sentences but it is not sufficient to get mastery over the language or to become the
native of that language. Apparently it is difficult to get awareness about the sounds. It is not as
difficult as it seems. Countless sounds of a language have resemblance with sounds of other
languages. Difference can be seen only in the structure of words. Then the grammatical set-up is
also different. In spite of that, the importance of sounds in language exists.
Urdu has more than sixty singular sounds where as the compound sounds are also not less than
sixty. These compound sounds exist in a lot of languages of the world with respect to different
references. After a little consideration, or after a little experience of these languages, we get an
intense sense of similarity or virility. I am stating some compound sounds of Urdu in this writing
so that the evident difficulty and isolation/ strangeness may come to an end. It will help to learn
Urdu language:

Sound Urdu English

Ra and Ni Barahay mererbani Please


Sahara Sport

Na Dil dharkna Heart beating


Khana Food, meal

Ni Pani Water

Kho Khowaish Desire

La Kala Black

Ma Mama Brother of mother


Marna to beat

Mi Sowami H/E

Ri Hamari Our

Ba Baba Old man


Ba’wafa Faithful

Ta Jata to go
Taya elder brother of father

Ka Lurka Boy

Hee Sepahee Policeman

Sa Peyasa Thirsty
Sagar Wine drinking pot

Cha chacha Little brother of father

Ki Burki Electronic
Saki Who serve wine

Ian Hurain Ladies of haven

Da Parda Vail, wall

Ha Chaha Wanted, desired, loved

Ra Razi Agree
Pa Dhampa Covered

Za Maza Taste

Ya Soya Slept
Derya River

Do Dost Friend

Some sentences

Urdu English Japane

Khuda hafiz ( Da) Goodbye Sayonara

Maf kurna (Ma) Sorry Somemaseen

Khush amdeed (Khu) Welcome Irashaemasay

Kesay hain? (say) How are you? Ogain ki das ka?

Sepahee (Shee) Soldier Gunjin

Main Larka hoon (La) I am a boy Datashe waotoko des

Hum talib-e- elam hain. (Ta) We are student Data she waga ko say des

Kon hay? ( Hai) Who is? Daray deska?

Main our tum (Mai) I and you Data she to anta

Katab our akhbar (Ka,Ba0 Book an newspaper Hunto shin Bun

Ye merey katab hay (Me,Ta) This is my book Kory tashe nohun des

Wo lumba admi hay (Mi) That is a tall man Ano katadatakaee des

Asman neela hay (Nee) Sky is blue Sora da aee des

THE IDIOMATIC ASSOCIATION OF URDU


AND ENGLISH
The natives of a languages use idioms in their speaking according to their literal and stylish
needs. Or what they write or speak is called idiomatic. But attention is not paid in the direction
that their idiom or written things do not get importance and meaningfulness without public
acceptance. Not only this, even general popularity does not become the lot of such idioms or
written things. Such an idioms are only the beauty of books. In fact, idiom provided by the native
Scholars of a language becomes popular in public as it is or changed form according to the
temperament, likes and dislike, trends and common use of the people.

It is happens too that the common use/daily use of the natives becomes an idiom for the public.
It also happens that an idiom provided by the public flourishes among the natives with all its
literal and stylish charms. And then it returns to the public with new manners or the literal touch
to become a need.

It is absolutely incorrect that something stand by the natives is the final or nothing is correct
besides or is nothing in itself. The ability and literal dimensions of the natives have their own
importance. What they say has the literal authenticity. But all this has not importance unless
public popularity is not achieved. Their idiom does not get more importance than that of literal
embellishment. Though it is considered related with rhetoric by the natives, yet it falls into the
category alienation. The word Kulfi (Kufli) though is incorrect, yet it has its identity in masses
with all is references. The word ‘Tabaydar’ meaning ‘tabay farman’ is absolutely opposite in its
mean Zimada, is often heard Zumaywar. This matter is not limited to the languages and dialects
of the Subcontinent. This behavior has not been provided by the language Scholars. However
they can not remain isolated from it. Asami, Ahwal, Aoquat, Hoor etc., are used singulars.
Hooraan, Kabraan, Votraan, Spotraan,etc are not incorrect among the Urdu speakers. While it is
the Punjabi way of speaking. The interfusion of indigenous sounds into foreign or migrated
words or the use of foreign or migrated words according to public trends is a common thing.

The change of place, no doubt, affects human behavior, temperament and trend. In spite of this
fact, man has been very close to other man with respect to temperament in countless matters.
This matter can be judged though the link present in their language. The most delicate matter is
related with idioms. Though the dissection of the culture of words, the association of
temperament of human beings can be easily searched.
Countless idioms have been used in languages without any change. The similarity of idioms
shows that mutuality is found in man’s a lot of affairs, trends, attitudes, preferences and need of
various kinds. It is incorrect to relate the matter of human division to the apparent distance of
languages.

Chinese is the most spoken language of the world of today. Urdu is the second great language of
the world, but with respect to its singular and compound sounds, flexibility, it’s the most
important and subtle language of the world. On the contrary, English cannot be neglected
because of its present reign. Nor can we breathe a sigh of relief without it. Some intellectuals
think that development is not possible without it. After all these three languages are the most
important languages of the world. I am describing some common idioms of Urdu and English so
that the matter may become clear that in spite of distance, man is very close to man:

Seyah-o-sofaid Black and white


Alif say yay tak Alpha and omega
Staroon ki gurdish (qismut ka mara) Sitar crossed
Ankh ka tara Pupil of one’s eyes
Roze-e-roshun ki tara eyain As a broad day light
Jahannum main jao Go to hell
Magarmuch kay Aansoo Crocodile teas
Kali beher Black sheep
Sofaid hathi a white elephant
Gadaha banana to make some one an ass
Ongliaan jala behthana to burn one’s finger
Aahmokoon ki gannat a fool’s paradise
Barbaad hona/Bhar main jao Go to dog
War bhanday vich (bazari mahavra) Go to the pot
Ankh oghal pahar oghal Out of sight out of mind
Jo gurgtay hain woh burstay nahain Barking dogs seldom bite

THE EFFECTS OF PERSIAN ON MODERN SINDHI


Here, the discussion often occurs with respect to the circle of expression and lines concerned with
the learning of a language with reference to one or two dimensions. In this regard, my point of
view is that languages have never been limited. Learning is a separate affair while speaking and
writing are absolutely different from it. Languages can’t be kept within specific circles. They
depend upon man. Man does not depend on them. They have to stand by the conditions and the
changing trends and behaviors of a man. In learning a language, the system of lines has to be
followed, no doubt. While during writing and speaking, the system of lines does not remain
intact. English is especially noticed with this respect. There is, no doubt, that I am not an English
teacher. But I strongly oppose the negative behavior towards English with respect to my links.
Accidents; changing natures of affairs; variable situations; earthly and heavenly calamities; social,
culture and economical needs don’t let a present thing stand on its own feet. It is impossible for
anything to exist in itself for ever. The structure and meanings of things change. The Sub-
continent has ever been destined to changes of various kinds. We don’t go far; since the Partition,
a lot of things have changed. Not only things but traditions have also changed. The ways of
thinking and realizing have also changed. Even now there is the rag of English Language. To
speak English or to use English words in conversation and writing is considered a respected
conduct and manner even today. Even the imaginings of what the English people did with Farsi
(Persian) makes soul shudder. However it is not unnatural nor can it be called unjust because
ever conqueror does the same and should do. Misfortune, Helplessness and curses become the
fate of the nations who fall a prey to dispersion and inactivity. It is, in fact, the justice of Time and
History.

In spite of the above mentioned facts, this truth is not devoid of truth that Farsi prevails over
many languages of the Sub-continent. Countless Farsi words are used in the vocabulary of
languages in one or the other forms. They cannot run their business without them. “Gazal” has
ever kept English at arm’s length.

Compounds and arrangements of words are ever the soul of poetic language. Countless
compounds and arrangements occur in the languages of the Sub-continent according to their
moods, linguistic system and grammatical pattern. No notion of their being foreign passes
through in minds. For the support of my point of view, I am quoting some examples from the
modern Sindhi and modern and old Farsi:

•Mazharay sidq-o-safa tajdar hal aae tovi (Mohammad Iqbal Jaskani)


•Varaq-e-Lala-o-gul Haraf-e-gham-e-ensan shud (Dr. Aslam Ansari)
Qarar-o-khaab zay Hafiz Tama madar ay dost (Hafiz Shirazi)
•Ommeed-o-yas-o-hasrat je sahari tu jae (Shakar)
•Jetru-o-khosh raho, raho, yaro (Riaz Ali Mohsan)
Masal-e-mah-e-neo kardi shakaet (Saman Aziz)
Raqs-e-bimil hama ja dar nazram jalvagar asst (Syed Javaad Mosvi)
•Aazizam dedar-e-tu darad jan balab aamda (Hafiz)
•Ay dil-e-zar ko ba ko khoof na aahi (Mohammad Amin Faheem)
•Jaleel aahan sada marad-e-Khoda zinda (Jaleel Sarvari)
•Chu shab-e-tab-e- jalva parvana-e-dil (Saman Aziz)
•Her taraf aavaza-e-deen-e-mobeen (Syed Nafees Khoarzmi)
•Khanda-e-jam-e-meh-o-mah-e-neo shadeedem (Hafiz)
•Shonedam nala-e-jan sooz nay ra (Hafiz)
•Reshta-e-ulfat magar mazboot, mostahkam te’eo (Noor Jahan
Shaheen
Kitabyaat

1- Semahi Loh-e-Adab Hyderabad Jan. to March 2004


2- Semahi Lohe-adab Hyderabad July to Dec. 2003
3- Semahi Loh-e-adab Hyderabad April to Sept. 2005
4- Devan-e-Hafiz Sh. Ghulam Ali & Sons 1968
5- Semahi Danish Islaabad Shamara No, 84-85

THE EXCHANGE OF SOUNDS IN SOME VERACULAR


LANGUAGES
Sounds are the basic media of the exposure of existence of the order and organization of
universal system, separate distinction and identity, and the things and beings existing in the
universe. Natural combination of sounds produces beauty, while unnatural causes ugliness.
While listening to sounds, we are trying to understand the natural science of the universe. If it is
asserted that while listening to sounds, the element of consciousness is extinct, it is absolutely
wrong. If it is so, we don't get awareness of the matter or intentionally don't want to do so.

Words are composed under the influence of the nature of sounds, according to situation and
occasion, according to need, etc., and become the media of expression under the linguistic
discipline of languages. Every expression is linked with some or the other consciousness. In this
regard, it's not incorrect to assert that to have interest in the science of sounds and to make an
individual effort to understand them is in fact, strife to understand the universe. And that the
awareness of the science of sounds would help to realize the mutual links existing among the
things and beings found in the universe.

Languages are adjusted to each other under natural integrity. Some or the other link certainly
exists among them at some or the other level. This link or relation is an argument of their being
secular. In this regard, human beings live very close to one another with respect to their nature.
The spectacular enmity, jealousy, hatred, malice and greed among human beings are the result of
some unnatural order and organization, or the balance of individual combination has gone awry.

Foreigners enter a state with their language and culture. These two elements affect the linguistic
system of that state and they are also affected. Effects, in fact, mean to accept the linguistic
discipline and getting popularity among all and sundry, they cannot get the status of social
acceptance.

If an English man is asked the meanings of tarublaat, advasain, tenshanain, mumkanality,


voteraan, sportraan he will refuse to accept thesewords as English. An Arab would never accept
Hoor, Ahwal, Okaat, Asami etc, as singular. He would not allow reading Zimma as Zumma.

The matter does not end here. The meanings and linguistic structure of the immigrant words do
not exist in their original form. In other words, there is coordination among sounds but their
order and form change according to earthly facts and needs. Change, according to the new set up,
becomes unavoidable even though languages have the sound of the foreign words. For the
authenticity of my stand point, I write down the foreign words in indigenous tongues with
present changes.

The question arises whether these words have lost their scriptural and literal identity. It will be
said only when they cease to exist in any reference. A word and the sounds related with it are
connected with circle of influence, circle of expression and new meanings. Their original
scriptural form exists but their meanings and the manner of use are changed or their intonation
changes. It also so happens that they come with their original sounds but their identity comes
forth through local reference after mixing with local words.

At present, this discussion is not required. Only a short discussion is made with respect to the
alternative sounds of some of the native and immigrant words in some vernaculars. In this
context some words from Punjabi, Pothuhari, Pushto, Brahvy, Rajustani, Saraiki, Sindhi, and
Maivati have been made the subject of discussion.
In Brahvi, the substitute sound of Kaf is Khey:
Mulkalmot to Mulkhoot

Brahvi, Pushto and Gojri, Khey is used for Kaf:


Waqat to Wakhat

In Punjabi and Gojri Khey is used for Kaf


Bhuk to Bhuke.

Pay is also in routine use:


Bhuk is converted in to pukh.

The use of Pay for bay is also made:


Tube/toob to tup/toop, tob is also spoken.

In Maivati, Punjabi and Gujri pay is used for bay


Bhukh to Puhk.

Instead of sawad seen is used


Sahib to sa’ab.
Seen for sawad ie
Khass for kass, honslo for hosla. Sa’af say sa’ap

There is a same situation in the Rajistani. Bhay is used for bay:


Sabh for Sab.
The substitute sound for jeen is bay:
Balna for jalna

In Punjabi ‘ray’ is converted into laam:


Professor is spoken professal.

In Gojri Punjabi Pothohari, and Dogri “dhokha” is spoken “thokha”

Some more examples from Punjabi:


1- Jilad to jilat
2- Zima to zoma
3- Loha to loya, lonya
4- Amrood to amroot
5- Qudrat to Quzrat (also in saraeki)
6- Khedmat to khezmat (also in saraeki)
7- Paste to paysat
8- Koshesh to koshet
9- Gost to goshat
10- Pankha to pun’kha
11- Jaraab to Jalaab
12- Hajamat to hayamat
THE SIMILAR RULES OF MAKING PLURALS IN INDIGIOUS
AND FOREIGN LANGUAGES
Aan:

Urdu
Galiaan kha kay bay’maza na howa (Gali+aan) Ghalib

Pushto
Sata tarburan de (Tarbor+aan)

Punjabi
Jit tan lagi, so ee tan janay hoor gallaan karan sokhaliaan
(Gal+aan) Shah Hussain
Pothohari
Putraan naal mavaan na maan (Putar+aan) Shorash Malik

Ragistani
Ka’ay koonjaan doo marwa’ay (Koonj+aan) Taj Qaemkhani

Saraeki
Darsen bin akhaan tarass reaan (Akh+aan, Re+aan)
Khaja Ghulam Fareed
Gojri
Ghamaan dardaan ko kahatay yae meray kool (Gham+aan)
Sabar Aafaqi
Mivati
Mehkmaan main aap nay Ghana den nookari kari na’kari

Punjabi Arabi
Mazloom+aan, zalam+aan

Farsi
Farzand+an, Charagh+aan

Punjabi Angrayzi
Tension+aan, advisaan, votraan, sportraan

Woon/oon

Urdu
Es balandi kay neseboon main hai pasti eak den (Neseeb+oon) Ghalib

Punjabi
Jay tok ranjha darass dekhaway, taan heer azaboon chotay (Azaab+oon)
Shah Hssain

Woon “Say” kay maenoon main bhi aur shedat kay maenoon main bhi

Pothohari
Ratein tareaan ni chaanwaan wich sonda lag kay dherti naal (Chaan+waan)
Ragistani
Kah raatoon kalat (Raat+oon)

Saraeki
Ra’waan kool mulh paanday paanday umraan laneaan (Rah+oon)
SaleemAhsan
Mevati
Dil kay gonahoon say bachati noaj (Gonah+oon)

Urduae Angrayzi Advise+oon, Tension+oon

Urduae Arabi
Kafar+oon, Zalem+oon

Ain, ein

Urdu
Qudrat-e-Haq say yahhi hoorain agar waam ho gaein
(Hoor+ain) Ghalib

Urduae Angrayzi
Tensin+ain, hoorain, advasain

Saraeki
Akhain wich aaoon (Mahavra) Akh+ain

Pothohari
Mehraj bago bagein aaya (Bag+ein)

Arabic
Sabayq+ein, Shat+ein, Zalim+ein

Mevati
Jamatain

Yay

Urdu
Banain gay aur sitaray ab aasmaan kay liay (Sitrah+yay) Ghalib

Pujabi
Meer, malik, padshah, shahzaday, jhalday nayzay wajday wajay
(Shahzadah+yay) Shah Hussain

Pothohari
Sada dukh son kay chanaan roonday pathar paharaan nay

Saraeki
Chitay kapray dekh malahoon kadaein nay kita paar

Gojri
Minna sat kay nikal ja’ay kO painday
Sabar Aafaqi

THE COMMON COMPOUNDS OF THE INDIGIOUS AND


FOREIGN LANGUAGES
Marakbaat-e-Tosefe

Urdu
Ro’seya: Meh say gharaz-e-nashaat hai kis ro’seya ko Ghalib
Thanda Makan: Aaway na kayoon pasand kah thanda makan hai Ghalib

English
Sweat world, Kind deeds, kind heart, Good look and Dream girl

Pushto
Baykarvala

Punjabi
Sohni surat: Sohni surat dilbar wali, rae akhaan wich gal
Shah Hussain
Pothohari
Raat cheta: Raat cheta reshmi dopatta pae tanne Baqi Sadiqi
Suchay moti, Jhutha maal
Suchay moti kisay na puchay vikya Jhutha maal Baqi Sadqi

Japani
Naankae (Which destination),
Karay da hon tuni e tu das (Really he is a good man)

Rajistani
Barango taal, Moto sar

Saraeki
Kali raat: Tayday kajray de kali raat bhaway Sleem Ahsan

Mevati
Acho musalman, Bharo bhai, Ghana khayti bari

Marakbaat-e-Atfi

Urdu
Aur Who Fara’aq aur woh vesaal kahaan Ghalib
Mein ghareeb aur tu ghareeb nawaz Ghalib

English
And Cow and goat, Vales and hills
Pushto
O’o Angrayzae o’o hesaab
Daray lafafa o’o saloor u sakatona

Punjabi
Tay Mein tay mera mahi, Ghora tay bakri, Kala tay cheta

Gojri
Tay Yah hi haqeqat sab toon ba’d kay dharti tay Ashman maan hai
Sabar Aafaqi

Japani
Tu Datashi tu anta, Hon tu rash bun

Urdu
Kay Nashay Kay parday main hai mahv-e-Tamasha-e-damagh Ghalib
Qaes tasveer kay parday main bhi uryaan nikla Ghalib

Punjabi
Day Babal day ghar da’aj vehoni darbar poni kat
Shah Hussain
Pothohari
Day Par akhaan day nairay vass mahya Sadiq Naseem

Sindhi
Jo Omedon khaak, dil nalaan e dil jo gulestan weran,
Shakar Sumroo
Hie munjhi azam-e-ulfat jo assar aahi wagarna dost,
Shakar Sumroo

Saraeki
Day Ghar day deway vesam gay saray Haider Gardaizi
Akh day manzar mok vehnday hun Mumtaz Haider

Gojri
Kay Aggo pecho vekh kay chal Sabar Aafaqi
Tera tihan kay ba’gher, tera khial kay ba’gher
Sabar Aafaqi

Mevati
Ko (Ka) Chamray ko bazaar, Dasvein ko emtihan

Urdu
Ki Darad ki dawa pae darad-e-bay’dawa paya Ghalib
Baghal main gher ki aaj aap so’ay hain kahain warna Ghalib

Punjabi
De Kar sahib de bandgi, reh jagrat raeay Shah Hussain
Saanwal de main ba’andi barde, sa’anwal mehnda saein Shah Hussain

Pothohari
Ne Dil ne ag wich main pae balaan Anwar Ferooz
Challaan pae mar ne jowani ne tarang ne Karam Haideri

Japani
Nikoya (Meat Shop), komayya (Rice shop)
Seentakoya (Washing shop)

Gojri
Ki Os ki dil kay andar dil ko kam ay lamma rehno Sabar Aafaqi
Meri akh ki doolan oproon duhlan aalo Tepu Sabar Aafaqi

Mevati
Aur Aasman aur jamein, Ghaltein aur kamein,
Bhi aur resta daran

Urdu
Pher Pehlay Josaf pher maekal, Pehlay daam pher kaam
Karta hoon jama pher jigar-e-lakht lakhi ko
Arsa howa hai dawat-e-mejgaan kiay howay Ghalib

English
Then First you then Petar, First meal then work

Urdu
Wa’o Ashq-o-Mazdoori-e-eshrat gaha-e-Kusro kiya khoob Ghalib
Yah hum jo hijr main dar-o-dewar ko dekhtay hain Ghalib

Sindhi
Wa’o Moti-o-gulab nisrio, afsoss ho na aayo Ghulam Ali So’oz

Urdu
Ka Ashq say tabiat nay zeast ka maza paya Ghalib
Chaman ka jalwa baes hai meri rangeen nawae ka Ghalib

Punjabi
Da Sabh vaysay shesay da mandar, wich Shah Hussain namana
Kachrak balain mein aqal da dewa, birhoon andheri wagde
Shah Hussain

Japani
Ne Gheo ne KO, (Shop of meat), Bo ta ne ko (Meat of bear),
Tori ne KO (Meat of hen)

Rajistani
Ka Sakhyan ka bhartar

Saraeki
Seroon pand hijar da talay Khaja Ghulam Fareed
Ah dawae bimari da toor aae (Jumla)
Gojri
Ka Khuda ka aashqaan ki zindgi naan Sabar Afaqi

French
In Ahamed in evl, (House of Ahmed)
Kumas in rengi (color of cloth)

Mevati
Ka Dunyaan ka malik, kitaban ka tarjama, deen ka almaein

English
Of Word’s of love, drop of water, grains of sand

Mevati
Ki Noh ki dohae, karorun ki tadaat

Rajistani
Ki Birha ki chalri, mun ki lagi Taj Qaemkhani

Urdu
Ko Hum KO setam aziz, setam’gar KO hum aziz Ghalib

Punjabi
Noon Mein pachi noon maraam lat ne Shah Hussain

Pothohari
Koon Paray koon taropa kar giday Fada-e-Athar

Gojri
Ko Os ki yaad kay andar dil ko kam ay kamtaan rehno
Sabar Aafaqi

Rajistani
Ko Raja KO bhag, dhool KO kaal, dayas ko bass

Urdu
Main Paishay main aeab nahain rakheay na Farhaad ko naam
Ghalib
Punjabi
Wich Galaan wich pherain latkainde, ah gal nae bhali
Shah Hussain
English
In(to) Put it into the jar

Gojri
Maan Jayro dil maan barchi mar gio Sabar Aafaqi

Pothohari
Vich bagaan nay vich pakhroon bolay Sadiq Naswwm

Saraeki
Wich Aapay sabh de Surat wich toon mikoon ajgoess
Mumtaz Dar
Rajistani
Main Sagar main jal

Takrar-e-Lafzi

Urdu
Aamad aamad, aatay aatay, ja’tay ja’tay

Punjabi
Jiyoon jiyoon, tiyoon tiyoon

Pushto
Zar zar, chirta chirta

Gojri
Parbat parbat nagri nagri
(Not a new thing in Urdu)

Pothohari
Ochay ochay, bit, Nimi nimi (Chaanne)
(It is also used in Pujabi)

English again (and) again


Hum’martaba Alfaz

Urdu
Edhar other, gidhar kidhar, aagay pechy,
Oopar nichay

Punjabi
Seda padra, ulta seda

Rajistani
Dukh sok

Marakab Azafi

Urdu
Makta-e-gham, kakal-e-sar’kash

Barahvi
Dagh-e-jodae, gham-e-furqat

Humza say bannay walay marakbaat

Urdu
Kana’ay majnoon, moja’ay raftar, oqda’ay mushqal
Sindhi
Qatra’ay shabnum

THE TREND OF DROPPING OR ADDING SOUNDS


The cry of pain that comes out of the pathetic heart on the division of man is not an unnatural
thing. Whereever man lives, he is one in his origin and nature. The seasons of his weals and woes
are the same. Their natural needs and demands are common. Wherever he lives, he desires for
peace, prosperity and complacence. He is full of impatience for awareness. He wishes that his life
is secure and nobody snatches away his property. Not only his achievement be recognised but
material resources should also be provided for his better performance When he fails to get all
this, response of some kind from him is not a meaningless or unjust thing. There may be some
other reasons of man's negative behaviour. The world religions have bassically taught three
affairs.
(i) Justic should not be ignored at any stage.
(ii) Man should love other man and distribute love among them.
(iii) Truth should never become obscure. The religious authorities themselves have been
breaking these principles for their own personal interests and material needs. And they have
never been penitent in this regard.

When principles and rules are slaughteud, the cases of division and chaos cannot be called
meaningless and causeless. Every response, in the next step, develops into an ideological unity.
This seices of division and subtraction goes on increasing. Every group makes efforts to achive
the requirements of life according to its own ideals and principles. And the seet regards it as the
service of truth and God. The particular group strives furthur to expend these things.

There is the collsion of ideas in the battlefield of struggle. As a result, hatred, jealousy, malice and
the trend to snatch away things flourishes. So much so that the human blood no more remains
sacred and respected. The human culture, unfortunalely, suffers from this division of man. The
germs of being inferior and wore are sucking the blood of humanity. At this stage the matter of
personal survival arises. The efforts linked with these regarded as human service and truth.The
heavy responsibility falls on the shoulders of the present age intellectuals and schoars that they
should work for man. They must use every reference/resource to bring man close to the other
man. If these negative references that remove man away from other man are not done away with
it, will require a task to overcome this difficulty in the coming times. Material resoures will
remain where they are Man shall lose his confidence in the charms of life. In the present
aircumstances, without keeping an eye on material gains, effort must go on.
I have already stated in some writing that to search out links among languages is not a
worthless task. Languages belong to man more than to nations and countries. They belong to him
who speaks them. Some vices are born because of misunderstanding languages. Man cannot
express himself in exactly any second language or he feels some difficulty in saying something in
that language. The possiblity exists that his statement may be misunderstood.

In this connection, it would be agreed that the understood meanings are the last ones. In this
context, no meanings are the last ones. The meanings are, in the last ones. The meanings are, in
one orthe other stage, to be changed.

Most of the tongues of the sub-contiment are & similar. Some of their linguistic rules are almost
the same. A lot of prefixes and suffixes, that are the back bone of languages, are almost the same.
Some sounds increase or fall down thechange in intonation. The scholars should work on the fall
or addition. In this worthless essay, some examples are presented to make my point of new
prominent. Keeping these examples in view, the people who work on languages can find a way.
It would be the most important service of humanity to work on languages in this perspective.
And the circle of research must extend to the universal limits. There is a common trend of
dropping some sounds in Urdu, Punjabi, Pothhari, Saraiki and Gojri.

There is the tradition of dropping the central 'alf':


1-
(a) Shah to sheh
(b) Gah to geh

2-
(a) Naa’ch to nach
(b) Nachna to nchna
(c) Chaand to Chn (Chun is also under use)
(d) Sa’as to sus
(e) Bazar to Bzar. (Punjabi)
f) Hath the hth (hth is also used in Gojri)
(g) Harna to Hrna or hrya
(h) Kajal to Kjal
(i) Bahar to Bhr
(j) Haat to hat (hati/hti is also used)

3-
Some time the mad of beginning is dropped but the sound of Alf is sustained:
(a) Aawara to awara
(b) Aazad to azad
(c) Aabad to abad
(d) Aabadi to abadi
(e) Aam to amb

4- In some words mud and Alif both are dropped:


Aawaz to waz (waaj is also used)

5- If bay occus after meen and before"alf", it will be dropped. However, the sound
of meem may be doubled:
Lumba to Lamma

(6) The sound of Tay before noon dropped.


(a) Jitna to Jinna
(b) Kitna to Kinna
(Here the sound of noon is double)

(7) In saraiki, the suffix (dha) is dropped:


Chundha to Choona

(8) The sound of 'An' occurping in the centre is not used:


(a) Ina’am to Inam
(b) Jamaat to Jamt
(c) Ta’alaq to Talq
(d) Maasoom to Msoom

(9) The Central 'laam' is also dropped:


Machli to Machi

(10) In some words, the sound of 'noon' in the centre is also expelled:
(a) Moonch to moch
(b) Pankha to Pakha
(c)Phoonk to Phook

(11) The sound of 'wao' in the centre also dropped:


(a) Bhool to Bhol
(b) Phool to Phol
(c) Doobna to Dubna
(d) Dooja to Duja
(e) Pochna to puchna
(In Pothohari Duwa is also in used) In Saraiki and Pujabi duwa mean two

(12) The trend of dropping hay is also found:


Chooha to Chua (Wao is giving to double sound)

(13) In Saraeki tayra instead of tayrha


Punjabi tayda
Potohari and Gojri taida
Saraeki Doup instead of dhoop
Punjabi Thop
Gojri Thop

(14) The tradition of dropping hay is also common:


(a) Darhi to dari
(b) Darh to dar

(15) The central yay is dropped:


(a) Seedha to sidha
(b) Peecha to picha
(c) Neecha to nicha (Gojri)
(d) Neecha to niwaan (Punjabi)
(d) Bay’kar to bkar (Saraeki)
In Mavati also, sounds are dropped:
(a) Shuroo to suru
(b) Mashhoor to mas’hoor
(c) Shabeer to saber

There is the tradition of dropping two sounds in Punjabi, Pothohari and Saraeki:
Ooncha to ocha

Pushto also have tradition of dropping souns:


(a) Dhal to dal
(b) Dheel to deel

Saraeki, the trend of changing sounds is also seen:


Haraan to haryan

Sounds are interchange in Pushto also:


Sandooq To soondaq

The trend of increasing sounds:

(1) In Urdu Machli while in Bangala maachli

(2) In Urdu sach while in Rajistani sanch, sachi to saachi


(3) In Urdu bohat, while in Rajistani, Dakni, Haryani and Mevati Bo’hoot
(4) In Urdu the word lagna is changed into laagna in Rajistani

Some other exmples of increasing sounds in Saraeki:


1- Gal is changed galh
2- Sab is changed sabh
3- Toota is changed tona

In Pothohari and Gojri hashvi noon is a comman thing;


Hasna to hansana

Urdu and Punjabi also make the hashvi use of noon:


Saikroon to sainkroon

This tradition is also found in Pushto:


1- Olti to Oltai
2- Phaki to phakai
3- Charkhi to charkhai
4- Josh to joshi
5- Jarab to jarabay
6- Khorak to khoraka
7- Khajoor to khajooray
8- Mandi to mandhi

In mevati see this trend:


!- Rang to rango
2- Pakha to pakho
3- Nicha to nicho
4- Ghar to gharay
5- Sab to saban
6- Din to dinan

In saraeki umb is spoken as umbo. In Punjabi umbi is used for a small and unripe umb.
Hadi is changed Hud in Punjabi and Saraeki.

Mana is changed as mania in Saraeki


For Aap aapa is also in use

Punch, pank, pakhro, pakhairoon etc are well known words of local languages and they all are
the extended forms of the original word par (Wing)

In Punjabi, there is common trend of increasing sounds:


!- Pachtana to pachothana, pachtawana
2-Martabah to marataba

This trend is also found in the Persian:


1- Shah to sheh
2- Seyah to seyh
3- Awal to ahwal
4- Sami to asami

LANGUAGES ARE IN FACT THE RESULT OF SOUND

It gives pleasure to discuss intellectual and literal matters with serious. It helps in the solution to
problems and matters. Not only this, a lot of references, links and connections become evident.
How for Yaan pal Sarter is correct. His life was linked with particular conditions and his ideas
have come forth with respect to this fact. Nobody forms his existence nor is it possible that a man
makes himself as he wishes. In this formation of a person’s existence, the whole universe
consciously, in some affairs, and unconsciously, in some other ones, is involved. Its reason is that
he is a unit of the universe. Every body in itself is not complete even after its completion. He is a
part of some great unity. Even while maintaining his identical/ characteristic, he is revolving
around some great unity. Being a unit of the whole universe, he connected with a lot units. He
affects them and is affected by them. And all this is imposed in a peculiar balance and
arrangement. He is responsible not only of himself but all the units existing in the unity. The
survival of other units is, in fact, its own strength.

I have already mentioned that a decaying society gets itself linked with some other strong and
active society so that it may further live fifty or hundred years more. Thus the survival of another
unity is not worthless for it. Each unit of a building, in spite of being separate, cannot get
isolation from other units. In this regard, it is not correct to say some unit unimportant. There is
no justification of its separation from other units. The importance of cement is compulsory for or
each other. The rich for the poor and the poor for the rich. Grief for man and man for grief are not
unimportant. They are to move parallel to each other at a time. In this case life can exit. Stasis and
stillness are death for each of them.
Languages are in fact the result of sounds. With this reference they revolve around sounds. So
long as sounds exit, the existence of languages is unchallenged.

Nature has granted man with some organs as create sounds themselves or sounds come out of
them. And these sounds are the same as are present in the universe. In other word, this
procedure of give and take is connected with the existence of languages.

Viewed at any level, the combination of countless isolated and compound sounds is present all
the languages with small changes. It is true that the grammatical adjustment is occurred
according to the linguistic set up of the languages.
All human being are the issue of the same man and the families of this man are composed with
the passage of time. Linguistics, therefore, divided languages into different families.

Gojri, Punjabi, Pothohari, Sasaiki, Urdu, Arabic, Persian, Bravi, Pashto, Bangali, Sindhi etc, have
many common words. Along with English, other western languages have the association of
sounds. Rather a large number of their words are the same and some time their use is also at
some places parallel. Hence to say that languages die, is absolutely wrong and baseless. At a
time, they are related with:
Man and his families
Different groups
Needs and material necessities
Universe
Everything of the universe
Other languages

While single, groups, combinations and compound sounds is the source of link among them.
Every sound has its own mood, behavior, trend and culture. It adopts the form of word
accordingly. While with the individual identity, social culture also involves. And it also keeps the
nature of sounds with them. When a word enters a society, it also brings with it its culture and
these words unconsciously and sometimes consciously plays its role. This adjustment is nature of
sounds. If these universal nature links don’t exit, the mater of adjustment cannot be solved. This
link of sounds indicates the link of man with man and with the universe. I have described the
link of sounds in writing. I present some examples from Japanese sends (Hira Gana)to show
With respect to the association of other language, if this piece of work is appreciated, I shall show
the link of the remaining sounds of Hira Gana as well as three sounds of Kana Kata. With
reference to these sounds, the search of the link between man and universal will become easy.
Not only this, it will also help us understand the link of man and universe.

English Orange
Urdu Okat
Pashto Obaie
Punjabi Ohlay
Pothohari Oha
Saraki Othain
Gojri Ozar
Arabic Olad
Persian Aab-o-dana

A
English Apple
Urdu Arada
Pashto Aalan
Punjabi Haey
Pothohari Aeha
Gojri Koey
Arabic Jo-e-kazib
Persian Zerb-e-Shadeed

Oo(ou)

English Column
Urdu Oncha
Pashto Ohkh
Punjabi Ochcha
Pothohari Ochcha
Saraki Okhoon
Gojri Outhain
Persian Ouja

E
English Elephant
Urdu Eman
Pashto Eman
Punjabi Soee
Pothahari Deekhe
Saraki Ethain
Gojri Eman
Arabic Eman
Persian Eman
Aa

English Author
Urdu Aana
Pashto Aaloo
Punjabi Aaeo
Puthohari Aas
Saraki Aapey
Gojri Aalo
Arabic Aaein
Persian Aab

Ko

English Cooperation
Urdu Kohat
Pashto Kotek
Punjabi Kookain
Pothohari Korey
Saraeki Koon
Gojri Sakoo
Arabic Kofeh
Persian Kochek

Kay
English Keynes
Urdu Dhamakey
Pashto Saskay
Punjabi Ginkay
Pothohari Tukkey
Saraki Phekay
Gojri Nekay

Ku (koo)

English Cocker
Urdu Kucha
Pashto Kuchay
Punjabi Kora
Pothohari Kook
Saraki Mekoon
Gojri Koay
Arabic Hatubkaud
Persian Chakoo

Key (kee)

English Key
Urdu Tarakey, harki
Pushto Mirchaki
Punjabi Keey
Pothohari Tukkey
Saraki Salamaleki
Gojri Keey
Arabic Makene
Persian Chalaki

Ka

English College
Urdu Kamran
Pashto Zamka
Punjabi Kaee
Pothohari Ochuckka
Saraki Lokain
Gojri Thaka
Persian Rakab
Arabic Mutkabalas

So

English So, sow


Urdu Socha
Pashto So
Punjabi Soee
Pothohari Sonda
Saraki Soka
Gojri Sohno
Arabi Soaad
Persian Sood

Say (SA)

English Sample
Urdu Piyasay
Pashto Namesay
Punjabi Hasay
Pothohari Vassay
Saraki Pasay
Gojri Dessay

Soo (su)

English Sue
Urdu Suna
Pashto Tosu
Punabi Sunjan
Pothohari Sota
Saraki Sool
Persian Chaharsoo

Shee/shi

English She
Urdu Khushi
Pashto Munshee
Punjabi Shereni
Saraki Khushee
URDU AND JAPNESE SOUN’s SIMILIRITIES’s

There is no alphabet in Japanese. Shapes and signs are fixed for sounds. These sounds are
divided into two parts:

• Hiragana
• Katakana.

Every sound has five shapes i.e. Uo, O, KO, Koo, Hu, Ho, Mo.
Ka and Ki are read Kha and Khe.
Sound Ta is read Tha.

Where Noon and Bay, Noon and Py, Noon and meem, are associated, there meem sound will be
appeared i.e. Shinbun will be converted into Shimbun, Noanmae will be altered in Namamae.
During talk some sounds are not appeared. For example Dyso will be read Dus.
Except Chinese and Japanese, all languages have alphabet. Words are constructed through their
alphabets, while symbols make style, way and trend of speaking. I.e. in Urdu Khuda Hafiz, in
English Good Bye and in Japanese Sayonara.

All Japanese sounds are available in Urdu. In Urdu, Japanese sounds can be easily used. During
talk, speaker feels comfortable. In Urdu, every change in sounds can be made easily i.e. in writing
Chondha but in speaking Chuna, in writing Unber but in speaking Umber, in writing Tunbu but
in speaking Tumbu.

Every language has many substitutes and combined groups of sounds. However thousands of
sounds are found in the universe. Some have discovered and are in use, but some are still to be
discovered or waiting for there uses.

How sounds associated and various compounds are appearing in speaking or writings? It is not a
matter of writing but it is related to speaking i.e. in writing Ka/Ki but in speaking Kha/ Khe.
Like this, in Urdu, in writing Khavish but in speaking khaash. Substitution of sounds is not a
strange thing in the Japanese language. This thing is also common in the other languages.

The change of sounds or use of substitute sounds is not a serious matter. However, this matter is
related to the way of talking or style of talking in a language. For example:
Zindgi is spoken Gingi in Mivati and Ragistani.
Hazoor is converted into Hagoor in Punjabi, Saraiki and Huryani.
Maza is spoken Mazo in Mivati and Gojri.
For Za-e Persian compound sound ‘ion’ is used in English.
For Py, in Arabic, By is used (i.e. Pakistan is spoken there Bakistsan.)
Japanese speak Tabako but it is in Urdu Tumbako, in Punjabi Tamako.
In Urdu it is Daan but in English Pan (i.e. Urdu Pandaan, English Fry-pan). P is a substitute
sound for D but there is no difference in the meanings.

These are same words with the change of sounds. I think, for the best understanding, we should
have to do a lot of work to know the sounds and their public uses. It is also a matter of the day to
discover the usually used substitutes and similarities in sounds.
I have tried to find out the similarities of sounds in Urdu and Japanese languages with the
possible examples. In this way, Urdu speaker can understand the Japanese language. It is true
that it demands deep interest and hard work.

Su Charsu Shi Khushi


Sa Peyasa To Tosa
Tay Bhertay Chi Elachi Ta
Marta No Nokar
Nian Surhanain Noo Noor
Ni Porani Na Jhurna
Hoo Bahoo Hay kahay
Foo Shurfoo Hi Tabahi
Ha Karaha Mo Mohubbut
May Hungamay Mu Muncsh
Mi Aasami Ma Mahi
Ro Rokna Ra SitarThereuo
Yo Sanayo Ya Saya
Oo Ooncha Go Bagola
Gy Dhagy Gu Guftagu
Gi Sadgi Ga Dhaga
Zu Bazu Zay Tazay
Zu Zood Gi Hagi
Za Durwaza Do Dusra
Sy Sady Zu Zulfqar
Ge Gena Da Dildada
Bo Bona Bay Bykar
Bu Khusvbu Bi Gulabi
Ba Baqi Pu Punja
Pi Gopi Pu Pura
Pi Papi Pa Pass
Qu Qunkar Q Qauood
Ya Angya Sho Shosha
Shu Shukar Sha Shatar
Jo Jorab Ju Jungju
Ja Baja Cho Chola
Chu Chuha Cha Chakar
Huo Rahihuo Heu Heute
Hea Dehean Beu Unkbeut
Beo Beonut Biya Biyaban
Meo Meor Miu Miuwati
Mia Mian Neo Neota
Niu Reniu Nia Niaz
Reu Rewand, Raywar Ru Otaru
Reya Reyakar

OTHER LANGUAGES HAVE NATURAL LINK

WITH JAPANESE SOUND


Every sound has its own mood, behavior, trend and culture. It adopts the form of word
accordingly. While with the individual identity, social culture also involves. And it also keeps the
nature of sounds with them. When a word enters a society, it also brings with it its culture and
these words unconsciously and sometimes consciously plays its role. This adjustment is nature of
sounds. If these universal nature links don’t exit, the mater of adjustment cannot be solved. This
link of sounds indicates the link of man with man and with the universe. I have described the
link of sounds in a writing. I present some examples from Japanese sends(Hira Gana)to show
their link with sounds of other languages. If this piece of work is appreciated, I shall show the
link of the remaining sounds of Hira Gana as well as three sounds of Kana Kata. With reference
to these sounds, the search of the link between man and universal will become easy. Not only
this, it will also help us understand the link of man and universe:

O English Orange
Urdu Okat
Pashto Obaie
Punjabi Ohlay
Pothohari Oha
Saraki Othain
Gojri Ozar
Arabic Olad
Persian Aab-o-dana

A English Apple
Urdu Arada
Pashto Aalan
Punjabi Haey
Pothohari Aeha
Gojri Koey
Arabic Jo-e-kazib
Persian Zerb-e-Shadeed

Oo(ou)English Column
Urdu Oncha
Pashto Ohkh
Punjabi Ochcha
Pothohari Ochcha
Saraki Okhoon
Gojri Outhain
Persian Ouja

E English Elephant
Urdu Eman
Pashto Eman
Punjabi Soee
Pothahari Deekhe
Saraki Ethain
Gojri Eman
Arabic Eman
Persian Eman

Aa (au)English Author
Urdu Aana
Pashto Aaloo
Punjabi Aaeo
Puthohari Aas
Saraki Aapey
Gojri Aalo
Arabic Aaein
Persian Aab

Ko English Cooperation
Urdu Kohat
Pashto Kotek
Punjabi Kookain
Pothohari Korey
Saraeki Koon
Gojri Sakoo
Arabic Kofeh
Persian Kochek

Kay English Keynes


Urdu Dhamakey
Pashto Saskay
Punjabi Ginkay
Pothohari Tukkey
Saraki Phekay
Gojri Nekay

Ku (koo)English Cocker
Urdu Kucha
Pashto Kuchay
Punjabi Kora
Pothohari Kook
Saraki Mekoon
Gojri Koay
Arabic Hatubkaud
Persian Chakoo

Key (kee)English Key


Urdu Tarakey
Pushto Mirchaki
Punjabi Keey
Pothohari Tukkey
Saraki Salamaleki
Gojri Keey
Arabic Makene
Persian Chalaki

Ka English College
Urdu Kamran
Pashto Zamka
Punjabi Kaee
Pothohari Ochuckka
Saraki Lokain
Gojri Thaka
Persian Rakab
Arabic Mutkabalas

So English So, sow


Urdu Socha
Pashto So
Punjabi Soee
Pothohari Sonda
Saraki Soka
Gojri Sohno
Arabi Soaad
Persian Sood

Say(sa)English Sample
Urdu Payasay
Pashto Namesay
Punjabi Hasay
Pothohari Vassay
Saraki Pasay
Gojri Dessay

Soo(su)English Sue
Urdu Suna
Pashto Tosu
Punabi Sunjan
Pothohari Sota
Saraki Sool
Persian Chaharsoo

Shee English She


Urdu Khushee
Pashto Munshee
Punjabi Shereni
Saraki Khushee
------------ENGLISH---------------

Sa English Saw

To English Today

Chi(chee)English Cheek

No English Knoty

Noo (nu)English Nook

Nee(ni)English Marconi

Na English Banana

Hoo(hu)English Who

Hay English Hay

Foo(fo) English Follower


He(hee) English He
Moo English Moment

Mee English Meeting, Army

Ma English Mother

Ro Engl;ish Row

Ray English Race

Ru English Rue, Ruth

Re English Reaction

Ra English Raw

Yo English York

Yu(Yoo) English Universe

Ya English York

Noon English Carton

Go English Gown

Gu(goo) English Goose

Gee English Refugee

Ga English Game

Zoo English Zoo

Zay English Zebra

Do English Though, Do

Day English Today

Du(doo)English Dual

Da English Dadaism

Bo English Bow

Bay English Bay

Bu(boo)English Boor, Book


Bee English Begin

Ba English Balm

Po English Pope

Pu English Pupae, Pure

Pee English Pigeon

Pa English Paw

Qu English Queue

Qee English Queen

Sho English Show

Shoe English Shoe

Sha English Bradshaw

Jo English Joke

Ju(joo) English Jupiter

Ja English Jaw

Cho English Chose

Chu English Choose

Cha English Chat

Hu English Huge

Bayo English Abeyant

Beue(bew) English Beautiful

Baya English Mayo

Mew(meu) English Municipal

New(Neue) English News

Rayo(raue) English Review

Raya, in Urdu Punjabi, Pothohari, Arabic and Persian:

Raya Urdu Rayakar


Punjabi Bheraya
Pothohari Uperaya
Arabic Riaz
Persian Riya

Three very important sounds of Kata Kana:

Wa/va English Vagabond


Urdu Wala, Humnava

Paue Urdu Pevest


Punjabi Paue
Saraiki paue

Pew English Pew


SEPLIMENT

PRESENT RESEARCH IS ATTACHED WITH THE


ACHIVEMENT OF A DEGREE
The process of creation is related with man’s service, development, and keeping him in moment.
In modern times, especially in developing countries, it has been connected with the achievement
of a degree. This irresponsible and non serious behavior has kept them for away from the
development, prosperity and complacency of the advanced countries.

Revision is, no doubt linked with modernity but it is not an correct and healthy activity to present
the old material with the change of words only. If the revision provides us with new meaning,
this process must be kept continuous. A researcher, in fact, discovers new meanings with new
references or he testifies or (defines)/ refutes something old. If he fills papers only for the
achievement of a degree, nobody can get any advantage from it.

Writing can fill long pieces of papers but nothing worthwhile comes in the forefront. Someone
researched that earth is round. At it the second researcher says that earth is not completely round
while the third one says that earth is round like an egg. This matter is related with research. In
fact, experience and study of a researcher are also involved in his presentation. His work will be
related to the present thing.

It is not necessary that the present thing is the last thing and there is nothing ahead of it.
Certainly, there is a lot beyond it. The new/ next researcher must go ahead towards the post (the
next). The diamensions related with the discovery of something are not the last ones. And to
thinks so is stark foolishness. No explanation is the last explanation.

In the same way, all the known meaning is not the last meaning. They can be rejected or new
meanings can be presented and this thing is the real research. It is necessary that the backward or
developing countries or nations must get rid of this behavior it involves the theses of the
advanced countries that belongs to the original lines. A degree is, no doubt, a means of
development, but is not a step of development. Therefore there is no capacity of non serious and
irresponsible behavior.
NEED CHANGS IN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS OF THE
DEVELPING COUNTRIES
The importance of lecture can not be denied. Lecture has been part of education for centuries and
it has been creating great men in different fields who have performed praise worthy marvels in
the life. The trend and behavior of the present time have changed. It needs are totally different
from the former ones. Therefore lecture method can not be totally relied upon as regards
education. The communication of matter to the students is not possible through this method.
With respect to the fast increasing needs, changes are necessary in the educational systems of the
developing countries. Without these changes, these countries cannot take part in the race of
developing countries. And they will have to depend on the others at every step to pace with
present time.

The resources of developing countries are limited. If these limited resources are lavishly spent on
imports, the burden of loans will be the future of these countries. There is no doubt that the
resources of these countries, along with in imports, have attached with other reference for
centuries. And the blood suckers are marring the dream of prosperity. The irony is that the
capital of these countries has usurped by these blood suckers. The rebellion against these suckers
is just like suicide. But the teachers of these poor countries can do a lot remaining within the
limits of their resources. In this regard, the need not, at all, to demand any thing from any
person/countries. Interest, sympathy and determination to do something would be the helper.

I suggest some points in this regard. If they are joined with the lecture, the possibility is there that
some way may be searched out to keep pace with the present race of awareness:
1- TV has been a thing of daily use and even the poor house can, to a large extent, afford it. The
student must be molded to pay attention to the relevant programmers.

2- The student must be taught the use of library and the teachers must be point out the relevant
books.

3- There must be quiz programmes regarding the concerned matter.

4- Group study must be introduced.

5- Debates must be arranged in the class.

6- Promotion test must be divided parts:


* The students must be given homework.
* Classes test be taken in a month.
These two must have 50% marks while the promotion test should also have
50% marks.
7- In BA a thesis must be written by the students regarding their course and this thesis must be
compulsory for BA. For example, in literature, the thesis can be divided into three parts:
• Essays on course
• Fiction
• Poetry
The thesis must be supervised by the class teachers.

8- Encrough the students to prepare notes under discussion lesson.

Thus a lot of steps can be taken by the teachers, institutions and the relevant boards/universities.
MAN DOES NOT LIVE IN HIS OWN LAND

Language is a gift to man from the society where he lives in but the important issue is to convey
whatever you have to others. Expression is better than the horrible silence. It does not require any
grammatical propositions. I think that grammar is not ‘everything’ but it is only sources of
learning language while not a pillar for speaking at all. Readers surely understand what the
speaker wants to say without ‘barriers’. What is poor, rich and right writing? Do Chinese, Urdu
or English speakers always speak according to grammar? Not, not at all, impossible. The
language problem will not arise if the readers and listeners understand each other; it will be a
good achievement. Should it not be a matter of pride for the English that a man, whose native
language is not English, write English and tries to convey himself? I love man and don’t care who
he is and from where he is.

I want to provide a positive thought to the language researchers. I think that man is not different
from his basic living needs. Atmosphere, change of land and resources may affect his thinking,
living standard etc. But why hate, love and revenge are in the same way everywhere? In my
point of view relation between men to man ever exists and, it is a universal truth. Man loves his
holy ‘Books and Places’ despite language differences. It means that man does not live in his own
land only. His heart, mind and soul have relation with the other lands and people. However,
man’s hate, love and soul affiliations cannot be ignored. I think so many similarities must be
happened in the languages. To search these similarities will be a great service for man. In this
way, language researchers can unite human beings. If man comes closer, many baseless
complications based on unawareness will be eliminated or reduced at least. In the present age,
language researchers can do a lot for human beings.

Thinkers will fail to know human problems if expression remains unspoken. It is our duty to
make things good and easy for human beings. Let man free putting his expression into words
than holding thoughts in his heart and mind. If some one writes in foreign language than the
native one is surely a ‘fair game’. This effort is a positive and healthy sign which will lead to
some ‘productive work’ while languages are a communicative tool for expression.
A PERSON IS RELATED TO THE WHOLE UNIVERSE
There is no doubt that a person learns/adopts some habits and behavior from his parents and
other from his near relatives. But this thing is not the completion of his personality. There are
some other factors that affect a person’s personality, behavior and trends.

While living with parents, a person is related not only to the members of his family but the whole
universe. Any other person who comes in the house also affects his personality. His intention is
not presention the getting this influence. Any thing told by his parents and relatives enter his
unconscious. Or some other thing revolving in society, any event or any affair, all these things are
saved in his brain and are saved in his unconscious. These things saved in unconscious are
brought up themselves. Or some times, the practical forms of those things get maturity in his
mind. In these things, his own intention has no info interference.

The tragic incident of the sub-continent in 1857 is still present in this mind and its grudge is felt in
it. This grudge has been given to the people of this are by the history of this region. In other
words, the history of a nation has its strong hold on personalities. Some incidents of history are
present in papers. But in this regards, the rulers have their influences, and the real forms of
society are found in society. Words heard from parents and forefathers remain wondering in
society. In practical forms, their witness can be seen. My writing has no connection with it, even
the least, who is right and who is not right.

The German, who are European, can not keep themselves aloof from the historical events. It
admits that some matters there are the influence of national partiality. And this thing has deep
relation with man’s personality and this thing cannot be ignore with respect to the construction of
personality. But it is a confirmed fact that in building up a personality, not only the inherited
qualities but all events, incidents taking place all around have deep effect. Along with them
national partiality has its own influence. An educated man gets effects from books. These affect
other people unconsciously.
Poetry has worked wonders. It has changed the scenes of wars. It has enlivened the dead bodies
with their power of rhetorician. These time elements have not a permanent condition.

I have ever talked about man who is one with respect to a lot of his natural things. There is one
brotherhood in the entire world. No good work should remain restricted only to a region or
particular people. But its benefits should be availed by the whole humanity. The question is
whether it is possible or not. The selfish elements keep the fruit limited to them. As a result of
which unpleasant things occur. And its bad effects are faced by the whole human race.
Whenever a person
Whenever a person views life with reference to his personality or a specific group or a particular
point, life goes out of the circle of understanding. This thing creates a lot of complexities that
snatch many men’s mental peace. In fact, life is link with the whole universe. Similarly, the
universe stands meaningless without the personal interest of life. The interest of life makes life
beautiful, charming and colorful. In other words, every link that is limited and particular
dissipates after some time or loses its meanings.

Ghalib Goethe, Tagoor, John Keats Emily Dickinson etc. has depths deeper than the deep sea
because their thought is linked with the Universe. Or the universe in deep rooted in their
thought. At this stage, the author himself is lost because he does not remain a unit rather a lot of
units are inter-related in his thought. To approach their thought, it is not enough to remain
limited to one unit only. Or we cannot go advance on the basis of only one unit. Similarly we
can’t be restricted to only a few meanings. To reach some conclusion, it is necessary to search out
link of the universe.

Man is not only a father; he is maternal uncle, paternal uncle, husband, neighbor, master, slave,
son, daughter, sister etc and also a servant to Allah. He has countless reference in his personality.
To deny some relation of universe is to deny one of the aspects of one’s identity. The acceptance
of relations not only maintains one’s identity but save man from division. No religion divides this
unity into units. Rather strengthens the links of unities and searches out the new references of
their mutual meaningfulness and this affair is not waked at any stage nor it falls a prey to
suspension. Whenever such situation takes place, it can’t be related to religion.

All this is done by the selfish elements. Their interests are linked with the division of any unity.
For the achievement of their limited and particular purposes, they open the door of division in a
very cruel way. In the same reference, the theory of “Divide and Rule” flourished. Religion, in its
originality, is a universal thing. It connects (man) person with God/Allah and the whole universe
and thus develops the relation of mutual love and brotherhood with full force and pomp.
LINGUISTIC SET UP IS PROVIDED BY POETRY

Lot things have been written with respect to verse and poetry. Verse is related to consciousness.
It is said that a good verse contains wisdom. The language of prose and poetry and their set up
are different from each other. Verse is more effective than prose. But it is incorrect to assert that
prose is weak in its importance. With respect to expression, the importance of prose is
established. It is also correct that usage is related to public, the English usages given by the users
of a language have no importance without getting the public authenticity. We cannot consider
unimportant the usages of the users of the language. I want to say that for the correction of
usages, we have to resort to the verses. Poetry is standard in this regard. Some matters are
decided and in spite of being commonly wrong, are used. For example, an Urdu word “Kufli” is
used as “Kufi”. An Arabic word “Hoor” is used singularly in Urdu. A Persian word “Sair” is
used for walking. A lot of English words are used for the meanings different from the original
meanings. In spite of that, they are called English words.
Similarly, a lot of non-English words are used according English set up. This linguistic set up is
provided by poetry. Poet and society remain hand in glove with each other.
The linguistic variation in languages happens with reference to them. In order to whether the
usages is waiting for or waiting to or of , consist of or consist for, etc we have to resort to Emily
Dickinson, Longfellow, Keats, Coleridge, etc. In order to get the authenticity of Urdu usages
“karvat layna” or “karvat budalna”, we will have to resort to Mir Sahib or any other ustad poet.
HOW TO RESOLVE PROBLEMS OF NATIVE AND SECOND
LANGUAGE
It has always been a controversial matter to express oneself in a language other than the native
language. And the doors of reflection are ever open in this regard. For it, there are usually three
forms:
• A person fails to express exactly what he wishes.
•The expression gains other meanings.
• A person thinks in native language and express in some others one.
No doubt, these three aspects are sensitive and weighty which can not be ignored in the matter of
expression. The problem of expression in the second language can be tackled. However, the
linguistics will have to direct research to the new dimensions on the scientific basis.
No language is associated only to a particular nation, culture, region, race, class or group. Every
language, in fact, is the language of man who speaks it. A language follows him and fulfills his
needs and requirements.
The inter links of languages never come to an end and neither can they be demolished. Because in
friendship or enmity man does not remain away from another man. Needs of economic and
social interests are attached with one another. There may be enmity or the critical situation
among nations, civilizations, countries and ideologies but languages are never enemies of each
other. Link of friendship and affinity always exists among languages at all levels. It is also
interesting that languages get more development in differences and enmity.
The real problem is of the alphabets and phonetics that really causes disturbance which is solved
through ‘compound alphabets’. Chinese is the first greatest language which is used by many
nations in the region. On the other hand, Urdu/Hindi is the second greatest language of the
world which seems to be operative around hundreds of the nations while English is the ruling
language of the world. The people attached to these three languages are interlinked one another
in one way or the other. Their economic survival depends on each other. To work on the common
‘linguistic similarities’ is the important area of the present era. In this regard, the linguistics
should pin down the following aspects:
•Common unique /isolated and compound sounds.
•Similar and alternative sounds.
•Prefixes andSuffixesCompounds
•The grammatical adjustment of the co-figured and co-sounded words.

The linguistics of the world are invited to express them with reference to the above said thesis.
A STUDENT MUST BE INSTIGATED TO DO SOMETHING
HIMSELF

Cramming or prepared notes can be a means of success in examination, but in building a


personality and getting awareness, this thing has no role. In this way best/highest marks can be
achieved and these marks can help in getting highest posts, but their results create bad effects for
the whole country or nation.

It is necessary that a student must be instigated to do something himself. Powers of his conscious
must be polished/refined the distinction of good and bad must be produced in him. A problem
may be presented before them and then they must be guided in such a way that they may ask
about it as much as they like. They may observe and restore to libraries not considering it
worthless thing. Their efforts may be wrong. Something may be added to it. The points that the
student has made an effort to do something himself. To point out the sources of the achievement
of the matter is the responsibility of the teacher. To create broad mindedness is another duty of
the teacher.

A student cannot create the habit of study and experience unless his teacher develops it in him. A
lesson must be prepared in such a way as create desire in a student to do something himself. A
teacher must prepare dry, pithy and difficult lessons in a such a way that they become easy.
Curiosity must be developed to know about them. It is necessary that they know the matter and
an unconscious sense may be created to discover something new. The ability of
suspense/curiosity may flourish in them.
LANGAGUE NEVER DIE TILL ITS TWO SPEAKERS

It is a fact that a language is related with its speakers. So far as the speakers are alive, the
language remains alive. Dr. Sohail Bukhari asserts: Even if two speakers of a language are alive,
the language remains alive. It can never be destroyed by an invader language. Small languages
are influenced by great or ruler language rather they affect the ruler language with any attack the
cycle of their expression is widened. The sub-continent languages have been impressed by
Arabic, Persian, and Turkish etc. But the local languages have not come to an end.

When a sound or word enters an other language, it adopts the temperament, tendency and
culture of the language. But if a word or sound does not adopt the local language set up, it
remains a refugee or immigrant. In this regard, a lot of examples can be presented. Hoor, Ahwah,
Aasami, Okat etc., are such words as are present in Sindhi, Baloochi, Punjabi, Urdu, Pashto, etc.
Dictionary regards them as foreign ones though now they are not foreign with respect their uses
and meanings. An Arab would never accept them as singular. Similarly a lot of English words
have been used in the sub-continent languages in their set up. The words Tenshanen, Advician
Tuberalat, etc are not acceptable by any Englishman as of his language. By combining infantine to
foreign words, some transitive verbs and idioms have been derived. However it must be realize
that so far as the speakers of a language are alive, the language is alive. The local and foreign
languages widen the cycles of expression. In oppression movement is improved. Therefore, we
must not be worried in these street circumstances.

The condition of peace and limitations are not suitable for the languages as well as nations.
Movement, speed and development born in torture anxiety and oppression.
A LANGUAGE AND SOCIETY DON’T DEVOLP IN DAYS

A Language and society don’t develop in days rather centuries are required in their construction
and development. In other words centuries are not very important in the formation and
development of a language. Similarly are taken in their decay or extinction. A decaying society
can exist for fifty or hundred years by connecting itself with a develop society. During this while
any revolution can occur and any new condition can come into existence in the society, with new
moods, can keep pace with the international society.

In the present age, the example of Afghanistan and Iraq can be present. The process of resistance
is going on. Social prejudice compels them to résistance. With respect new teachings, a change in
their mood and behavior cannot be rejected. However these people will not totally become like
the new comers. With reference to new change, newness shall come in them and they will exist in
the coming times with their own reference. Their language will also develop with respect to their
needs.

In one age, different forms are seen in a language. Urdu novels “Odas Naslen” And “Chandni
Begum” Are the novel of same age, but their languages seen different. Difference can seen in the
languages of Sir Philip Sidney and Coleridge. Goethe’s language and today language is different.
Tagor’s language and today Bengali language is also different. Why? The basic reason is the
social behavior and condition as well as writer’s attitude and mood, moreover needs and living
style of place will also be considered with respect to associated with the 2 nd languages
.Languages develop and expression are widened with respect to the past.

Hatred, jealousy, love beauty’s effects started in the very beginning. And this succession is still
going on. And it will never end. The series of expression will never come to an end with respect
to these senses. This mater will remain the same but its form can very. Man will remain alive till
the Last day. Similarly, expression also never die. Man’s behavior and insists are transferred to
the coming time and it is an endless series that cannot be changed.

Languages of thousands of the years old mixed in the other languages with their own society
cutler. I have already talked with respect to this point in some an other writing. The same is true
for sounds. The Eastern and western languages have many similar sounds. We are to see the
sounds and their references. Re is used for again, La(Arabic) is used for negative, Na(Urdu) is
used for infinitive. The English came in the subcontinent and they brought English language and
culture. Before them the Arabs had come. The languages of the subcontinent were affected. But it
was a good effect on the native languages. They got new sounds, new styles, new essays and
many other references. These things developed the languages.

The People of the past died. The echo of their ideas can be heard even today. The words of this
language of their sounds are present in all the languages of the world.

A person adopts a foreign culture and language in about ten years when he live there. As soon as
he finds a person of his native country, his manners will be changed and he will start speaking
his native language. A Arbi speaks English With the English but as soon as he finds another Arbi,
he starts speaking with him in their particular tone/accent. It is a separate mater that English has
already affected his speaking.

Man’s basic needs remain the same. The same is true for behaviors. Languages are not separate
from men. Man’s habits and needs are transferred to the coming generations. Similarly his
medium of expression is also conveyed to the next generation. Only his features, living style, way
of talking as per situation and dress are changed. Otherwise nothing is changed. By changing
place, the coming generations lose control over some sounds but alternative come forth. In this
way this action of expression is not stopped. Whenever expression stops, revolutions and many
other changes are generated. However these things are also not injurious to a language. These
things are also provide languages with energy. The culture of Texlaand and Mohingodaro is
centuries old. Some of their persons might have survived them who propagated their effects to
the coming generations.

To talk about the death of man is, evidently, based on ignorance. If man dies, nothing will
remain behind. Everything exists with man. Everything is connected man and he will ever
propagate these things to the coming generation.
POET CAN NOT KEEP HIMSELF ALOOF FROM THE UNIVERSE

Poet is not a space or super natural creature. He, from his beginning to his end, is related with
man. But he is more sensitive then others in some maters. He starts the journey of universe from
his self. And then returns to his himself.. Sometimes, in this journey, he becomes part of the
universe. There are very few poets who travel from their self to universe and then return to their
self. In such poets, Ghalab, Tagor, Goitte, Feng Su Feng, Coleridge, Longfellow etc. can be cited
for example.
The mater, infect, is that poet cannot keep himself aloof from the universe affairs, incidents and
mishaps. Universal charm and some complexities affect him. These two elements stir his mind
and they wish to travel in the universe along with the poets expressions. And the poet cannot
check their path with all his determinism.
If he is lost in the universe, he presents what he finds in original form. In this regard, Urdu poet
Nazir Akbar Abadi and the English poet Wordsworth can be presented as an example. This thing
may be true in itself.
A poet has some or the other ideology and it affects his master pieces in one way or the other.
However he does not get the status of the first water. To determine purposes or destination is not
proper for a poet in any way. Whatever he experiences or feels from his experience, he presents
views in the form of words. It is an other mater that the way of feeling changes from person to
person.
Poets can not be compelled to feel in the same way. In this case, the compelled and forced poetry
asked be written. Necessarily, the point with will forced to use symbols and allusions. It depends
on the reader to get the meanings and themes from these symbols and allusions. Therefore,
forced poetry is only poetry. Yes the reader and critic can determine the destination of the poetry.
Whatever the reader and the critic say is not the final thing. Their opinion can be rejected at any
stage. Take Ghalib as example whatever
he feels regards man and universe he expressed through words. But feelings ignore him and take
up the guise of words. He cannot separate himself from man and universe. It is his natural
weakness.
My view is that terrorists must be demolished so that human beings may breathe peacefully.
There is also reality that terrorism must be checked with a greater terrorism or terrorism may be
converted into affection. How can this be made possible? Blood is sacred and not to give it
respect, in no way, proper. For this, it is necessary that man must be viewed with respect his
needs, demands and psychological references. Doors of awareness and material development
must be open everybody regardless of any distinction.. I think without understanding the
collective nature of man and universe, relief and prosperity cannot be brought about.