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International Relations : Notes

David Wessels







































Copyright 2009 by David Wessels



David Wessels
Sophia University
7-1 Kioicho, Chiyoda-ku
Tokyo 102-8554
Japan
102-8554 7-1
http://www.sophia.ac.jp







International Relations : Notes



David Wessels












2009

I NTERNATI ONAL RELATI ONS 2
Tabl e of Cont ent s

For Fur t her Readi ng 2 E

Chapt er 1 I nt r oduct i on 3 E

Chapt er 2 I n Sear ch of Theor y 4 E

Chapt er 3 Real i sm 6 E

Chapt er 4 Peacekeepi ng Oper at i ons 8 E

Chapt er 5 Pl ur al i sm 10 E

Chapt er 6 The I dea of Human Ri ght s 12 E

Chapt er 7 Gl obal i sm 14 E

Chapt er 8 The Movement of Peopl e 16 E
and I nt er nat i onal Rel at i ons

Chapt er 9 Gl obal i zat i on: Li ght and Shadow 18 E

Chapt er 10 Gover nance 20 E

Chapt er 11 An Axi s f or Theor y: Cooper at i on and Conf l i ct 22 E

Chapt er 12 A Human I mage of I nt er nat i onal Rel at i ons 24 E

Chapt er 13 Const r uct i vi sm 26 E



1 E
For Fur t her Readi ng

*Paul R. Vi ot t i and Mar k V. Kauppi , I nt er nat i onal Rel at i ons Theor y:
Real i sm, Pl ur al i sm, Gl obal i sm, 2
nd
ed. ( New Yor k: Macmi l l an, 1993)
*Rober t O. Keohane and J oseph S. Nye, Power and I nt er dependence,
3
r d
ed. ( New Yor k: Longman, 2001)
Shel don Ander son, et al . , I nt er nat i onal St udi es: An
I nt er di sci pl i nar y Appr oach t o Gl obal I ssues ( West vi ew Pr ess,
2008)
Edwar d Keene, I nt er nat i onal Pol i t i cal Thought ( Pol i t y Pr ess, 2005)
Er i c O. Hanson, Rel i gi on and Pol i t i cs i n t he I nt er nat i onal Syst em
Today ( Cambr i dge Uni ver si t y Pr ess, 2006)























2 E
I nt er nat i onal Rel at i ons 2
Chapt er 1

I nt r oduct i on

1. The not es i n t he f ol l owi ng chapt er s ar e meant as l ect ur e not es
f or t he second t er m of an i nt r oduct or y cour se i n I nt er nat i onal
Rel at i ons at t he uni ver si t y l evel . They f ol l ow on a pr evi ousl y
di st r i but ed set of not es ent i t l ed I nt er nat i onal Rel at i ons 1:
Not es, by t he same aut hor .
2. The f i r st t er m s f ocus was on t he hi st or y and concept s t hat ar e
t he basi s of t he st udy of i nt er nat i onal r el at i ons t oday. These
bui l di ng bl ocks of cont empor ar y t heor y ar e t he f oundat i on f or t he
sur vey of t heor i es and appr oaches t hat i s f ound i n t hese pages. These
not es ar e not an exhaust i ve r epor t on al l cur r ent t heor i es, but a
gui de t o t he appr oaches t hat t heor i st s of i nt er nat i onal r el at i ons
t oday t ake t o t hei r f i el d.
3. The cat egor i es r eal i sm, pl ur al i sm, and gl obal i sm
cor r espond t o t he t hr ee i mages t hat Paul Vi ot t i and Mar k Kauppi
used i n t he f i r st , second, and t hi r d edi t i ons of t hei r t ext book
I nt er nat i onal Rel at i ons Theor y: Real i sm, Pl ur al i sm, Gl obal i sm( t he
t hi r d edi t i on added t he wor ds and Beyond t o t he t i t l e) . They have
a pedagogi cal pur pose: t o pr ovi de a sui t abl e f r amewor k i n an
i nt r oduct or y cour se f or expl ai ni ng t he di ver se and compl ex t heor i es
of schol ar s. Empi r i cal cases ar e used t o i l l ust r at e t hese
cat egor i es.
4. At t he begi nni ng of t he 21
st
cent ur y, t her e i s wi despr ead use of
concept s and i deas about i nt er nat i onal r el at i ons t heor y t hat do not
f i t easi l y i nt o t he st andar d cat egor i es. Some of t hese- - f or exampl e,
gl obal i zat i on and gover nance- - ar e al so i nt r oduced i n a manner
sui t abl e f or t hi s cour se.
5. Thi s second t er mcour se, t her ef or e, moves f r omgener al concept s
t o t he t heor i es t hat empl oy t hose concept s and t o new i deas t hat
ar e bei ng used t o under st and t he changi ng pat t er ns of gl obal pol i t i cs
and i nt er nat i onal r el at i ons.
3 E
4 E
I nt er nat i onal Rel at i ons 2
Chapt er 2

I n Sear ch of Theor y
1. I nt er nat i onal r el at i ons i s t he obj ect of our st udy, wher eas t he
f i el d ( or di sci pl i ne) of i nt er nat i onal r el at i ons ( al so known as
i nt er nat i onal r el at i ons t heor y or I . R. ) i s what we know about
t hat obj ect t hr ough our i deas and i nt el l ect .
*The hi st or y of t hought pr ovi des cl ues f or our st udy.
*We can f i nd out what we need t o st udy by consi der i ng what
peopl e t hr oughout t he wor l d ar e i nt er est ed i n.
*A br oad ( or gener al ) under st andi ng and knowl edge of
par t i cul ar t hemes ar e bot h needed.
*To communi cat e how we under st and i nt er nat i onal r el at i ons,
l anguage, concept s, and t heor i es ar e essent i al .
2. A r evi ew of some key concept s used by t heor i st s:
*The st at e and ot her act or s
*Mi l i t ar y secur i t y, economi c i nt er dependence, pr ot ect i on
of human r i ght s, ot her goal s
*The f or ei gn pol i cy of st at es
*The i nt er nat i onal syst em
*Nor ms of act i on
3. Vi ot t i and Kauppi summar i ze wi del y known t heor i es of t he f i el d
t hr ough t hr ee i mages of i nt er nat i onal r el at i ons: r eal i sm,
pl ur al i sm, gl obal i sm.
*Par t i cul ar t heor i es, t o a gr eat er or l esser degr ee,
f i t t hese i mages.
*Some t heor i es ar e ecl ect i c, and r esear ch based on t hem
f i t s sever al of t he i mages.
*The i mages t hemsel ves ar e not speci f i c t heor i es. Rat her ,
by usi ng t he i mages i n a t heor et i cal way, we can
under st and i nt er nat i onal r el at i ons bet t er .
*The t hr ee i mages over l ap t o some ext ent . They shar e some
common r oot s i n t he hi st or y of t hought .
































E

















I nt er nat i onal Rel at i ons 2
Chapt er 3

Real i sm

1. Assumpt i ons
*Anal yt i c uni t : st at e i s t he pr i nci pal act or .
*Vi ew of act or : st at e i s uni t ar y act or .
*Behavi or al dynami c: i n i t s f or ei gn pol i cy, t he st at e i s
a r at i onal act or seeki ng t o maxi mi ze i t s own
i nt er est or obj ect i ves.
*I ssues: nat i onal secur i t y i ssues ar e most i mpor t ant .
2. Pr ecur sor s
*Thucydi des, Machi avel l i , Hobbes
*Gr ot i us: mai nt enance of or der bet ween st at es t hr ough
nor ms of i nt er nat i onal l aw
*Cl ausewi t z: a st at e s mi l i t ar y obj ect i ves ar e i mpor t ant ,
but subor di nat e t o l ar ger pol i t i cal obj ect i ves.
*E. H. Car r : The Twent y Year s Cr i si s: 1919- 1939
3. Power
*Def i ni t i on: sever al el ement s
( 1) Absol ut e power and r el at i ve power
( 2) St at i c power and dynami c power
( 3) Resour ces and out comes
*Measur ement
( 1) Char act er i st i cs ( capabi l i t i es) of t he st at e
( e. g. , Mor gent hau s)
( 2) Mat er i al f act or s, psychol ogi cal f act or s
( 3) I s i t r eal l y possi bl e t o pr esume a
uni t ar y st at e?
( 4) Uni ver sal measur ement s of power ; power
r el at ed t o t i me, pl ace, and i ssue

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4. Syst em
*The concept of bal ance
*Syst emas di st r i but i on of char act er i st i cs vs. syst emas
i nt er act i on
*I s t he i nt er nat i onal syst ema l ar ge col l ect i on of
bi - st at e r el at i ons ( dyadi c st r uct ur e) or a condi t i on
of t he whol e?
*Anar chy and t he st r uct ur e of i nt er nat i onal r el at i ons
*The pr i nci pl e of sel f - hel p
*Rousseau s st ag hunt f abl e
5. Vul ner abi l i t y: i mbal ance bet ween st r ong and weak act or s
*Mi l i t ar y ( sci ence and t echnol ogy, weapons, or gani zat i on,
scal e, l eader shi p)
*Exampl es: t he Russi an bor der ; t he U. S. A. i n Lat i n Amer i ca
*Economi c f act or s ( f ood, oi l , advanced t echnol ogy) :
exampl es of t he Gr eat Depr essi on and t he Mi ddl e East
*The hegemoni c st at e: a sour ce of peace and st abi l i t y, or
an obj ect of f ear and envy?

















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I nt er nat i onal Rel at i ons 2
Chapt er 4

Peacekeepi ng Oper at i ons

1. The wor d peace i s used i n many l anguages t o i ndi cat e a
r ange of act i vi t i es and condi t i ons r el at ed t o i ndi vi dual s, f ami l i es,
soci et y, and i nt er nat i onal mat t er s.
*The Hebr ew wor d shal om i s a f amous gr eet i ng of peace.
*Peace i s par t i cul ar l y cont r ast ed t o i nt er st at e war and
conf l i ct .
*Li ber at i on, sol i dar i t y, st r at egy f or val ue at t ai nment
2. Peace r esear ch and conf l i ct r esol ut i on ar e f i el ds deal i ng wi t h
i ssues of peace i n an academi c or r esear ch envi r onment .
*The causes of war
*Ear l y r esear ch: Q. Wr i ght , P. Sor oki n, L. Ri char dson
*J ohan Gal t ung s t heor y of i mper i al i sm
*Negat i ve peace ( absence of war ) and posi t i ve peace
( economi c wel f ar e, soci al j ust i ce, pol i t i cal f r eedom)
*Speci al condi t i ons of t he Col d War , condi t i ons af t er
t he Col d War
*A wi de r ange of pol i ci es: f r ompr epar at i ons f or war and
det er r ence st r at egy t o di sar mament and peacef ul
r esol ut i on of conf l i ct s
*Post - Col d War i ssues: pr event i ve di pl omacy and conf l i ct
pr event i on
3. Nor mat i ve posi t i ons on peace and war
*Paci f i sm
*Hol y war
*J ust war : j us i n bel l o, j us ad bel l um
*Condi t i ons f or j ust war : j ust cause; compet ent aut hor i t y;
compar at i ve j ust i ce; r i ght i nt ent i on; l ast r esor t ;
pr obabi l i t y of success; pr opor t i onal i t y
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4. Peace- bui l di ng
*Conf l i ct r esol ut i on
*Measur es of conf i dence bui l di ng and secur i t y bui l di ng
*Cont r ol of t he ar ms t r ade
*Economi c conver si on ( f r ommi l i t ar y t o ci vi l i an use)
*Ar ms cont r ol , di sar mament
5. Uni t ed Nat i ons peacekeepi ng oper at i ons
*Means avai l abl e t o t he Uni t ed Nat i ons ( Cf . : Bout r os
Bout r os- Ghal i , An Agenda f or Peace ( J ul y 17, 1992) and
Suppl ement t o An Agenda f or Peace( J anuar y 3, 1995) :
Pr event i ve di pl omacy
Peacemaki ng
Peace- keepi ng
Post - conf l i ct peace- bui l di ng
Di sar mament
Sanct i ons
Enf or cement act i on
*Consul t at i on bet ween t he U. N. and nat i onal gover nment s;
cooper at i on bet ween t he U. N. and r egi onal or gani zat i ons
( exampl es) :
Consul t at i on
Di pl omat i c suppor t
Oper at i onal suppor t
Co- depl oyment
J oi nt oper at i ons
*Uni t ed Nat i ons Peacekeepi ng Oper at i ons ( PKO)
Cont empor ar y peacekeepi ng oper at i ons
J apan and peacekeepi ng f or ces







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E 10
I nt er nat i onal Rel at i ons 2
Chapt er 5

Pl ur al i sm

1. Assumpt i ons
*Anal yt i c uni t : st at e and nonst at e act or s ar e i mpor t ant .
*Vi ew of act or s: st at e di saggr egat ed i nt o component s; some
may oper at e t r ansnat i onal l y.
*Behavi or al dynami cs: f or ei gn pol i cymaki ng and t r ans-
nat i onal pr ocesses i nvol ve conf l i ct , bar gai ni ng,
coal i t i on, and compr omi senot necessar i l y r esul t i ng
i n opt i mal out comes.
*I ssues: mul t i pl e agenda wi t h soci oeconomi c or wel f ar e
i ssues as, or mor e, i mpor t ant t han nat i onal secur i t y.
2. Pr ecur sor s
*J ohn Locke and l i ber al i sm
*19
t h
cent ur y ut i l i t ar i ani sm
*I nt er est gr oup l i ber al i smand Amer i can pol i t i cs
*J ames Madi son, Al exi s de Tocquevi l l e, Ar t hur Bent l ey,
Davi d Tr uman, Loui s Har t z
*Har ol d Lasswel l , Rober t Dahl
3. Deci si on maki ng t heor y
*Behavi or al i sm( Snyder , Rosenau)
*Per cept i ons and t he psychol ogy of smal l gr oups: why
do deci si on maker s under t ake i r r at i onal act i ons?
*Gr ahamAl l i son s t hr ee model s:
( 1) Rat i onal act or model
( 2) Or gani zat i onal pr ocess model
( 3) Bur eaucr at i c pol i t i cs model
*The i nt er act i on of i nt er nat i onal pol i t i cs and domest i c
pol i t i cs
( 1) Li nkage pol i t i cs ( Rosenau)


W


O



-
E
h


A I B 3





















I nt er nat i onal Rel at i ons 2
Chapt er 6

The I dea of Human Ri ght s

1. I nt er nat i onal bi l l of human r i ght s
*Uni t ed Nat i ons Char t er ( 1945) : Pr eambl e; Ar t i cl es 1, 55,
56
*Uni ver sal Decl ar at i on of Human Ri ght s ( 1948) : Pr eambl e
and 30 Ar t i cl es
*I nt er nat i onal Covenant on Economi c, Soci al , and Cul t ur al
Ri ght s ( adopt ed 1966; i n f or ce 1976)
*I nt er nat i onal Covenant on Ci vi l and Pol i t i cal Ri ght s
( adopt ed 1966; i n f or ce 1976)
+Fi r st Opt i onal Pr ot ocol ( i ndi vi dual pet i t i ons)
+Second Opt i onal Pr ot ocol ( abol i t i on of deat h penal t y)
2. Act i vi t i es of t he Uni t ed Nat i ons
*Pr omot i on and pr ot ect i on by i nt er nat i onal or gani zat i ons
*Human Ri ght s Commi ssi on of t he Economi c and Soci al
Counci l
*1503 Pr ocedur e
*Wor l d Conf er ence on Human Ri ght s ( Vi enna Decl ar at i on and
Pl an of Act i on, J une 1993)
*Of f i ce of t he Uni t ed Nat i ons Hi gh Commi ssi oner f or Human
Ri ght s ( 1994)
*Est abl i shment of t he Uni t ed Nat i ons Human Ri ght s Counci l
( 2006)
3. Human r i ght s di pl omacy
*The Hel si nki Pr ocess
*For ei gn pol i cy of Pr esi dent Car t er
*Ti ed ai d
*Char t er of Par i s f or a New Eur ope ( 1990)

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4. I nt er nat i onal pr ot ect i on of human r i ght s
*I nt er nat i onal l aw: par t i cul ar t r eat i es
*Regi onal i nt er nat i onal or gani zat i ons
+Eur ope: Eur opean Convent i on on Human Ri ght s and
Fundament al Fr eedoms ( si gned 1950; i n f or ce 1953) ;
Eur opean Commi ssi on of Human Ri ght s; Eur opean Cour t
of Human Ri ght s
+The Amer i cas: Amer i can Convent i on on Human Ri ght s
( adopt ed 1969; i n f or ce 1978) ; I nt er - Amer i can
Commi ssi on of Human Ri ght s; I nt er - Amer i can Cour t
of Human Ri ght s
+Af r i ca: Af r i can Char t er on Human and Peopl es Ri ght s
( Banj ul Char t er ; adopt ed 1981; i n f or ce 1986) ; Af r i can
Commi ssi on on Human and Peopl es Ri ght s
*The r ol e of nongover nment al or gani zat i ons ( NGOs)
5. Uni ver sal i t y and par t i cul ar i t y of human r i ght s
*Can t her e be Asi an human r i ght s?
*I sl amand human r i ght s
*Can t her e be a mor at or i umon human r i ght s? ( di ct at or i al
r egi mes f or economi c gr owt h and ot her r easons)
*Ri ght s and r esponsi bi l i t i es
6. Human r i ght s and human secur i t y ( st at ement of t he pr obl em) :
Humans bei ngs al ways seek secur i t y. Unt i l now, st at es
guar ant eed t he secur i t y of t hei r peopl e t hr ough mi l i t ar y act i ons.
Def ense and war pr event i on wer e t hought t o be a pr i nci pal r ol e f or
t he st at e. But af t er t he Col d War , t hr eat s t o secur i t y ar e t hought
t o ar i se f r om ci vi l ( i nt er nal or domest i c) war s, t er r or i sm,
vi ol at i ons of human r i ght s, economi c i nst abi l i t y, and pr obl ems of
i dent i t y and ot her mat t er s, r at her t han f r omcl assi c i nt er - st at e
( i nt er nat i onal ) war s. We see human bei ngs r at her t han st at es as t he
cent er of secur i t y t heor y. Human r i ght s ar e an i mpor t ant concept
of t hi s new wor l dvi ew.



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I nt er nat i onal Rel at i ons 2
Chapt er 7

Gl obal i sm

1. Assumpt i ons
*Anal yt i c uni t s: cl asses, st at es, soci et i es, and nonst at e
act or s oper at e as par t of wor l d capi t al i st syst em.
*Vi ew of act or s: i nt er nat i onal r el at i ons vi ewed f r om
hi st or i cal per spect i ve, especi al l y t he cont i nuous
devel opment of wor l d capi t al i sm.
*Behavi or al dynami c: f ocus i s on pat t er ns of domi nance
wi t hi n and bet ween soci et i es.
*I ssues: economi c f act or s ar e most i mpor t ant .
2. Pr ecur sor s
*Kar l Mar x: hi st or i cal devel opment of capi t al i sm, t he
pr ol et ar i an r evol ut i on
*J ohn A. Hobson: capi t al i sml eads t o i mper i al i sm, whi ch
br i ngs on st r uct ur al expl oi t at i on.
*V. I . Leni n: i mper i al i smas t he hi ghest st age of
capi t al i sm
3. Theor i es r el at ed t o t he gl obal i smi mage
*Dependency t heor y
Moder ni zat i on ( i ndust r i al i zat i on) br i ngs on
expl oi t at i on and dependency.
The anal ysi s of cases i n Lat i n Amer i ca
*Wor l d- syst emt heor y
I mmanuel Wal l er st ei n s di st i nct i on bet ween
wor l d empi r e and wor l d economy.
Fr omar ound 1500 A. D. , we have ent er ed t he
age of t he ( capi t al i st ) wor l d economy.
I nequal i t i es ar i se f r omt he di vi si on of l abor
and t he di st r i but i on of pr oduct i on.
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4. Change
*The i dea of cycl es ( cycl i cal pat t er ns) i n t he
hi st or y of i nt er nat i onal r el at i ons
St r uct ur al i nt er pr et at i ons of hi st or y
The hypot hesi s of t he r i se and f al l of t he
gr eat power s
*Changes i n t he i nt er nat i onal economy
Changes i n t he r ank or posi t i on of act or s
and r egi ons
Gr owt h and cont r act i on of capi t al i sm
*Change i n t he wor l d capi t al i st syst emi t sel f
The r ol e of i deas; t he possi bi l i t y of r evol ut i on
Soci al i smas a subst i t ut e
New pol i t i cal agenda: a t hi r d way?
5. Quest i ons f or eval uat i on
*Can i deas change t he wor l d?
*I s t her e a r ol e f or cr i t i cal t heor y t o pl ay i n
i nt er nat i onal r el at i ons t heor y?
*What i s t he r el at i ve wei ght of t he i nt er nat i onal
st r uct ur es and domest i c condi t i ons ( st at e, soci et y,
economy) i n under devel opment ?
*How can we compar e t he ef f ect s of mi l i t ar y, pol i t i cal ,
economi c, and cul t ur al cont act s among peopl es, st at es,
and r egi ons?
*Can an under st andi ng of gl obal i sm hel p us t o
eval uat e cont empor ar y gl obal i zat i on?









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I nt er nat i onal Rel at i ons 2
Chapt er 8

The Movement of Peopl e
and I nt er nat i onal Rel at i ons

1. The movement of peopl e i n human hi st or y
*Human or i gi ns and movement
*Agr i cul t ur e, ci vi l i zat i on, l anguage, hi st or y
*Epi demi cs and ger ms
2. Pr i or t o moder n i nt er nat i onal r el at i ons
*Cl assi cal Gr eece
*The Roman er a
*The Age of Di scover i es
3. Moder n i nt er nat i onal r el at i ons
*St at es and t er r i t or y
*Land, ci t i es, popul at i on, t r anspor t , pr oduct i on
*Medi ci ne, sci ence, t echnol ogy
4. The nat i on- st at e and i mmi gr at i on
*Tr ends f r omt he 19
t h
cent ur y
*War and di spl aced per sons, exi l es
*Labor mi gr at i on and economi c devel opment
*I nt er nal movement and i nt er nat i onal movement
5. I nt er nat i onal r ef ugee pr ot ect i on and ai d i nst i t ut i ons i n t he
20
t h
cent ur y
*Fr i dt j of Nansen af t er Wor l d War I
*The Uni t ed Nat i ons Hi gh Commi ssi oner f or Ref ugees ( UNHCR)
af t er Wor l d War I I
*Exi l es and t he movement of peopl e dur i ng t he Col d War
*Expanded r ol e of t he UNHCR
*The Ber l i n Wal l ; t he Hel si nki Pr ocess ( CSCE) and t he
movement of peopl e; movement of peopl e i n 1989
*Ref ugees af t er t he Col d War
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6. Mi gr at i on and l abor mi gr at i on
*Cont r ol s over l eavi ng and ent er i ng count r i es
*The EU and t he movement of peopl e ( Amst er damTr eat y)
*Mul t i nat i onal ent er pr i ses and l abor mi gr ant s
*St at e boundar i es and domest i c soci et y
7. Cont empor ar y i ssues
*Gl obal i zat i on and t he movement of peopl e
*Asyl umseeker s
*An et hi cal cr i si s
*Secur i t y and soci al st abi l i t y
*Mi gr ant l abor and nat i onal i t y l aws
*Ter r or i smand human r i ght s























E 17
I nt er nat i onal Rel at i ons 2
Chapt er 9

Gl obal i zat i on: Li ght and Shadow

1. What i s gl obal i zat i on?
*Mat er i al aspect s
Communi cat i on and t r anspor t at i on
Manuf act ur i ng and f i nance
Movement of peopl e and goods
St andar di zat i on
I nst i t ut i onal l i nks
Ecol ogi cal commons
*I mmat er i al aspect s
Cl oseness of i dent i f i cat i on and val ues
Cul t ur al ( i ncl udi ng l i ngui st i c) si mi l ar i t i es
Symbol s of pol i t i cs and or gani zat i on
Shar ed i deas and i deol ogi es
2. Thr ee t ypes of gl obal i zat i on ( based on Rober t Kudr l e)
*Communi cat i on gl obal i zat i on
Economi c ef f ect
Cul t ur al ef f ect
Compar i son ef f ect
*Mar ket gl obal i zat i on
Tr ade
Capi t al mobi l i t y
Labor mobi l i t y
Opt i ons f or st at es
*Di r ect gl obal i zat i on
The envi r onment al commons
Ot her publ i c goods: exi st ence val ue
Labor r i ght s and human r i ght s
Enf or cement pat t er ns and i ssues
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3. I nt er nat i onal r el at i ons and gl obal i zat i on
*Fr omsover ei gnt y t o t r anssover ei gnt y
Ter r or i sm
Cr i mi nal gangs
I nf ect i ous di sease
New act or s, new nor ms, new r egi mes, new net wor ks
*I nt er nat i onal or gani zat i ons at t he end of t he t went i et h
cent ur y
St at es and beyond
I nt er nat i onal ci vi l ser vi ce
I nt er act i ons wi t h nongover nment al or gani zat i ons
Ref or mof t he Uni t ed Nat i ons
New r ound of negot i at i ons i n WTO
Gover nance by i nt er nat i onal conf er ences
*Ci vi l soci et y
Mul t i nat i onal cor por at i ons
NGOs
Par t i ci pat i on and democr at i zat i on
4. Eval uat i ng gl obal i zat i on: l i ght and shadow
*Rescue f r ompover t y vs. i ncr easi ng gap bet ween r i ch and poor
*Advanced medi cal t r eat ment vs. epi demi cs on a gl obal scal e
*Pol i ci es t o pr ot ect t he envi r onment vs. gl obal
envi r onment al pol l ut i on and war mi ng
*The good and bad si des of t he i nf or mat i on soci et y











E 19
E 20
I nt er nat i onal Rel at i ons 2
Chapt er 10

Gover nance

1. Hi st or i cal backgr ound
*Eur ope s syst emof st at es
*Fr omempi r es t o decol oni zat i on
*Emer gence of uni ver sal i nt er nat i onal or gani zat i ons i n t he
20
t h
cent ur y
*Rel i gi ous gr oups
*Busi ness cor por at i ons
*Al l i ances and r egi onal or gani zat i ons
2. Concept s
*Gover nabi l i t y and gover nance
*Good gover nance
*I nt er nat i onal gover nance
*Gl obal gover nance
*Regi mes
*Cogover nance
3. The gover nance agenda
*Envi r onment sust ai nabl e devel opment
*Ref or mof i nt er nat i onal or gani zat i ons
*I nt er vent i on when human r i ght s ar e vi ol at ed
*Bor der s and t he movement of peopl e
*Cr i mi nal j ust i cet he I nt er nat i onal Cr i mi nal Cour t
*NGO net wor ks and i nt er nat i onal deci si on- maki ng
*Peacebui l di ng and peacekeepi ng
*I nt el l ect ual pr oper t y r i ght s
*St r uct ur es f or wor l d t r ade and f i nance
*Human and pl ant genet i cs

















I nt er nat i onal Rel at i ons 2
Chapt er 11
An Axi s f or Theor y:
Cooper at i on and Conf l i ct

1. Lear ni ng by cont r ast and compar i son
*The same human behavi or can have di f f er ent meani ngs i n
i nt er nat i onal r el at i ons
*Di al ect i cal t hi nki ng pr ocess: we l ear n f r omopposi t es
*We of t en vi ew cont empor ar y wor l d pol i t i cs i n t er ms of an
axi s wi t h pol es: hi gh pol i t i cs/ l ow pol i t i cs; power / val ues;
cooper at i on/ conf l i ct
2. A t r adi t i onal way of l ooki ng at i nt er nat i onal r el at i ons i s t hat
of an ar ena i n whi ch nat i on- st at es ar e engaged i n conf l i ct , st r uggl e,
compet i t i on.
*The East - West conf r ont at i on af t er Wor l d War I I
*The Nor t h- Sout h per spect i ve on t he i nt er nat i onal pol i t i cal
economy
*Game t heor i st s speak of zer o- sum games and non- zer o- sum
games
3. Common symbol s and nor ms i n moder n i nt er nat i onal r el at i ons ar e
usef ul f or cooper at i on.
*Mut ual r ecogni t i on of sover ei gnt y
*Di pl omat i c pr ot ocol and behavi or
*I nt er nat i onal cust omand t r eat i es: t he l aw of i nt er nat i onal
soci et y
*Est abl i shment and gr owt h of i nt er nat i onal or gani zat i ons
4. The r el at i onshi p of t he U. S. S. R. and U. S. A. dur i ng t he Col d War
demonst r at es t he compl ex char act er of i nt er nat i onal i nt er act i ons.
*They changed f r omal l i es t o enemi es, t hen ent er ed i nt o a
per i od of dt ent e. Then, af t er anot her per i od of
t ensi ons i n t he l at e 1970s and ear l y 1980s, t hey f i nal l y
br ought an end t o t he Col d War ( Fr omYal t a t o Mal t a)
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and i n t he C. S. C. E. t hey adopt ed t he Char t er of Par i s
f or a New Eur ope.
*Mut ual r ecogni t i on of spher es of i nf l uence dur i ng t he Col d
War
*Avoi dance of di r ect ar med conf l i ct : Cuba mi ssi l e cr i si s;
pr oxy war s
*Common ef f or t s at ar ms cont r ol and di sar mament
5. New pat t er ns
*Conf l i ct s and gover nance af t er t he Col d War
*Cooper at i on and conf l i ct af t er Sept ember 11, 2001
6. Economi c cooper at i on
*Pol i cy coor di nat i on among maj or count r i es t hr ough O. E. C. D.
and G- 7 ( G- 8) Summi t s
*Use of i nt er nat i onal i nst i t ut i ons ( e. g. , Wor l d Bank, I . M. F. ,
G. A. T. T. , W. T. O. ) af t er Wor l d War I I
*Recogni t i on of conver gence of i nt er est s or common i nt er est s
i n cooper at i ve behavi or or r egi mes
*Regi onal economi c or gani zat i ons di spl ay bot h cooper at i on
and compet i t i on.
*The f i nanci al cr i si s of 2008- 2009 and subsequent
i nt er nat i onal negot i at i ons on a new i nt er nat i onal f i nanci al
r egi me
7. Mi l i t ar y and pol i t i cal af f ai r s
*Tr adi t i onal pat t er ns such as t he bal ance of power and
al l i ances exhi bi t bot h conf l i ct and cooper at i on.
*Hegemoni c power : Pax Romana / Br i t t ani ca / Amer i cana, et c.
*The Conf er ence on Secur i t y and Cooper at i on i n Eur ope
( C. S. C. E. ; Or gani zat i on f or Secur i t y and Cooper at i on
i n Eur ope, or O. S. C. E. , si nce 1995) shows t he
i nt er t wi ni ng of cooper at i ve and conf l i ct ual
r el at i onshi ps. Can i t be a model f or ot her r egi ons?
*Expansi on of NATO and NATO s cooper at i ve r el at i onshi p
( par t ner shi p) wi t h Russi a


E 23
I nt er nat i onal Rel at i ons 2
Chapt er 12

A Human I mage of I nt er nat i onal Rel at i ons

1. Cul t ur es ar e essent i al f or peopl e l i vi ng t oget her , i n smal l gr oups,
i n l ar ger communi t i es, and at t he l evel of i nt er nat i onal soci et y.
*Human l anguages pr ovi de a basi s f or shar ed di scour se.
*Thought , i magi nat i on, and i deas pr ovi de common meani ngs.
*Val ues uni t e peopl e acr oss space and t i me, t hr ough
communi t i es based on r el i gi on, pol i t i cs, and
wor l dvi ews.
2. Soci al const r uct i vi smof f er s a vi ew of i nt er nat i onal r el at i ons
( and ot her soci al i nt er act i ons) t hat emphasi zes human agency.
*St r uct ur es ar e seen not as gi vens but as pr oduct s of
human t hought and wi l l .
*St at es, i nt er nat i onal or gani zat i ons, busi ness
ent er pr i ses, and ot her associ at i ons ar e al l
const r uct ed i nst i t ut i ons.
*Thi s hi ghl i ght s f act or s di f f er ent f r ommat er i al
condi t i ons, r esour ces, and capabi l i t i es.
*Pr ef er ences and i nt er est s ar e changeabl e, and i ndeed
r ef l ect deeper human meani ngs and val ues.
3. Di scour se, r het or i c, and l anguage ar e means by whi ch we under st and
and shar e human meani ngs and val ues.
*Tr adi t i onal r het or i cal di st i nct i ons
Logos: t he r eal mof r at i onal under st andi ng ( of t he
mat t er i t sel f )
Et hos: t he mor al val ues of j udgment and choi ce ( of
t he subj ect )



E 24
Pat hos: emot i onal aspect s of di scour se ( i n
i nt er act i on wi t h ot her s)
*A post - moder ni st f or mof deconst r uct i on may separ at e
var i ous meani ngs f ound i n t ext s and subt ext s.
*Language i s r el at ed t o our knowl edge of t he wor l d, whi ch
i n t ur n i s r el at ed t o how we act i n t he wor l d.
4. Epi st emol ogi cal cr i t i ques of i nt er nat i onal r el at i ons t heor y
over l ap wi t h subst ant i ve cr i t i ques of wor l d pol i t i cs.
*Cr i t i cal t heor y i dent i f i es a l i nk bet ween knowl edge and
power .
*Posi t i vi smhas emphasi zed t he r ol es of l ogi c and sci ence
i n pr esent i ng a uni f i ed vi ew of empi r i cal r eal i t y.
*Her meneut i cs and i nt er pr et at i on chal l enge nar r ow
concept s of sci ent i f i c knowl edge and a f al se
di chot omy bet ween f act s and val ues.
*Some f emi ni st under st andi ngs of i nt er nat i onal r el at i ons
chal l enge unexami ned soci al pat t er ns and abst r act
not i ons of i deol ogy, and encour age vi ews based on
human equal i t y and human r el at i onshi ps.
*A r enewed i nt er est i n t he nor ms and i deas t hat shape gl obal
pol i t i cs af f ect s nor mat i ve i nt er nat i onal
r el at i ons t heor y t oday.
5. I dent i t y pol i t i cs
*The quest i on of gl obal cul t ur e
*I nf or mat i on, knowl edge, and val ues
*Pol i t i cal i nst i t ut i ons at sub- nat i onal , r egi onal , and
gl obal l evel s
*Ci vi l soci et y
*A human i mage f or our wor l d






E 25
I nt er nat i onal Rel at i ons 2
Chapt er 13
Const r uct i vi sm

1. The three images of international relations discussed in these Notes offer
distinct ways of envisioning the actors, issues, and dynamics of global
interactions.
*The analysts presuppositions and primary questions affect their
descriptions and explanations and conclusions about world events.
*Global agents and academic analysts may have shared or diverse
perceptions of trends in politics, economics, society, culture, and so on.

2. From the 1980s, many scholars have examined international relations from
another approach that may be loosely called constructivism, or social
constructivism.
*Some of the main subjects that constructivists examine are: ideas, norms,
rules, ways of knowing, identities.
*They see a process in which humans reflect together in social groups and
thereby construct (common) meaning for their words and actions.
*A reflexive, interactive process between the agents thoughts and their
actions generates meaning for the agents and their actions.
*The process of constructing a human reality is happening in many fields,
and so this point of view is not restricted to a narrow consideration of
international relations apart from other human (social) activities.
*Prominent scholars of international relations who are regarded as
constructivists include: N. Onuf, F. Kratochwil, J. G. Ruggie, A. Wendt.
This is a loose category covering many different approaches.

3. The constructivist emphasis on epistemology contrasts with substantive
questions found in some other approaches, for example, security, order,
development, environment.
*How are peoples expectations and values about these substantive issues
formed?
*What do agents (political leaders, social groups, or observers) perceive
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their actions to be?
*What values are these agents trying to realize by their actions?
*What are the motives for change and the process of change in these
agents behavior?
*Why did someone imagine a particular policy? or Why was something
important for people? become significant questions for understanding
the issues of international relations

4. Constructivists emphasis on intersubjective meaning among agents of
international relations contrasts with attention to structures in some other
approaches.
*Societal processes rather than static structural characteristics are a main
focus.
*Culture, religion, and worldviews are seen as constituting the agents in
depth.
*Identity is a theme found in many constructivist approaches.
*Motives for human actions are seen to be more complex than the
acquisition of material advantages. How the individual or group builds,
expresses, changes, or defends an identity become important questions
for the social constructivist.

5. The importance of language and discourse are highlighted by constructivism.
*Attention to the rhetoric of public discussion is also part of a so-called
critical approach to international relations, and politics more generally.
Language expresses meaning, and it can be a clue to discovering false or
dangerous ideas.
*Shifts in discourse mark changes in the public sphere. The social or
public boundaries for actions are often found in the process by which
certain discourses become dominant or are relegated to minor roles.
*Verbal (and non-verbal) symbols are part of the world of ideas, which
constitute public life (including international relations) as much as
material conditions. And so these constructivist insights may lead to
better analysis of spiritual questions than narrow behavioral approaches
do.