Ductile failure has extensive plastic deformation in the vicinity of the advancing crack. The process proceeds relatively slow (stable). The crack resists any further extension unless there is an increase in the applied stress. Ductile fractures have the following characteristics: 1. There is considerable gross permanent or plastic deformation in the region of ductile fracture. 2. The surface of a ductile fracture is not necessarily related to the direction of the principal tensile stress, as it is in a brittle fracture. 3. The characteristic appearance of the surface of a ductile fracture is dull and fibrous. Ductile fracture is characterized by tearing of metal and significant plastic deformation. The ductile fracture may have a gray, fibrous appearance. Ductile fractures are associated with overload of the structure or large discontinuities. Stages that occur in ductile fracture:
b) Void Nucleation
c) Coalescence of cavities
d) Crack Propagation e) Fracture
but it undergoes through the stages before it fractures as it can be noticed from the figure. If
. If brittle fractures occur across particular crystallographic planes they are called Tran crystalline fracture. from macroscopic fractography we can see that there is a remnant of micro void formation and the coalescence occurs at the surface of the cup and cone shape.
The microstructure of the fracture surface is quite complex and may include both trans-granular and intergranular fracture mechanisms.As shown above from the macroscopic fractography of the material. That is because the material doesn't just fracture directly. the failure type of this material is ductile failure cup-cone shape fracture for cylinders . The figure above indicates a microscopic fractography.
Brittle failures are characterized by rapid crack propagation without appreciable plastic deformation. that shows a void nucleation sites and also Fracture surface of tire cord wire loaded in tension. Moreover. with different scales.
Shear fracture occurs under the notch and along the free surfaces. Transgranular fracture – which means that the cracks that pass through the grains. The most common test for this is the Charpy V-notch test. Yield strength loading is required to initiate a brittle fracture. and Increased strain rate. oxidation. Failure under test condition can exhibit energy and fracture transitions.
As mentioned earlier. Intergranular failure is typically due to elemental depletion (chromium) at the grain boundaries or some type of weakening of the grain boundary due to chemical attack. brittle fracture can be categorized into two: 1.in most brittle crystalline materials. Cleavage . Examples: ceramic cups. however.
A material’s tendency to fracture in a brittle mode can be determined by measuring its notch ductility. Cleavage fracture is caused by inability of the crystal structure to cross-slip. Lower service temperatures. plates etc. embrittlement. This leads to transgranular fracture where the crack splits (cleaves) through the grains. faceted surface. only much lower stress may be needed to propagate it. 50% cleavage is the fracture transition point.
.along grain boundaries they are called intergranular fracture. Brittle fracture is promoted by: • • • Thicker section sizes. Intergranular fracture – the propagation of cracks along the grain boundaries. Cleavage fracture occurs in the center characterized by a bright. crack propagation that results from the repeated breaking of atomic bonds along specific planes. shiny.
the fracture surface is flat which indicates clearly that the material just fractures without necking or plastic deformation. we are able to see the micro-voids are on the fracture surface. Even though the figure is macrostructure.
As it can be seen from the macrostructure of the material. This is a brittle failure.
Crack propagation 3. Common failure in bridges. aircraft and machine components. Under these conditions it is possible to fail at stress levels considerably lower than tensile or yield strength for a static load.
Fatigue is a form of failure that occurs in structures subjected to dynamic stresses over an extended period. we found that the failure is brittle due to the chevron marks or fan-shaped ridges coming from cracks. Single largest cause of failure in metals. Final failure Macroscopic structure
. also affects polymers and ceramics.Microscopic structure
Obviously as it is shown in the figure above. Stages that occur in ductile fracture: 1. Crack initiation 2.
Fracture surface with crack initiation at top. It can be clearly seen that the failure is fatigue failure. .
.According to the figure above we can say that the failure type of this material is fatigue failure due to the beach marks (River-marks and chevrons pointed at origin) that propagates from the origin outwards like a wave in a pond. Surface shows predominantly dull fibrous texture where rapid failure occurred after crack achieved critical size. We can see the River-marks and wave are originating and growing from one point outwards.
http://corrosion-doctors.springer.uprm.edu/pcaceres/Courses/MatEng3045/EME8-4.uiuc.mse.edu/courses/mse280/notes/09/ch09_fracture.com/en/doc-219-1.edu/~lz2n/mse209/Chapter8.tec-eurolab.mse.pdf http://web.edu/undergraduates/files/fatigue_akpan_dooley_popov.nhml.pdf http://academic.htm http://www.aspx Wikipedia/ductile http://people.pdf http://www.pdf? SGWID=0-0-45-935845-p173992972 http://www.pdf http://www.com/cda/content/document/cda_downloaddocument/9781849962650-c1.cfm