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Mathematics Paper I

Out line of Paper I


• Logic of mathematics(6)
– 3 marks each 2 out of 3 = 6/9 6/9
• Matrices(7)
– 4 marks each 1 out of 2 = 4/8
– 3 marks each 1 out of 2 = 3/6
7/14
• Vectors and three dimensional geometry(12)
– 4 marks each 1 out of 2 = 4/8
– 3 marks each 2 out of 3 = 6/9
– 2 marks each 1 out of 2 = 2/4
12/21
• Linear Programming(7)
– 4 marks each 1 out of 2 = 4/8
Out line of Paper I

• Two dimensional coordinate geometry


(12)
– Pair of straight line
– Circle
– Parabola
– Ellipse and hyperbola =
12/21
• Probability(6)
– 3 marks each 2 out of 3 =
6/9
Out line of Paper I

• In all 5 questions of 10 • Application base


marks each – 3 logic
• 10 = 6 + 4 – 3+3+4+4 matrices
• Knowledge based – 3 probability
questions
– 2+2+3 on Vector &
– 3+4+4 vectors &
geometry geometry
– 2+2 Lines, circle and – 4 (2D)
conic sections – 3+3 Linear
• Understanding base programming
– 3+3 logic
• Skill based
– 3+3 Probability
– 3 Vectors & geometry – 4+4 Linear
– 3+3+3 (2D) programing
Mathematical Logic
• Symbolical representation
– and (∧), or (∨), implication (⇒),
equivalence (⇔), negation (¬ or ∼)
• Definitions:
– Tautology: A statement which is always
true for any truth values of component
statements is called as tautology
– Contradiction: A statement which is
always false for any truth values of
component statements is called as
contradiction
Mathematical Logic
– Converse: converse of implication
p ⇒ q is q ⇒ p
– Inverse: Inverse of implication
p ⇒ q is ∼p ⇒ ∼q
– Contra positive: Contra positive of
p ⇒ q is ∼q ⇒ ∼p
• Possible questions are—
1. Convert given statement into symbols
2. Convert given statements into indicated
symbolic form
3. Verify using truth table
4. Verify or obtain truth values, if truth values of
component statements are known
1. Represent given statement using
Vein diagrams ( just use three facts)

X Y

All x are y
1. Represent given statement using
Vein diagrams ( just use three facts)

X
Y

No x are y
1. Represent given statement using
Vein diagrams ( just use three facts)

X Y

Some x are y ⇔ some x are not y


Mathematical Logic
1. Write negation of the following
statements ( to do so use –
∀ ∼(p∧q) ⇔ (∼p∨ ∼q)
∀ ∼(p∨q) ⇔ (∼p∧ ∼q)
∀ ∼(p ⇒q) ⇔ (p ∨ ∼q)
∀ ∼(p⇔q) ⇔ ∼[(p ⇒q) ∧ (q ⇒p)]
⇔ [(p ∨ ∼q) ∨ (q ∨ ∼p)]
6. Note that negation of all is at least one
and of some is no
2. Write the dual: means replace ∧ by

Matrices
• Types of matrices:
– Row matrix – If a matrix has only one row
(horizontal arrangement) then is called as
row matrix its order is 1xn
– Column matrix-If a matrix has only one
column (vertical arrangement) then is
called as column matrix its order is nx1
– Square matrix- A matrix is square matrix if
number of rows equals number of column.
– Diagonal matrix- A square matrix is called
as diagonal matrics if aij = 0 if i ≠j
– Scalar matrix- A square matrix is called as
scalar matrics if aij = 0 if i ≠j and aij = α if i
= j (diagonal entries must be equal)
– Unit matrix- A square matrix is called as
unit matrics if aij = 0 if i ≠j and aij = 1 if i =
j (diagonal entries must be unit)
– Upper triangular matrix- A square matrix
is called as upper triangular matrics if
aij = 0 if i < j
– Lower triangular matrix- A square matrix is
called as lower triangular matrics if
aij = 0 if i > j
– Symmetric matrix- A square matrix is
called as symmetric matrics if aij = aji for
all i & j
– Skew symmetric matrix- A square matrix
is called as skew symmetric matrics if aij =
-aji for all i &j
(diagonal entries must be zero)
– Null matrix- A matrix of any order is called
as null matrix if aij= o ∀i,j
– Transpose of a matrix- A matrix AT or A’ is
called as transpose of A if it is obtained by
interchanging row by column and column
by row.
– Singular matrix- A square matrix is said to
Possible types of questions
• Matrices A, B & C will be given and
– Check whether α A2+β A+γ I is null/scalar/upper or
lower triangular/ diagonal/singular/ symmetric
– Problems of type verify associative
property/Distributive law/ Laws of scalar
multiplication
– If A is 3x3 then a missing term will be there which
is to be identified as what is ‘k’ so that A is
nonsingular
– Check whether AB =BA or not
– Verify IA.BI=IAI.IBI
– Find X such that AX =B
Possible types of questions
 − 2 4

A =  3 2 
 1 6

 4 − 3 6
B=  FindABwithout
 − 3 0 5
computing BA showthatAB ≠ BA
Here A is of order 3x2 B of 2x3 then AB is
of order 3x3 and BA of 2x2 hence can’t
be equal
Possible types of questions

 3 9   4 3
A=   B= 
 − 4 − 12  8 6
• Prove that (A+B)2 = A2 +AB+B2
For solving this problem do not show
RHS = LHS instead you may try as
(A+B)2 = A2 +AB+BA+B2 but
required result implies that BA = 0
hence show BA = 0
Possible types of questions

1 2  2 1
A=   B= 
 0 2  − 1 0
• Prove that (A+B)2 ≠ A2 +2AB+B2
 For solving this problem do not show
RHS ≠ LHS instead you may do
as,
The inequality is because of AB ≠BA
thus just show that AB ≠ BA
Possible types of questions

1 2   3 1
A=   B= 
0 − 2  − 1 0
• Prove that (A+B)(A-B) ≠ A2 - B2
 For solving this problem do not show
RHS ≠ LHS instead you may do
as,
The inequality is because of AB ≠BA
thus just show that AB ≠ BA
Possible types of questions
 cosθ sinθ 
If A(θ ) =  
 − sinθ cosθ 
 cos(nθ) sin(nθ) 
thenA ( θ ) = 
n

 − sin(nθ) cos(nθ) 
To prove above result you need to use
principle of finite induction.Define

P(n) ≡ An(θ)= A(nθ)


prove P(1),
assume P(n)
Possible types of questions
 3 − 4   a 0 
If A =  If A =  
1 − 1   0 b
 
1 + 2 n − 4 n   a n
0 
thenA = 
n thenA = 
n
n

 n 1 − 2n  0 b 

To prove above result you need to use


principle of finite induction as you did in
previous problem.
Possible types of questions
• To obtain inverse of matrix
1) by elementary row operations
 R i ↔ R j interchanging two rows
 Ri↔αR j multiply every element by non zero
element
 R i ↔ R i+ α R j

• To obtain inverse of A consider A.A-1 =


I
• Go on performing elementary
operations till A changes to I and at
Possible types of questions

• To obtain inverse of matrix


1) by using matrix polynomial
 For given A either a relation will be
given or we will need to prove the
same as A2+2A-3I=0 using this
relation we can operate A-1 to get
A + 2I-3A-1
hence A-1 = 1/3(A + 2I)
Possible types of questions

• To solve system of equations


1) By using reduction method
 The given system of equation is to
be converted in matrix equation as
AX=B for example: x-y + 4z = 4;2x
+ 6y –z = 3 & x + y –2x = -1 will
have the form—
1 − 1 4   x  4 
2 6 − 1   y =  3 
     
 1 1 − 2  z  − 1
Possible types of questions
 1 − 1 4   x  4 
2 6 − 1   y =  3 
     
 1 1 − 2  z  − 1

• Now reduce the coefficient matrix


to triangular matrix ( if fractions
are not appearing then reduce it
to unit matrix) get the values of
x, y and z.
Points to remember for matrices
• Copy the matrix by proper care.
• Be careful about calculations which
you are performing.
• After finding inverse or values of x,y
and z substitute and verify the same.
• Take care of order of matrix
• You are good at calculations
believe me you are!
Linear
programmin
g
•2 questions on find maxima/ minima of
3 marks each
• 1 question on form LPP of 4 marks
Possible type of questions
• Define
– Convex set: A set of points is said to be convex
set if the line joining any two points of the set
entirely lies in the set
– Convex polygon: A bounded polygonal convex
set is called convex polygon
– Corner points/ extreme points: The point of
intersection of any two boundaries of the half
planes determined by a system of linear
inequalities is called an extreme point or corner
point.
– Convex polygon theorem: z = f(x, y) be given
linear function defined over a convex polygon X,
maximum or minimum values will be at
extreme points.
• Draw the graph for solution set of
inequalities 3x + 5y ≥15, 5x + 2y ≤10,
x ≥0, y ≥0 maximize Z = x + y
Draw the figure,
(0, 5) find corner
points,
(20/19, 45/19)
(0, 3) substitute the
value and
(5, 0) compare the
(2, 0) result for
adjoining figure
maxima is at
(20/19,45/19
)
Possible type of questions
• Using word problem form the LPP and
solve graphically. You may start first to
write LPP, check whether you want to
maximize profit or production or to
minimize expenses, choose proper
variables and form the problem.
• Note that objects, days can never be
negative
• Use tabular form for formation of LPP
Pair of straight line,
circle, conic section
Important formulae
• The equation ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0
represents
1.      Two real and different lines if h2 > a b
2.      Two coincident lines if h2 = a b
• Consider by2 +2hxy + ax2 = 0 then dividing
by ax2 and slope of lines passing through
origin is y/x we get bm2 + 2hm + 1 = 0 then
using relation between roots we have–
• m1 + m2 = -2h/b and m1m2 = b/a then angle
between two
m − lines
m will be 2 h2
− ab
θ = tan −1 1 2
= tan −1

1+ m1.m2 a+ b
Important formulae
• The equation ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0
represents Pair of two perpendicular
lines if a+b = 0
• The difference of the slopes of lines
given by ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0 is given
by
2 h − ab
2
m2 − m1 =
b
Important formulae
• The equation ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0
represents Pair of two lines and the
equation of pair of lines which are
bisectors is given by Pair of bisector is
x −y
2 2
x.y
=
a− b h
Important formulae

• The equation
ax2 + 2hxy + by2+2gx
+2fy+c = 0 represents Pair of two
lines not passing through origin if
a h g
h b f =0
g f c
Important formulae

• The equation
ax2 + 2hxy + by2+2gx
+2fy+c = 0 represents Pair of two
lines not passing through origin
angle between these lines will be
same as angle between lines
represented by ax2 + 2hxy +
by2=0
Important formulae

• The equation
ax2 + 2hxy + by2+2gx
+2fy+c = 0 represents Pair of two
parallel lines if

a h g
= =
h b f
Standard types of questions
• Homogeneous equation • Homogeneous equation
will be given and find will be given with some
the angle between relation between the
them slopes of lines as
– Use formula and be – Sum of the slopes is
double the product or
careful about values of
any such
a,b,h.
– Use relation between
• Homogeneous equation roots,sum = -2h/b and
will be given find product = b/a to get the
result
separate equations
– Divide by term
• Homogeneous equation
containing x2 then call will be given find
y/x as m and find difference between
quadratic equation solve slope
to find m1 and m2 and – Use standard result or
hence equation relation between roots
Standard types of questions
• A term will be • Find the equation of
unknown in the pair of lines
equation ax2 + 2hxy through origin
+ by2+2gx +2fy+c inclined at 60o to
= 0 what must be line x + 2y = 1
the term so that the – Let slope of required
equation represents line be m, using
pair of straight lines relation between
– use determinant angle and slopes we
get √3=(2m+1)/(2-
m) replace m by y/x
to get solution
• Standard equation x2 + y2 = a2
• (x-h)2 + (y – k)2 = a2
• General equation x2 + y 2 +2 g x +2 f y + c
=0
• Center (-g, -f) radius √g2 + f 2 + c
• Diameter form (x-x1)(x-x2) + (y-y1)(y-y2)=0
• Parametric form x = a cos(t), y = a.sin(t)
• Parametric form x-h = a cos(t), y-k = a.sin(t)
• Equation of tangent to x2 + y2 +2g x +2 fy +
c=0 at (x1 ,y1) is x.x1+yy1+ g(x+x1)+
f(y+y1)+c=0
• Condition of tangency: y = m x + c is
tangent to std. Circle if c = ±a√m2+1
• Equation of director circle x2 + y2 = 2a2
• The problems may be –
1. Find equation of circle with center at (2,3)
– and passing through (1,-1): Find radius using distance
formula and get the answer
– and 2x + 3y+1 =0 is tangent : Find ⊥distance from
tangent which equals radius and get - -
– and a line x + 3y =7 cuts a chord AB of length 8: Find
⊥distance from chord, OM is ⊥ bisector, use
Pythagoras theorem to find radius and get-
2. End points of diameter use formula
3. Three points given: Use general equation or
consider (h,k) as center and equate radius to
get (h, k) and using distance formula obtain
radius.
1. These three points are (0,0), (a,0) and (0,b) then AB
will be diameter and we get result using diameter form
1. To check whether given line is tangent to
– General circle then condition of tangency NOT
applicable find point of intersection or ⊥distance from
line of center is equal to radius
– Standard circle: use condition of tangency or you can
find point of intersection, if is one, then tangent.
– To find equation of tangents from external point
of circle: use slope point form and the fact that
⊥ distance from line of center is equal to radius
using this relation you will get a quadratic
equation whose roots are slopes of required
tangents.
– To find angle between tangents from external
point of circle: use slope point form and the fact
that ⊥ distance from line of center is equal to
radius using this relation you will get a
quadratic equation whose roots are slopes of
required tangents. Don’t find equations of
tangent use relation between roots of QE and
– To check whether given circles are
orthogonal to each other : find and write
values of g1, f1, c1 and g2, f2, c2 use the
relation 2 g1 g2 + 2 f1f2 = c1 + c2
– To find equation of director circle to
general circle
1. Find circle with same center but radius
double
2. Find locus of points from which tangents are
perpendicular
3. Shift the origin at center of circle and use
director circles std form, go back to original
variables by substitution.
Conic section
Conic eccentricity

Parabola =1

Ellipse (√a2-b2)/a<1

Hyperbola (√a2+b2)/a >1


Conic Std . Equation

Parabola Y2 = 4ax

Ellipse X2/a2 + y2/b2=1

Hyperbola X2/a2 - y2/b2=1


Parametric
Conic
Equation

Parabola X=at2 ,Y = 2at

X = a cos(θ)
Ellipse
y = b sin(θ)
X = a sec(θ)
Hyperbola
y = b tan(θ)
Length of latus
Conic
rectum

Parabola 4a

Ellipse 2b2/a

Hyperbola 2b2/a
Conic focus/foci

Parabola (a,0)

Ellipse (ae,0);(-ae,0)

Hyperbola (ae,0);(-ae,0)
Equation of
Conic
directrix

Parabola X = -a

Ellipse X = ±a/e

Hyperbola X = ±a/e
Conic Eq. of tangent

Parabola yy1 = 2a(x+x1)

xx1/a2 +
Ellipse
yy1/b2=1
xx1/a2 -
Hyperbola
yy1/b2=1
Condition Of
Conic
tangency

Parabola C = a/m

Ellipse C = ±√a2m2+b2

Hyperbola C = ±√a2m2 - b2
Point of
Conic
contact

Parabola (a/m2, 2a/m)

Ellipse (-a2m2 /c,b2/c)

Hyperbola (-a2m2 /c,-b2/c)


Locus of points
Conic from which
tangents are ⊥

Parabola X = -a

Ellipse X2 + y2 = a2+b2

Hyperbola X2 + y2 = a2- b2
Equation of chord joining points
Conic
(x1,y1)(x2,y2)

Parabola Y = mx –2a

(x-x1)(x1+x2)/a2 + (y-
Ellipse
y1)(y1+y2)/b2=1

(x-x1)(x1+x2)/a2 + (y-
Hyperbola
y1)(y1+y2)/b2=1
Conic Equation of normal

Parabola Y = m.x –2am – am3

Ellipse a x secθ - b y cosecθ = a2 - b2

Hyperbola a x cosθ - b y cotθ = a2 - b2


Important definitions
• Set of all outcomes in a random experiment
is called as sample space.
• Any subset of sample space is called as an
event
• If A is an event then S\A = A’ is called as
complementary event
• A and B are said to be mutually exclusive
events if A ∩ B = ∅
• A and B are mutually exclusive and
exhaustive events if A ∩ B = ∅ and A ∪ B
=S
• Probability of event A = n(A) / n(S)
Important definitions
• P(A) = 0 means event is impossible
event
• P(A) = 1 means event is certain event
• 0 ≤ P(A) ≤ 1
• P(A ∪ B ) = P(A) + P(B) –P(A ∩ B)
• P(A ∪ B ∪C ) = P(A) + P(B) +P(C)
+ P(A ∩ B ∩ C ) –
[P(A∩B )+P(B∩
C )+P(C ∩A)]
• P(A’) = 1 – P(A)
Tips and tricks
• To determine number of elements in
event space or sample space use
following—
– Throwing of one die n(S) = 6
– Throwing of k dies n(S) = 6k
– Choosing a card n(S) = 52
– Event A or B n(Event) = n(A) + n(B)
– Event A & B n(Event) = n(A) x n(B)
Tips and tricks
n!
n
Pr = orderis important
(n− r)!
Can be used when to form
numbers, arrange different books,
n!
n
Cr = orderisnotimportant
r!(n− r)!

Can be used when to form group


without order, types of books
Vectors and
Geometry
Important results
• Vector: directed segment
• Two vectors are equal if have same direction
and magnitude
• Triangle law of vector addition
• Parallelogram law of vector addition
• Dot product and their properties
• Cross product and their properties
• Scalar multiplication, generates parallel
vector
• Scalar triple product
• Two vectors are perpendicular if their dot
product is zero OA
Important results
• A vector is unit vector if its magnitude
is one
• To determine unit vector along AB if
point A & B are given use
– Find position vector of A and B, find b – a
thus you have vector AB now divide it by
its magnitude to get the answer.
• To determine vector perpendicular to
given two vectors
– To find this take cross product of the two
Important results
• To check whether given three points A,
B and C are collinear you can use—
– Cross product of AB and AC must be zero
– Using section formula we can prove
colinearity by showing that c = αa + βb
– Prove that AB = α.AC
• To check whether A,B,C and D are
coplanar you can use
– AB.(AC x AD) = 0
– AB = α.AC + β.AD
Important results
• Section formula: If P divides AB in ratio m:n
then position vector of P is (m.b+n.a)/(m+n):
– to prove the result use AP.n=PB.m (note the
direction). Use OA + AP = OP substitute AP =
m.PB/n and now use position vectors for relation
OA + m.PB/n =OP
– If P divides externally then AP.n=BP.m (note the
direction).
• If r is any vector coplanar to a and b (a and
b are non zero) then r is uniquely expresses
as linear combination of a and b
Important results
• Applications in geometry
– Area of ∆ABC is ½ I AB x AC I = ½ I AB x BC I
– Area of parallelogram ABCD is = IAB X AC I
– Volume of parallelepiped =AB . (AC X AD)
• Application in trigonometry:
– Rules of T- ratios of sum and difference of
angles can be proved by vectors as
Consider cross product of OA and OB
α−β by definition of cross product and by
αβ
analytical method – take modulus and
you have the result, use the same for +
Important results
• Sine Rule: in triangle ABC
a/sin A = b/sin B =c/ sin C use AB + BC + CA = 0
and consider cross product with AB to get one
equality and then with AC to get other equate
one side of these equality and get the result by
dividing by proper fraction
• Cosine rule : Use AB + BC + CA = 0 hence
AB + BC = AC and equate magnitude of
both sides considering IABI = c, IBCI = a
and ICAI = b we get,
cos(A) = (b2 + c2 – a2)/2bc lly other results
Important results
• Application to Physics:
– Work done : F.s
– Angular momentum: moment of momentum
means if M is momentum and P is any point on
line of action then moment about O is cross
product of OP and M
– Torque: moment of force means torque
– Projection of a vector a along a vector b means
projba = a.b / b = a.eb   
a.  b
– Resolution of a along b means ( 2 )b
b
Important results
• Direction angles: If L is any line then its angle
with X+ ,Y+,Z + are called as direction angles and
are denoted by α, β and γ
• Direction cosine: If α, β and γ are direction
angles then cosα, cosβ and cosγ are called as
direction cosine denoted by l, m and n
• l2 + m2 + n2 = 1 to prove this result let
P(x,y,z) be any point, let IOPI = r then using
definition of dot product OP.i = r cos α
= (xi+yj+zk).i = x
lly y = rcos β
and z = r cos γ square these results and add to get the
required result.
Important results
• Direction ratio: If l, m and n are
direction cosine then a,b and c are called
as direction ratio if a/l=b/m = c/n
• Relation between dr’ s and dc’s: If a,b
and c are direction ratio and l, m and n
are direction cosine then a/l=b/m = c/n =
k say then using l2 + m2 + n2 = 1 we
get required result as
• l = a /√a2+ b2 + c2
• m = b /√a2+ b2 + c2
• n = c /√a2+ b2 + c2