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# Computational Tools for Aircraft Design

ITA – Aircraft Design Department

V 18

Contents

• CFD What It is? • Overview on Mesh Technology • Turbulence Modeling

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Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

CFD What It Is?

3

Fluid (gas and liquid) flows are governed by partial differential equations (PDE) which represent conservation laws for the mass, momentum, and energy. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is the art of replacing such PDE systems by a set of algebraic equations which can be solved using digital computers. The object under study is also represented computationally in an approximate discretized form.

4

Introduction

Why use CFD?

Numerical simulations of fluid flow (will) enable • architects to design comfortable and safe living environments • designers of vehicles to improve the aerodynamic characteristics • chemical engineers to maximize the yield from their equipment • petroleum engineers to devise optimal oil recovery strategies • surgeons to cure arterial diseases (computational hemodynamics) • meteorologists to forecast the weather and warn of natural disasters • safety experts to reduce health risks from radiation and other hazards • military organizations to develop weapons and estimate the damage • CFD practitioners to make big bucks by selling colorful pictures :-)

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Introduction

What is?

**Practice of engineering and science has been dramatically altered by the development of
**

Scientific computing Mathematics of numerical analysis Tools like neural networks The Internet

**Computational Fluid Dynamics is based upon the logic of applied mathematics
**

provides tools to unlock previously unsolved problems is used in nearly all fields of science and engineering

Aerodynamics, acoustics, bio-systems, cosmology, geology, heat transfer, hydrodynamics, river hydraulics, etc…

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Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

Introduction – What It is?

CFD is the simulation of fluids engineering systems using modeling (mathematical physical problem formulation) and numerical methods (discretization methods, solvers, numerical parameters, and grid generations, etc.) CFD made possible by the advent of digital computer and advancing with improvements of computer resources (500 flops, 1947à20 teraflops, 2003)

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Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

**Introduction – Why Use CFD?
**

Analysis and Design

1. Simulation-based design instead of “build & test”

More cost effective and more rapid than EFD* CFD provides high-fidelity database for diagnosing flow field

**2. Simulation of physical fluid phenomena that are difficult for experiments
**

Full scale simulations (e.g., ships and airplanes) Environmental effects (wind, weather, etc.) Hazards (e.g., explosions, radiation, pollution) Physics (e.g., planetary boundary layer, stellar evolution)

**Knowledge and exploration of flow physics
**

* Experimental Fluid Dynamics

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Introduction

“We are in the midst of a new Scientific Revolution as significant as that of the 16th and 17th centuries when Galilean methods of systematic experiments and observation supplanted the logic-based methods of Aristotelian physics” “Modern tools, i.e., computational mechanics, are enabling scientists and engineers to return to logic-based methods for discovery and invention, research and development, and analysis and design”

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Introduction

Scientific method

Aristotle (384-322 BCE)

Greek philosopher, student of Plato Logic and reasoning was the chief instrument of scientific investigation; Posterior Analytics To possess scientific knowledge, we need to know the cause of which we observe

Through their senses humans encounter facts or data Through inductive means, principles created which will explain the data Then, from the principles, work back down to the facts

Example: Demonstration of the fact (Demonstratio quia) » The planets do not twinkle » What does not twinkle is near the earth » Therefore the planets are near the earth Knowledge of Aristotle’s work lost to Europe during Dark Ages. Preserved by Mesopotamian (modern day Iraq) libraries.

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Introduction

Scientific method

Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)

Formulated the basic law of falling bodies, which he verified by careful measurements. He constructed a telescope with which he studied lunar craters, and discovered four moons revolving around Jupiter. Observation-based experimental methods: required instruments & tools ; e.g., telescope, clocks. Scientific Revolution took place in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, its first victories involved the overthrow of Aristotelian physics

Convicted of heresy by Catholic Church for belief that the Earth rotates round the sun. In 1992, 350 years after Galileo's death, Pope John Paul II admitted that errors had been made by the theological advisors in the case of Galileo.

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Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

Introduction

Mathematics Isaac Newton (1643 – 1727)

Laid the foundation (along with Leibniz) for differential and integral calculus It has been claimed that the Principia is the greatest work in the history of the physical sciences. Book I: general dynamics from a mathematical standpoint Book II: treatise on fluid mechanics Book III: devoted to astronomical and physical problems. Newton addressed and resolved a number of issues including the motions of comets and the influence of gravitation. For the first time, he demonstrated that the same laws of motion and gravitation ruled everywhere under a single mathematical law.

12 Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

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Introduction

Fluid Mechanics

Faces of Fluid Mechanics : some of the greatest minds of history have tried to solve the mysteries of fluid mechanics

Archimedes

Da Vinci

Newton

Leibniz

Euler

Bernoulli

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Navier

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Stokes

Reynolds

Prandtl

Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

Introduction

Fluid Mechanics

From mid-1800’s to 1960’s, research in fluid mechanics focused upon

Analytical methods

Exact solution to Navier-Stokes equations (~80 known for simple problems, e.g., laminar pipe flow) Approximate methods, e.g., Ideal flow, Boundary layer theory

Experimental methods

Scale models: wind tunnels, water tunnels, towing-tanks, flumes,... Measurement techniques: pitot probes; hot-wire probes; anemometers; laser-doppler velocimetry; particle-image velocimetry Most man-made systems (e.g., airplane) engineered using buildand-test iteration.

**1950’s – present : rise of computational fluid dynamics (CFD)
**

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Introduction

History of computing

**Computing, 1945-1960
**

Early computer engineers thought that only a few dozen computers required worldwide Applications: cryptography (code breaking), fluid dynamics, artillery firing tables, atomic weapons ENIAC, or Electronic Numerical Integrator Analyzor and Computer, was developed by the Ballistics Research Laboratory in Maryland and was built at the University of Pennsylvania's Moore School of Electrical Engineering and completed in November 1945

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Introduction

History of computing

Ultra Project

Left. The Colossus computer at Bletchley Park, Buckinghamshire, England, c. 1943. Funding for this code-breaking machine came from the Ultra project.

In the early 1930s Polish cryptographers first broke the code of Germany's cipher machine Enigma. They were led by mathematician Marian Rejewski and assisted by material provided to them by agents of French intelligence. For much of the decade, the Poles were able to decipher their neighbour's radio traffic, but in 1939, faced with possible invasion and difficulties decoding messages because of changes in Enigma's operating procedures, they turned their information over to the Allies. Early in 1939 Britain's secret service set up the Ultra project at Bletchley Park, 50 miles (80 km) north of London, for the purpose of intercepting the Enigma signals, deciphering the messages, and controlling the distribution of the resultant secret information. Strict rules were established to restrict the number of people who knew about the existence of the Ultra information and to ensure that no actions would alert the Axis powers that the Allies possessed knowledge of their plans. The incoming signals from the German war machine (more than 2,000 daily at the war's height) were of the highest level, even from Adolf Hitler himself. Such information enabled the Allies to build an accurate picture of enemy plans and orders of battle, forming the basis of war plans both strategic and tactical. Ultra intercepts of signals helped the Royal Air Force to win the Battle of Britain. Intercepted signals between Hitler and General Günther von Kluge led to the destruction of a large part of the German forces in Normandy in 1944 after the Allied landing. ME33 : Fluid Flow 16 Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

Introduction

High-performance computing

Top 500 computers in the world compiled: www.top500.org Computers located at major centers connected to researchers via Internet

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Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

**Outline – CFD What It is?
**

CFD Process

Model Equations Discretization Grid Generation Boundary Conditions Solve Post-Processing Uncertainty Assessment

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Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

**Where is CFD used?
**

Where is CFD used?

Aerospace Automotive Biomedical Chemical Processing HVAC Hydraulics Marine Oil & Gas Power Generation Sports

Aerospace

Biomedical

F18 Store Separation

Automotive

Temperature and natural convection currents in the eye following laser heating.

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Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

Where CFD Is Used?

Aircraft Design

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Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

Where CFD Is Used?

Aircraft Design

Prediction of the wake vortices up to 6.5 wingspans generated by the DLR-F11 aircraft model making use of a 4th-order central scheme and the automatic mesh refinement technique. Inviscid simulation, M∞=0.2, α=10°

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Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

Where CFD Is Used?

Aircraft Design

Comparison of Computed Wake Vortex Evolution Flowfield (OVERFLOW Code) with Experiment (“2-pair”)

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Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

Where CFD Is Used?

Aircraft Design

Stagnation pressure loss at the fan face of an airintake at the fixed point submitted to crosswind. M∞ = 0.045, α = 0o, β = 9o, Re = 3.9x106. Airbus France, NSMB code.

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Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

**Where is CFD used?
**

Where is CFD used?

Aerospacee Automotive Biomedical Chemical Processing HVAC Hydraulics Marine Oil & Gas Power Generation Sports

HVAC

Streamlines for workstation ventilation

Chemical Processing

Polymerization reactor vessel - prediction of flow separation and residence time effects.

Hydraulics

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Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

**Where is CFD used?
**

Marine Sports

**Where is CFD used?
**

Aerospace Automotive Biomedical Chemical Processing HVAC Hydraulics Oil & Gas Marine Oil & Gas Power Generation Sports

Flow of lubricating mud over drill bit ME33 : Fluid Flow 25

Power Generation

Flow around cooling towers Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

Where is CFD used?

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Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

Getting Started: CFD Notation

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Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

Getting Started: Tensorial Quantities in Fluid Dynamics

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Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

Getting Started: Vector Multiplication Rules

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Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

Getting Started: Elementary Tensor Calculus

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Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

Getting Started: Divergence Theorem of Gauss

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Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

Getting Started: Governing Equations of Fluid Dynamics

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Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

Getting Started: Description of Fluid Motion

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Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

Getting Started: Flow Models and Reference Frames

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Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

Getting Started: Eulerian vs. Langrangian Viewpoint

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Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

Getting Started: governing equations

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Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

Getting Started: classification of PDEs

PDEs can be classified into hyperbolic, parabolic and elliptic ones • each class of PDEs models a different kind of physical processes • the number of initial/boundary conditions depends on the PDE ype • different solution methods are required for PDEs of different type

Hyperbolic equations Information propagates in certain directions at finite speeds; the solution is a superposition of multiple single waves Parabolic equations Information travels downstream/forward in time; directions at finite speeds; the solution can be constructed using a marching/time-stepping method Elliptic equations Information propagates in all directions at infinite speed; describe equilibrium phenomena (unsteady problems are never elliptic

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Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

Getting Started: classification of PDEs

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Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

Getting Started: classification of PDEs

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Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

CFD Process

Geometry Physics Mesh Solve Reports PostProcessing

Contours Select Geometry Heat Transfer ON/OFF Unstructured (automatic/ manual) Steady/ Unsteady Forces Report

(lift/drag, shear stress, etc)

Geometry Parameters

Compressible ON/OFF

Structured (automatic/ manual)

Iterations/ Steps

XY Plot

Vectors

Domain Shape and Size

Flow properties

Convergent Limit

Verification

Streamlines

Viscous Model

Precisions (single/ double)

Validation

Boundary Conditions

Numerical Scheme

Initial Conditions

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Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

Modeling

• Modeling is the mathematical physics problem

formulation in terms of a continuous initial boundary value problem (IBVP) • IBVP is in the form of Partial Differential Equations (PDEs) with appropriate boundary conditions and initial conditions. • Modeling includes: 1. Geometry and domain 2. Coordinates 3. Governing equations 4. Flow conditions 5. Initial and boundary conditions 6. Selection of models for different applications

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**Modeling (geometry and domain)
**

• Simple geometries can be easily created by few geometric

parameters (e.g. circular pipe) • Complex geometries must be created by the partial differential equations or importing the database of the geometry(e.g. airfoil) into commercial software

**• Domain: size and shape • Typical approaches
**

• Geometry approximation • CAD/CAE integration: use of industry standards such as

Parasolid, ACIS, STEP, or IGES, etc.

• The three coordinates: Cartesian system (x,y,z), cylindrical

system (r, θ, z), and spherical system(r, θ, Φ) should be appropriately chosen for a better resolution of the geometry (e.g. cylindrical for circular pipe).

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Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

**Modeling (governing equations) – Navier-stokes Equations
**

é ¶ 2u ¶ 2 u ¶ 2 u ù ˆ ¶p ¶u ¶u ¶u ¶u r + mê 2 + 2 + 2 ú =+ rw + rv + ru ¶z û ¶y ¶x ¶z ¶y ¶x ¶t ë ¶x é ¶ 2v ¶ 2v ¶ 2v ù ˆ ¶p ¶v ¶v ¶v ¶v r + mê 2 + 2 + 2 ú =+ rw + rv + ru ¶z û ¶y ¶y ¶z ¶y ¶x ¶t ë ¶x

é ¶2 w ¶2 w ¶ 2 wù ˆ ¶w ¶w ¶w ¶w ¶p r + ru + rv + rw = - + m ê 2 + 2 + 2 ú ¶t ¶x ¶y ¶z ¶z ¶z û ë ¶x ¶y

Local acceleration

Convection

Piezometric pressure gradient

Viscous terms

¶r ¶ ( r u ) ¶ ( r v ) ¶ ( r w ) + + + = 0 Continuity equation ¶t ¶x ¶y ¶z

p = rRT

Equation of state Rayleigh Equation

D 2R 3 DR 2 pv - p R + ( ) = Dt 2 2 Dt rL

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Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

**Modeling (flow conditions)
**

• Based on the physics of the fluids phenomena, CFD

can be distinguished into different categories using different criteria

• Viscous vs. inviscid

(Re)

• External flow or internal flow (wall bounded or not) • Turbulent vs. laminar (Re) • Incompressible vs. compressible (Mach number) • Single- vs. multi-phase (Ca) • Thermal/density effects (Pr, g, Gr, Ec) • Free-surface flow (Fr) and surface tension (We) • Chemical reactions and combustion (Pe, Da) • etc…

Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

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**Modeling (initial conditions)
**

• Initial conditions (ICS, steady/unsteady flows) • ICs should not affect final results and only

affect convergence path, i.e. number of iterations (steady) or time steps (unsteady) need to reach converged solutions. • More reasonable guess can speed up the convergence • For complicated unsteady flow problems, CFD codes are usually run in the steady mode for a few iterations for getting a better initial conditions

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Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

**Modeling(boundary conditions)
**

•Boundary conditions: No-slip or slip-free on walls,

periodic, inlet (velocity inlet, mass flow rate, constant pressure, etc.), outlet (constant pressure, velocity convective, numerical beach, zero-gradient), and nonreflecting (for compressible flows, such as acoustics), etc.

**No-slip walls: u=0,v=0 Inlet ,u=c,v=0 r Outlet, p=c
**

Periodic boundary condition in spanwise direction of an airfoil

o

x

v=0, dp/dr=0,du/dr=0

Axisymmetric

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**Modeling (selection of models)
**

• CFD codes typically designed for solving certain fluid

phenomenon by applying different models

• Viscous vs. inviscid (Re)

• Turbulent vs. laminar (Re, Turbulent models) • Incompressible vs. compressible (Ma, equation of state) • Single- vs. multi-phase (Ca, cavitation model, two-fluid

model)

**• Thermal/density effects and energy equation
**

(Pr, g, Gr, Ec, conservation of energy)

**• Free-surface flow (Fr, level-set & surface tracking model) and
**

surface tension (We, bubble dynamic model)

**• Chemical reactions and combustion (Chemical reaction
**

model)

• etc…

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Modeling (Turbulence and free surface models)

**• Turbulent flows at high Re usually involve both large and small scale
**

vortical structures and very thin turbulent boundary layer (BL) near the wall

• Turbulent models:

• DNS: most accurately solve NS equations, but too expensive

for turbulent flows

• RANS: predict mean flow structures, efficient inside BL but excessive

**• LES: accurate in separation region and unaffordable for resolving BL
**

• DES: RANS inside BL, LES in separated regions.

diffusion in the separated region.

**• Free-surface models:
**

• Surface-tracking method: mesh moving to capture free surface,

limited to small and medium wave slopes

**• Single/two phase level-set method: mesh fixed and level-set
**

function used to capture the gas/liquid interface, capable of studying steep or breaking waves.

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**Examples of modeling (Turbulence and free surface models)
**

URANS, Re=105, contour of vorticity for turbulent

flow around NACA12 with angle of attack 60 degrees

**DES, Re=105, Iso-surface of Q criterion (0.4) for
**

turbulent flow around NACA12 with angle of attack 60 degrees URANS, Wigley Hull pitching and heaving

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Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

Numerical methods

• The continuous Initial Boundary Value Problems

(IBVPs) are discretized into algebraic equations using numerical methods. Assemble the system of algebraic equations and solve the system to get approximate solutions • Numerical methods include:

1. Discretization methods 2. Solvers and numerical parameters 3. Grid generation and transformation 4. High Performance Computation (HPC) and postprocessing

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Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

Discretization methods

usually for regular grid) and finite volumes and finite element methods (usually for irregular meshes) • Each type of methods above yields the same solution if the grid is fine enough. However, some methods are more suitable to some cases than others • Finite difference methods for spatial derivatives with different order of accuracies can be derived using Taylor expansions, such as 2nd order upwind scheme, central differences schemes, etc. • Higher order numerical methods usually predict higher order of accuracy for CFD, but more likely unstable due to less numerical dissipation • Temporal derivatives can be integrated either by the explicit method (Euler, Runge-Kutta, etc.) or implicit method (e.g. Beam-Warming method)

• Finite difference methods (straightforward to apply,

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Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

**Discretization methods (Cont’d)
**

• Explicit methods can be easily applied but yield

conditionally stable Finite Different Equations (FDEs), which are restricted by the time step; Implicit methods are unconditionally stable, but need efforts on efficiency. • Usually, higher-order temporal discretization is used when the spatial discretization is also of higher order. • Stability: A discretization method is said to be stable if it does not magnify the errors that appear in the course of numerical solution process. • Pre-conditioning method is used when the matrix of the linear algebraic system is ill-posed, such as multiphase flows, flows with a broad range of Mach numbers, etc. • Selection of discretization methods should consider efficiency, accuracy and special requirements, such as shock wave tracking.

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Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

Discretization methods (Cont’d)

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Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

Discretization methods (Cont’d)

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Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

Discretization methods (Cont’d)

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Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

**Discretization methods (Cont’d)
**

Analysis of trunctation errors

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Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

**Discretization methods (Cont’d)
**

Approximation of second-order derivatives

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Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

**Discretization methods (Cont’d)
**

Approximation of mixed derivatives

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Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

**Discretization methods (Cont’d)
**

High-order approximations

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Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

**Discretization methods (example)
**

• 2D incompressible laminar flow boundary layer

(L,m+1)

¶u ¶v + =0 ¶x ¶y

(L-1,m)

(L,m)

m=1 m=0

y m=MM+1 m=MM

¶ 2u ¶ æ pö ¶u ¶u u = - ç ÷+m 2 +v ¶y ¶x è e ø ¶y ¶x

l ¶u um l l -1 é ù u = u u m m û ë ¶x Dx

(L,m-1)

L-1

L

x

¶ 2u m l l l ù m 2 = 2é u 2 u + u m + 1 m m -1 û ë ¶y Dy

2nd order central difference i.e., theoretical order of accuracy Pkest= 2.

l ¶u vm l l l é v = u u FD Sign( vm )<0 m +1 mù ë û ¶y Dy l vm l l é ù BD Sign( l )>0 u u = m m -1 û ë Dy vm

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1 order upwind scheme, i.e., theoretical order of accuracy Pkest= 1

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Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

**Discretization methods (example)
**

3 1 B1 é B2 ù FD l l ê ul ù l é m ù l vm vm 2m ú l é m Dy l m - 2 ú um + ê 2 + FD ú um +1 + ê 2 BD ú um -1 ê + vm 1 D x D y D y D y D y D y ê ú ë û ë û BD ê ú Dy ë û

B

l l l l -1 B1um + B u + B u = B u -1 2 m 3 m +1 4 m -

é B2 êB ê 1 ê ê ê0 ê ë0

B3 B2 0 0

0 B3 · 0 0

0 0 · 0 0

0 0 · 0 0

0 0 · B1 0

0 0 B2 B1

To be stable, Matrix has to be ME33 : Fluid Flow Diagonally dominant.

l é ¶ æ p ö ù Solve it using l -1 ê B4u1 - ç ÷ ú 0 ù é u1l ù ê ¶x è e ø1 ú Thomas algorithm ú ê ú ê ú 0ú · · ê ú ê ú ú´ê · ú = ê · ú ú ê ú ê ú B3 ú ê · ú · ê ú l ú l ê ú B2 û ëumm û ê ¶ æ pö ú l -1 ê B4umm - ç ÷ ú ¶x è e ø mm ú ê ë û

¶ l p / e ( )m ¶x

l um ¶ l -1 = um - ( p / e)lm Dx ¶x

B4

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Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

**Solvers and numerical parameters
**

• Solvers include: tridiagonal, pentadiagonal solvers,

PETSC solver, solution-adaptive solver, multi-grid solvers, etc. • Solvers can be either direct (Cramer’s rule, Gauss elimination, LU decomposition) or iterative (Jacobi method, Gauss-Seidel method, SOR method) • Numerical parameters need to be specified to control the calculation. • Under relaxation factor, convergence limit, etc. • Different numerical schemes • Monitor residuals (change of results between iterations) • Number of iterations for steady flow or number of time steps for unsteady flow • Single/double precisions

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Discretization

Grid Generation Flow field must be treated as a discrete set of points (or volumes) where the governing equations are solved. Many types of grid generation: type is usually related to capability of flow solver.

Structured grids Unstructured grids Hybrid grids: some portions of flow field are structured (viscous regions) and others are unstructured Overset (Chimera) grids

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Discretization

Grid Generation

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Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

Discretization

Grid Generation

Block-structured meshes

• Multilevel subdivision of the domain with structured grids within blocks • Can be non-matching, special treatment is necessary at block interfaces • Provide greater flexibility, local refinement can be performed blockwise Unstructured meshes • Suitable for arbitrary domains and amenable to adaptive mesh refinement • Consist of triangles or quadrilaterals in 2D, tetrahedra or hexahedra in 3D • Complex data structures, irregular sparsity pattern, difficult to implement

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Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

Discretization

Grid Generation: examples of cell types

3D Cell Types 2D Cell Types

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Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

Structured Grids

**Structured multi-block grid around a multi-element airfoil
**

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Structured Grids

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Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

**Structured Overset Grids
**

Surface Ship Appendages Submarine

**Moving Control Surfaces Artificial Heart Chamber
**

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Unstructured Grids

**Branches in Human Lung
**

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**Structured-Unstructured Nozzle Grid
**

Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

Unstructured Grids

**Unstructured surface mesh for external aerodynamics – PT cruiser – 12 millions cells
**

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Discretization

Algebraic equations

To solve NSE, we must convert governing PDE’s to algebraic equations

Finite difference methods (FDM)

Each term in NSE approximated using Taylor series, e.g.,

**¶U U i +1 - U i = + O ( Dx ) ¶x Dx ¶ 2U U i +1 - 2U i + U i -1 2 = + O D x ( ) 2 ¶x 2 ( Dx ) Finite volume methods (FVM)
**

Use CV form of NSE equations on each grid cell ! ME 33 students already know the fundamentals ! Most popular approach, especially for commercial codes

**Finite element methods (FEM)
**

Solve PDE’s by replacing continuous functions by piecewise approximations defined on polygons, which are referred to as elements. Similar to FDM.

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Solve

Run CFD code on computer

2D and small 3D simulations can be run on desktop computers (e.g., FlowLab) Unsteady 3D simulations still require large parallel computers

Monitor Residuals

Defined two ways

Change in flow variables between iterations Error in discrete algebraic equation

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Post-processing

Pressure Distribution

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Post-processing

Pathlines

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Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

Post-processing

Pathlines

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Post-processing

Trajectory

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Post-processing

Unsteady flow

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Uncertainty Assessment

Process of estimating errors due to numerics and modeling

Numerical errors

Iterative non-convergence: monitor residuals Spatial errors: grid studies and Richardson extrapolation Temporal errors: time-step studies and Richardson extrapolation

Modeling errors (Turbulence modeling, multi-phase physics, closure of viscous stress tensor for nonNewtonian fluids)

Only way to assess is through comparison with benchmark data which includes EFD uncertainty assessment.

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**Limitations of Current Technology
**

For fluid mechanics, many problems not adequately described by Navier-Stokes equations or are beyond current generation computers.

Turbulence Multi-phase physics: solid-gas (pollution, soot), liquid-gas (bubbles, cavitation); solid-liquid (sediment transport) Combustion and chemical reactions Non-Newtonian fluids (blood; polymers)

Similar modeling challenges in other branches of engineering and the sciences

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Conclusions

Because of limitations, need for experimental research is great However, focus has changed

From

Research based solely upon experimental observations Build and test (although this is still done)

To

High-fidelity measurements in support of validation and building new computational models.

**Currently, the best approach to solving engineering problems often uses simulation and experimentation
**

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Applications

Capabilities of Current Technology

Complex real-world problems solved using Scientific Computing Commercial software available for certain problems Simulation-based design (i.e., logic-based) is being realized. Ability to study problems that are either expensive, too small, too large, or too dangerous to study in laboratory

Very small : nano- and micro-fluidics Very large : cosmology (study of the origin, current state, and future of our Universe) Expensive : engineering prototypes (ships, aircraft) Dangerous : explosions, fires

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**Some important Links
**

http://www.cfd-online.com

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Some important Links

http://www.fluent.com

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**Some important Links
**

http://www.aoe.vt.edu/~mason/Mason_f/MRsoft.html

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Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

Some important Links

http://www.ensight.com/

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http://www.metacomptech.com

**Some important Links
**

Products

CFD++ CFD++ is a superset of the various CFD methodologies available and provides accuracy, robustness and ease of use over all flow regimes. MIME Multipurpose Intelligent Meshing Environment for CFD++, CAA++ and ED. Powerful mesh generation software, yet it is so simple to use. CAA++ Computational Aeroacoustics Software Suite. Metacomp's cost effective solution to noise prediction. ED Designer Computational Electrostatic Paint Deposition tool from Metacomp. Developed in collaboration with Delight Inc., Japan.

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Some important Links

http://www.sai.msu.su/sal/sal1.shtml

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Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

**Some important Links
**

Linux Software Encyclopedia

http://gd.tuwien.ac.at/study/baum-lse/node2.html

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Literature

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Literature

9. Fletcher, C. A. J. “Computational Techniques for Fluid Dynamics,” Springer Series in Computational Physics, Vols. 1-2, 2nd Edition, 1991.

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Overview on Mesh Technology

92

Single Block Grids – Creating the Mapping

**Conformal Mapping Transfinite Interpolation Solving PDEs
**

Ellipitic Parabolic/Hyperbolic

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Single Block Grids – Creating the Mapping Conformal Mapping

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Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

Single Block Grids – Creating the Mapping Conformal Mapping Transformations

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Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

Single Block Grids – Creating the Mapping Conformal Mapping – Schwarz Christoffel

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**Single Block Grids – Creating the Mapping Algebraic Mappings
**

• Construct mapping between the boundaries of the unit square (cube) and the boundaries of an “arbitrary” region which is topologically equivalent • Combine 1 D interpolants using Boolean sums to construct mapping-Transfinite interpolation (TFI) • Not guaranteed to be one-to-one • Orthogonality not guaranteed • Very fast • Quite General • Grid quality not always assured

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Single Block Grids – Creating the Mapping Algebraic Mappings – 1D Interpolants

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Single Block Grids – Creating the Mapping Algebraic Mappings – Transfinite Interpolation

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Single Block Grids – Creating the Mapping Algebraic Mappings – Transfinite Interpolation

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Single Block Grids – Creating the Mapping Algebraic Mappings – Example

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Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

Single Block Grids – Creating the Mapping Algebraic Mappings – Example

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Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

Single Block Grids – Creating the Mapping Algebraic Mappings – Example

Numerically generated airfoil transformation [(x, y) ↔ (ξ, η)] showing a “C” grid topology

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Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

Single Block Grids – Creating the Mapping Algebraic Mappings – Example

**Numerically generated wing transformation [(x, y, z) ↔ (ξ, η, ζ)] showing a “O” grid topology
**

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Single Block Grids – Creating the Mapping PDE Grid Generation

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CFD Perspective on Meshing Technology

**CFD initiated in structured grid context
**

Transfinite interpolation Elliptic grid generation Hyperbolic grid generation

Smooth, orthogonal structured grids Relatively simple geometries

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CFD Perspective on Meshing Technology

**Unstructured meshes initially confined to FE community
**

CFD Discretizations based on directional splitting Line relaxation (ADI) solvers Structured Multigrid solvers

**Sparse matrix methods not competitive
**

Memory limitations Non-linear nature of problems

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**Current State of Unstructured Mesh CFD Technology Method of choice for many commercial CFD vendors
**

Fluent, StarCD, CFD++, …

Advantages

Complex geometries ß Adaptivity Parallelizability

Enabling factors

Maturing grid generation technology Better Discretizations and solvers

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Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

Maturing Unstructured Grid Generation Technology (1990-2000)

**Isotropic tetrahedral grid generation
**

Delaunay point insertion algorithms Surface recovery Advancing front techniques Octree methods

Mature technology

Numerous available commercial packages Remaining issues

Grid quality Robustness Links to CAD

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Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

Maturing Unstructured Grid Generation Technology (1990-2000)

**Anisotropic unstructured grid generation
**

External aerodynamics

Boundary layers, wakes: O(10**4)

**Mapped Delaunay triangulations Min-max triangulations Hybrid methods ß
**

Advancing layers Mixed prismatic – tetrahedral meshes

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**Anisotropic Unstructured Grid Generation
**

Hybrid methods

Semi-structured nature Less mature: issues

Concave regions Neighboring boundaries Conflicting resolution Conflicting Stretchings

VGRIDns Advancing Layers c/o S. Pirzadeh, NASA Langley

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**CFD Perspective on Meshing Technology
**

Evolved to Sophisticated Multiblock and Overlapping Structured Grid Techniques for Complex Geometries

**Overlapping grid system on space shuttle (Slotnick, Kandula and Buning 1994)
**

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**Enabling CFD Solver Developments (1990 – 2000) Edge-based data structure
**

Building block for all element types Reduces memory requirements Minimizes indirect addressing / gatherscatter Graph of grid = Discretization stencil

Implications for solvers, Partitioners

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Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

Enabling CFD Solver Developments (1990 – 2000)

Multigrid solvers

Multigrid techniques enable optimal O(N) solution complexity Based on sequence of coarse and fine meshes Originally developed for structured grids

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**Enabling CFD Solver Developments (1990 – 2000) Agglomeration Multigrid solvers for unstructured meshes
**

Coarse level meshes constructed by agglomerating fine grid cells/equations

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Agglomeration Multigrid

•Automated Graph-Based Coarsening Algorithm •Coarse Levels are Graphs •Coarse Level Operator by Galerkin Projection •Grid independent convergence rates (order of magnitude improvement)

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**Enabling CFD Solver Developments
**

Line solvers for Anisotropic problems

Lines constructed in mesh using weighted graph algorithm Strong connections assigned large graph weight (Block) Tridiagonal line solver similar to structured grids

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Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

**Enabling CFD Solver Developments (1990 – 2000) Graph-based Partitioners for parallel load balancing
**

Metis, Chaco, Jostle

Edge-data structure à graph of grid Agglomeration Multigrid levels = graphs Excellent load balancing up to 1000’s of processors

Homogeneous data-structures (Versus multi-block / overlapping structured grids)

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Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

**NASA Langley Energy Efficient Transport
**

Complex geometry

Wing-body, slat, double slotted flaps, cutouts

**Experimental data from Langley 14x22ft wind tunnel
**

Mach = 0.2, Reynolds=1.6 million Range of incidences: -4o to 24o

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Boundary Conditions

Typical conditions

Wall

No-slip (u = v = w = 0) Slip (tangential stress = 0, normal velocity = 0) With specified suction or blowing With specified temperature or heat flux

Inflow Outflow Interface Condition, e.g., Air-water free surface Symmetry and Periodicity

**Usually set through the use of a graphical user interface (GUI) – click & set
**

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**Initial Mesh Generation (VGRIDns)
**

S. Pirzadeh, NASA Langley

**Combined advancing layers- advancing front
**

Advancing layers: thin elements at walls Advancing front: isotropic elements elsewhere

**Automatic switching from AL to AF based on:
**

Cell aspect ratio Proximity of boundaries of other fronts Variable height for advancing layers

**Background Cartesian grid for smooth spacing control Spanwise stretching
**

Factor of 3 reduction in grid size

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VGRID Tetrahedral Mesh

3.1 million vertices, 18.2 million tets, 115,489 surface pts Normal spacing: 1.35E-06 chords, growth factor=1.3

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**Prism Merging Operation
**

Combine Tetrahedra triplets in advancing-layers region into prisms

Prisms entail lower complexity for solver

**VGRIDns identifies originating boundary point for ALR vertices
**

Used to identify candidate elements Pyramids required as transitional elements

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**Prism Merging Operation
**

Initial mesh: 18.2M Tetrahedra Merged mesh: 3.9M prisms, 6.6M Tets, 47K pyramids

64% of Tetrahedra merged

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**Global Mesh Refinement
**

High-resolution meshes require large parallel machines Parallel mesh generation difficult

Complicated logic Access to commercial preprocessing, CAD tools

Current approach

Generate coarse (O(10**6) vertices on workstation Refine on supercomputer

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**Global Mesh Refinement
**

Refinement achieved by element subdivision Global refinement: 8:1 increase in resolution In-Situ approach obviates large file transfers Initial mesh: 3.1 million vertices

3.9M prisms, 6.6M Tets, 47K pyramids

**Refined mesh: 24.7 million vertices
**

31M prisms, 53M Tets, 281K pyramids Refinement operation: 10 Gbytes, 30 minutes sequentially

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Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

**NSU3D Unstructured Mesh Navier-Stokes Solver Mixed element grids
**

Tetrahedra, prisms, pyramids, hexahedra

Edge data-structure Line solver in BL regions near walls Agglomeration Multigrid acceleration Newton Krylov (GMRES) acceleration option Spalart-Allmaras 1 equation turbulence model

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Parallel Implementation

Domain decomposition with OpenMP/MPI communication

OpenMP on shared memory architectures MPI on distributed memory architectures Hybrid capability for clusters of SMPs

**Weighted graph partitioning (Metis) (Chaco) Coarse and fine MG levels partitioned independently
**

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Computed Pressure Contours on Coarse Grid

Mach=0.2, α=10 degrees, Re=1.6M

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Computed Versus Experimental Results

**Good drag prediction Discrepancies near stall
**

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Multigrid Convergence History

**Mesh independent property of Multigrid GMRES effective but requires extra memory
**

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Parallel Scalability

**Good overall Multigrid scalability
**

Increased communication due to coarse grid levels Single grid solution impractical (>100 times slower)

**1 hour soution time on 1450 PEs
**

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AIAA Drag Prediction Workshop (2001)

**Transonic wing-body configuration Typical cases required for design study
**

Matrix of mach and CL values Grid resolution study

Follow on with engine effects (2003)

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Cases Run

Baseline grid: 1.6 million points

Full drag polars for Mach=0.5,0.6,0.7,0.75,0.76,0.77,0.78,0.8 Total = 72 cases

**Medium grid: 3 million points
**

Full drag polar for each mach number Total = 48 cases

**Fine grid: 13 million points
**

Drag polar at mach=0.75 Total = 7 cases

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Sample Solution (1.65M Pts)

**Mach=0.75, CL=0.6, Re=3M 2.5 hours on 16 Pentium IV 1.7GHz
**

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Drag Polar at Mach = 0.75

**Grid resolution study Good comparison with experimental data
**

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Cases Run on ICASE Cluster

**120 Cases (excluding finest grid) About 1 week to compute all cases
**

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**Current and Future Issues
**

Adaptive mesh refinement Moving geometry and mesh motion Moving geometry and overlapping meshes Requirements for gradient-based design Implications for higher-order Discretizations

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Adaptive Meshing

Potential for large savings through optimized mesh resolution

Well suited for problems with large range of scales Possibility of error estimation / control Requires tight CAD coupling (surface pts)

**Mechanics of mesh adaptation Refinement criteria and error estimation
**

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**Mechanics of Adaptive Meshing
**

Various well know isotropic mesh methods

Mesh movement

Spring analogy Linear elasticity

**Local Remeshing Delaunay point insertion/Retriangulation Edge-face swapping Element subdivision
**

Mixed elements (non-simplicial) Anisotropic subdivision required in transition regions

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Subdivision Types for Tetrahedra

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Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

Subdivision Types for Prisms

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Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

Subdivision Types for Pyramids

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Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

Subdivision Types for Hexahedra

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Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

Adaptive Tetrahedral Mesh by Subdivision

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Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

Adaptive Hexahedral Mesh by Subdivision

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Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

Adaptive Hybrid Mesh by Subdivision

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Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

**Anisotropic Adaptation Methods
**

Large potential savings for 1 or 2D features

Directional subdivision

Assumes element faces to line up with flow features Combine with mesh motion

Mapping techniques

Hessian based Grid quality

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Refinement Criteria

Weakest link of adaptive meshing methods

Obvious for strong features Difficult for non-local (ie. Convective) features

eg. Wakes

**Analysis assumes in asymptotic error convergence region
**

Gradient based criteria Empirical criteria

**Effect of variable discretization error in design studies, parameter sweeps
**

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**Adjoint-based Error Prediction
**

Compute sensitivity of global cost function to local spatial grid resolution Key on important output, ignore other features

Error in engineering output, not discretization error

e.g. Lift, drag, or sonic boom …

**Captures non-local behavior of error
**

Global effect of local resolution

**Requires solution of adjoint equations
**

Adjoint techniques used for design optimization

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**Adjoint-based Mesh Adaptation Criteria
**

Reproduced from Venditti and Darmofal (MIT, 2002)

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Adjoint-based Mesh Adaptation Criteria

**Reproduced from Venditti and Darmofal (MIT, 2002)
**

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Adjoint-based Mesh Adaptation Criteria

Reproduced from Venditti and Darmofal (MIT, 2002)

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Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

**Overlapping Unstructured Meshes
**

Alternative to moving mesh for large scale relative geometry motion Multiple overlapping meshes treated as single data-structure

Dynamic determination of active/inactive/ghost cells

**Advantages for parallel computing
**

Obviates dynamic load rebalancing required with mesh motion techniques Intergrid communication must be dynamically recomputed and rebalanced

Concept of Rendez-vous grid (Plimpton and Hendrickson)

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Overlapping Unstructured Meshes

**Simple 2D transient example
**

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**Gradient-based Design Optimization
**

Minimize Cost Function F with respect to design variables v, subject to constraint R(w) = 0

F = drag, weight, cost v = shape parameters w = Flow variables R(w) = 0 à Governing Flow Equations

**Gradient Based Methods approach minimum along direction : ¶F
**

¶v

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Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

**Grid Related Issues for Gradient-based Design Parametrization of CAD surfaces Consistency across disciplines
**

eg. CFD, structures,…

Surface grid motion Interior grid motion Grid sensitivities Automation / Parallelization

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Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

**Preliminary Design Geometry
**

X34 CAD Model

**23,555 curves and surfaces c/o J. Samareh, NASA Langley
**

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**Launch Vehicle Shape Parameterization
**

c/o J. Samareh, NASA Langley

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Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

Sensitivity Analysis

objective function (e.g., Stress, CD)

v design variables (e.g., span, camber)

**¶Grid f ¶Grid s ¶F ¶F ¶Geometry = x x x ¶v ¶Grid f ¶Grid s ¶Geometry 14243 ¶v 1 424 3 1 4 24 3 1 4 24 3
**

geometry modeler (CAD) analysis code field grid generator surface grid generator

• • • •

Manual differentiation Automatic differentiation tools (e.g., ADIFOR and ADIC) Complex variables Finite-difference approximations

**c/o J. Samareh, NASA Langley
**

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Finite-Difference Approximation Error for Sensitivity Derivatives

Parameterized HSCT Model

**c/o J. Samareh, NASA Langley
**

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Grid Sensitivities

¶Grid f ¶Grid f ¶Grid s ¶Geometry = x x ¶Grid s ¶Geometry ¶v ¶v

**Ideally should be available from grid/cad software
**

Analytical formulation most desirable Burden on grid / CAD software Discontinous operations present extra challenges

Face-edge swapping Point addition / removal Mesh regeneration

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**High-Order Accurate Discretizations
**

Uniform X2 refinement of 3D mesh: Work increase = factor of 8 2nd order accurate method: accuracy increase = 4 4th order accurate method: accuracy increase = 16

For smooth solutions

Potential for large efficiency gains Spectral element methods Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) Streamwise Upwind Petrov Galerkin (SUPG)

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**Higher-Order Accurate Discretizations
**

Transfers burden from grid generation to Discretization

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Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

Spectral Element Solution of Maxwell’s Equations

J. Hesthaven and T. Warburton (Brown University)

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Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

**High-Order Discretizations
**

Require more complete surface definition Curved surface elements

Additional element points Surface definition (for high p)

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Combined H-P Refinement

Adaptive meshing (h-ref) yields constant factor improvement

After error equidistribution, no further benefit

**Order refinement (p-ref) yields asymptotic improvement
**

Only for smooth functions Ineffective for inadequate h-resolution of feature Cannot treat shocks

**H-P refinement optimal (exponential convergence)
**

Requires accurate CAD surface representation

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Modeling Turbulent Flows

168

What is Turbulence?

u

u

Unsteady, aperiodic motion in which all three velocity components fluctuate Õ mixing matter, momentum, and energy. Decompose velocity into mean and fluctuating parts: Ui(t) º Ui + ui(t)

ui(t) U i (t) Ui Time

u

Similar fluctuations for pressure, temperature, and species concentration values.

**Why Model Turbulence?
**

u

u

Direct numerical simulation of governing equations is only possible for simple low-Re flows. Instead, we solve Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations: ¶R (steady, incompressible flow ¶U i ¶p ¶ 2U i =+m + ij w/o body forces) rU k ¶ xk ¶xi ¶x j ¶x j ¶x j where

Rij = - r ui u j

(Reynolds stresses)

**Is the Flow Turbulent?
**

External Flows

where along a surface around an obstacle

Rex ³ 5´10 5

ReD ³ 20,000 Internal Flows

ReDh ³ 2,300

Re L º

rUL m

L = x, D, Dh, etc. Other factors such as free-stream turbulence, surface conditions, and disturbances may cause earlier transition to turbulent flow.

Grashof

Prandtl

Natural Convection

Ra ³ 108 - 1010

3 g b D TL r where Ra=Gr Pr º x ma

DT = Ts - T¥

Ts= temperature of the wall T∞= fluid temperature far from the surface of the object

**How Complex is the Flow?
**

u

**Extra strain rates
**

l l l l l l

Streamline curvature Lateral divergence Acceleration or deceleration Swirl Recirculation (or separation) Secondary flow

u u u u

3D perturbations Transpiration (blowing/suction) Free-stream turbulence Interacting shear layers

Choices to be Made

Flow Physics Computational Resources

Turbulence Model & Near-Wall Treatment

Computational Grid

Accuracy Required

Turnaround Time Constraints

**Turbulence Modeling Approaches
**

Zero-Equation Models One-Equation Models

Spalart-Allmaras Include More Physics

RANS-based models

**Two-Equation Models
**

Standard k-e RNG k-e Realizable k-e

Reynolds-Stress Model Large-Eddy Simulation Direct Numerical Simulation

Available in FLUENT

Increase Computational Cost Per Iteration

**Reynolds Stress Terms in RANS-based Models
**

u

**RANS equations require closure for Reynolds stresses.
**

Boussinesq Hypothesis:

(isotropic stresses)

æ ¶U ¶U ö 2 Rij = -ruiu j = -r kdij + mt ç i + j ÷ ç ¶x ÷ 3 è j ¶xi ø

u

u

Turbulent viscosity is indirectly solved for from single transport equation of modified viscosity for One-Equation model. For Two-Equation models, turbulent viscosity correlated with turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) and the dissipation rate of TKE.

Turbulent Viscosity:

k2 mt º rCm e

u

Transport equations for turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation rate are solved so that turbulent viscosity can be computed for RANS equations.

Turbulent Kinetic Energy: k º uiui / 2

¶ui æ ¶ui ¶u j ö Dissipation Rate of ç e ºn + ÷ ç Turbulent Kinetic Energy: ¶x j è ¶x j ¶xi ÷ ø

**One Equation Model: Spalart-Allmaras
**

u

**Turbulent viscosity is determined from:
**

~ /n )3 ù é ( n ~ mt = rn ê ~ 3 3ú ( ) n / n + c n1 û ë

u

**~ is determined from the modified viscosity transport equation: n
**

~ Dn ~~ 1 = rcb1S n + r Dt s n~

Generation

é ¶ ê ê ¶x j ë

2 ù ~ ~ ~ ì ü æ ö ¶n ï ¶ n n ï ~ ÷ ú - rcw1 f w 2 í (m + r n ) ý + rcb 2 ç ç ÷ ¶x j ï d ï î þ è ¶x j ø ú û

Diffusion

Destruction

u

The additional variables are functions of the modified turbulent viscosity and velocity gradients.

**One-Equation Model: Spalart-Allmaras
**

u

**Designed specifically for aerospace applications involving wallbounded flows.
**

l l

Boundary layers with adverse pressure gradients turbomachinery Designed to be used with fine mesh as a “low-Re” model, i.e., throughout the viscous-affected region. Sufficiently robust for relatively crude simulations on coarse meshes.

u

**Can use coarse or fine mesh at wall
**

l

l

**Two Equation Model: Standard k-e Model
**

Turbulent Kinetic Energy

æ ¶U j ¶U i ö ¶U j ¶ ì ¶k ü ¶k ÷ rU i m s re = mt ç + + ( ) ý- { í t k ç ÷ ¶xi þ ¶xi ¶xi ¶x j ø ¶xi ¶xi î 1 4 2 4 3 1è 1 4 4 4 2 4 4 4 3 Destruction 444 2444 3

Generation Diffusion

Convection

Dissipation Rate

¶U j ¶U i ö ¶U j ì ü æe2 ö ¶ ¶ e ¶e æe ö æ ÷ rU i = C1e ç ÷ m t ç + + í( m t s e ) ý - C 2e r ç ç k ÷ ÷ ç ÷ ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶xi k ¶ x x x x x è ø è ø i j ø i i î i þ è 1 4 2 4 3 14444 4 24 3 4 244 4 3 1 4 244444 3 144

Convection Generation Diffusion Destruction

s k ,s e , C1e , C2e

are empirical constants

(equations written for steady, incompressible flow w/o body forces)

**Two Equation Model: Standard k-e Model
**

u

**“Baseline model” (Two-equation)
**

l l

Most widely used model in industry Strength and weaknesses well documented k equation derived by subtracting the instantaneous mechanical energy equation from its time-averaged value e equation formed from physical reasoning

u

Semi-empirical

l

l

u u

**Valid only for fully turbulent flows Reasonable accuracy for wide range of turbulent flows
**

l l

industrial flows heat transfer

**Two Equation Model: Realizable k-e
**

u

**Distinctions from Standard k-e model:
**

l

**Alternative formulation for turbulent viscosity
**

k2 m t º rC m e

n n n

U k e (A0, As, and U* are functions of velocity gradients) Ao + A s

where

Cm =

1

*

is now variable

Ensures positivity of normal stresses; u 2 i ³0 Ensures Schwarz’s inequality; ( u i u j ) 2 £ u i2 u 2 j

l

**New transport equation for dissipation rate, e:
**

De ¶ = r Dt ¶x j éæ mt ç + m êç se ê ëè

Diffusion

ö ¶e ù e2 e ÷ c S c c c3e Gb + r e r + 1 2 1e ÷ ¶x ú k k + ne ø jú û

Generation Destruction Buoyancy

**Two Equation Model: Realizable k-e
**

u u

**Shares the same turbulent kinetic energy equation as Standard k-e Superior performance for flows involving:
**

l l l l

planar and round jets boundary layers under strong adverse pressure gradients, separation rotation, recirculation strong streamline curvature

**Two Equation Model: RNG k-e
**

Turbulent Kinetic Energy

**¶k ¶ æ ¶k ö 2 ç ÷ rU i = mt S + a k m eff -{ re ç ÷ { ¶xi ¶xi è ¶xi ø 1 4 2 4 3 Generation 14 4 244 3 Dissipation
**

Convection Diffusion

¶Uj ¶Ui ö 1æ ç S º 2SijSij , Sij º + ÷ ç 2 è ¶xi ¶xj ÷ ø

where

Dissipation Rate

æe2 ö ¶e ¶ æ ¶e ö æe ö 2 ç ÷ ÷ rU i a e m eff - C 2e r ç -{ R = C1e ç ÷ m t S + ç ÷ ç ÷ ¶xi 142 ¶xi è ¶xi ø k ø è k ø 43 è4 4 4 1 1 4 2 4 3 4 2 3 Additional term 44 244 3 1

Convection Generation Diffusion Destruction related to mean strain & turbulence quantities

**ak,ae ,C1e ,C2e are derived using RNG theory
**

(equations written for steady, incompressible flow w/o body forces)

**Two Equation Model: RNG k-e
**

u

u

k-e equations are derived from the application of a rigorous statistical technique (Renormalization Group Method) to the instantaneous NavierStokes equations. Similar in form to the standard k-e equations but includes:

l l l l

additional term in e equation that improves analysis of rapidly strained flows the effect of swirl on turbulence analytical formula for turbulent Prandtl number differential formula for effective viscosity high streamline curvature and strain rate transitional flows wall heat and mass transfer

u

**Improved predictions for:
**

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**Reynolds Stress Model
**

¶ui u j ¶J ijk Reynolds Stress rU k = Pij + F ij - e ij + Transport Eqns. ¶xk ¶xk

Generation Pressure-Strain Redistribution Dissipation Turbulent Diffusion

Pij º ui uk ¶U j ¶xk + u j uk ¶U i ¶xk

(computed)

æ ¶ui ¶u j ö ÷ F ij º - p¢ç + ç ¶x ÷ è j ¶xi ø

(modeled) (related to e) (modeled)

e ij

¶ui ¶u j º 2m ¶xk ¶xk

J ijk = ui u j uk + p¢(d jk ui + d ik u j )

Turbulent transport Pressure/velocity fluctuations

(equations written for steady, incompressible flow w/o body forces)

**Reynolds Stress Model
**

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RSM closes the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations by solving additional transport equations for the Reynolds stresses.

l

l l

Transport equations derived by Reynolds averaging the product of the momentum equations with a fluctuating property Closure also requires one equation for turbulent dissipation Isotropic eddy viscosity assumption is avoided

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Resulting equations contain terms that need to be modeled. RSM has high potential for accurately predicting complex flows.

l

**Accounts for streamline curvature, swirl, rotation and high strain rates
**

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Cyclone flows, swirling combustor flows Rotating flow passages, secondary flows

**Large Eddy Simulation
**

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Large eddies:

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Mainly responsible for transport of momentum, energy, and other scalars, directly affecting the mean fields. Anisotropic, subjected to history effects, and flow-dependent, i.e., strongly dependent on flow configuration, boundary conditions, and flow parameters. Tend to be more isotropic and less flow-dependent More likely to be easier to model than large eddies.

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Small eddies:

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LES directly computes (resolves) large eddies and models only small eddies (Subgrid-Scale Modeling). Large computational effort

l l

Number of grid points, NLES µ Re 2 ut Unsteady calculation

**Comparison of RANS Turbulence Models
**

Model SpalartAllmaras STD k-e RNG k-e Realizable k-e Reynolds Stress Model Strengths

Economical (1-eq.); good track record for mildly complex B.L. type of flows Robust, economical, reasonably accurate; long accumulated performance data Good for moderately complex behavior like jet impingement, separating flows, swirling flows, and secondary flows Offers largely the same benefits as RNG; resolves round-jet anomaly Physically most complete model (history, transport, and anisotropy of turbulent stresses are all accounted for)

Weaknesses

Not very widely tested yet; lack of submodels (e.g. combustion, buoyancy) Mediocre results for complex flows involving severe pressure gradients, strong streamline curvature, swirl and rotation Subjected to limitations due to isotropic eddy viscosity assumption Subjected to limitations due to isotropic eddy viscosity assumption Requires more cpu effort (2-3x); tightly coupled momentum and turbulence equations

**Near-Wall Treatments
**

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Most k-e and RSM turbulence models will not predict correct near-wall behavior if integrated down to the wall. Special near-wall treatment is required.

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Standard wall functions Nonequilibrium wall functions Two-layer zonal model

Boundary layer structure

**Standard Wall Functions
**

Mean Velocity

U * = 1 ln(Ey* ) k

Temperature

where

U* º

/ 4 1/ 2 UP C1 m kP

tw / r

y* º

/ 4 1/ 2 rC1 m k P yP

m

ì Pr y * ï T* = í é 1 ù * Pr ln Ey + P ú ï tê û î ëk

(

)

* ( y * < yT ) * ( y * > yT )

thermal sublayer thickness

/ 4 1/ 2 (Tw - TP ) r c pC 1 m k P where T * º &¢¢ q

and P is a function of the fluid and turbulent Prandtl numbers.

**Nonequilibrium Wall Functions
**

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Log-law is sensitized to pressure gradient for better prediction of adverse pressure gradient flows and separation. Relaxed local equilibrium assumptions for TKE in wall-neighboring cells. Thermal law-of-wall unchanged

~ 1/ 4 1/ 2 1/ 4 1/ 2 æ U Cm k r yö C m k 1 ç ÷ = ln ç E ÷ k è tw / r m ø

2 é ù y y y y ~ dp y æ ö 1 v v v where U = U ln ç ÷ + + ú * 1/ 2 * 1/ 2 2 dx ê y mû è v ø rk k ë rk k

**Two-Layer Zonal Model
**

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Used for low-Re flows or flows with complex near-wall phenomena. Zones distinguished by a walldistance-based turbulent Reynolds number

Rey > 200

Rey < 200

Re y º

u u u u

r ky m

High-Re k-e models are used in the turbulent core region. Only k equation is solved in the viscosity-affected region. e is computed from the correlation for length scale. Zoning is dynamic and solution adaptive.

**Comparison of Near Wall Treatments
**

Strengths Standard wall Functions

Robust, economical, reasonably accurate

Weaknesses

Empirically based on simple high-Re flows; poor for low-Re effects, massive transpiration, Ñp, strong body forces, highly 3D flows Poor for low-Re effects, massive transpiration, severe Ñp, strong body forces, highly 3D flows

Nonequilibrium Accounts for Ñp effects, allows nonequilibrium: wall functions

-separation -reattachment -impingement Two-layer zonal Does not rely on law-of-the- Requires finer mesh resolution and therefore larger cpu and wall, good for complex model flows, especially applicable memory resources to low-Re flows

**Computational Grid Guidelines
**

Wall Function Approach Two-Layer Zonal Model Approach

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First grid point in log-law region

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First grid point at y+ » 1. At least ten grid points within buffer & sublayers. Better to use stretched quad/hex cells for economy.

50 £ y + £ 500

l l

**At least ten points in the BL. Better to use stretched quad/hex cells for economy.
**

l

**Estimating Placement of First Grid Point
**

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**Estimate the skin friction coefficient based on correlations either approximate or empirical:
**

l

Flat PlatePipe Flow-

c f / 2 » 0.0359 Re L c f / 2 » 0.039 Re D

-0.2

l

-0.2

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Compute the friction velocity:

ut º t w / r = U e c f / 2

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**Back out required distance from wall:
**

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Wall functions y1 = 50n/ut

•

Two-layer model y1 = n/ ut

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Use post-processing to confirm near-wall mesh resolution

**Setting Boundary Conditions
**

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**Characterize turbulence at inlets & outlets (potential backflow)
**

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k-e models require k and e Reynolds stress model requires Rij and e Turbulence intensity and length scale

n n n

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**Several options allow input using more familiar parameters
**

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length scale is related to size of large eddies that contain most of energy. For boundary layer flows: l » 0.4d99 For flows downstream of grids /perforated plates: l » opening size Ideally suited for duct and pipe flows For external flows:

1<

l

**Turbulence intensity and hydraulic diameter
**

n

l

**Turbulence intensity and turbulent viscosity ratio
**

n

m /m

t

< 10

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Input of k and e explicitly allowed (non-uniform profiles possible).

**GUI for Turbulence Models
**

Define Õ Models Õ Viscous... Inviscid, Laminar, or Turbulent

Turbulence Model options

Near Wall Treatments Additional Turbulence options

Example: Channel Flow with Conjugate Heat Transfer

adiabatic wall cold air V = 50 fpm T = 0 °F insulation constant temperature wall T = 100 °F 10 ft 1 ft P 1 ft

Predict the temperature at point P in the solid insulation

**Turbulence Modeling Approach
**

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Check if turbulent Õ ReDh= 5,980 Developing turbulent flow at relatively low Reynolds number and BLs on walls will give pressure gradient Õ use RNG k-e with nonequilibrium wall functions. Develop strategy for the grid

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Simple geometry Õ quadrilateral cells Expect large gradients in normal direction to horizontal walls Õ fine mesh near walls with first cell in log-law region. Vary streamwise grid spacing so that BL growth is captured. Use solution-based grid adaption to further resolve temperature gradients.

Prediction of Momentum & Thermal Boundary Layers

Velocity contours BLs on upper & lower surfaces accelerate the core flow

Temperature contours Important that thermal BL was accurately resolved as well

P

Example: Flow Around a Cylinder

wall 2 ft air V = 4 fps 1 ft 2 ft wall 5 ft 14.5 ft

Compute drag coefficient of the cylinder

**Turbulence Modeling Approach
**

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Check if turbulent Õ ReD = 24,600 Flow over an object, unsteady vortex shedding is expected, difficult to predict separation on downstream side, and close proximity of side walls may influence flow around cylinder Õ use RNG k-e with 2-layer zonal model. Develop strategy for the grid

l l

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Simple geometry & BLs Õ quadrilateral cells. Large gradients near surface of cylinder & 2-layer model Õ fine mesh near surface & first cell at y+ = 1.

Grid for Flow Over a Cylinder

Prediction of Turbulent Vortex Shedding

Contours of effective viscosity meff = m + mt CD = 0.53 Strouhal Number = 0.297 D where St º tU

**Summary: Turbulence Modeling Guidelines
**

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**Successful turbulence modeling requires engineering judgement of:
**

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**Flow physics Computer resources available Project requirements
**

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Accuracy Turnaround time

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Turbulence models & near-wall treatments that are available

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Begin with standard k-e and change to RNG or Realizable k-e if needed. Use RSM for highly swirling flows. Use wall functions unless low-Re flow and/or complex near-wall physics are present.