You are on page 1of 78

Inductive charging (also known as "wireless charging") uses an electromagnetic field to transfer energy between two objects.

This is usually done with a charging station. Energy is sent through an inductive coupling to an electrical device, which can then use that energy to charge batteries or run the device. Induction chargers typically use an induction coil to create an alternating electromagnetic field from within a charging base station, and a second induction coil in the portable device takes power from the electromagnetic field and converts it back into electrical current to charge the battery. The two [1][2] induction coils in proximity combine to form an electrical transformer. Greater distances between sender and receiver coils can be achieved when the inductive charging system usesresonant inductive coupling.

1 Advantages 2 Disadvantages 3 Examples 4 Electric vehicles 5 See also 6 References 7 External links

[edit]Advantages Lower risk of electrical shock or shorting out when wet because there are no exposed conductors, for example toothbrushes and shavers, or outdoors. Protected connections - no corrosion when the electronics are all enclosed, away from water or oxygen in the atmosphere. Safer for medical implants - for embedded medical devices, allows recharging/powering through the skin rather than having wires penetrate the skin, which would increase the risk of infection. Convenience - rather than having to connect a power cable, the device can be placed on or close [3][4] to a charge plate or stand.

[edit]Disadvantages Lower efficiency, waste heat - The main disadvantages of inductive charging are its lower [citation needed] efficiency and increased resistive heating in comparison to direct contact. Implementations using lower frequencies or older drive technologies charge more slowly and [citation needed] generate heat within most portable electronics.

More costly - Inductive charging also requires drive electronics and coils in both device and [1][2] charger, increasing the complexity and cost of manufacturing. Slower charging - due to the lower efficiency, devices can take longer to charge when supplied power is equal. Inconvenience - When a mobile device is connected to a cable, it can be freely moved around and operated while charging. In some implementations of inductive charging (such as the Qi standard), the mobile device must be left on a pad, and thus can't be moved around or easily operated while charging. Incompatibility - Unlike (for example) a standardized MicroUSB charging connector, there are no de facto standards, potentially leaving a consumer, organization or manufacturer with redundant equipment when a standard emerges.

Newer approaches reduce transfer losses through the use of ultra thin coils, higher frequencies, and optimized drive electronics. This results in more efficient and compact chargers and receivers, [3][5] facilitating their integration into mobile devices or batteries with minimal changes required. These technologies provide charging times comparable to wired approaches, and they are rapidly finding their way into mobile devices. For example, the Magne Charge vehicle recharger system employed high-frequency induction to [6] deliver high power at an efficiency of 86% (6.6 kW power delivery from a 7.68 kW power draw). [edit]Examples The inventor of wireless energy transfer was Nikola Tesla. An early example of inductive power transfer is the crystal radio which used the power of the radio signal itself to power headphones. Some such radios can even use the power of a stronger station to increase the volume of a weaker station Transcutaneous energy transfer (TET) systems in artificial hearts and other surgically implanted devices. Oral-B rechargeable toothbrushes by the Braun company have used inductive charging since the early 1990s. Hughes Electronics developed the Magne Charge interface for General Motors. The General Motors EV1 electric car was charged by inserting an inductive charging paddle into a receptacle on the vehicle. General Motors and Toyota agreed on this interface and it was also used in the Chevrolet S-10 EV and Toyota RAV4 EV vehicles. In 2006, researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology reported that they had discovered an efficient way to transfer power between coils separated by a few meters. The team, led by Marin Soljai, theorized that they could extend the distance between the coils by adding resonance to the equation. The MIT wireless power project, called WiTricity, uses a [7][8] curved coil and capacitive plates. At CES in January 2007, Visteon unveiled their wireless charging system for in vehicle use that [9] could charge anything from cell phones to mp3 players.

April 28, 2009: An Energizer inductive charging station for the Wii remote is reported on IGN.


At CES in January 2009, Palm, Inc. announced their new Pre smartphone would be available with an optional inductive charger accessory, the "Touchstone". The charger came with a required special backplate that became standard on the subsequent Pre Plus model announced at CES 2010. This was also featured on later Pixi, Pixi Plus, and Veer 4G smartphones. Upon launch in 2011, the ill-fated HP Touchpad tablet (after HP's acquisition of Palm Inc.) had a built in [3][11][12] touchstone coil that doubled as an antenna for their NFC-like Touch to Share feature . In August 2009, a consortium of interested companies called the Wireless Power Consortium announced they were nearing completion for a new industry standard for low-power [13] Inductive charging called Qi Intel and Samsung plan to launch Qi wireless charging devices for phones and laptops in 2013. Nokia launched two smartphones (the Lumia 820 and Lumia 920) on 5 September 2012, which [15] feature Qi wireless charging. Google and LG launched Nexus 4 which supports inductive charging using the Qi standard. On November 21, 2012 HTC launched the United States' first 1080p phone, the Droid DNA, for Verizon Wireless which also supported the Qi standard.



Main article: Electric vehicle As mentioned above, Magne Charge inductive charging was employed by several types of electric [16] vehicles around 1998, but was discontinued after the California Air Resources Board selected [17] the SAE J1772-2001, or "Avcon", conductive charging interface for electric vehicles in California in [18] June 2001. In 2009, Evatran, a subsidiary of MTC Transformers, formally began development of Plugless Power, an inductive charging system they claim is the worlds first hands -free, plugless, proximity charging [19] system for Electric Vehicles. With the participation of the local municipality and several businesses, field trials were begun in March 2010, on the system scheduled to be available in fourth quarter [4][20] 2010. Researchers at the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) have developed an electric transport system (called Online Electric Vehicle, OLEV) where the vehicles get their power needs from cables underneath the surface of the road via non-contact magnetic charging, (where a power source is placed underneath the road surface and power is wirelessly picked up on the vehicle itself. As a possible solution to traffic congestion and to improve overall efficiency by minimizing air resistance and so reduce energy consumption, the test vehicles followed the power track in a convoy formation. In July 2009, the researchers successfully supplied up to 60% power to a bus [21] over a gap of 12 cm. In one inductive charging system, one winding is attached to the underside of the car, and the other [22] stays on the floor of the garage. The major advantage of the inductive approach for vehicle charging is that there is no possibility of electric shock as there are no exposed conductors, although interlocks, special connectors andRCDs (ground fault interruptors - GFI) can make conductive coupling nearly as safe. An inductive charging proponent from Toyota contended in 1998 that overall cost differences were minimal, while a

conductive charging proponent from Ford contended that conductive charging was more cost [23] efficient. In 2010 onwards, car makers are signalling their interest in wireless charging as another piece of the digital cockpit. A group was launched in May 2010 by the Consumer Electronics Associationto set a baseline for interoperability for chargers. In one sign of the road ahead a General Motors executive is chairing the standards effort group. Toyota and Ford managers said they also are interested in the [24] technology and the standards effort. Daimlers Head of Future Mobility, Professor Herbert Kohler, however have expressed caution and said the inductive charging for EVs is at least 15 years away and the safety aspects of inductive charging for EVs have yet to be looked into in greater detail. For example, what would happen if someone with a pacemaker is inside the vehicle? Another downside is that the technology requires a [25] precise alignment between the battery and the charging facility. In November 2011, the Mayor of London, Boris Johnson, and Qualcomm announced a trial of 13 wireless charging points and 50 EVs in the Shoreditch area of London's Tech City, due to be rolled [26][27] out in early 2012. Researchers in Korea are working on an electric bus powered by a continuous inductive connection [28] with a cable buried in the road.

Wireless power
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Wireless energy transfer)

Wireless power or wireless energy transmission is the transmission of electrical energy from a power source to an electrical load without man-made conductors. Wireless transmission is useful in cases where interconnecting wires are inconvenient, hazardous, or impossible. The problem of wireless power transmission differs from that of wireless telecommunications, such as radio. In the latter, the proportion of energy received becomes critical only if it is too low for the signal to be distinguished from the background noise.[1] With wireless power, efficiency is the more significant parameter. A large part of the energy sent out by the generating plant must arrive at the receiver or receivers to make the system economical. The most common form of wireless power transmission is carried out using direct induction followed by resonant magnetic induction. Other methods under consideration are electromagnetic radiation in the form of microwaves or lasers[2] and electrical conduction through natural media.[3]

1 Electric energy transfer

1.1 Electromagnetic induction

1.1.1 Electrodynamic induction method 1.1.2 Electrostatic induction method

1.2 Electromagnetic radiation

1.2.1 Beamed power, size, distance, and efficiency 1.2.2 Microwave method 1.2.3 Laser method

1.3 Electrical conduction

1.3.1 Disturbed charge of ground and air method Terrestrial transmission line with atmospheric return Terrestrial single-conductor surface wave transmission line

2 Timeline of wireless power 3 See also 4 Further reading 5 References 6 External links


energy transfer

Main article: Coupling (electronics) An electric current flowing through a conductor, such as a wire, carries electrical energy. When an electric current passes through a circuit there is an electric field in the dielectric surrounding the conductor; magnetic field lines around the conductor and lines of electric force radially about the conductor. [4] In a direct current circuit, if the current is continuous, the fields are constant; there is a condition of stress in the space surrounding the conductor, which represents stored electric and magnetic energy, just as a compressed spring or a moving mass represents stored energy. In an alternating current circuit, the fields also alternate; that is, with every half wave of current and of voltage, the magnetic and the electric field start at the conductor and run outwards into space with the speed of light.[5] Where these alternating fields impinge on another conductor a voltage and a current are induced.[4] Any change in the electrical conditions of the circuit, whether internal [6] or external[7] involves a readjustment of the stored magnetic and electric field energy of the circuit, that is, a so-calledtransient. A transient is of the general character of a condenser discharge through an inductive circuit. The phenomenon of the condenser discharge through an inductive circuit therefore is of the greatest importance to the engineer, as the foremost cause of high-voltage and high-frequency troubles in electric circuits.[8] Electromagnetic induction is proportional to the intensity of the current and voltage in the conductor which produces the fields and to the frequency. The higher the frequency the more intense the induction effect. Energy is transferred from a conductor that produces the fields (the primary) to any conductor on which the fields impinge (the secondary). Part of the energy of the primary conductor passes inductively across space into secondary conductor and the energy decreases rapidly along the primary conductor. A high frequency

current does not pass for long distances along a conductor but rapidly transfers its energy by induction to adjacent conductors. Higher induction resulting from the higher frequency is the explanation of the apparent difference in the propagation of high frequency disturbances from the propagation of the low frequency power of alternating current systems. The higher the frequency the more preponderant become the inductive effects that transfer energy from circuit to circuit across space. The more rapidly the energy decreases and the current dies out along the circuit, the more local is the phenomenon.[4] The flow of electric energy thus comprises phenomena inside the conductor[9] and phenomena in the space outside the conductorthe electric fieldwhich, in a continuous current circuit, is a condition of steady magnetic and dielectric stress, and in an alternating current circuit is alternating, that is, an electric wave launched by the conductor[4] to become far-field electromagnetic radiation traveling through space with the speed of light. In electric power transmission and distribution, the phenomena inside the conductor are of main importance, and the electric field of the conductor is usually observed only incidentally. [10]Inversely, in the use of electric power for radio telecommunications it is only the electric and magnetic fields outside of the conductor, that is far-field electromagnetic radiation, which is of importance in transmitting the message. The phenomenon in the conductor, the current in the launching structure, is not used.[4] The electric charge displacement in the conductor produces a magnetic field and resultant lines of electric force. The magnetic field is a maximum in the direction concentric, or approximately so, to the conductor. That is, a ferromagnetic body[11] tends to set itself in a direction at right angles to the conductor. The electric field has a maximum in a direction radial, or approximately so, to the conductor. The electric field component tends in a direction radial to the conductor and dielectric bodies may be attracted or repelled radially to the conductor.[12] The electric field of a circuit over which energy flows has three main axes at right angles with each other: 1. The magnetic field, concentric with the conductor. 2. The lines of electric force, radial to the conductor. 3. The power gradient, parallel to the conductor. Where the electric circuit consists of several conductors, the electric fields of the conductors superimpose upon each other, and the resultant magnetic field lines and lines of electric force are not concentric and radial respectively, except approximately in the immediate neighborhood of the conductor. Between parallel conductors they are conjugate of circles. Neither the power consumption in the conductor, nor the magnetic field, nor the electric field, are proportional to the flow of energy through the circuit. However, the product of the intensity of the magnetic field and the intensity of the electric field is proportional to the flow of energy or the power, and the power is therefore resolved into a product of the two components i and e, which are chosen proportional respectively to the intensity of the magnetic field and of the electric field. The component called the current is defined as that factor of the electric power which is proportional to the

magnetic field, and the other component, called the voltage, is defined as that factor of the electric power which is proportional to the electric field.[12] In radio telecommunications the electric field of the transmit antenna propagates through space as a radio wave and impinges upon the receive antenna where it is observed by its magnetic and electric effect.[12] Radio waves, microwaves, infrared radiation, visible light, ultraviolet radiation, X rays and gamma rays are shown to be the same electromagnetic radiation phenomenon, differing one from the other only in frequency of vibration.[4][13]



Energy transfer by electromagnetic induction is typically magnetic but capacitive coupling can also be achieved.

[edit]Electrodynamic induction method

Main articles: Inductive coupling, Electrodynamic induction, and Resonant inductive coupling The electrodynamic induction wireless transmission technique is near field over distances up to about onesixth of the wavelength used. Near field energy itself is non-radiative but some radiative losses do occur. In addition there are usually resistive losses. With electrodynamic induction, electric current flowing through a primary coil creates a magnetic field that acts on a secondary coil producing a current within it. Coupling must be tight in order to achieve high efficiency. As the distance from the primary is increased, more and more of the magnetic field misses the secondary. Even over a relatively short range the inductive coupling is grossly inefficient, wasting much of the transmitted energy.[14] This action of an electrical transformer is the simplest form of wireless power transmission. The primary and secondary circuits of a transformer are not directly connected. Energy transfer takes place through a process known as mutual induction. Principal functions are stepping the primary voltage either up or down and electrical isolation. Mobile phone and electric toothbrush battery chargers, and electrical power distribution transformers are examples of how this principle is used. Induction cookers use this method. The main drawback to this basic form of wireless transmission is short range. The receiver must be directly adjacent to the transmitter or induction unit in order to efficiently couple with it. The application of resonance increases the transmission range somewhat. When resonant coupling is used, the transmitter and receiver inductors are tuned to the same natural frequency. Performance can be further improved by modifying the drive current from a sinusoidal to a nonsinusoidal transient waveform.[15] In this way significant power may be transmitted between two mutually-attuned LC circuits having a relatively low coefficient of coupling. Transmitting and receiving coils are usually single layer solenoids or flat spirals with series capacitors, which, in combination, allow the receiving element to be tuned to the transmitter frequency. Common uses of resonance-enhanced electrodynamic induction are charging the batteries of portable devices such as laptop computers and cell phones, medical implants and electric vehicles.[16][17][18] A

localized charging technique[19] selects the appropriate transmitting coil in a multilayer winding array structure.[20] Resonance is used in both the wireless charging pad (the transmitter circuit) and the receiver module (embedded in the load) to maximize energy transfer efficiency. This approach is suitable for universal wireless charging pads for portable electronics such as mobile phones. It has been adopted as part of the Qi wireless charging standard. It is also used for powering devices having no batteries, such as RFID patches and contactless smartcards, and to couple electrical energy from the primary inductor to the helical resonator ofTesla coil wireless power transmitters.

[edit]Electrostatic induction method

Main article: Capacitive coupling

The illumination of two exhausted tubes by means of a powerful, rapidly alternating electrostatic field created between two vertical metal sheets suspended from the ceiling on insulating cords. This involves the physics of electrostatic induction.[21][22][23]

Electrostatic induction or capacitive coupling is the passage of electrical energy through a dielectric. In practice it is an electric field gradient ordifferential capacitance between two or more insulated terminals, plates, electrodes, or nodes that are elevated over a conducting ground plane. The electric field is created by charging the plates with a high potential, high frequency alternating current power supply. The capacitance between two elevated terminals and a powered device form a voltage divider. The electric energy transmitted by means of electrostatic induction can be utilized by a receiving device, such as a wireless lamp.[24][25][26] Teslademonstrated the illumination of wireless lamps by energy that was coupled to them through an alternating electric field.[21][27][28] "Instead of depending on electrodynamic induction at a distance to light the tube . . . [the] ideal way of lighting a hall or room would . . . be to produce such a condition in it that an illuminating device could be moved and put anywhere, and that it is lighted, no matter where it is put and without being electrically connected to anything. I have been able to produce such a condition by creating in the room a powerful, rapidly alternating electrostatic field. For this purpose I suspend a sheet of metal a distance from the ceiling on insulating cords and connect it to one terminal of the induction coil, the other terminal being preferably connected to the ground. Or else I suspend two sheets . . . each sheet being connected with one of the terminals of the coil, and their size being carefully determined. An exhausted tube may then be

carried in the hand anywhere between the sheets or placed anywhere, even a certain distance beyond them; it remains always luminous."[29] The principle of electrostatic induction is applicable to the electrical conduction wireless transmission method. In some cases when small amounts of energy are required the high elevation of the terminals, and more particularly of the receiving-terminal D', may not be necessary, since, especially when the frequency of the currents is very high, a sufficient amount of energy may be collected at that terminal by electrostatic induction from the upper air strata, which are rendered conducting by the active terminal of the transmitter or through which the currents from the same are conveyed."[30]



Far field methods achieve longer ranges, often multiple kilometer ranges, where the distance is much greater than the diameter of the device(s). The main reason for longer ranges with radio wave and optical devices is the fact that electromagnetic radiation in the far-field can be made to match the shape of the receiving area (using high directivity antennas or well-collimated laser beam) thereby delivering almost all emitted power at long ranges. The maximum directivity for antennas is physically limited by diffraction.

[edit]Beamed power, size, distance, and efficiency

The dimensions of the components may be dictated by the distance from transmitter to receiver, the wavelength and the Rayleigh criterion or diffraction limit, used in standard radio frequencyantenna design, which also applies to lasers. In addition to the Rayleigh criterion Airy's diffraction limit is also frequently used to determine an approximate spot size at an arbitrary distance from the aperture. The Rayleigh criterion dictates that any radio wave, microwave or laser beam will spread and become weaker and diffuse over distance; the larger the transmitter antenna or laser aperture compared to the wavelength of radiation, the tighter the beam and the less it will spread as a function of distance (and vice versa). Smaller antennae also suffer from excessive losses due to side lobes. However, the concept of laser aperture considerably differs from an antenna. Typically, a laser aperture much larger than the wavelength induces multi-moded radiation and mostlycollimators are used before emitted radiation couples into a fiber or into space. Ultimately, beamwidth is physically determined by diffraction due to the dish size in relation to the wavelength of the electromagnetic radiation used to make the beam. Microwave power beaming can be more efficient than lasers, and is less prone to atmospheric attenuation caused by dust or water vapor losing atmosphere to vaporize the water in contact. Then the power levels are calculated by combining the above parameters together, and adding in the gains and losses due to the antenna characteristics and the transparency anddispersion[disambiguation

of the medium through which the radiation passes. That process is known as calculating a link


[edit]Microwave method
Main article: Microwave power transmission

An artist's depiction of a solar satellitethat could send electric energy by microwaves to a space vessel or planetary surface.

Power transmission via radio waves can be made more directional, allowing longer distance power beaming, with shorter wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation, typically in the microwave range. A rectenna may be used to convert the microwave energy back into electricity. Rectenna conversion efficiencies exceeding 95% have been realized. Power beaming using microwaves has been proposed for the transmission of energy from orbiting solar power satellites to Earth and the beaming of power to spacecraft leaving orbit has been considered.[2][31] Power beaming by microwaves has the difficulty that for most space applications the required aperture sizes are very large due to diffraction limiting antenna directionality. For example, the 1978 NASA Study of solar power satellites required a 1-km diameter transmitting antenna, and a 10 km diameter receiving rectenna, for a microwave beam at 2.45 GHz.[32] These sizes can be somewhat decreased by using shorter wavelengths, although short wavelengths may have difficulties with atmospheric absorption and beam blockage by rain or water droplets. Because of the "thinned array curse," it is not possible to make a narrower beam by combining the beams of several smaller satellites. For earthbound applications a large area 10 km diameter receiving array allows large total power levels to be used while operating at the low power density suggested for human electromagnetic exposure safety. A human safe power density of 1 mW/cm2 distributed across a 10 km diameter area corresponds to 750 megawatts total power level. This is the power level found in many modern electric power plants. Following World War II, which saw the development of high-power microwave emitters known as cavity magnetrons, the idea of using microwaves to transmit power was researched. By 1964 a miniature helicopter propelled by microwave power had been demonstrated.[33] Japanese researcher Hidetsugu Yagi also investigated wireless energy transmission using a directional array antenna that he designed. In February 1926, Yagi and Uda published their first paper on the tuned high-gain directional array now known as the Yagi antenna. While it did not prove to be particularly useful for power transmission, this beam antenna has been widely adopted throughout the broadcasting and wireless telecommunications industries due to its excellent performance characteristics. [34]

Wireless high power transmission using microwaves is well proven. Experiments in the tens of kilowatts have been performed at Goldstone in California in 1975[35][36][37] and more recently (1997) at Grand Bassin on Reunion Island.[38] These methods achieve distances on the order of a kilometer.

[edit]Laser method

With a laser beam centered on its panel of photovoltaic cells, a lightweight model plane makes the first flight of an aircraft powered by a laser beam inside a building at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center.

In the case of electromagnetic radiation closer to visible region of spectrum (10s of microns (um) to 10s of nm), power can be transmitted by converting electricity into a laser beam that is then pointed at a solar cell receiver[39] This mechanism is generally known as "power beaming" because the power is beamed at a receiver that can convert it to usable electrical energy. Advantages of laser based energy transfer compared with other wireless methods are:[40] 1. collimated monochromatic wavefront propagation allows narrow beam cross-section area for energy transmission over large ranges. 2. compact size of solid state lasers-photovoltaics semiconductor diodes fit into small products. 3. no radio-frequency interference to existing radio communication such as Wi-Fi and cell phones. 4. control of access; only receivers illuminated by the laser receive power. Its drawbacks are: 1. Laser radiation is hazardous, even at low power levels it can blind people and animals, and at high power levels it can kill through localized spot heating 2. Conversion to light, such as with a laser, is inefficient 3. Conversion back into electricity is inefficient, with photovoltaic cells achieving 40% 50% efficiency.[41] (Note that conversion efficiency is rather higher with monochromatic light than with insolation of solar panels). 4. Atmospheric absorption, and absorption and scattering by clouds, fog, rain, etc., causes losses, which can be as high as 100% loss

5. As with microwave beaming, this method requires a direct line of sight with the target. The laser "powerbeaming" technology has been mostly explored in military weapons[42][43][44] and aerospace[45][46] applications and is now being developed for commercial and consumer electronics Low-Power applications. Wireless energy transfer system using laser for consumer space has to satisfy Laser safety requirements standardized under IEC 60825. To develop an understanding of the trade-offs of Laser ("a special type of light wave"-based system): 1. Propagation of a laser beam[47][48][49] (on how Laser beam propagation is much less affected by diffraction limits) 2. Coherence and the range limitation problem (on how spatial and spectral coherence characteristics of Lasers allows better distance-to-power capabilities[50]) 3. Airy disk (on how wavelength fundamentally dictates the size of a disk with distance) 4. Applications of laser diodes (on how the laser sources are utilized in various industries and their sizes are reducing for better integration) Geoffrey Landis[51][52][53] is one of the pioneers of solar power satellite[54] and laser-based transfer of energy especially for space and lunar missions. The continuously increasing demand for safe and frequent space missions has resulted in serious thoughts on a futuristic space elevator[55][56] that would be powered by lasers. NASA's space elevator would need wireless power to be beamed to it for it to climb a tether.[57] NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center has demonstrated flight of a lightweight unmanned model plane powered by a laser beam.[58] This proof-of-concept demonstrates the feasibility of periodic recharging using the laser beam system and the lack of need to return to ground.



The Tesla coil wireless transmitter U.S. Patent 1,119,732

Means for long conductors of electricity forming part of an electric circuit and electrically connecting said ionized beam to an electric circuit. Hettinger 1917 -(U.S. Patent 1,309,031)

Main article: World Wireless System

[edit]Disturbed charge of ground and air method

The wireless transmission of alternating current electricity through the earth with an equivalent electrical displacement through the air above it achieves long ranges that are superior to the resonant electrical induction methods and favorably comparable to the electromagnetic radiation methods.[59] Electrical energy can be transmitted through inhomogeneous Earth with low loss because the net resistance between earth antipodes is less than 1 ohm.[3] The electrical displacement takes place predominantly by electrical conduction through the oceans, and metallic ore bodies and similar subsurface structures. The electrical displacement is also by means of electrostatic induction through the more dielectric regions such as quartz deposits and other non-conducting minerals.[60][61] Receivers are energized by currents through the earth while an equivalent electric displacement occurs in the atmosphere.[62] This energy transfer technique is suitable for transmission of electrical power in industrial quantities and also for wireless broadband telecommunications. The Wardenclyffe Tower project was an early commercial venture for trans-Atlantic wireless telephony and proof-of-concept demonstrations of global wireless power transmission using this method.[63] The facility was not completed due to insufficient funding.[64]

[edit]Terrestrial transmission line with atmospheric return

Single wire with Earth return electrical power transmission systems rely on current flowing through the earth plus a single wire insulated from the earth to complete the circuit. In emergencies high-voltage direct current power transmission systems can also operate in the 'single wire with earth return' mode. Elimination of the raised insulated wire, and transmission of high-potential alternating current through the earth with an atmospheric return circuit is the basis of this method of wireless electrical power transmission. The atmospheric conduction method depends upon the passage of electrical current through the earth, and through the upper troposphere and thestratosphere.[65] Current flow is induced by electrostatic induction up to an elevation of approximately 3 miles (4.8 km) above Earth's surface.[66][67]Electrical conduction and the flow of current through the upper atmospheric strata starting at a barometric pressure of approximately 130

millimeters of mercury is made possible by the creation of capacitively coupled discharge plasma through the process of atmospheric ionization.[68][69][70] In this way electric lamps can be lit and electric motors turned at moderate distances. The transmitted energy can be detected at much greater distances.[71] A global system for "the transmission of electrical energy without wires" called the World Wireless System, dependent upon the high electrical conductivity of plasma and the high electrical conductivity of the earth, was proposed as early as 1904.[72][73]

[edit]Terrestrial single-conductor surface wave transmission line

Main article: Single-wire transmission line The basic transmitter used for the terrestrial single-conductor earth resonance method is identical to that used for the atmospheric conduction method.[74][75] Observations have been made that may be inconsistent with a basic tenet of physics related to the scalar derivatives of the electromagnetic potentials[76][77][78][79][80][81][82] that are presently considered to be nonphysical.[83]


of wireless power

1826: Andr-Marie Ampre develops Ampre's circuital law showing that electric current produces a magnetic field.[84]

1831: Michael Faraday develops Faraday's law of induction describing the electromagnetic force induced in a conductor by a time-varying magnetic flux.

1836: Nicholas Callan invents the electrical transformer, also known as the induction coil. 1865: James Clerk Maxwell synthesizes the previous observations, experiments and equations of electricity, magnetism and optics into a consistent theory and mathematically models the behavior of electromagnetic radiation in a set of partial differential equations known as Maxwell's equations.

1888: Heinrich Rudolf Hertz confirms the existence of electromagnetic radiation. Hertzs "apparatus for generating electromagnetic waves" was a VHF or UHF "radio wave" spark gap transmitter.

1891: Tesla demonstrates wireless energy transmission by means of electrostatic induction using a high-tension induction coil before the American Institute of Electrical Engineers at Columbia College.[85]

1893: Tesla demonstrates the wireless illumination of phosphorescent lamps of his design at the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago.[86]

1893: Tesla publicly demonstrates wireless power and proposes the wireless transmission of signals before a meeting of the National Electric Light Association in St. Louis.[26][87][88][89]

1894: Tesla lights incandescent lamps wirelessly at the 35 South Fifth Avenue laboratory in New York City by means of "electro-dynamic induction" or resonant inductive coupling.[90][91][92]

1894: Hutin & LeBlanc, espouse long held view that inductive energy transfer should be possible, they received U.S. Patent 527,857 describing a system for power transmission at 3 kHz.[93]

1894: Jagdish Chandra Bose rings a bell at a distance using electromagnetic waves and also ignites gunpowder, showing that communications signals can be sent without using wires. [94][95]

1895: Marconi demonstrates radio transmission over a distance of 1.5 miles.[89][96] Developed Marconi's Law.

1896: Tesla demonstrates wireless transmission over a distance of about 48 kilometres (30 mi).[97] 1897: Tesla files his first patent application dealing specifically with wireless transmission. 1899: Tesla continues wireless power transmission research in Colorado Springs and writes, "the inferiority of the induction method would appear immense as compared with the disturbed charge of ground and air method."[98]

1902: Nikola Tesla vs. Reginald Fessenden U.S. Patent Interference No. 21,701, System of Signaling (wireless); wireless power transmission, time and frequency domain spread spectrumtelecommunications, electronic logic gates in general.[99]

1904: At the St. Louis World's Fair, a prize is offered for a successful attempt to drive a 0.1 horsepower (75 W) airship motor by energy transmitted through space at a distance of at least 100 feet (30 m).[100]

1916: Tesla states, "In my [disturbed charge of ground and air] system, you should free yourself of the idea that there is [electromagnetic] radiation, that energy is radiated. It is not radiated; it is conserved."[101]

1917: The Wardenclyffe tower is demolished. . . . 1926: Shintaro Uda and Hidetsugu Yagi publish their first paper on Uda's "tuned high-gain directional array"[34] better known as the Yagi antenna.

1961: William C. Brown publishes an article exploring possibilities of microwave power transmission.[102][103]

1968: Peter Glaser proposes wirelessly transmitting solar energy captured in space using "Powerbeaming" technology.[104][105] This is usually recognized as the first description of a solar power satellite.

1973: The world's first passive RFID system is demonstrated at Los-Alamos National Lab.[106] 1975: Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex does experiments in the tens of kilowatts.[35][36][37]

1998: RFID tags are powered by electrodynamic induction over a few feet.[citation needed] 1999: Prof. Shu Yuen (Ron) Hui and Mr. S.C. Tang file a patent on "Coreless Printed-Circuit-Board (PCB) transformers and operating techniques", which form the basis for future planar charging surface with "vertical flux" leaving the planar surface. The circuit uses resonant circuits for wireless power transfer. EP(GB)0935263B

2000: Prof. Shu Yuen (Ron) Hui invent a planar wireless charging pad using the "vertical flux" approach and resonant power transfer for charging portable consumer electronic products. A patent is filed on "Apparatus and method of an inductive battery charger, PCT Patent PCT/AU03/00 721, 2000.

2001 Prof. Shu Yuen (Ron) Hui and Dr. S.C. Tang file a patent on "Planar Printed-Circuit-Board Transformers with Effective Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) Shielding". The EM shield consists of a thin layer of ferrite and a thin layer of copper sheet. It enables the underneath of the future wireless charging pads to be shielded with a thin EM shield structure with thickness of typically 0.7mm or less. U.S. Patent 6,501,364.

2001: Prof. Ron Hui's team demonstrate that the coreless PCB transformer can transmit power close to 100W in A low-profile low-power converter with coreless PCB isolation transformer, IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Volume: 16 Issue: 3 , May 2001. A team of Philips Research Center Aachen, led by Dr. Eberhard Waffenschmidt, use it to power an 100W lighting device in their paper "Size advantage of coreless transformers in the MHz range" in the European Power Electronics Conference in Graz.

2002: Prof. Shu Yuen (Ron) Hui extends the planar wireless charging pad concept using the vertical flux approach to incorporate free-positioning feature for multiple loads. This is achieved by using a multilayer planar winding array structure. Patent were granted as "Planar Inductive Battery Charger", GB2389720 and GB 2389767.[citation needed]

2005: Prof. Shu Yuen (Ron) Hui and Dr. W.C. Ho publish their work in the IEEE Transactions on a planar wireless charging platform with free-positioning feature. The planar wireless charging pad is able to charge several loads simultaneously on a flat surface.[citation needed]

2007: A localized charging technique is reported by Dr. Xun Liu and Prof. Ron Hui for the wireless charging pad with free-positioning feature. With the aid of the double-layer EM shields enclosing the transmitter and receiver coils, the localized charging selects the right transmitter coil so as to minimize flux leakage and human exposure to radiation.[citation needed]

2007: Using electrodynamic induction the WiTricity physics research group, led by Prof. Marin Soljacic at MIT, wirelessly power a 60W light bulb with 40% efficiency at a 2 metres (6.6 ft) distance with two 60 cm-diameter coils.[107]

2008: Bombardier offers a new wireless power transmission product PRIMOVE, a system for use on trams and light-rail vehicles.[108]

2008: Intel reproduces the original 1894 implementation of electrodynamic induction and Prof. John Boys group's 1988 follow-up experiments by wirelessly powering a nearby light bulb with 75% efficiency.[109]

2008: Greg Leyh and Mike Kennan of the Nevada Lightning Laboratory publish a paper on the disturbed charge of ground and air method of wireless power transmission with circuit simulations and test results showing an efficiency greater than can be obtained using the electrodynamic induction method.[59]

2009: Palm (now a division of HP) launches the Palm Pre smartphone with the Palm Touchstone wireless charger.

2009: A Consortium of interested companies called the Wireless Power Consortium announce they are nearing completion for a new industry standard for low-power (which is eventually published in August 2010) inductive charging.[110]

2009: An Ex approved Torch and Charger aimed at the offshore market is introduced.[111] This product is developed by Wireless Power & Communication, a Norway based company.

2009: A simple analytical electrical model of electrodynamic induction power transmission is proposed and applied to a wireless power transfer system for implantable devices.[112]

2009: Lasermotive uses diode laser to win $900k NASA prize in power beaming, breaking several world records in power and distance, by transmitting over a kilowatt more than several hundred meters.[113]

2009: Sony shows a wireless electrodynamic-induction powered TV set, 60 W over 50 cm[114] 2010: Haier Group debuts the world's first completely wireless LCD television at CES 2010 based on Prof. Marin Soljacic's follow-up research on the 1894 electrodynamic induction wireless energy transmission method and the Wireless Home Digital Interface (WHDI).[115]

2010: System On Chip (SoC) group in University of British Columbia develops a highly efficient wireless power transmission systems using 4-coils. The design is optimized for implantable applications and power transfer efficiency of 82% is achieved.[116]

2012: "Bioelectromagnetics and Implantable Devices" group in University of Utah, USA develops an efficient multi-Coil telemetry system for power and data transfer in biomedical Implants. Design approach is extendable to other industrial "smart" wireless power transfer system. Proposed multi-coil based telemetry system achieves more than twice power transfer efficiency and higher tunable frequency bandwidth as compared to its equivalent two-coil design. Based on circuit theory, analytical formulation is proposed to optimize the design for maximum power transfer, frequency bandwidth and power transfer efficiency.[117]

2012: Christopher Tucker, Kevin Warwick and William Holderbaum of the University of Reading, UK develop a highly-efficient, compact power transfer system safe for use in human proximity. The design is simple and uses only a few components to generate stable currents for biomedical implants. It resulted from research that directly attempted to extend Teslas 1897 wireless power work. [118]

Electromagnetic compatibility
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Anechoic RF chamber used for EMC testing (radiated emissions and immunity). The furniture has to be made of wood or plastic, and not metal

LPDA antenna measurement for outdoor

Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) is the branch of electrical sciences which studies the unintentional generation, propagation and reception of electromagnetic energy with reference to the unwanted effects (Electromagnetic interference, or EMI) that such energy may induce. EMC aims to ensure that equipment items or systems will not interfere with or prevent each other's correct operation through spurious emission and absorption of EMI. EMC is sometimes referred to as EMI Control, and in practice EMC and EMI are frequently referred to as a combined term "EMC/EMI".

1 Introduction 2 Types of interference

o o

2.1 Continuous interference 2.2 Pulse or transient interference

3 Coupling mechanisms

o o

3.1 Conductive coupling 3.2 Inductive coupling

3.2.1 Capacitive coupling 3.2.2 Magnetic coupling

3.3 Radiative coupling

4 EMC control

o o

4.1 Characterising the threat 4.2 Laws and regulators

4.2.1 Regulatory and standards bodies 4.2.2 Laws

4.3 EMC design

4.3.1 Grounding and shielding 4.3.2 Other general measures 4.3.3 Emissions suppression 4.3.4 Susceptibility hardening

4.4 EMC testing

5 History

4.4.1 Susceptibility testing 4.4.2 Emissions testing

6 EMC test equipment manufacturers (alphabetic) 7 See also 8 References 9 External links

o o o

9.1 Web sites 9.2 General introductions 9.3 Specific topics

While electromagnetic interference (EMI) is a phenomenon - the radiation emitted and its effects electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) is an equipment characteristic or property - to not behave unacceptably in the EMI environment. EMC ensures the correct operation, in the same electromagnetic environment, of different equipment items which use or respond to electromagnetic phenomena, and the avoidance of any interference effects. Another way of saying this is that EMC is the control of EMI so that unwanted effects are prevented. EMC divides into a number of issues:

EMI is the radiation emitted and its effects on the victim. Emission is the unwanted generation of electromagnetic energy by some emitter or source. Susceptibility or Immunity is the ability of the receptor or victim equipment to operate correctly in the presence of electromagnetic disturbances. Susceptibility and immunity are opposites - an equipment which has high susceptibility has low immunity, and vice versa.

Coupling is the mechanisms by which EMI is able to travel from source to victim.

Besides understanding the phenomena in themselves, EMC also addresses the countermeasures, such as control regimes, design and measurement, which should be taken in order to prevent emissions from causing any adverse effect.


of interference

Main article: Electromagnetic interference Electromagnetic interference divides into several categories according to the source and signal characteristics. The origin of noise can be man made or natural.



Continuous, or Continuous Wave (CW), interference arises where the source continuously emits at a given range of frequencies. This type is naturally divided into sub-categories according to frequency range, and as a whole is sometimes referred to as "DC to daylight".

Audio Frequency, from very low frequencies up to around 20 kHz. Frequencies up to 100 kHz may sometimes be classified as Audio. Sources include:

Mains hum from; power supply units, nearby power supply wiring, transmission lines and substations.

Audio processing equipment, such as audio power amplifiers and loudspeakers. Demodulation of a high-frequency carrier wave such as an FM radio transmission.

Radio Frequency Interference (RFI), from typically 20 kHz to an upper limit which constantly increases as technology pushes it higher. Sources include:

Wireless and Radio Frequency Transmissions Television and Radio Receivers Industrial, scientific and medical equipment (ISM) Digital processing circuitry such as microcontrollers

Broadband noise may be spread across parts of either or both frequency ranges, with no particular frequency accentuated. Sources include:

Solar Activity Continuously operating spark gaps such as arc welders

CDMA (spread-spectrum) mobile telephony


or transient interference

Electromagnetic Pulse, EMP, also sometimes called Transient disturbance, arises where the source emits a short-duration pulse of energy. The energy is usually broadband by nature, although it often excites a relatively narrow-band damped sine wave response in the victim. Sources divide broadly into isolated and repetitive events.

Sources of isolated EMP events include:

Switching action of electrical circuitry, including inductive loads such as relays, solenoids, or electric motors.

Electrostatic Discharge (ESD), as a result of two charged objects coming into close proximity or even contact.

Lightning Electromagnetic Pulse (LEMP), although typically a short series of pulses. Nuclear Electromagnetic Pulse (NEMP), as a result of a nuclear explosion. Non-Nuclear Electromagnetic Pulse (NNEMP) weapons. Power Line Surges/Pulses

Sources of repetitive EMP events, sometimes as regular pulse trains, include:

Electric Motors Gasoline engine ignition systems Continual switching actions of digital electronic circuitry.



Some of the technical words employed can be used with differing meanings. These terms are used here in a widely accepted way, which is consistent with other articles in the encyclopedia. The basic arrangement of noise source, coupling path and victim, receptor or sink is shown in the figure below. Source and victim are usually electronic hardware devices, though the source may be a natural phenomenon such as a lightning strike, electrostatic discharge (ESD) or, in one famous case, the Big Bang at the origin of the Universe.

The four electromagnetic interference (EMI) coupling modes.

There are four basic coupling mechanisms: conductive, capacitive, magnetic or inductive, and radiative. Any coupling path can be broken down into one or more of these coupling mechanisms working together. For example the lower path in the diagram involves inductive, conductive and capacitive modes.



Conductive coupling occurs when the coupling path between the source and the receptor is formed by direct contact with a conducting body, for example a transmission line, wire, cable, PCBtrace or metal enclosure. Conducted noise is also characterised by the way it appears on different conductors:

Common-mode or common-impedance[1] coupling: noise appears in phase (in the same direction) on two conductors .

Differential-mode coupling: noise appears out of phase (in opposite directions) on two conductors .



Inductive coupling occurs where the source and receiver are separated by a short distance (typically less than a wavelength). Strictly, "Inductive coupling" can be of two kinds, electrical induction and magnetic induction. It is common to refer to electrical induction as capacitive coupling, and to magnetic induction as inductive coupling.

[edit]Capacitive coupling
Capacitive coupling occurs when a varying electrical field exists between two adjacent conductors typically less than a wavelength apart, inducing a change in voltage across the gap.

[edit]Magnetic coupling
Inductive coupling or magnetic coupling (MC) occurs when a varying magnetic field exists between two parallel conductors typically less than a wavelength apart, inducing a change in voltagealong the receiving conductor.



Radiative coupling or electromagnetic coupling occurs when source and victim are separated by a large distance, typically more than a wavelength. Source and victim act as radio antennas: the source emits or radiates an electromagnetic wave which propagates across the open space in between and is picked up or received by the victim.



The damaging effects of electromagnetic interference pose unacceptable risks in many areas of technology, and it is necessary to control such interference and reduce the risks to acceptable levels. The control of electromagnetic interference (EMI) and assurance of EMC comprises a series of related disciplines:

Characterising the threat. Setting standards for emission and susceptibility levels. Design for standards compliance. Testing for standards compliance.

For a complex or novel piece of equipment, this may require the production of a dedicated EMC control plan summarizing the application of the above and specifying additional documents required.


the threat

Characterisation of the problem requires understanding of:

The interference source and signal. The coupling path to the victim. The nature of the victim both electrically and in terms of the significance of malfunction.

The risk posed by the threat is usually statistical in nature, so much of the work in threat characterisation and standards setting is based on reducing the probability of disruptive EMI to an acceptable level, rather than its assured elimination.


and regulators

[edit]Regulatory and standards bodies

Main article: List of EMC directives Several international organizations work to promote international co-operation on standardization (harmonization), including publishing various EMC standards. Where possible, a standard developed by one organization may be adopted with little or no change by others. This helps for example to harmonize national standards across Europe. Standards organizations include:

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), which has several committees working full-time on EMC issues. These are:

Technical Committee 77 (TC77), working on electromagnetic compatibility between equipment including networks.

Comit International Spcial des Perturbations Radiolectriques (CISPR), or International Special Committee on Radio Interference.

The Advisory Committee on Electromagnetic Compatibility (ACEC) co-ordinates the IEC's work on EMC between these committees.

International Organization for Standardization (ISO), which publishes standards for the automotive industry.

Among the more well known national organizations are:


Comit Europen de Normalisation (CEN) or European Committee for Standardization). Comit Europen de Normalisation Electrotechniques (CENELEC) or European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardisation.

European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI).

United States:

The Federal Communications Commission (FCC). The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE).

Britain: The British Standards Institution (BSI). Germany: The Verband der Elektrotechnik, Elektronik und Informationstechnik (VDE) or Association for Electrical, Electronic and Information Technologies.

Compliance with national or international standards is usually required by laws passed by individual nations. Different nations can require compliance with different standards. By European law, manufacturers of electronic devices are advised to run EMC tests in order to comply with compulsory CE-labeling. Undisturbed usage of electric devices for all customers should be ensured and the electromagnetic field strength should be kept on a minimum level. EU directive 2004/108/EC (previously 89/336/EEC) on EMC announces the rules for the distribution of electric devices within the European Union. A good overview of EME limits and EMI demands is given in List of EMC directives.



A TV tuner card showing many small bypass capacitors, and 2 CCA shields -- a metal box shielding the coax inputs and another metal box shielding the S-Videoconnector

Main article: EMC problem (excessive field strength) Electromagnetic noise is produced in the source due to rapid current and voltage changes, and spread via the coupling mechanisms described earlier. Since breaking a coupling path is equally effective at either the start or the end of the path, many aspects of good EMC design practice apply equally to potential emitters and to potential victims. Further, a circuit which easily couples energy to the outside world will equally easily couple energy in and will be susceptible. A single design improvement often reduces both emissions and susceptibility.

[edit]Grounding and shielding

Grounding and shielding aim to reduce emissions or divert EMI away from the victim by providing an alternative, low-impedance path. Techniques include:

Shielded housings. In order to access the components, a housing is typically made in sections (such as a box and lid); an RF gasket is often used at the section joints to reduce the amount of interference that leaks through the joint. RF gaskets come in various types. One type is based on a waterproof flexible elastomeric base with chopped metal fibers dispersed into the interior or long metal fibers covering the surface or both. ("oriented wire gasket", "woven mesh gasket", etc.) Another type is RF fingerstock comprises springy metal "fingers".

Shielded cables, where the conducting wires are surrouned by an outer conductive layer that is grounded at one or both ends.

Grounding or earthing schemes such as star earthing for audio equipment or ground planes for RF.

[edit]Other general measures

Decoupling or filtering at critical points such as cable entries and high-speed switches, using RF chokes and/or RC elements.

Transmission line techniques for cables and wiring, such as balanced differential signal and return paths, and impedance matching.

Avoidance of Antenna Structures, such as loops of circulating current, resonant mechanical structures, unbalanced cable impedances or poorly grounded shielding.

[edit]Emissions suppression

Spread spectrum method reduces EMC peaks. Frequency spectrum of the heating up period of a switching power supply which uses the spread spectrum method incl. waterfall diagram over a few minutes

Additional measures to reduce emissions include:

Avoid unnecessary switching operations. Necessary switching should be done as slowly as technically possible.

Noisy circuits (with a lot of switching activity) should be physically separated from the rest of the design.

High peaks can be avoided by using the spread spectrum method. Harmonic Wave Filters. Design for operation at lower signal levels, reducing the energy available for emission.

[edit]Susceptibility hardening
Additional measures to reduce susceptibility include:

Fuses, trip switches and circuit breakers. Transient absorbers. Design for operation at higher signal levels, reducing the relative noise level in comparison.



Testing is required to confirm that a particular device meets the required standards. It divides broadly into emissions testing and susceptibility testing. RF testing of a physical prototype is most often carried out in a radio-frequency anechoic chamber. Open-air test sites, or OATS, are the reference sites in most standards. They are especially useful for emissions testing of large equipment systems. Sometimes computational electromagnetics simulations are used to test virtual models. Like all compliance testing, it is important that the test equipment, including the test chamber or site and any software used, be properly calibrated and maintained. Typically, a given run of tests for a particular piece of equipment will require an EMC test plan and follow-up Test report. The full test program may require the production of several such documents.

[edit]Susceptibility testing
Radiated field susceptibility testing typically involves a high-powered source of RF or EM pulse energy and a radiating antenna to direct the energy at the potential victim or device under test (DUT). Conducted voltage and current susceptibility testing typically involves a high-powered signal or pulse generator, and a current clamp or other type of transformer to inject the test signal. Transient immunity is used to test the immunity of the DUT against powerline disturbances including surges, lightning strikes and switching noise.[2] In motor vehicles, similar tests are performed on battery[3] and signal lines.[4] Electrostatic discharge testing is typically performed with a piezo spark generator called an "ESD pistol". Higher energy pulses, such as lightning or nuclear EMP simulations, can require a largecurrent clamp or a large antenna which completely surrounds the DUT. Some antennas are so large that they are located outdoors, and care must be taken not to cause an EMP hazard to the surrounding environment.

[edit]Emissions testing
Emissions are typically measured for radiated field strength and where appropriate for conducted emissions along cables and wiring. Inductive (magnetic) and capacitive (electric) field strengths are near-field effects, and are only important if the device under test (DUT) is designed for location close to other electrical equipment. Typically a spectrum analyzer is used to measure the emission levels of the DUT across a wide band of frequencies (frequency domain). Specialized spectrum analyzers for EMC testing are available, called EMI Test Receivers or EMI Analyzers. These incorporate bandwidths and detectors as specified by international EMC standards. EMI Receivers along with specified transducers can often be used for both conducted and radiated emissions. Pre-selector filters may also be used to reduce the effect of strong out-of-band signals on the front-end of the receiver.

For conducted emissions, typical transducers include the LISN (Line Impedance Stabilisation Network) or AMN (Artificial Mains Network) and the RF current clamp. For radiated emission measurement, antennas are used as transducers. Typical antennas specified include dipole, biconical, log-periodic, double ridged guide and conical log-spiral designs. Radiated emissions must be measured in all directions around the DUT. Some pulse emissions are more usefully characterized using an oscilloscope to capture the pulse waveform in the time domain.

The earliest EMC issue was lightning strike (Lightning Electromagnetic Pulse, or LEMP) on buildings. Lightning rods or lightning conductors began to appear in the mid-18th century. With the advent of widespread electricity generation and power supply lines from the late 19th century on, problems also arose with equipment short-circuit failure affecting the power supply, and with local fire and shock hazard when the power line was struck by lightning. Power stations were provided with output circuit breakers. Buildings and appliances would soon be provided with input fuses, and later in the 20th century miniature circuit breakers (MCB) would come into use. As radio communications developed in the first half of the 20th century, interference between broadcast radio signals began to occur and an international regulatory framework was set up to ensure interference-free communications. As switching devices became commonplace, typically in petrol powered cars and motorcycles but also in domestic appliances such as thermostats and refrigerators, transient interference with domestic radio and (after World War II) TV reception became problematic, and in due course laws were passed requiring the suppression of such interference sources. ESD problems first arose with accidental electric spark discharges in hazardous environments such as coal mines and when refuelling aircraft or motor cars. Safe working practices had to be developed. After World War II the military became increasingly concerned with the effects of nuclear electromagnetic pulse (NEMP), lightning strike, and even high-powered radar beams, on vehicle and mobile equipment of all kinds, and especially aircraft electrical systems. When high RF emission levels from other sources became a potential problem (such as with the advent of microwave ovens), certain frequency bands were designated for Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM) use, allowing unlimited emissions. A variety of issues such as sideband and harmonic emissions, broadband sources, and the increasing popularity of electrical switching devices and their victims, resulted in a steady development of standards and laws. From the 1970s, the popularity of modern digital circuitry rapidly grew. As the technology developed, with faster switching speeds (increasing emissions) and lower circuit voltages (increasing susceptibility), EMC increasingly became a source of concern. Many more nations became aware of

EMC as a growing problem and issued directives to the manufacturers of digital electronic equipment, which set out the essential manufacturer requirements before their equipment could be marketed or sold. Organizations in individual nations, across Europe and worldwide, were set up to maintain these directives and associated standards. This regulatory environment led to a sharp growth in the EMC industry supplying specialist devices and equipment, analysis and design software, and testing and certification services. Low-voltage digital circuits, especially CMOS transistors, became more susceptible to ESD damage as they were miniaturised, and a new ESD regulatory regime had to be developed. From the 1980s, the ever-increasing use of mobile communications and broadcast media channels has put huge pressure on the available airspace. Regulatory authorities are squeezing band allocations closer and closer together, relying on increasingly sophisticated EMC control methods, especially in the digital communications arena, to keep cross-channel interference to acceptable levels. Digital systems are inherently less susceptible than the old analog systems, and also offer far easier ways (such as software) to implement highly sophisticated protection measures. Most recently, even the ISM bands are being used for low-power mobile digital communications. This approach relies on the intermittent nature of ISM interference and use of sophisticated errorcorrection methods to ensure lossless reception during the quiet gaps between bursts of interference.


test equipment manufacturers (alphabetic)

Aaronia Aeroflex Agilent (formerly the test and measurement division of Hewlett-Packard) Anritsu MILMEGA National Instruments Rohde & Schwarz Tektronix Teseq (formerly Schaffner) Wrth

IEEE Electromagnetic Compatibility Society

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

IEEE Electromagnetic Compatibility Society



Official languages



The IEEE Electromagnetic Compatibility Society (EMCS) is an organizational unit and professional society of academic professors and applied engineers with a common interest, affiliated with the IEEE. The 50-year-old Society has members and chapters in nearly every country throughout the world. As an active entity within the IEEE, benefits are provided to members as detailed below.


EMC Society Logo


1 Field of Interest 2 History 3 Todays IEEE EMC Society 4 Technical Committees 5 External links 6 References


of Interest

The electromagnetic compatibility field of interest is on engineering related to the electromagnetic environmental effects of systems to be compatible with themselves and their intended operating environment. These areas include: standards, measurement techniques and test procedures, instrumentation, equipment and systems characteristics, interference control techniques and components, education, computational analysis, and spectrum management, along with scientific, technical, industrial, professional or other activities that contribute to this field.

Fifty years ago, a small group of electrical engineers and associated technical people realized it would be a prudent step to organize a group of individuals dedicated to Radio Frequency Interference (RFI). Two different sets of individuals, one on the West Coast of the United States and the other on the East Coast, began to discuss organizational considerations, generated signed petitions, and met with officials of the Institute of Radio Engineers (IRE) in [New York City]. These early efforts culminated in a formal petition to the Institute of Radio Engineers (IRE) on 3 July 1957, requesting the formation of an Institute of Radio Engineers Professional Group onRadio Frequency Interference (RFI). This petition, which included a scope of technical interest, was approved by the IRE on 10 October 1957. The first meeting of the Administrative Committee of the newly formed group was held on 20 November 1957 in Asbury Park, New Jersey. Officers were elected and the group was operations. The Professional Groups on Radio Frequency Interference became the Professional Group on RFI in the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) in 1963 when the IRE and theAmerican Institute of Electrical Engineers merged. Within five years, the Professional Group became the EMC Society of the IEEE, a name that has remained constant for 40 years. In 2007, the IEEE EMC Society celebrated its 50th anniversary at their yearly conference in Honolulu, Hawaii. To help celebrate, the Societys celebration pin was flown in space shuttle mission,STS-118 (August 821, 2007). This pin is mounted in a frame with a photograph of the astronauts, officers of the EMC Society, and is on display at the IEEE Headquarter office in Piscataway,New Jersey, History Center.[1]


IEEE EMC Society

The IEEE EMC Society has evolved into an international, professional society within the IEEE. The Society has 65 chapters worldwide and membership of approximately 4,000 (as of June 2008). The governing body is identified as the Board of Directors consisting of a President, five Vice Presidents, and Directors-at-Large elected by the membership. Benefits to both members and non-members interested in the IEEE EMC Society includes:

A Transactions (or Journal) on Electromagnetic Compatibility A quarterly newsletter An annual symposium or conference Chapter development program Eleven technical committees Professional committees related to education, standards and third-party organizations A distinguished lecturer program

Details on the above programs are found on the societys web site: The EMC Society is organized into different areas of interest, each with a Vice President who oversees operational aspects under his/her leadership.

Member Services Technical Services Communication Services Conferences Standards



There are eleven Technical Committees of the IEEE EMC Society along with several specialized committees. These committees provide technical guidance to the Board of Directors and the general membership. Each of the technical committees provides expertise in a particular technical area while other committees have a focus on Society operations worldwide.

Technical Activities Committee TC-1 EMC Management TC-2 EMC Measurements TC-3 Electromagnetic Environment TC-4 Electromagnetic Interference Control TC-5 High Power Electromagnetics TC-6 Spectrum Management TC-7 Nonsinusoidal Fields TC-8 Electromagnetic Product Safety TC-9 Computational Electromagnetic TC-10 Signal Integrity TC-11 Nanotechnology Representative Advisory Committee Education and Student Activities Committee

Standards Committee



IEEE IEEE EMC Society EMC Society Orange County, California chapter IEEE Germany Section EMC Society Chapter IEEE Hong Kong Section EMC Society Chapter


1. ^ IEEE Global History Network (2011). "IEEE Electromagnetic Compatibility Society History". IEEE History Center. Retrieved 27 June 2011.

Charging station
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article covers electrical recharging. For pneumatic recharging, see compressed air vehicle.

Nissan Leaf charging from an Andromeda Power ORCA mobile charger inAnaheim, California.

Nissan Leaf recharging from a NRG Energy eVgo station in Houston, Texas

Public charging stations in San Francisco2009

Brammo Empulse electric motorcycle at aAeroVironment charging station

An electric vehicle charging station, also called EV charging station, electric recharging point, charging point and EVSE (Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment), is an element in an infrastructure that supplies electric energy for the recharging of plug-in electric vehicles, including all-electric cars, neighborhood electric vehicles and plug-in hybrids. As of October 2012, the United States had 13,967 public charging units, of which 3,472 were located in California.[1] As of November 2012, about 15,000 charging stations had been installed in Europe,[2] of which, Norway, the world's leader in electric car ownership per capita, had 3,708 free public charging points through November 2012.[3] As of December 2011, Japan had 800 public quick-charge stations,[4] and China only 168 public charging stations.[5] As plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and battery electric vehicle ownership is expanding, there is a growing need for widely distributed publicly accessible charging stations, some of which support faster charging at higher voltages and currents than are available from domestic supplies. Many charging stations are onstreet facilities provided by electric utility companies, mobile charging stations have been recently

introduced. Some of these special charging stations provide one or a range of heavy duty or special connectors and/or charging without a physical connection using parking places equipped with inductive charging mats.

1 Overview

o o

1.1 Safety 1.2 Standards

2 Mode 1: Household socket and extension cord

o o o

2.1 No dedicated circuit 2.2 Temperature derating and intensive use 2.3 Obsoleteness and non-compliance

3 Mode 2: Domestic socket and cable with a protection device 4 Mode 3: Specific socket on a dedicated circuit 5 Mode 4: Direct current (DC) connection for fast recharging

5.1 Evolution

6 Charging time 7 Infrastructure 8 Smart grid communication 9 Deployment of public charging stations

o o o

9.1 Locations 9.2 Vehicle and charging station projects and joint ventures 9.3 List of EV charging station designers

o o

9.3.1 Slow charge 9.3.2 Fast and slow charge

9.4 EV charging station signs 9.5 Block heater power supplies

10 Battery swapping

10.1 Incidents

11 Renewable electricity and RE charging stations

o o o

11.1 SPARC station 11.2 E-Move charging station 11.3 Wind-powered charging station

12 See also 13 Notes

14 External links


Public-domain European charge station sign

U.S. traffic sign used for EV charging station

Although most rechargeable electric vehicles and equipment can be recharged from a domestic wall socket, a charging station is usually accessible to multiple electric vehicle (EV) owners and has additional current or connection sensing mechanisms to disconnect the power when the EV is not actually charging. This is in case an EV should be carelessly driven away before being unplugged, and so violently rip away the charging cable insulation and expose the electric conductors, which (except for the sensor mechanism) could be dangerous. There are two main types of safety sensor:

additional physical 'sensor wires' which provide a feedback signal such as specified by the undermentioned SAE J1772 and IEC 62196 schemes that require special (multi-pin) power plug fittings,

Current sensors which monitor the power consumed, and only maintain the connection if the demand is within a "window" (for example between 1 ampere and 15 amperes).

Sensor wires react more quickly, have less parts to fail and are possibly less expensive to design and implement. Current sensors however can use standard connectors and can readily provide an option for suppliers to monitor or charge for the electricity actually consumed.

In SAE terminology, 240 volt AC charging is known as level 2 charging, and 500 volt DC high-current charging is known as DC Fast Charge. Owners can install a level 2 charging station at home, while businesses and local government provide level 2 and DC Fast Charge public charging stations that supply electricity for a fee or free. The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) modes are similar:

Mode 1 - slow charging from a regular electrical socket (1- or 3-phase) Mode 2 - slow charging from a regular socket but which equipped with some EV specific protection arrangement (e.g., the Park & Charge or the PARVE systems)

Mode 3 - slow or fast charging using a specific EV multi-pin socket with control and protection functions (e.g., SAE J1772 and IEC 62196)

Mode 4 - fast charging using some special charger technology such as CHAdeMO.

There are also three connection cases with which mode is sometimes confused

Case A is any charger connected to the mains (the mains supply cable is usually attached to the charger) usually associated with modes 1 or 2

Case B is an on-board vehicle charger with a mains supply cable which can be detached from both the supply and the vehicle - usually mode 3

Case C is a dedicated charging station with DC supply to the vehicle. The mains supply cable may be permanently attached to the charge-station such as in mode 4.

And finally there are four plug types

Type 1 - single phase vehicle coupler - reflecting the SAE J1772/2009 automotive plug specifications Type 2 - single and three phase vehicle coupler - reflecting the VDE-AR-E 2623-2-2 plug specifications Type 3 - single and three phase vehicle coupler equipped with safety shutters - reflecting the EV Plug Alliance proposal

Type 4 - fast charge coupler - for special systems such as CHAdeMO


1: Household socket and extension cord

This section does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (December 2012)

The vehicle is connected to the power grid through standard socket-outlets present in residences, which depending on the country are usually rated at around 10 A. To use mode 1, the electrical installation must comply with the safety regulations and must have an earthing system, a circuit breaker to protect against overload and an earth leakage protection. The sockets have blanking devices to prevent accidental contacts. This solution is the simplest and the most direct to implement. It offers the driver the option of charging his /her vehicle almost everywhere, which guarantees the peace of mind for the first-time buyers of electric vehicles. However, this solution may pose risks if used incorrectly and has several serious limitations which has led to the definition of other more efficient charging modes.

Mode 1 : Fixed, non-dedicated socket.

The first limitation is the available power, to avoid risks of

heating of the socket and cables following intensive use for several hours at or near the maximum power (which varies from 8 to 16 A depending on the country)

fire or electric injury risks if the electrical installation is obsolete or if certain protective devices are absent.

The second limitation is related to the installation's power management

as the charging socket shares a feeder from the switchboard with other sockets (no dedicated circuit) if the sum of consumptions exceeds the protection limit (in general 16 A), the circuit-breaker will trip, stopping the charging.

All these factors impose a limit on the power in mode 1, for safety and service quality reasons. This limit is currently being defined, and the value of 10 A appears to be the best compromise. At this power, it will take nearly 10 hours to fully charge a vehicle.


dedicated circuit

For instance, in France, the local standard NF-C-15100 standard on installation allows the connection of several household socket-outlets into the same protective element of the dwelling's electrical switchboard:

Up to 5 socket-outlets with a cable with a cross-section 1.5 mm2.

Protection by a 16 A circuit breaker.

Up to 8 socket-outlets with a cable with a cross-section 2.5 mm2.

Protection by a 20 A circuit breaker. It is therefore highly probable that the household socket used for charging an electric vehicle is on the same circuit as another electrical appliance, which may also be in operation during the charging. In this case, the OCP, Overcurrent Protective Device, will open for safety reasons, as the cumulated currents of the electric vehicle and the household appliance will be higher than its setting threshold. Installation of a dedicated circuit for electric vehicle charging can prevent this type of unwanted tripping. Ensuring that any load or appliances on the shared EV charging circuit are turned off while charging, can prevent the OCP from tripping as well. This can be difficult to ensure, so a dedicated circuit is the most reliable solution.


derating and intensive use

Fully electric vehicles have charging powers varying from 3 to 24 kW. These powers correspond to charging currents from 16 A single-phase up to 32 A three-phase. Moreover, charging the vehicle may take up to 8 hours, and this has to be done regularly, even on a daily basis. The NF-C-15100 standard imposes cable cross-sections of 1.5 mm2 or 2.5 mm2. Their maximum permissible power is 3.7 kW for a 1.5 mm2 cable and up to 5.7 kW for a 2.5 mm2 cable. Household sockets are designed to be used at full load only for a limited period (typically 1 hour at maximum power, which is the case when we use household appliances). When charging an electric vehicle, the charging time exceeds this limit and can last up to 6 or 8 hours. Household sockets must therefore be classified as derating systems for this use case: their permissible current must be lower than 16 A or 32 A in order to limit abnormal temperature increases in components and to prevent fire hazards.


and non-compliance

In France, electrical installation professionals believe that there are about 7 million hazardous electrical installations (obsolete, non-compliant, etc.), accounting for a little less than half of the old residential building stock.

Mode 2 : Non-dedicated socket with cable-incorporated protection device.

For instance in France, from 1972 onwards, new electrical installations are subject to an inspection and an attestation of compliance. This measure instituted by public authorities was extended in 2001 to the electrical installations of fully renovated dwellings. However, the electrical installations of the 16 million dwellings built before 1972 are not covered by any regulatory control measure. There are also misgivings about the condition of electrical installations in the dwellings built after 1972: according to electrical safety experts, an installation in which no change has been made for the last 30 years can be considered as obsolete. They further believe that, after thirty years, even in normal usage conditions, an electrical installation may most likely pose hazards due to wear and tear if no maintenance operation has been carried out since it was set up. Connecting an electric vehicle without any precaution to this type of installation can therefore be dangerous for people and property when appropriate protective devices are absent.

Mode 3 : Fixed, dedicated circuit-socket.


2: Domestic socket and cable with a protection device

The vehicle is connected to the main power grid via household socket-outlets. Charging is done via a single-phase or three-phase network and installation of an earthing cable. A protection device is built into the cable. This solution is particularly expensive due to the specificity of the cable.

Mode 4 : CC Connexion.


3: Specific socket on a dedicated circuit

The vehicle is connected directly to the electrical network via specific socket and plug and a dedicated circuit. A control and protection function is also installed permanently in the installation. This is the only charging mode that meets the applicable standards regulating electrical installations. It also allows loadshedding so that electrical household appliances can be operated during vehicle charging or on the contrary optimise the electric vehicle charging time.


4: Direct current (DC) connection for fast recharging

The electric vehicle is connected to the main power grid through an external charger. Control and protection functions and the vehicle charging cable are installed permanently in the installation.

The coordinated development of charging stations in a region by a company or local government is more fully discussed in the electric vehicle network article. Currently charging stations are being installed by public authorities, commercial enterprises and some major employers in order to stimulate the market for vehicle that use alternative fuels to gasoline & diesel fuels. For this reason most charge stations are currently either provided gratis or accessible to members of certain groups without significant charge (e.g. activated by a free "membership card" or by a digital "day code").



The battery capacity of a fully charged electric vehicle is about 20 kWh, providing it with an electrical autonomy of about 100 kilometres; chargeable hybrid vehicles have capacity of roughly 3 to 5 kWh, for an electrical autonomy of 20 to 40 kilometres (the gasoline engine ensures the autonomy of a conventional vehicle). As this autonomy is still limited, the vehicle has to be charged every 2 or 3 days on average. In practice, drivers charge their vehicles every 1 or 2 days on average. For normal charging (3 kW), car manufacturers have built a battery charger into the car. A charging cable is used to connect it to the electrical network to supply 230 volt AC current. For quicker charging (22 kW, even 43 kW and more), manufacturers have chosen two solutions: - use the vehicle's built-in charger, designed to charge from 3 to 43 kW at 230 V single-phase or 400 V three-phase. - use an external charger, which converts AC current into DC current and charges the vehicle at 50 kW.

Charging time

Power supply


Max current

68 hours

Single phase - 3,3 kW 230 VAC

16 A

23 hours

Three phase - 10 kW

400 VAC

16 A

34 hours

Single phase - 7 kW

230 VAC

32 A

12 hours

Three phase - 24 kW

400 VAC

32 A

2030 minutes Three phase - 43 kW

400 VAC

63 A

2030 minutes Direct current - 50 kW 400 - 500 VDC 100 - 125 A

The user finds charging an electric vehicle as simple as connecting a normal electrical appliance; however to ensure that this operation takes place in complete safety, the charging system must perform several safety functions and dialogue with the vehicle during connection and charging.


Project Better Place charging stations inRamat Hasharon, Israel, north of Tel Aviv.

Public charging station in a parking lotnear Los Angeles International Airport. Shown are two old-style (6kW level2) EVSE units (left: inductive Magne-charge gen2 SPI, right: conductive EVII ICS-200 AVCON.

REVAi/G-Wiz i charging from an on-street station in London.

Charging stations for electric vehicles may not need much new infrastructure in developed countries, less than delivering a new alternative fuel over a new network.[6] The stations can leverage the existing ubiquitous electrical grid and home recharging is an option. For example, polls have shown that more than half of homeowners in the USA have access to a plug to charge their cars.[citation needed] Also most driving is local over short distances which reduces the need for charging mid-trip. In the USA, for example, 78% of commutes are less than 40 miles (64 km) round-trip.[7] Nevertheless, longer drives between cities and towns require a network of public charging stations or another method to extend the range of electric vehicles beyond the normal daily commute. One challenge in such infrastructure is the level of demand: an isolated station along a busy highway may see hundreds of customers per hour if every passing electric vehicle has to stop there to complete the trip. In the first half of the 20th century, internal combustion vehicles faced a similar infrastructure problem.


grid communication

Recharging a large battery pack presents a high load on the electrical grid, but this can be scheduled for periods of reduced load or reduced electricity costs. In order to schedule the recharging, either the charging station or the vehicle can communicate with the smart grid. Some plug-in vehicles allow the vehicle operator to control recharging through a web interface or smartphone app.[citation needed] Furthermore, in a Vehicle-to-grid scenario the vehicle battery can supply energy to the grid at periods of peak demand. This requires additional communication between the grid, charging station, and vehicle electronics. SAE International is developing a range of standards for energy transfer to and from the grid including SAE J2847/1 "Communication between Plug-in Vehicles and the Utility Grid".[8]

[edit]Deployment [edit]Locations

of public charging stations

Charging stations can be found and will be needed where there is on-street parking, at taxi stands, in parking lots (at places of employment, hotels, airports, shopping centers, convenience shops, fast food restaurants, coffeehouses etc.), phone booths, as well as in driveways and garages at home. Existing filling stations may also become or may incorporate charging stations. They can be added onto other public infrastructure that has an electrical supply, such as phone booths [9] and smart parking meters.

Anxiety regarding range and finding charging stations can be a major concern for EV drivers; this can be helped with online directories such as EV-Networks[10] or some charging station providers like POD Point in the UK publish live availability[11] of their charging locations for EV drivers. In the UK most charging points have highly visible indicator lights [12] on the charging point to show whether it is available, charging or out of service.


and charging station projects and joint ventures

Wireless charging station

Detail of the wireless inductive charging device

Main article: Electric vehicle network Electric car manufacturers, charging infrastructure providers, and regional governments have entered into many agreements and ventures to promote and provide electric vehicle networks of public charging stations. The EV Plug Alliance[13] is an association of 21 European manufacturers which proposes a safe connecting solution. The project is to impose an IECnorm and to adopt a European standard for the connection solution with sockets and plugs for electric vehicle charging infrastructure.

The EV Plug Alliance has the highest safety level thanks to the adoption of protective shutters to prevent any accidental contact with live parts and the expertise of its members: Schneider Electric, Legrand, Scame, Nexans, etc.


of EV charging station designers

The principal suppliers and manufacturers of charging stations offer a range of options from simple charging posts for roadside use, charging cabinets for covered parking places to fully automated charging stations integrated with power distribution equipment[14]

[edit]Slow charge
Design concentration in systems that may take up to 6 hours and in automated chargers which are likely to provide a full (100%) charge and conserve battery life.

PARVE Charging System A Spanish design SemaConnect A US maker of Charge Pro Level 1 outlets

[edit]Fast and slow charge

Design concentration on DC Fast Charge (less than 30 minutes). These systems may offer a restricted charge (stops at 80% SOC), or changes charging rate to a lower level after the 80% SOC is reached.

AeroVironment Better Place Coulomb Technologies ECOtality Elektromotive IAV A German design for an In-Road Electric Vehicle Charger OpConnect Electric Vehicle Charging System Schneider Electric


charging station signs

In the United States, the standard charging station sign is defined in the Federal Highway Administration's Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices(MUTCD) 2009 edition. See two examples of "D9-11b Electric Vehicle Charging" and "D9-11bP Electric Vehicle Charging" at "Figure 2I-1. General Service Signs and Plaques", page 301, Sect. 2I.02 There is an open source, public domain European charge station sign proposed.[15]


heater power supplies

In colder areas such as Finland, some northern US states and Canada there already exists some infrastructure for public power outlets provided primarily for use by block heaters and set with circuit

breakers that prevent large current draws for other uses. These can sometimes be used to recharge electric vehicles, albeit slowly. In public lots, some such outlets are only turned on when the temperature falls below -20C, further limiting their use.[16]



A charging station is different from a battery switch station, which is a place to swap a discharged battery or battery pack for a fully charged one, saving the delay of waiting for the vehicle's battery to charge. Battery swapping is common in warehouses using electric forklift trucks.[17] The companies Better Place, Tesla Motors, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries[18] and others are currently working in integrating battery switch technology in their electric vehicles to extend their driving range. Better Place is using the same technology to swap batteries that F-16 jet fighter aircraft use to load their bombs.[19] In a battery switch station, the driver does not need to get out of the car while the battery is swapped.[20] Better Place's automated battery-switching station (also called Quickdrop Stations) can complete a battery swap in less than one minute,[21] which is faster than refueling a conventional petrol car. SwapPack, a Texas entity, is developing as of April 2010 a swap arrangement, similar to the swapping out of butane gas tanks at convenience stores, a similar swap at car dealerships and large wholesale big box retailers. These locations will allow drivers the security of making a quick change of battery packs to have a power pack that is totally recharged. As of November 2010 the batteries of existing hybrid/electric cars, i.e. Prius, have not yet expired after a 100,000-mile (160,000 km) duration. Battery swap depends on at least one electric car designed for "easy swap" of batteries. However, electric vehicle manufacturers that are working on battery switch technology have not standardized on battery access, attachment, dimension, location, or type. Better Place announced the Renault Fluence Z.E. would be the first electric car with a switchable battery available on the Better Place network,[22] also Tesla Motors are integrating one minute battery switch technology[23] in their Model S sedan with the possibility to rent 300-mile (480 km) batteries for longer trips.[24] Summary of benefits of battery swapping:

Fast battery swapping of around 59.1 seconds.[21] Unlimited driving range where there are battery switch stations available.[25] The driver does not have to get out of the car while the battery is swapped.[26] The driver does not own the battery in the car, transferring costs over the battery, battery life, maintenance, capital cost, quality, technology, and warranty to the battery switch station company.[27]

Contract with battery switch company could subsidize the electric vehicle at a price lower than equivalent petrol cars.[28]

The spare batteries at swap stations could participate in vehicle to grid storage.[citation needed]

In 2011 a Zotye Langyue EV taxicab in Hangzhou, China caught fire and was destroyed, although the driver and passenger were able to escape unharmed. Later investigation by the city's Quality Supervision and Inspection Administration revealed that the fire had been caused by an issue with taxi's defective swappable battery pack. Although the batteries themselves were not designed for automotive use, the battery pack had been poorly taken care of which caused damage to the insulation between the battery cells and the aluminum casing, creating numerous short circuits. It was one of the stronger short circuits which ignited the car. The remaining 29 taxicabs belonging to the city (14 produced by Zotye International and 15 produced by Haima) were withdrawn from service that day and modified before going back into service.[29]


electricity and RE charging stations

A modified Toyota Prius and Honda Insight at a charging station in Rio De Janeiro. This station is run by Petrobras and uses solar energy.

See also: Solar-charged vehicle Charging stations are usually connected to the electrical grid, which often means that their electricity originates from fossil-fuel power stations or nuclear power plants. Solar power is also suitable for electric vehicles. SolarCity is marketing its solar energy systems along with electric car charging installations. The company has announced a partnership with Rabobank to make electric car charging available for free to owners of Tesla Motors' vehicles traveling on Highway 101 between San Francisco and Los Angeles. Other cars that can make use of same charging technology are welcome.[30]



The SPARC (Solar Powered Automotive ReCharging Station uses a single custom fabricated monocrystalline solar panel capable of producing 2.7 kW of peak power to charge pure electric or plug-in hybrid to 80% capacity without drawing electricity from the local grid. Plans for the

SPARC include a non-grid tied system as well as redundancy for tying to the grid through a renewable power plan. This supports their claim for net-zero driving of electric vehicles.


charging station

The E-Move Charging Station is equipped with eight monocrystalline solar panels, which can supply 1.76KWp of solar power. With further refinements, the designers are hoping to generate about 2000KWh of electricity from the panels over the year.[31]


charging station

In 2012, Urban Green Energy introduced the world's first wind-powered electric vehicle charging station, the Sanya SkyPump. The design features a 4 kW vertical-axis wind turbine paired with a GE WattStation. [32]



Automated charging machine Battery charger Battery leasing Direct coupling Dump charging Electric vehicle battery Electric vehicle network EV Project Filling station IAV In-road electric vehicle charger Lamppost Magne Charge Park & Charge Plug-in vehicle Plug-in hybrid vehicle Plugless Power RFID SAE J1772 and CHAdeMO charging standards Solar-charged vehicle Transport electrification V2G, V2Green and V2H



^ U.S. Department of Energy (2012-10-31). "Alternative Fueling Station Counts by State". Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC). Retrieved 2012-11-16. The AFDC counts electric charging units, or EVSE, as one for each outlet available.


^ Renault Press Release (2012-12-17). "Renault delivers first ZOE EV". Green Car Congress. Retrieved 2012-12-17.


^ "Ladepunkter i Norge [Charging points in Norway]" (in Norwegian). Grnn bil. December 2012. Retrieved 2012-12-17.


^ Brad Berman (2011-11-06). "Electric Car Quick Charging in Japan: Its Nissan Versus Everybody Else". Retrieved 2012-05-22.


^ "2012 Chinese Auto Industry Development Report". Green Car Congress. 2012-07-09. Retrieved 2012-07-10.


^ "Plug-In 2008: Company News: GM/V2Green/Coulomb/Google/HEVT/PlugInSupply".CalCars. 2008-07-28. Retrieved 2010-05-30.


^ Source: US Department of Transportation, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Omnibus Household Survey. Data from the February, April, June, and August 2003 surveys have been combined. Data cover activities for the month prior to the survey. (October 2003). "From Home to Work, the Average Commute is 26.4 Minutes". OmniStats 3 (4). Retrieved 2009-10-15.


^ "SAE Ground Vehicle Standards Status of work PHEV +". SAE International. 2010-01. pp. 17. Retrieved 2010-09-03.



10. ^ 11. ^ 12. ^ 13. ^ 14. ^ "Electric vehicles - About electric vehicles - Charging - suppliers". Public authority announcement. The Mayor of London for the London Assembly and the Greater London Authority, UK. First published 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-24. 15. ^ 16. ^ Park and Ride Locations, Calgary Transit, 16 April 2009, retrieved 2009-04-25, "The plug-ins located in the Park and Ride lots automatically turn on when the outside temperature falls below 20 degrees and turn off and on in increments to save electricity usage." 17. ^ "Industrial electrical vehicle stalwarts head out on the road". 18. ^ "Mitsubishi working on battery swapping for transit buses, Better Place not involved". 19. ^ "Charging Ahead With a New Electric Car".

20. ^ "Better Place. Battery switch stations". 21. ^

a b

"Better Place expands Tokyo battery swap trials; taxis have changed packs 2,122 times

already". 22. ^ "Better Place. The Renault Fluence ZE". Better Place. 2010-10-22. Retrieved 2010-10-22. 23. ^ "Tesla Model S specs". 24. ^ "Tesla Model S customers will be able to swap batteries at Tesla dealerships with the possibility to rent 300 mile batteries for longer trips.". 25. ^ "Better Place, California Battery Switch Station Deployment". 26. ^ "Better Place, battery switch station description". 27. ^ "Lithium Ion Israel". 28. ^ "Better Place's Renault Fluence EV to sell for under $20,000". 29. ^ "Battery Pack Defects Blamed for Zotye EV Fire". ChinaAutoWeb. Retrieved 6 July 2011. 30. ^ 31. ^ 32. ^

Automated charging machine

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article is an orphan, as no other articles link to it. Please introduce links to this page from related articles; suggestions may be available. (July 2009)
An Automated Charging Machine (ACM) is an electronic machine that provides the public with the ability to recharge a mobile device, often for a small fee. Similar to vending machines, ACMs take cash, then charge the connected devices, which may be cell phones, PDAs, or other handheld devices. Usually, these machines charge much faster than normal chargers would charge them; some provide a charge in as little as 10 minutes.[1]

1 History 2 Locations 3 See also 4 References

Public charging stations for mobile devices appeared around 2006.[2] A variety of features have been introduced to these machines, including lockers, UV sanitation, and wirelessly updated advertising space.[3] Since the introduction of the idea, an increasing number of companies are looking toward ACMs for vending and advertising revenue.

ACMs are generally deployed in areas with a high amount of foot traffic, similar to vending machines and ATMs. These places include airports, shopping malls, parks, clubs, supermarkets,campuses, and other popular locations. Though is it unknown how many ACMs are in use around the world, they can be found in a variety of countries including the United States,[4] England, andChina.

Battery charger
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This unit charges the batteries until they reach a specific voltage and then it trickle charges the batteries until it is disconnected.

A simple charger equivalent to an AC/DC wall adapter. It applies 300mA to the battery at all times, which will damage the battery if left connected too long.

A battery charger is a device used to put energy into a secondary cell or rechargeable battery by forcing an electric current through it. The charging protocol depends on the size and type of the battery being charged. Some battery types have high tolerance for overcharging and can be recharged by connection to a constant voltage source or a constant current source; simple chargers of this type require manual disconnection at the end of the charge cycle, or may have a timer to cut off charging current at a fixed time. Other battery types cannot withstand long high-rate over-charging; the charger may have temperature or voltage sensing circuits and a microprocessor controller to adjust the charging current, and cut off at the end of charge. A trickle charger provides a relatively small amount of current, only enough to counteract self-discharge of a battery that is idle for a long time. Slow battery chargers may take several hours to complete a charge; high-rate chargers may restore most capacity within minutes or less than an hour, but generally require monitoring of the battery to protect it from overcharge. Electric vehicles need high-rate chargers for public access; installation of such chargers and the distribution support for them is an issue in the proposed adoption of electric cars.

1 Charge rate 2 Types of battery chargers

o o o o

2.1 Simple 2.2 Trickle 2.3 Timer-based 2.4 Intelligent

o o

2.4.1 Universal battery chargeranalyzers

2.5 Fast 2.6 Pulse

o o o o

2.7 Inductive 2.8 USB-based 2.9 Solar chargers 2.10 Motion-powered charger

3 Applications

o o o o

3.1 Mobile phone charger 3.2 Battery charger for vehicles 3.3 Battery electric vehicle 3.4 Use in experiments

4 Prolonging battery life 5 See also 6 References 7 External links



Charge rate is often denoted as C or C-rate and signifies a charge or discharge rate equal to the capacity of a battery in one hour.[1] For a 1.6Ah battery, C = 1.6A. A charge rate of C/2 = 0.8A would need two hours, and a charge rate of 2C = 3.2A would need 30 minutes to fully charge the battery from an empty state, if supported by the battery. This also assumes that the battery is 100% efficient at absorbing the charge. A battery charger may be specified in terms of the battery capacity or C rate; a charger rated C/10 would return the battery capacity in 10 hours, a charger rated at 4C would charge the battery in 15 minutes. Very rapid charging rates, 1 hour or less, generally require the charger to carefully monitor battery parameters such as terminal voltage and temperature to prevent overcharging and damage to the cells.

[edit]Types [edit]Simple

of battery chargers

A simple charger works by supplying a constant DC or pulsed DC power source to a battery being charged. The simple charger does not alter its output based on time or the charge on the battery. This simplicity means that a simple charger is inexpensive, but there is a tradeoff in quality. Typically, a simple charger takes longer to charge a battery to prevent severe over-charging. Even so, a battery left in a simple charger for too long will be weakened or destroyed due to over-charging. These chargers can supply either a constant voltage or a constant current to the battery. Simple AC-powered battery chargers have much higher ripple current and ripple voltage than other kinds of battery supplies. When the ripple current is within the battery-manufacturer-recommended level, the ripple voltage will also be well within the recommended level. The maximum ripple current for a typical 12 V 100

Ah VRLA battery is 5 amps. As long as the ripple current is not excessive (more than 3 to 4 times the battery-manufacturer-recommended level), the expected life of a ripple-charged VRLA battery is within 3% of the life of a constant DC-charged battery.[2]

Main article: Trickle charging A trickle charger is typically a low-current (5001,500 mA) battery charger. A trickle charger is generally used to charge small capacity batteries (230 Ah). These types of battery chargers are also used to maintain larger capacity batteries (> 30 Ah) that are typically found on cars, boats, RVs and other related vehicles. In larger applications, the current of the battery charger is sufficient only to provide a maintenance or trickle current (trickle is commonly the last charging stage of most battery chargers). Depending on the technology of the trickle charger, it can be left connected to the battery indefinitely. Some battery chargers that can be left connected to the battery without causing the battery damage are also referred to as smart or intelligent chargers.

[edit]Timer-based This section does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (June 2010)
The output of a timer charger is terminated after a pre-determined time. Timer chargers were the most common type for high-capacity Ni-Cd cells in the late 1990s for example (low-capacity consumer Ni-Cd cells were typically charged with a simple charger). Often a timer charger and set of batteries could be bought as a bundle and the charger time was set to suit those batteries. If batteries of lower capacity were charged then they would be overcharged, and if batteries of higher capacity were charged they would be only partly charged. With the trend for battery technology to increase capacity year on year, an old timer charger would only partly charge the newer batteries. Timer based chargers also had the drawback that charging batteries that were not fully discharged, even if those batteries were of the correct capacity for the particular timed charger, would result in over-charging.


Example of a smart charger for AA and AAA batteries

A "smart charger" should not be confused with a "smart battery". A smart battery is generally defined as one containing some sort of electronic device or "chip" that can communicate with a smart charger about battery characteristics and condition. A smart battery generally requires a smart charger it can communicate with (see Smart Battery Data). A smart charger is defined as a charger that can respond to the condition of a battery, and modify its charging actions accordingly. Some smart chargers are designed to charge "smart" batteries. Some smart chargers are designed to charge "dumb" batteries, which lack any internal electronic circuitry. The term "smart battery charger" is thoroughly ambiguous, since it is not clear whether the adjective "smart" refers to the battery or only to the charger. The output current of a smart charger depends upon the battery's state. An intelligent charger may monitor the battery's voltage, temperature or time under charge to determine the optimum charge current and to terminate charging. For Ni-Cd and NiMH batteries, the voltage across the battery increases slowly during the charging process, until the battery is fully charged. After that, the voltage decreases, which indicates to an intelligent charger that the battery is fully charged. Such chargers are often labeled as a V, "delta-V," or sometimes "delta peak", charger, indicating that they monitor the voltage change. The problem is, the magnitude of "delta-V" can become very small or even non-existent if (very) high[quantify] capacity rechargeable batteries are recharged.[citation needed] This can cause even an intelligent battery charger to not sense that the batteries are actually already fully charged, and continue charging. Overcharging of the batteries will result in some cases. However, many so called intelligent chargers employ a combination of cut off systems, which should prevent overcharging in the vast majority of cases. A typical intelligent charger fast-charges a battery up to about 85% of its maximum capacity in less than an hour, then switches to trickle charging, which takes several hours to top off the battery to its full capacity. [3]

[edit]Universal battery chargeranalyzers

The most sophisticated types are used in critical applications e.g.: military or aviation batteries. These heavy-duty automatic intelligent charging systems can be programmed with complex charging cycles specified by the battery maker. The best are universal (i.e.: can charge all battery types), and include automatic capacity testing and analyzing functions too.

Fast chargers make use of control circuitry in the batteries being charged to rapidly charge the batteries without damaging the cells' elements. Most such chargers have a cooling fan to help keep the temperature of the cells under control. Most are also capable of acting as standard overnight chargers if used with standard NiMH cells that do not have the special control circuitry.

Some chargers use pulse technology in which a series of voltage or current pulses is fed to the battery. The DC pulses have a strictly controlled rise time, pulse width, pulse repetition rate (frequency)

and amplitude. This technology is said to work with any size, voltage, capacity or chemistry of batteries, including automotive and valve-regulated batteries.[4] With pulse charging, high instantaneous voltages can be applied without overheating the battery. In a Leadacid battery, this breaks down lead-sulfate crystals, thus greatly extending the battery service life.[5] Several kinds of pulse charging are patented.[6][7][8] Others are open source hardware.[9] Some chargers use pulses to check the current battery state when the charger is first connected, then use constant current charging during fast charging, then use pulse charging as a kind of trickle charging to maintain the charge.[10] Some chargers use "negative pulse charging", also called "reflex charging" or "burp charging". [11] Such chargers use both positive and brief negative current pulses. There is no significant evidence, however, that negative pulse charging is more effective than ordinary pulse charging.[12][13]

Main article: Inductive charging Inductive battery chargers use electromagnetic induction to charge batteries. A charging station sends electromagnetic energy through inductive coupling to an electrical device, which stores the energy in the batteries. This is achieved without the need for metal contacts between the charger and the battery. It is commonly used in electric toothbrushes and other devices used in bathrooms. Because there are no open electrical contacts, there is no risk of electrocution.

See also: USB#Power

Pay-per-charge kiosk, illustrating the variety of mobile phone charger connectors

Since the Universal Serial Bus specification provides for a five-volt power supply, it is possible to use a USB cable as a power source for recharging batteries. Products based on this approach include chargers for cellular phones and portable digital audio players. They may be fully compliant USB peripheral devices adhering to USB power discipline, or uncontrolled in the manner of USB decorations.



Further information: Solar charger and energy harvesting Solar chargers convert light energy into DC current. They are generally portable, but can also be fixed mount. Fixed mount solar chargers are also known as solar panels. Solar panels are often connected to the electrical grid, whereas portable solar chargers are used off-the-grid (i.e. cars, boats, orRVs). Although portable solar chargers obtain energy from the sun only, they still can (depending on the technology) be used in low light (i.e. cloudy) applications. Portable solar chargers are typically used for trickle charging, although some solar chargers (depending on the wattage), can completely recharge batteries. The Kinesis K3 is a handheld charger for charging small personal devices like cellphones, gps's, digital cameras, gaming devices, etc. It contains a small wind generator, a small solar panel and batteries. The batteries can be charged by the panel, the wind generator or by connection to a power source (120V, 12V, or USB). It can then be used to recharge a small personal device.



Several companies have begun making devices that charge batteries based on regular human motion. One example, made by Tremont Electric, consists of a magnet held between two springs that can charge a battery as the device is moved up and down, such as when walking. Such products have not yet achieved significant commercial success.[14]

Since a battery charger is intended to be connected to a battery, it may not have voltage regulation or filtering of the DC voltage output. Battery chargers equipped with both voltage regulation and filtering may be identified as battery eliminators.


phone charger

See also: USB#Power

Micro USB mobile phone charger

A charging station for various brands of mobile phones.

Most mobile phone chargers are not really chargers, only power adapters that provide a power source for the charging circuitry which is almost always contained within the mobile phone. [15] They are notoriously diverse, having a wide variety of DC connector-styles and voltages, most of which are not compatible with other manufacturers' phones or even different models of phones from a single manufacturer. Users of publicly accessible charging kiosks must be able to cross-reference connectors with device brands/models and individual charge parameters and thus ensure delivery of the correct charge for their mobile device. A database-driven system is one solution, and is being incorporated into some designs of charging kiosks. Mobile phones can usually accept a relatively wide range of voltages[citation needed], as long as it is sufficiently above the phone battery's voltage. However, if the voltage is too high, it can damage the phone. Mostly, the voltage is 5 volts or slightly higher, but it can sometimes vary up to 12 volts when the power source is not loaded. There are also human-powered chargers sold on the market, which typically consists of a dynamo powered by a hand crank and extension cords. There are also solar chargers. China, the European Commission and other countries are making a national standard on mobile phone chargers using the USB standard.[16] In June 2009, 10 of the world's largest mobile phone manufacturers signed a Memorandum of Understanding to develop specifications for and support amicroUSBequipped common External Power Supply (EPS) for all data-enabled mobile phones sold in the EU.[17][18] On October 22, 2009, theInternational Telecommunication Union announced a standard for a universal charger for mobile handsets (Micro-USB).[19]


charger for vehicles

Further information: Charging station There are two main types of charges for vehicles:

To recharge a fuel vehicle's starter battery, where a modular charger is used. To recharge an electric vehicle (EV) battery pack.


electric vehicle

These vehicles include a battery pack, so generally use series charger. EV converted electric vehicle battery chargers come in a variety of brands and characteristics. Zivan, Manzanita Micro, Elcon, Quick Charge,Rossco, Brusa, DeltaQ, Kelly, Lester and Soneil are the top 10 EV chargers in 2011 according to These chargers vary from 1 KW to 7.5 KW maximum charge rate. Some use algorithm charge curves, others use constant voltage, constant current. Some are programmable by the end user through a CAN port, some have dials for maximum voltage and amperage, some are preset to specified battery pack voltage, amp-hour and chemistry. Prices range from $400 to $4500.[20] A 10 Ampere-hour battery could take 15 hours to reach a fully charged state from a fully discharged condition with a 1 Ampere charger as it would require roughly 1.5 times the battery's capacity. Public EV charging[21] heads (aka: stations) provide 6 kW (host power of 208 to 240 VAC off a 40 amp circuit). 6 kW will recharge an EV roughly 6 times faster than 1 kW overnight charging. Rapid charging results in even faster recharge times and is limited only by available AC power and the type of charging system.[22] On board EV chargers (change AC power to DC power to recharge the EV's pack) can be:

Isolated: they make no physical connection between the A/C electrical mains and the batteries being charged. These typically employ some form of Inductive charging. Some isolated chargers may be used in parallel. This allows for an increased charge current and reduced charging times. The battery has a maximum current rating that cannot be exceeded

Non-isolated: the battery charger has a direct electrical connection to the A/C outlet's wiring. Nonisolated chargers cannot be used in parallel.

Power Factor Correction (PFC) chargers can more closely approach the maximum current the plug can deliver, shortening charging time. Charge stations Main article: Charging station There is a list of public EV charging stations in the U.S.A. and worldwide[21]

Project Better Place is deploying a network of charging stations and subsidizing vehicle battery costs through leases and credits.

Auxiliary charger designed to fit a variety of proprietary devices

Portable chargers comes in various capacities: 3400 11200 mAh

Non-contact magnetic charging Researchers at the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) have developed an electric transport system (called Online Electric Vehicle, OLEV) where the vehicles get their power needs from cables underneath the surface of the road via non-contact magnetic charging, (where a power source is placed underneath the road surface and power is wirelessly picked up on the vehicle itself. As a possible solution to traffic congestion and to improve overall efficiency by minimizing air resistance and so reduce energy consumption, the test vehicles followed the power track in a convoy formation[23]


in experiments

A battery charger can work as a DC power adapter for experimentation. It may, however, require an external capacitor to be connected across its output terminals in order to "smooth" the voltage sufficiently, which may be thought of as a DC voltage plus a "ripple" voltage added to it. Note that there may be an internal resistance connected to limit the short circuit current, and the value of that internal resistance may have to be taken into consideration in experiments.


battery life

What practices are best depend on the type of battery. NiCd cells need to be fully discharged occasionally, or else the battery loses capacity over time in a phenomenon known as "memory effect". Once a month (once every 30 charges) is sometimes recommended.[citation needed] This extends the life of the battery since

memory effect is prevented while avoiding full charge cycles which are known to be hard on all types of dry-cell batteries, eventually resulting in a permanent decrease in battery capacity. Most modern cell phones, laptops, and most electric vehicles use Lithium-ion batteries. These batteries last longest if the battery is frequently charged; fully discharging them will degrade their capacity relatively quickly.[24] When storing however, lithium batteries degrade more while fully charged than if they are only 40% charged. Degradation also occurs faster at higher temperatures. Degradation in lithium-ion batteries is caused by an increased internal battery resistance due to cell oxidation. This decreases the efficiency of the battery, resulting in less net current available to be drawn from the battery.[citation needed] However, if LiION cells are discharged below a certain voltage a chemical reaction occurs that make them dangerous if recharged, which is why probably all such batteries in consumer goods now have an "electronic fuse" that permanently disables them if the voltage falls below a set level. The electronic fuse draws a small amount of current from the battery, which means that if a laptop battery is left for a long time without charging it, and with a very low initial state of charge, the battery may be permanently destroyed. Internal combustion engine vehicles, such as boats, RVs, ATVs, motorcycles, cars, trucks, and more use leadacid batteries. These batteries employ a sulfuric acid electrolyte and can generally be charged and discharged without exhibiting memory effect, though sulfation (a chemical reaction in the battery which deposits a layer of sulfates on the lead) will occur over time. Keeping the electrolyte level in the recommended range is necessary. When discharged, these batteries should be recharged immediately in order to prevent sulfation. These sulfates are electrically insulating and therefore interfere with the transfer of charge from the sulfuric acid to the lead, resulting in a lower maximum current than can be drawn from the battery. all though there are methods for restoring Sulfated batteries such as a desulfation technique called pulse conditioning, the process is difficult and or time consuming thus adding to time and cost for maintenance, thus typically Sulfated batteries are simply replaced with new batteries and the old ones recycled. Leadacid batteries will experience substantially longer life when a maintenance charger is used to "float charge" the battery. This prevents the battery from ever being below 100% charge, preventing sulfate from forming. Proper temperature compensated float voltage should be used to achieve the best results.[citation

1. 2. 3. ^ A Guide to Understanding Battery Specifications, MIT Electric Vehicle Team, December 2008 ^ "Effects of AC Ripple Current on VRLA Battery Life" by Emerson Network Power ^ Dave Etchells. "The Great Battery Shootout".


^ "AN913: Switch-Mode, Linear, and Pulse Charging Techniques for Li+ Battery in Mobile Phones and PDAs". Maxim. 2001.

5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

^ "Leadacid battery sulfation". Archived from the original on 2007-04-02. ^ ""fast pulse battery charger" patent". 2003. ^ "Battery charger with current pulse regulation" patented 1981 United States Patent 4355275 ^ "Pulse-charge battery charger" patented 1997 United States Patent 5633574 ^ Pulse-charger/desulfator circuit schematic
[dead link]

10. ^ "Pulse Maintenance charging."

11. ^ "The pulse power(tm) battery charging system" 12. ^ "Negative Pulse Charge, or "Burp" Charging: Fact or Fiction?" 13. ^ Tech Brief: Negative Pulse Charging Myths and Facts and Negative Pulse Charging: Myths and Facts 14. ^ Martin LaMonica, CNET. "Motion-powered gadget charger back on track." Jul 1, 2011. Retrieved Jul 1, 2011. 15. ^ Mobile phone battery care 16. ^ China to work out national standard for mobile phone chargers. Retrieved on 201111-11. 17. ^ "Cellphone charger harmonization". Retrieved 2011-01-21. 18. ^ PC World:Universal Chargers are a Good Start Jan 2009 19. ^ Oct 22, 2009, ITU press release Universal charger for mobile phone handsets 20. ^ EV Lithium Battery Charger Options (2011-11-19) 21. ^
a b

Home. EV Charger News (2010-08-28). Retrieved on 2011-11-11.

22. ^ Fuji Heavy Speeds Up Recharging of R1e EV. Green Car Congress (2007-09-18). Retrieved on 2011-11-11. 23. ^ Korean electric vehicle solution. Retrieved on 2011-11-11. 24. ^ "How to prolong lithium-based batteries". September 2006. Archived from the original on 31 December 2009. Retrieved November 21, 2009.

Frster resonance energy transfer

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jablonski diagram of FRET with typical timescales indicated.

Frster (Fluorescence) resonance energy transfer (FRET), resonance energy transfer (RET) or electronic energy transfer (EET), is a mechanism describing energy transfer between two chromophores.[1] A donor chromophore, initially in its electronic excited state, may transfer energy to an acceptor chromophore through nonradiative dipoledipole coupling.[2] The efficiency of this energy transfer is inversely proportional to the sixth power of the distance between donor and acceptor making FRET extremely sensitive to small distances.[3] Measurements of FRET efficiency can be used to determine if two fluorophores are within a certain distance of each other.[4] Such measurements are used as a research tool in fields including biology and chemistry. FRET is analogous to near field communication, in that the radius of interaction is much smaller than the wavelength of light emitted. In the near fieldregion, the excited chromophore emits a virtual photon that is instantly absorbed by a receiving chromophore. These virtual photons are undetectable, since their existence violates the conservation of energy and momentum, and hence FRET is known as a radiationless mechanism. Quantum electrodynamical calculations have been used to determine that radiationless (FRET) and radiative energy transfer are the short- and long-rangeasymptotes of a single unified mechanism.[5][6]

1 Terminology 2 Theoretical basis 3 Experimental Confirmation of the Frster resonance energy transfer theory 4 Methods to measure FRET efficiency

o o

4.1 Sensitized emission 4.2 Photobleaching FRET

4.3 Lifetime measurements

5 Fluorophores used for FRET

o o o

5.1 CFP-YFP pairs 5.2 BRET 5.3 Homo-FRET

6 Applications 7 Other methods 8 See also 9 References 10 External links

Frster resonance energy transfer is named after the German scientist Theodor Frster.[7] When both chromophores are fluorescent, the term "fluorescence resonance energy transfer" is often used instead, although the energy is not actually transferred by fluorescence.[8][9] In order to avoid an erroneous interpretation of the phenomenon that is always a nonradiative transfer of energy (even when occurring between two fluorescent chromophores), the name "Frster resonance energy transfer" is preferred to "fluorescence resonance energy transfer;" however, the latter enjoys common usage in scientific literature.[10]

The FRET efficiency (

) is the quantum yield of the energy transfer transition, i.e. the fraction of energy

transfer event occurring per donor excitation event[11]:


is the rate of energy transfer,

the radiative decay rate and the


are the rate

constants of any other de-excitation pathway.

The FRET efficiency depends on many physical parameters that can be grouped as follows:

The distance between the donor and the acceptor The spectral overlap of the donor emission spectrum and the acceptor absorption spectrum. The relative orientation of the donor emission dipole moment and the acceptor absorption dipole moment. depends on the donor-to-acceptor separation distance with an inverse 6th power law due to the

dipole-dipole coupling mechanism:


being the Frster distance of this pair of donor and acceptor, i.e. the distance at which

the energy transfer efficiency is 50%.[12] The Frster distance depends on the overlap integral of the donor emission spectrum with the acceptor absorption spectrum and their mutual molecular orientation as expressed by the following equation.[13][14]


is the fluorescence quantum yield of the donor in the absence of the


acceptor, is the dipole orientation factor, medium, is Avogadro's number, and

is the refractive index of the is the spectral overlap integral calculated as


is the normalized donor emission spectrum, and

[15] 2

is the acceptor molar

extinction coefficient.

=2/3 is often assumed. This value is obtained when both dyes

are freely rotating and can be considered to be isotropically oriented during the excited state lifetime. If either dye is fixed or not free to rotate, then 2 =2/3 will not be a valid assumption. In most cases, however, even modest reorientation of the dyes results in enough orientational averaging that 2 = 2/3 does not result in a large error in the estimated energy transfer distance due to the sixth power dependence of R0 on 2. Even when 2 is quite different from 2/3 the error can be associated with a shift in R0 and thus determinations of changes in relative distance for a particular system are still valid. Fluorescent proteins do not reorient on a timescale that is faster than their fluorescence lifetime. In this case 0 2 4.[15] The FRET efficiency relates to the quantum yield and the fluorescence lifetime of the donor molecule as follows:[16]



are the donor fluorescence lifetimes in the presence and absence

of an acceptor, respectively, or as



are the donor fluorescence intensities with and without an

acceptor, respectively.


Confirmation of the Frster resonance energy transfer theory

The inverse sixth power distance dependence of Frster resonance energy transfer was experimentally confirmed by Stryer and Haugland[17] using a donor and an acceptor separated on an oligoproline helix. Haugland, Yguerabide and Stryer[18] also experimentally demonstrated the theoretical dependence of Frster resonance energy transfer on the overlap integral by using a fused indolosteroid as a donor and a ketone as an acceptor.


to measure FRET efficiency

Example of FRET between CFP and YFP (Wavelength vs. Absorption): a fusion protein containing CFP and YFP excited at 440nm wavelength. The fluorescent emission peak of CFP overlaps the excitation peak of YFP. Because the two proteins are adjacent to each other, the energy transfer is significant a large proportion of the energy from CFP is transferred to YFP and creates a much larger YFP emission peak.

In fluorescence microscopy, fluorescence confocal laser scanning microscopy, as well as in molecular biology, FRET is a useful tool to quantify molecular dynamics in biophysics and biochemistry, such as protein-protein interactions, proteinDNAinteractions, and protein conformational changes. For monitoring the complex formation between two molecules, one of them is labeled with a donor and the other with an acceptor. The FRET efficiency is measured and used to identify interactions between the labeled complexes. There are several ways of measuring the FRET efficiency by monitoring changes in the fluorescence emitted by the donor or the acceptor.[19]



One method of measuring FRET efficiency is to measure the variation in acceptor emission intensity.[14] When the donor and acceptor are in proximity (110 nm) due to the interaction of the two molecules, the acceptor emission will increase because of the intermolecular FRET from the donor to the acceptor. For monitoring protein conformational changes, the target protein is labeled with a donor and an acceptor at two loci. When a twist or bend of the protein brings the change in the distance or relative orientation of the donor and acceptor, FRET change is observed. If a molecular interaction or a protein conformational change is dependent on ligand binding, this FRET technique is applicable to fluorescent indicators for the ligand detection.



FRET efficiencies can also be inferred from the photobleaching rates of the donor in the presence and absence of an acceptor.[14]This method can be performed on most fluorescence microscopes; one simply shines the excitation light (of a frequency that will excite the donor but not the acceptor significantly) on specimens with and without the acceptor fluorophore and monitors the donor fluorescence (typically separated from acceptor fluorescence using a bandpass filter) over time. The timescale is that of photobleaching, which is seconds to minutes, with fluorescence in each curve being given by


is the photobleaching decay time constant and depends on whether

the acceptor is present or not. Since photobleaching consists in the permanent inactivation of excited fluorophores, resonance energy transfer from an excited donor to an acceptor fluorophore prevents the photobleaching of that donor fluorophore, and thus high FRET efficiency leads to a longer photobleaching decay time constant:



are the photobleaching decay time constants of the donor

in the presence and in the absence of the acceptor, respectively. (Notice that the fraction is the reciprocal of that used for lifetime measurements). This technique was introduced by Jovin in 1989.[20] Its use of an entire curve of points to extract the time constants can give it accuracy advantages over the other methods. Also, the fact that time measurements are over seconds rather than nanoseconds makes it easier than fluorescence lifetime measurements, and because photobleaching decay rates do not generally depend on donor concentration (unless acceptor saturation is an issue), the careful control of concentrations needed for intensity measurements is not needed. It is, however, important to keep the illumination the same for the with- and withoutacceptor measurements, as photobleaching increases markedly with more intense incident light.



FRET efficiency can also be determined from the change in the fluorescence lifetime of the donor.[14] The lifetime of the donor will decrease in the presence of the acceptor. Lifetime measurements of FRET are used in Fluorescence-lifetime imaging microscopy.

[edit]Fluorophores [edit]CFP-YFP

used for FRET


One common pair fluorophores for biological use is a cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) pair.[21] Both are color variants of green fluorescent protein (GFP). Labeling with organic fluorescent dyes requires purification, chemical modification, and intracellular injection of a host protein. GFP variants can be attached to a host protein by genetic engineering which can be more convenient.

A limitation of FRET is the requirement for external illumination to initiate the fluorescence transfer, which can lead to background noise in the results from direct excitation of the acceptor or tophotobleaching. To avoid this drawback, Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer (or BRET) has been developed.[22] This technique uses a bioluminescent luciferase (typically the luciferase from Renilla reniformis) rather than CFP to produce an initial photon emission compatible with YFP.

In general, "FRET" refers to situations where the donor and acceptor proteins (or "fluorophores") are of two different types. In many biological situations, however, researchers might need to examine the interactions between two, or more, proteins of the same typeor indeed the same protein with itself, for example if the protein folds or forms part of a polymer chain of proteins[23] or for other questions of quantification in biological cells.[24] Obviously, spectral differences will not be the tool used to detect and measure FRET, as both the acceptor and donor protein emit light with the same wavelengths. Yet researchers can detect differences in the polarisation between the light which excites the fluorophores and the light which is emitted, in a technique called FRET anisotropy imaging; the level of quantified anisotropy (difference in polarisation between the excitation and emission beams) then becomes an indicative guide to how many FRET events have happened.[25]

FRET has been used to measure distance and detect molecular interactions in a number systems and has applications in biology and chemistry.[26] FRET can be used to measure distances between domains a single protein and therefore to provide information about protein conformation.[27] FRET can also detect interaction between proteins.[28] Applied in vivio in living cells, FRET has been used to detect the location and interactions of genes and cellular structures including intergrins and membrane proteins.[29] FRET can be used to obtain information about metabolic or signaling pathways.[30] FRET is also used to study lipid rafts in cell membranes.[31] FRET and BRET are also the common tools in the study of biochemical reaction kinetics and molecular motors.



A different, but related, mechanism is Dexter Electron Transfer. An alternative method to detecting proteinprotein proximity is the bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) where two halves of a YFP are fused to a protein. When these two halves meet they form a fluorophore after about 60 s 1 hr.[32]

Resonant energy transfer Resonant inductive coupling

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Resonant inductive coupling or electrodynamic induction is the near field wireless transmission of electrical energy between two coils that are tuned to resonate at the same frequency. The equipment to do this is sometimes called a resonant or resonance transformer. While many transformers employ resonance, this type has a high Q and is often air cored to avoid 'iron' losses. The two coils may exist as a single piece of equipment or comprise two separate pieces of equipment. Resonant transfer works by making a coil ring with an oscillating current. This generates an oscillating magnetic field. Because the coil is highly resonant, any energy placed in the coil dies away relatively slowly over very many cycles; but if a second coil is brought near it, the coil can pick up most of the energy before it is lost, even if it is some distance away. The fields used are predominately nonradiative, near field (sometimes called evanescent waves), as all hardware is kept well within the 1/4 wavelength distance they radiate little energy from the transmitter to infinity. One of the applications of the resonant transformer is for the CCFL inverter. Another application of the resonant transformer is to couple between stages of a superheterodyne receiver, where the selectivity of the receiver is provided by tuned transformers in the intermediate-frequency amplifiers.

Resonant transformers such as the Tesla coil can generate very high voltages with or

without arcing, and are able to provide much higher current than electrostatic high-voltage generation machines such as the Van de Graaff generator. Resonant energy transfer is the operating principle behind proposed short range wireless electricity systems such as WiTricity and systems that have already been deployed, such as passive RFID tags and contactless smart cards.

1 Resonant coupling

o o o o o o

1.1 Energy transfer and efficiency 1.2 Coupling coefficient 1.3 Power transfer 1.4 Voltage gain 1.5 Transmitter coils and circuitry 1.6 Receiver coils and circuitry

2 History 3 Comparison with other technologies

4 Regulations and safety 5 Uses 6 See also 7 External links 8 References



Basic transmitter and receiver circuits, Rs and Rr are the resistances and losses in the associated capacitors and inductors. Ls and Lr are coupled by small coupling coefficient, usually below 0.2

Non-resonant coupled inductors, such as typical transformers, work on the principle of a primary coil generating a magnetic field and a secondary coil subtending as much as possible of that field so that the power passing though the secondary is as close as possible to that of the primary. This requirement that the field be covered by the secondary results in very short range and usually requires a magnetic core. Over greater distances the non-resonant induction method is highly inefficient and wastes the vast majority of the energy in resistive losses of the primary coil. Using resonance can help improve efficiency dramatically. If resonant coupling is used, each coil is capacitively loaded so as to form a tuned LC circuit. If the primary and secondary coils are resonant at a common frequency, it turns out that significant power may be transmitted between the coils over a range of a few times the coil diameters at reasonable efficiency. [edit]Energy

transfer and efficiency

The general principle is that if a given oscillating amount of energy (for example alternating current from a wall outlet) is placed into a primary coil which is capacitively loaded, the coil will 'ring', and form an oscillating magnetic field. The energy will transfer back and forth between the magnetic field in the inductor and the electric field across the capacitor at the resonant frequency. This oscillation will die away at a rate determined by the gain-bandwidth (Q factor), mainly due to resistive and radiative losses. However, provided the secondary coil cuts enough of the field that it absorbs more energy than is lost in each cycle of the primary, then most of the energy can still be transferred. The primary coil forms a series RLC circuit, and the Q factor for such a coil is:

, For R=10 ohm,C=1 micro farad and L=10 mH, Q is given as 10.

Because the Q factor can be very high, (experimentally around a thousand has been demonstrated

with air cored coils) only a small percentage of the field has to be coupled from

one coil to the other to achieve high efficiency, even though the field dies quickly with distance from a coil, the primary and secondary can be several diameters apart. [edit]Coupling


The coupling coefficient is the fraction of the flux of the primary that cuts the secondary coil, and is a function of the geometry of the system. The coupling coefficient is between 0 and 1. Systems are said to be tightly coupled, loosely coupled, critically coupled or overcoupled. Tight coupling is when the coupling coefficient is around 1 as with conventional iron-core transformers. Overcoupling is when the secondary coil is so close that it tends to collapse the primary's field, and critical coupling is when the transfer in the passband is optimal. Loose coupling is when the coils are distant from each other, so that most of the flux misses the secondary, in Tesla coils around 0.2 is used, and at greater distances, for example for inductive wireless power transmission, it may be lower than 0.01. [edit]Power


Because the Q can be very high, even when low power is fed into the transmitter coil, a relatively intense field builds up over multiple cycles, which increases the power that can be received at resonance far more power is in the oscillating field than is being fed into the coil, and the receiver coil receives a percentage of that. [edit]Voltage


The voltage gain of resonantly coupled coils is directly proportional to the square root of the ratio of secondary and primary inductances. [edit]Transmitter

coils and circuitry

Unlike the multiple-layer secondary of a non-resonant transformer, coils for this purpose are often single layer solenoids (to minimise skin effect and give improved Q) in parallel with a suitablecapacitor, or they may be other shapes such as wave-wound litz wire. Insulation is either absent, with spacers, or low permittivity, low loss materials such as silk to minimise dielectric losses.

Colpitts oscillator. In resonant energy transfer the inductor would be the transmitter coil and capacitors are used to tune the circuit to a suitable frequency.

To progressively feed energy/power into the primary coil with each cycle, different circuits can be used. One circuit employs a Colpitts oscillator.

In Tesla coils an intermittent switching system, a "circuit controller or "break," is used to inject an impulsive signal into the primary coil; the secondary coil then rings and decays. [edit]Receiver

coils and circuitry

The receiver of a smart card has a coil connected to a chip which provides capacitance to give resonance as well as regulators to provide a suitable voltage

The secondary receiver coils are similar designs to the primary sending coils. Running the secondary at the same resonant frequency as the primary ensures that the secondary has a low impedance at the transmitter's frequency and that the energy is optimally absorbed.

Example receiver coil. The coil is loaded with a capacitor and two LEDs. The coil and the capacitor form a series LC circuit which is tuned to a resonant frequency that matches the transmission coil located inside of the brown matt. Power is transmitted over a distance of thirteen inches.

To remove energy from the secondary coil, different methods can be used, the AC can be used directly or rectified and a regulator circuit can be used to generate DC voltage. [edit]History

This advanced Tesla coil was designed to implement wireless power by means of the disturbed charge of ground and air method.

In 1894 Nikola Tesla used resonant inductive coupling, also known as "electro-dynamic induction" to wirelessly light up phosphorescent and incandescent lamps at the 35 South Fifth Avenue laboratory, and later at the 46 E. Houston Street laboratory in New York City. patented a device
[8] [5][6][7]

In 1897 he

called the high-voltage, resonance transformer or "Tesla coil." Transferring

electrical energy from the primary coil to the secondary coil by resonant induction, a Tesla coil is capable of producing very high voltages at high frequency. The improved design allowed for the safe production and utilization of high-potential electrical currents, "without serious liability of the destruction of the apparatus itself and danger to persons approaching or handling it." In the early 1960s resonant inductive wireless energy transfer was used successfully in implantable medical devices

including such devices as pacemakers and artificial hearts. While


the early systems used a resonant receiver coil, later systems

implemented resonant

transmitter coils as well. These medical devices are designed for high efficiency using low power electronics while efficiently accommodating some misalignment and dynamic twisting of the coils. The separation between the coils in implantable applications is commonly less than 20 cm. Today

resonant inductive energy transfer is regularly used for providing electric power in many commercially available medical implantable devices.

Wireless electric energy transfer for experimentally powering electric automobiles and buses is a higher power application (>10 kW) of resonant inductive energy transfer. High power levels are required for rapid recharging and high energy transfer efficiency is required both for operational economy and to avoid negative environmental impact of the system. An experimental electrified roadway test track built circa 1990 achieved 80% energy efficiency while recharging the battery of a prototype bus at a specially equipped bus stop.

The bus could be outfitted with a

retractable receiving coil for greater coil clearance when moving. The gap between the transmit and receive coils was designed to be less than 10 cm when powered. In addition to buses the use of wireless transfer has been investigated for recharging electric automobiles in parking spots and garages as well. Some of these wireless resonant inductive devices operate at low milliwatt power levels and are battery powered. Others operate at higher kilowatt power levels. Current implantable medical and road electrification device designs achieve more than 75% transfer efficiency at an operating distance between the transmit and receive coils of less than 10 cm. In 1995, Professor John Boys and Prof Grant Covic, of The University of Auckland in New Zealand, developed systems to transfer large amounts of energy across small air gaps.
needed] [citation

In 1998, RFID tags were patented that were powered in this way.


In November 2006, Marin Soljai and other researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technologyapplied this near field behavior, well known in electromagnetic theory, the wireless power transmission concept based on strongly-coupled resonators. analysis,
[18] [15][16][17]

In a theoretical

they demonstrate that, by designing electromagnetic resonators that suffer minimal

loss due to radiation and absorption and have a near field with mid-range extent (namely a few times the resonator size), mid-range efficient wireless energy-transfer is possible. The reason is that, if two such resonant circuits tuned to the same frequency are within a fraction of a wavelength, their near fields (consisting of 'evanescent waves') couple by means of evanescent wave coupling. Oscillating waves develop between the inductors, which can allow the energy to transfer from one object to the other within times much shorter than all loss times, which were designed to be long, and thus with the maximum possible energy-transfer efficiency. Since the resonant wavelength is much larger than the resonators, the field can circumvent extraneous objects in the vicinity and thus this mid-range energy-transfer scheme does not require line-ofsight. By utilizing in particular the magnetic field to achieve the coupling, this method can be safe, since magnetic fields interact weakly with living organisms. Apple Inc. applied for a patent on the technology in 2010, after WiPower did so in 2008.


with other technologies

Compared to inductive transfer in conventional transformers, except when the coils are well within a diameter of each other, the efficiency is somewhat lower (around 80% at short range) whereas tightly coupled conventional transformers may achieve greater efficiency (around 90-95%) and for this reason it cannot be used where high energy transfer is required at greater distances. However, compared to the costs associated with batteries, particularly non-rechargeable batteries, the costs of the batteries are hundreds of times higher. In situations where a source of power is available nearby, it can be a cheaper solution.

In addition, whereas batteries need

periodic maintenance and replacement, resonant energy transfer can be used instead. Batteries additionally generate pollution during their construction and their disposal which is largely avoided. [edit]Regulations

and safety

Unlike mains-wired equipment, no direct electrical connection is needed and hence equipment can be sealed to minimize the possibility of electric shock. Because the coupling is achieved using predominantly magnetic fields; the technology may be relatively safe. Safety standards and guidelines do exist in most countries for electromagnetic field exposures (e.g.

) Whether the system can meet the guidelines or the less stringent legal

requirements depends on the delivered power and range from the transmitter. Deployed systems already generate magnetic fields, for example induction cookers and contactless smart card readers. [edit]Uses

Contactless smart card High voltage (one million volt) sources for X-ray production Tesla coils Some Passports




WiTricity Wireless Resonant Energy Link (WREL) eCoupled for particular implementations of this technology. Inductance RFID some passive id tags are powered by radio frequency transmissions Microwave power transmission an alternative, much longer range way of transferring energy

Odd sympathy similar resonances occur with mechanical pendulums Evanescent wave coupling essentially the same process at optical frequencies Wardenclyffe tower



IEEE Spectrum: A critical look at wireless power Intel: Cutting the Last Cord, Wireless Power Yahoo News: Intel cuts electric cords with wireless power system BBC News: An end to spaghetti power cables Instructables: wireless power "Marin Soljai (researcher team leader) home page on MIT". Jonathan Fildes (2007-06-07). "Wireless energy promise powers up". BBC News. JR Minkel (2007-06-07). "Wireless Energy Lights Bulb from Seven Feet Away". Scientific American.

"Breakthrough to a wireless (electricity) future (WiTricity)". The Press Association. 2007-0607.

Katherine Noyes (2007-06-08). "MIT Wizards Zap Electricity Through the Air". TechNewsWorld.

Chris Peredun, Kristopher Kubicki (2007-06-11). "MIT Engineers Unveil Wireless Power System". DailyTech.

"Supporting Online Material for Wireless Power Transfer via Strongly Coupled Magnetic Resonances". Science Magazine.

Gary Peterson (2008-08-06). "Anticipating Witricity". 21st Century Books. William C. Brown biography on the IEEE MTT-S website Anuradha Menon (2008-11-14). "Intels Wireless Power Technology Demonstrated". The Future of Things e-magazine.

^ Carr, Joseph. Secrets of RF Circuit Design. pp. pp. 193195}. ISBN 0-07-137067-6. ^ Abdel-Salam, M. et al.. High-Voltage Engineering: Theory and Practice. pp. 523524. ISBN 08247-4152-8. 3. ^ Steinmetz, Dr. Charles Proteus (1914). Elementary Lectures on Electric Discharges, Waves, and Impulses, and Other Transients (2nd ed.). McGraw-Hill. 4. ^
a b

1. 2.

Wireless Power Transfer via Strongly Coupled Magnetic Resonances Andr Kurs, Aristeidis

Karalis, Robert Moffatt, J. D. Joannopoulos, Peter Fisher, Marin Soljacic 5. ^ "Experiments with Alternating Currents of Very High Frequency and Their Application to Methods of Artificial Illumination, AIEE, Columbia College, N.Y., May 20, 1891". 1891-06-20.


^ "Experiments with Alternate Currents of High Potential and High Frequency, IEE Address,' London, February 1892". 1892-02-00.


^ "On Light and Other High Frequency Phenomena, 'Franklin Institute,' Philadelphia, February 1893, and National Electric Light Association, St. Louis, March 1893". 1893-03-00.

8. 9.

^ U.S. Patent 593,138 Electrical Transformer ^ J. C. Schuder, Powering an artificial heart: Birth of the inductively coupled-radio frequency system in 1960, Artificial Organs, vol. 26, no. 11, pp. 909915, 2002.

10. ^ SCHWAN M. A. and P.R. Troyk, "High efficiency driver for transcutaneously coupled coils" IEEE Engineering in Medicine & Biology Society 11th Annual International Conference, November 1989, pp. 1403-1404. 11. ^ "What is a cochlear implant?". 2009-01-30. Retrieved 2009-06-04. 12. ^ Systems Control Technology, Inc, "Roadway Powered Electric Vehicle Project, Track Construction and Testing Program". UC Berkeley Path Program Technical Report: UCB-ITS-PRR94-07, 13. ^ Shladover, S.E., PATH at 20: History and Major Milestones, Intelligent Transportation Systems Conference, 2006. ITSC '06. IEEE 2006, pages 1_22-1_29. 14. ^ RFID Coil Design 15. ^ "Wireless electricity could power consumer, industrial electronics". MIT News. 2006-11-14. 16. ^ "Gadget recharging goes wireless". Physics World. 2006-11-14. 17. ^ "'Evanescent coupling' could power gadgets wirelessly". news service. 200611-15. 18. ^ Aristeidis Karalis; J.D. Joannopoulos, Marin Soljai (2008). "Efficient wireless non-radiative midrange energy transfer". Annals of Physics 323: 34 48. arXiv:physics/0611063. Bibcode2008AnPhy.323...34K. doi:10.1016/j.aop.2007.04.017. "Published online: April 2007" 19. ^ "Ready for ANOTHER patent war? Apple 'invents' wireless charging." 20. ^ "Eric Giler demos wireless electricity". TED. 2009-07. Retrieved 2009-09-13. 21. ^ ICNIRP Guidelines Guidelines for Limiting Exposure to Time-Varying ... 22. ^ IEEE C95.1 23. ^ [1] 24. ^ Ubeam