CONTROL VALVES Nomenclature Flow Capacity: The valve sizing coefficient most commonly used as a measure of the capacity

of body and trim of a control valve is Cv. Cv is defined as one U.S gallon per minute of 60OF of water that flows through a valve with a one PSI pressure drop. The general equation is Specific gravity at flowing temperature Cv = Flow ----------------------------------------------Pressure drop As a normal practice the calculated Cv is used to determine the valve size and the trim sizes and the manufacture has to select the Cv in such a way that the minimum and maximum operation of the process will be able to achieve by opening 20% to 80%. Pressure profile : - The control valve acts as a restriction in the flow stream. As the fluid stream approaches this restriction, its velocity increases in order for the full flow to pass through the restriction. Energy for this increase in velocity comes from a corresponding decrease in pressure. Maximum velocity and minimum pressure occur immediately downstream from the throttling point at the narrowest constriction from the fluid stream, known as vena contracta. Down stream from the vena contracta, the fluid slows and part of the energy (in the form of velocity) is converted back to pressure. The slight pressure losses between inlet and outlet are due to frictional effects. P1 (inlet pressure) Dp (valve pressure drop) P2 (outlet pressure) PRESSURE PROFILE of fluid Passing through a Valve

---------------------------------- Pv (vapor pressure) Pvc (Pressure at vena Contracta)

Allowable Pressure Drop From the definition of Cv it is clear that as the Dp (pressure drop) increases for a given Cv there should be an increase in flow. This occurs up to a point after which increase in Dp will not yield an increase in flow. This point is the chocked flow.

Flow rate Dp choked pressure drop

In liquids when the pressure at any point in the valve drops below the vapor pressure of the liquid the vapor bubbles form. These bubbles occupy more volume than the liquid from which they are formed. As further increase in pressure drop, the proportion of bubbles to liquid increases until the volume of the flow is so great that the valve can not pass additional flow. The pressure drop at this point is the chocked flow. In gases as the down stream pressure decreases (consequently increasing the pressure drop), the velocity of the gas across vena contracta increases due to the increasing volume of the gas. When the velocity reaches sonic (Mach=1), any further increase in pressure drop will not result in additional flow. The pressure drop corresponds to sonic velocity condition across the vena contracta is the chocked pressure drop. When sizing a control valve the smaller of the actual pressure drop or the chocked pressure drop is always used to determine the correct Cv. This pressure drop is the allowable pressure drop. Cavitations In liquids when the pressure at the vena contracta drops below the vapor pressure of the fluid, vapor bubbles begin to form in the fluid stream. Down stream from the vena contracta, the fluid decelerates with a resultant increase in pressure. If this pressure is higher than the vapor pressure, the bubble collapse (or implodes) as the vapor returns to the liquid phase. This two step mechanism called cavitations produces noise, vibration and physical damage to the valve and down stream piping. The onset of cavitations known as the incipient cavitations is the point when the bubbles first begin to form and collapse. The point at which the chocked pressure cavitations occurs (severe damage, vibration and noise) is at the chocked pressure drop. Flashing If the down stream pressure is equal to or less than the vapor pressure, the vapor bubbles created at the vena contracta do not collapse, resulting in liquid gas mixture down stream of the valve, this is commonly called flashing. Velocity of this two phase flow is very high resulting in the possibility for the erosion of the valve and the piping components. Velocity As a general rule the valve outlet velocity should be limited to the following maximum values. Liquids : - 50 feet per second Gases : - Approaching Mach 1.0 Mixed gases and liquids : - 500 feet per second. In general smaller sized valves handle slightly higher velocities and larger valves handle lower velocities. Liquid applications where the fluid temperature is close to the saturation point should be limited to 30feet per second to avoid reducing the fluid pressure below the vapor pressure.

To minimize damage to the downstream piping. . the valve capacity is changed.specific gravity at flowing temperature. Which is often the same material as the pipe.drop across the valve in psi Gf : . decreasing their specific weight. Y. an expansion factor.Reynolds number factor Pa : . or very small valve Cv’s. very low velocities. Piping geometry factor (Fp) Valve sizing coefficients are determined from tests run with the valve mounted in a straight run of pipe which is the same diameter as the valve body. In flashing services the velocities to be below 500 feet per second. Sizing Cv for Gases Because of compressibility. The effect of reducers and expanders can be approximated by the use of the piping geometry factor. is introduced into the valve sizing formula.Piping geometry factor Fr : .flow rate in gallons per minute Fp : . chrome molybdenum steel and stainless steel. Fp.Valves in cavitating service should be limited to 30 feet per second. The most common choices of body material are carbon steel. Sizing Cv for liquids q Gf Cv = ---------Fp Fr dPa q :. Reynolds number factor (Fr) Fr is used to correct the calculated Cv for non turbulent flow conditions due to high viscosity fluids. To account for the change in specific weight.Allowable pr. Erosion damage can be limited by using chrome molybdenum body material and stellite overlayed trim. gases and vapors expand as the pressure drops at the vena contracta. x Q = 7320 Fp Cv P1 Y ------MT1Z Fp = piping geometry factor P1 = Inlet pressure in absolute Y =Expansion factor x =ratio of actual pressure drop to absolute inlet pressure (Dp / P1) M = molecular weight T1 = Absolute upstream pressure in degrees R (degree F + 460) Z = Compressibility factor Q = Gas flow in SCFH (standard cubic feet per hour) Body materials The control valve user normally specifies the body material. If the process piping configurations are different from the standard test manifold.

Forgings are used for smaller sized bodies (generally these are high pressure ratings). It costs less than SS but not as corrosion resistance. Carbon steel can be used for most condensate and steam services. Gaskets Gaskets are used to prevent leakage around the seat ring. Chrome – moly steel is used for higher temperatures and pressures than carbon steel. nickel and titanium are also available. Castings are the first choices in standard sizes and ratings. wrought or fabricated. forged. The valve body can be cast. Fabricated type is a convenient way to manufacture large angle valves. 6000 5000 4000 Pressure (psi) 3000 2000 1000 0 -200 Kel-F Gaskets 0 200 Temperature (oF) 400 Reinforced TFE Virgin TFE . Exception is the smaller low pressure chrome moly valves where SS bonnet is the standard. Barstock are recommended when the delivery is critical and a casting or forging is not available. This is stronger than carbon steel and in some cases is as strong as stainless steel. bonnet or pressure balanced sleeve.Carbon steel is the most commonly used for bodies. Special alloys such as HastalloyB or C. It handles most non corrosive liquids and gases up to 800oF for continuous service or to 1000oF for occasional service. SS is specific for higher temperature services (1000oC and above) or in corrosive application. including such services as high pressure steam or flashing condensate which requires corrosion and erosion resistance. Bonnets are manufactured from barstock of the same material as the body. monel. Teflon gaskets This is the first economical choice as far as possible with the pressure and temperature limits.

Pressure balanced trim For high pressure drop applications.. Spiral Wound Gaskets This consists of alternate layers of metal and non metallic materials wound together. The temperature range for Kel-F is –423 to 350oF. Gasket type 304SS/Asbestos 316SS/ Asbestos 316SS/ Grafoil Temperature limit -20 to 750oF -20 1000oF -320 1000oF Pressure limit ANSI 2500 to ANSI 2500 to ANSI 2500 Remarks Inconel/ grafoil -20 1500oF class Valves through 8” in carbon steel and chrome moly. pressure balanced trim may be required to reduce the thrust necessary to stroke the plug by reducing the trims off balance area. AFG is a non asbestos filler material for standard spiral wound gaskets and may be directly substituted for asbestos material in most applications. for ex. Used for high temp. carbon and chrome moly valves sizes 10” and above class High pressure. This area is equal to the seat area in fail open applications and the seat area minus the stem area in fail closed applications. or where inconel is preferred over 316SS for that particular fluid.Flat Kel-F gaskets are used primarily for cryogenic services. However with high thrust cylinder actuators. Often when tight shut off is required an oversized cylinder actuator may be the most economical choice. This can be used in steam services up to 1000deg F and in air at 1500degF. The force required to fail open or closed is a function of the off balanced area. pressure balanced trim may not be required.1000oF above. rating Applications. Unbalanced trim design generally requires that the direction of flow should assist the motion of failure. 3) Integral seat trim which utilizes the seat machined into the body and an oversized plug to provide additional Cv beyond the capabilities of standard full area and reduced area trim designs.. class SS. Unbalanced and pressure balanced trim Valtek offers 3 unbalanced trim designs 1) standard full area trim which provides maximum Cv with a removable seat ring 2) reduced trim which provides a lower Cv in a wide variety of sizes or when larger bodies are required. high temperature severe service applications up to 1000oFespecially severe service valves to At a full pr. . Flow over or fail closed and flow under for fail open.

eccentric disk and ball valves have inherent characteristics which can not be changed (except with characterizable positioner cams). % 40 20 0 20 Equal % 40 60 80 Valve lift. Leakage past the plug is prevented by a seal around the top of the plug head. When a constant pressure drop is maintained across the valve. Flow direction is under the plug for fail closed applications and over the plug for fail open applications. this characteristic is the inherent flow characteristics. plus the need for maximizing the flow capacity for a particular valve. the real curves often deviate considerably from these ideals. Flow characteristics Flow characteristics are the relationship between flow coefficient and the valve stroke. However in as much as there is body effects and other uncontrollable factors. % 100 linear Equal Percentage This is the characteristics most commonly used in process control. most control loops will produce an installed characteristic approaching linear when the overall system pressure drop is large relative to that across the valve. Allowing the fluid pressure to act on both sides of the plug results in a net force equal to the pressure times the off balance area. the characteristics of the valve alone controls the flow. equal percentage and linear. This balancing force is made possible by transfer holes in the plug. But in stalled characteristics include both the valve and pipeline effects. The change in flow per unit of valve stroke is directly proportional to the flow occurring just before the change is made. 100 80 Quick open 60 Flow. Many valve types such as butterfly. While the flow characteristics may be equal%. pressure balanced trim is designed to classII shut off. These characteristics can be approximated by contouring the plug. Flow characteristics of globe valves can be determined by the shape of the plug head. (Such is the case in the majority of applications) . The 3 most common types of flow characteristics are quick opening. As a standard.Because the pressure balanced plug fits closely to the sleeve the trim should be used in relatively clean services.

Top and bottom guiding Aligned by the guide bushing in the bonnet and the bottom flange.Linear An inherently linear characteristic produces equal changes in flow per unit of valve stroke regardless of plug position. Cage To help problems associated with high pressure drops and their attendant and noise problems. Linear plugs are used on those systems where the valve pressure drop is a major portion of the total system pressure drop and the inlet pressure is constant. Cage trim valves provide higher capacity for the same size valve body than other globe valves making them economically attractive. This acts as an excellent guide for the plug. Trim design The design concepts relative to valve trim that affect not only the characteristic curve but also how the valve responds to erosion. various designs of cage trim have been developed. Port guiding Plug is aligned in the body port or ports only. . Top and port guiding Aligned in the bonnet and the port. high pressure drop and other similar problems. vibration. Stem guiding Plug is aligned by guide bushing acting on the valve plug stem. Bonnet assembly This is the part through which the valve plug stem moves and is the means for sealing against leakage along the stem. Guides Proper operation of control valves depends on a positive relation between the valve plug and seat. Accurate guiding is accomplished by Top guiding The plug is aligned by a guide bushing in the bonnet or body. The cage results in longer trim life under high pressure drops. cavitations. Quick open Quick open plugs are used for on/off applications designed to produce maximum flow quickly.

Bolted flange bonnet with a standard packing box is used for temperature from 0o to 450o F. • Gas versus liquid • Velocity and pressure differential • Temperature • Flashing • Presence of abrasive solids Gas versus Liquids Clean gases even at high velocities are not usually a source of trim erosion. Generally SS 316 is used as standard. Aside from corrosion. the full seat ring bore. However entrained solids or liquid droplets in high velocity gas can wear the trim rapidly. the full contour of the plug or the lower guide area of the plug stem. Bellows seal This type of bonnet assembly is used on applications where no leakage along the stem can be tolerated. the packing box is kept at reasonable temperature by extension bonnets. Stellite is commonly used which has good relative hardness and corrosion resistance. The bonnet may be cast or fabricated. Two types of pack less sealing are made. These are used on installations where the process fluid is pyrophoric. Hardened trim is used to protect against erosion and/or corrosion. Hastalloy C and monel are also available. liquids at high velocity can produce accelerated erosion. For corrosion resistance special alloys such as Alloy 20. . explosive. Finned Bonnet In services with higher temperature requirements high temperature packings or finned bonnets are used to provide a large heat radiating area. With liquids another harmful effect is cavitations which can erode most trim material even hardened trim. Trim Materials Hardened trim is considered for all chocked flow conditions or for temperatures above 600oF. Extension bonnet For cryogenic or low temperature services. highly expensive or difficult to contain such as hydrogen gas. they may be insulated if necessary. toxic. the main factors that cause wear in valve trim are the conditions of the process fluid. For ex. At high velocities water can cause more damage than lubricating oil. Depending on the fluid’s composition. The hardened surface may include the seat surface of the plug and seat ring. one in which process fluid is sealed inside the bellows and one in which fluid is sealed outside the bellows. Liquid application valves require hardened trim more often than gas application valves.

large differential pressures are required. 440C. 17-4pH. Soft and metal seats A soft seat is used in applications requiring ANSI class VI bubble tight shut off. The plug stem and bushings should be hardened above 600oF regardless of the pressure differentials. Class IV is the industry standard for metal seated valves. At the same time at the other end of the temperature scale. many trim materials susceptible to erosion because of the general deterioration of their mechanical properties. Types of hardened Trim This covers • Stainless steel hard faced with stellite. Therefore the selection of the hardened trim must be compatible with high temperature conditions. Corrosion The erosion and abrasion of valve and trim is aggravated by the corrosive effect of the process fluid.0005cc per minute per inch of orifice diameter per psi differential. seating surfaces should be hardened. or 329SS or K Monel K500.. • Flame sprayed with tungsten carbide or aluminium oxides. Therefore hardened trim selection becomes a function of differential pressure. Therefore allowable leakage increases with orifice diameter and differential pressure. For ex. hardened 440C would not be recommended for services above 800oF. where as stellite can be used up to 1500oF. • Hard materials such as wrought stellite 6B or the various sintered metal carbides and oxides • Materials hardened by heat treatment such as 416. Class V allowable leakage is defined as 0. the following should be noted. In order to have a large flow rate through a relatively small area. When ever the temperature exceeds 550oF. Class V versus Class VI Due to the common belief that Class VI shut off is more stringent than Class V under all circumstances. Temperature As temperature increases. Velocity is depending on flow rate and area. .Velocity and pressure differential Erosion caused by flowing fluid is a function of the velocity of the fluid. Its design consists of an elastomer insert sandwiched between a metal seat ring and retainer.such as cryogenic most hardened materials become excessively brittle and 316SS becomes relatively hard.

Keep in mind that seat loading must be increased to 250 to 400lbs. Allow time for leakage flow to stabilize. Actuator thrust. per linear inch of seating force to obtain class VI shut off. with outlet open to atmosphere or connected to a low head loss measuring device. Pressure applied to valve inlet. lower. Allow time for table based on plug.5% of rated capacity 0. Actuator should be adjusted to Not to exceed 50 psig or maximum Air or operating conditions specified with amounts shown rated differential nitrogen at full normal closing thrust applied to in following pressure across valve 50-125°F valve plug seat. suitable measuring device.104 Class VI Seat Leakage Allowable . not to exceed ANSI body rating.) Maximum Leakage Allowable Test Medium Test Pressures Testing Procedures Required for Establishing Rating No test required provided user and supplier agree. but diameter per psi (10-52°C) no more. ANSI B16. As above As above II 0.Class VI allowable leakage is independent of pressure differential and is only a function of orifice diameter. (10-52°C) whichever is lower.01% of rated capacity III IV V VI Pressure applied to valve inlet after filling entire body cavity and 0.104 Seat Leakage Classifications ANSI B16. Use net per inch of port 50-125°F specified max. Air or water Operating at 50-125°F differential. As above As above As above As above Max. ANSI B16. whichever is (10-52°C) leakage flow to stabilize and use port diameter.104 Leakage Class I 45-60psig or max.1% rate of capacity 0. Service pressure drop across valve plug. For large orifice diameter or small pressure drops. even if available during differential test. It is not true that class VI shut off can not be obtained in high temperature services simply because a soft seat can not be used. This shows that Class VI shut off can be obtained with metal seats. Class VI shut off may be less stringent than Class V. (100 psi pressure drop minimum.0005 ml per connected piping with water and minute of water Water at stroking valve plug closed. full normal closing thrust provided by actuator.

D..00 27 8 203 6.70 11 6 152 4. and all valves are in essence are based on one or the other types illustrated below.032" wall tube submerged in water to a depth of 1/8" to 1/4".15 1 1 1/2 38 0.90 6 4 102 1.Nominal Port Diameter Leak Rate Inches Millimeters ml Per Minute Bubbles per minute* 1 25 0.30 2 2 51 0. as long as the correctly indicated the flow in ml per minute. Other apparatus may be constructed and the number of bubbles per minute may vary from these shown. x 0. room temperature. Obturating Rotating Sliding squeezing This illustrates a simple tank with liquid flowing from an outlet near the bottom. Hold pressure at test parameter for pressure. Valve Selection Fundamentally there are only 2 known ways of controlling the flow of liquids and gases. The tube end shall be cut square and smooth with no chamfers or burrs and the tube axis shall be perpendicular to the surface of the water. Test Pressures Testing Procedures Required None Valve disc to be closed shut.45 3 2 1/2 64 0.60 4 3 76 0. one minute and observe for any water leakage or air bubbles if air or water test..75 45 *Bubbles per minute are an easily measured alternative based on a suitable measuring device such as 1/4" O. Pressure applied to valve inlet after filling cavity of 110% of valve underside of disc with water or air over rated shut-off water. Resilient Seated Butterfly Valve Bubble-Tight Shut Off Class B Maximum Leakage Allowable Test Medium Air over water on underside of disc and water on disc topside or water on underside of disc. To stop or control the flow one can either place a finger against the pipe end (Dutch boy) or .

This is the basis of plug type valves. . Each of the 4 valve motivations.alternatively if the pipe is flexible. Principle Type Advantages Disadvantages Obturating Globe Rotating Conical (plug) Ball (plug) Butterfly (plug) Rotating Rotating Sliding Gate Best shut off High head loss Good regulating characteristics Quick acting Temperature limitation on Straight through flow PTFE sleeved valves Need for attention to lubricate in lubricated valve Quick acting Temperature limited by Straight through flow seating material Easy operation Quick acting Metal to metal seated type Good regulating does not give tight shut off characteristics Temperature limited by Compact seating material on resilient seated type. it can be squeezed. An appraisal of the 4 basic types is given below. The second type. These are the basic principles on which valves are constructed. rotating. The regulating characteristic is the relationship between movement of the valve hand wheel and the effect that this movement has on the amount of medium flowing through the valve. This obturating movement is the basis of globe type valves. squeezing action is the basis of all diaphragm type valves. temperature diaphragm Squeezing Diaphragm Globe valve Here the direct thrust of the disk on to the seating provides the best form of shut off and regulating characteristics closure is positive and it is possible to feel when the valve is shut.obturating. The first principle is developed in 3 ways. • Rotating the stopper. This is the basis of gate type valves. sliding and squeezing has its own advantages and disadvantages. • Moving the stopper by direct thrust on to the orifice seating. • Sliding the stopper across the face of the orifice seating. Straight through flow Slow acting Bulky Glandless Pressure and Positive shut off on dirty limited by fluids material.

A compact. An even further development of the plug valve is the butterfly valve. The disadvantages are of 2 fold. as it is also employed seatings of PTFE. Fine regulation. Plug valve Advantages of the plug valve are the straight through flow. Also as the disk is in the flow path the disk to be more substantial for the higher pressures. The disadvantage is the internal shape of the body.e. its quick action can lead to water hammer in hydraulic installations when it is closed too rapidly. it is difficult to combine tight shut off with ease of operation. because the wear and tear through erosion around the seating is more evenly distributed than in any other type of valve. specially formulated for the purpose. but its sealing security in severe applications tends to be less over a period of service. Secondly. bends. Probably the best known method. quick acting and easy to operate which is well suited to flow regulation. Another method is to introduce a sleeve. The temperature limitations to be considered. Globe valves have reasonably short up and down movement of the disk. The advantages and disadvantages are the same as sleeved valves. between the plug and the body. the bigger the pump and the larger the power consumption. It tends to require less torque than the sleeved plug valve. the diversion from the straight line crates a loss of pressure. between the plug and the body to avoid metal to metal contact. hence minimum head loss and the quick action requiring only 90o (quarter turn) movement. which has been used for many years. Also for tight shut off resilient seating which is temperature limited to be used. Such pressure lubricated valves are used for high pressure high temperature applications. theoretically equal to a quarter of the seating diameter. in providing the under and over flow. This method provides excellent shut off and is particularly suited to applications where alloy materials are needed. In these sleeved plug valves it is usual for the sleeve to be retained in the body and for the plug to rotate with in it. A derivative of the plug cock is the ball valve. Due to this streamlined globe valves with its reduced pressure loss is introduced. length of the pipe. and are not therefore big time wasters when being operated. Gate Valve . usually of PTFE. The more the head loss through valves. i. A study of the other type shows that they all wear more at one point than another.The globe valve is the most suitable type for throttling. is to introduce a lubricant. One. The essential difference between the plug cock and the plug valve is that the latter incorporates the features to reduce the friction between the plug and the body during operation and to seal them against leakage. The head loss may be 3 times that of a gate valve.

which is a globe valve with the head work inclined at an angle to the pipe.Plug Valve 0.0. With a length of straight pipe. the resistance is caused by boundary friction between the internal surface of the pipe and the medium passing through it.Y Valve 0.025 . The obturating type varies quite appreciable from Y-Valve. Approaching the problem of valve selection we need first to know about the flow resistance of the various types of valves.16 .4=10meters of 25mm pipe. The resistance constants of the various valve types are shown below.4. Also because of the stresses induced in the diaphragm the valve has a shorter working life than other valve types.Butterfly 0.16m per mm.1 . 0. While the resistance of a 50mm globe valve is 50*0.4m per mm size.04 .4=20meters of 50mm pipe and so on. For a conventional globe valve this is 0. but in a globe valve the flow can be deflected through as many as 3 right angles. The disadvantage is that it is the slowest acting of all because the gate has to be moved greater than the bore of the valve also this valve is bulk in height. the diaphragm has to be made from an elastomer. However it is relatively free from mechanical problems and hence the number one choice for the hydraulic service.27 . Within quite narrow limits a particular basic type of valve can be described as having a constant number of meters of straight pipe equivalent per millimeter of valve size. at 0.4.16. and this limits its application in respect to both temperature and pressure. .025. One no separate stem gland is necessary as the diaphragm shuts of the flow as well as acts as a gland. Normally a liquid or gas offers some resistance to flow. Also the flexibility of the diaphragm provides a positive shut off even on dirty fluids. Resistances to flow are found by experiment and are usually expressed in equivalent lengths of straight pipe.Globe (Conventional) 0. When a valve is inserted into a pipe line it adds its own resistance to flow.Globe (stream lined) 0. With a plug or gate valve as the flow is straight through the resistance is less. means 25mm globe valve is equal to 25*0. usually either natural or synthetic rubber.Angle valve 0. to the conventional globe type at 0. Diaphragm valves This valve has 2 advantages. The main disadvantages are. the resistance is high. It can be seen that the rotating and sliding valve offer almost no resistance.The main advantage is the straight through flow when it is fully opened and hence minimum resistance to flow.Gate and Ball valve.

the one nearer to the point of intersection would be the second choice. Infrequently . Hence for a liquid. a straight through type with minimum head loss should be used. head losses are far more important than when conveying gases. the time taken in opening and closing could be considered.With the basic theory. or a liquid? When conveying liquids. • Is the valve to be used as on/off or regulating? Obturating type is the most suitable for throttling or regulation. gas or liquid 2. • Is the valve for use on a gas. the first requirement is to establish precisely duty of the particular valve to perform. This can be done by providing answers to the 3 questions. with the obturating type as the second choice and the sliding type avoided. including steam and air. Regulate Isolate OBTURATING OBTURA Gas Frequently ROTATING SLIDING Liquid APPLICATION DIAGRAM Order of determination 1. For frequent use. the 4 valve types. their individual advantages and disadvantages and resistance to flow. The following diagram is an attempt to give the best compromise solution. quick acting plug type should be chosen. unless otherwise qualified be capable of isolation. Obviously the 3 questions can cause conflicting answers in choosing the ideal valve and hence to be compromised. • Is the valve to be used often? If the valve to be used frequently. The point of intersection gives the best overall choice. regulate or isolate The chart is used in the order of answering the questions connecting gas or liquid too frequently or infrequently and then dropping a perpendicular from either regulate or isolate. operated frequently or infrequently 3. All valves should off course. With gas this is not so important.

Gate valves benefit from being used occasionally. since it requires much less head room for installation. This probably explains the increasing popularity of sleeved plug valves. Obturating and sliding provides 2 of this each. as this helps to prevent build up of sediment on the seat faces which. Many seating variations are available. ball valves and butterfly valves. Obtuarating (Globe) valves These are available in all materials and all types of seating designs to fill every possible role. Rotating (Plug) valves The ordinary pattern is suitable for infrequent use on gas and water. and Y valve on the basis of flow resistance. If however a rotating type to meet either pressure or temperature conditions can not be obtained then the second choice would be the obturating type. but should not be too infrequent. a rotating type of valve to be chosen as this gives straight through flow and the quick action needed for frequent use. For example on steam and high pressure hot water heating circuits. It is interesting to note that there are 8 possible answers to 3 questions and hence 8 different types of valving conditions. After selecting from the diagram it is necessary to qualify for this choice according to working pressure. temperature and in case of obturating type the allowable pressure loss. The parallel slide valve is best suited where stresses are caused by pipe expansion and contraction.In this example. PTFE inserts for tight shut off on gas and low surface tension fluids. a valve for liquid (used frequently for isolation). The essential difference between the parallel slide valve and the wedge gate valve is that as the names imply the gate in the parallel slide valve has faces which are parallel and in opening slide across the parallel seating in the body of the valve. while rotating provides other 4 sets of conditions. Decide between conventional globe. The only factor to consider is the resistance to flow. The sleeved plug valves and ball valves are more suitable for frequent use. more emphasis would be given to the time required to operate the valve than the straight through flow characteristics of the slow acting sliding through valves. Sliding (gate) valves This is the number one choice for hydraulic applications where used infrequently. The disk of a butterfly simply rotates with in its own bore and is quicker in operation and more suited to regulation than the gate valve. because for a valve to be fully opened and closed frequently. are exposed to the flowing medium. especially as size increases. while the lubricated type is preferable for larger sizes and higher pressures. Ex. when the valve is open. The wedge gate valve or . streamlined globe. The butterfly can be considered as an alternate to gate valve.

sluice valve has a tapered wedge which mates by a wedging action with similarly tapered seats in the valve body. FINAL SELECTION Obturating globe Decide between conventional globe. double port.1 choice for hydraulic service with infrequent use. Valve rangeability Maximum controllable flow/ minimum controllable flow. valves Butterfly can be considered as alternative as size increases requiring less head room and giving better regulation. Sliding gate No. Butterfly valve Pinch and Diaphragm valve Range ability 30:1 to 50:1  100:1 10:1 to 20:1 as low as 5:1 Operating range ability Ro = (q1/ q2) dP2 / dP1 ‘q1 initial Flow q2 Final Flow dP1 & dP2 Initial and final pr.drop across the valve. Body Design Globe Valves Can be divided as single port. Rotating plug Ordinary type for infrequent use on gas and water with lubricated valves type for larger sizes and higher pressures. Type Globe Throttling Ball valves Std. streamlined globe and Y valves valve on the basis of flow resistance. Sleeved plug and ball valves for frequent use. . Single port valves • Simple in construction • Usually used in sizes 2” and below • Tight shut off • Wide range ability • High unbalanced forces on the plug requiring large actuators. while 3 way split body and angle valves are classified as special type globe valves.

• This is applicable to single seated valves only. Dual double seats in one body. tight shut off. cavitations or impingement present problems. • Venturi type flow angle body is good for flashing services. Ball valves One type of ball valve employs a cage to carry a solid ball into the mouth of the body opening. Butterfly valves High pressure drop. high static pressure and tight shut off types are available. They are usually installed with the flow tending to open the valve plug discs to prevent slamming of the valve plug. Balancing can be done with 4 seats i. high pressure and temperature ratings • Can be easily removed from line and can handle sludges and erosive materials. These have high recovery (low pressure loss).Double port valves • Generally higher flow capacities and require smaller stem forces compared to the same size single port valve. Self cleaning. wide range ability and accurate flow control are the characteristics. Split Body This is a special type globe body with a seat ring clamped between them. Needle valves Barstock body design and forged bodies are for high pressure applications requiring small flows and high range abilities. This is used in paper and pulp industry. • They are frequently specified for sizes larger than 2” • Not to be used when leakage is objectionable 3 way valves Most of this type require the characteristics of unbalanced forces on the valve plug and require large actuators. • Its construction minimizes erosion effects • Allows parts to be replaced easily • Relatively inexpensive Angle valves • Mainly single ported type • Applicable to services requiring high pressure drops or where effects of turbulence.e. Hard to handle fluids such as paper sludge. high range ability. • Have good control characteristics. high pressure drop and erosive applications. . good control characteristics and high range abilities. polymer slurries and other fluids with entrained solids can be controlled by ball valves.

irrespective of fluctuations in the inlet pressure or change in flow demand. It is a reverse acting version of the pressure reducing valve. Diaphragm type valves (Saunders type valves) This consists of a body. Well suited for slurries and viscous fluids.These are economical especially in larger sizes. At 0o and 90o forces are balanced and in others it is unbalanced. The paths are engineered to maintain the fluid velocity through the valve at or near line velocity. This reduces noise inherent in its design. Air or hydraulic pressure is applied to the sleeve for closure. Drag Valves This utilizes a patented multiple disc technique which divides the incoming flow into a series of smaller streams with tortuous flow paths. fibers. Pressure retaining valves Also known as surplus valve and used to maintain a level of pressure in the line upstream of the valve. sand. The valve is automatic in operation. bonnet and flexible diaphragm. direct acting and pilot operated. such as high pr. They are made of a sleeve molded of rubber or synthetic material. Drops. These are used between 10o and 60o range because torque conditions cause instability beyond this range. the valve opening with rising upstream pressure.REDUCING AND RETAINING VALVE Pressure reducing valve This is installed where it is required to reduce from one level of pressure to another and to maintain the reduced pressure on the down stream side with in limits. have high capacity. It is more expensive than a standard valve. with flanged or clamped ends for pipe connections and for a pinching mechanism for control. high capacities but poor control characteristics and low range abilities. Types Self operated pressure reducing or retaining valves fall into two main categories. These are inexpensive. This shows poor control characteristics and low turn down ratio. coal. flashing service and erosive applications. PRESSURE CONTROL. pulp & paper stock chemicals. Pinch Valves For heavy slurries such as metallic ores. high temperature and pressure. Control is obtained by positioning the plug inside the stack of discs to change the flow area. The valve was developed for difficult control applications. . The main disadvantage is the requirement of large operating torque. Closure is made by forcing a flexible dome like diaphragm against a weir.

Relief valves A valve which automatically discharges liquid so as to prevent a predetermined safe pressure being exceeded. imbalance in rates of fluid flow or energy transfer into or out of process equipment may result in the pressure exceeding the operating pressure. later being ensured by fitting a strainer. weight or weighted lever or from compressed air. Relief and Safety relief valve Safety valve A valve which automatically discharges steam. because this improves the maximum flow range and accuracy of pressure control. pressure exceeds prescribed limits it must be relieved by a safety or relief valve. Double seated can be preferred if leakage is acceptable. compact in design and smaller than direct acting valves for the same service.Direct acting valve The controlled pressure acts directly through a diaphragm. The pilot valve acts so as to regulate the amount of opening of the main valve in a way that will maintain the flow at the desired level of pressure. . In any process. gases or vapors so as to prevent a predetermined safe pressure being exceeded. such valves have a rapid opening action (pop action) and obtained their rated discharge capacity with a rise in pressure of 10% or less. Because of the complex design pilot operated valves require regular maintenance and clean working conditions. which depending upon its application automatically discharges gases. Although the pressure controlled is not so accurate with pilot operated valves they are less costly. If for these or other reasons. These will provide very close accuracy of pressure control. piston or bellows. Valves may be of single seat design if tight shut off is required. Safety. The term is commonly used for pressure relieving valves in which the lift is proportional to the increase in pressure above the set pressure. Safety relief valves A valve. vapors or liquids so as to prevent a predetermined safe pressure being exceeded. Safety or relief valves should be used on any closed vessel or system in which the pressure can be other than atmospheric and where any circum stances the design pressure of the system can be exceeded. on an imposing force from a compressed helical spring. Pilot operated valves The main is assisted or completely controlled by the operation of a pilot valve which may be itself a direct acting reducing valve.

except that an additional load is applied from an external source. to the relieving pressure of the valve than can be obtained with a direct acting valve. When it is necessary to open or close a valve against line pressure a capacity tank is used. . When a pre determined pressure (set pressure) is reached the pilot valve. • Direct • Pilot operated • Supplementary loading Direct acting The direct acting valve is the simplest and most commonly used class because it is suitable for most applications. Capacity tanks Spring less pneumatic actuators may stay in the last position on air failure but will more likely to drift slowly to a closed or open position. regardless of the magnitude or direction of the forces involved when air supply failure occurs.Basic classes There are mainly 3 basic classes of safety or relief valves. and the fall in pressure to allow the valve to close. These are used where it is necessary for the system pressure to operate closer. Electric and pneumatic supplementary loading systems are available. Supplementary loading valve This is similar to direct acting valve. relieves the pressure loading on the main valve and allows it to open. must be less than can be attained by the use of directing acting valves. Pilot Operated Valve The most common type comprises a main valve and a pilot valve through which the system pressure loads the main valve. These are used when the increase in pressure to open the valve. which is itself a safety or relief valve. although other means of loading are sometimes used such as weights. depending on valve plug forces. The load is usually applied to such valves by means of helical coil compression springs. while retaining the fail safe feature of the latter. Stored air pressure on the cushion loading side of the piston provides positive valve opening or closing.

delta pressure at maximum load < 20% of minimum load delta pressure. delta pressure at maximum load > 200% of minimum load delta pressure. flow rate increases in measuring element.Control valve characteristic guidelines Liquid Level Control System Control valve pressure drop Constant delta pressure Decreasing delta pressure with increasing Load. best inherent characteristic Linear Linear Equal percentage Linear Quick Opening Source: Control engineering with data from Fisher Controls Flow Control Processes Best inherent characteristic Flow measurement Location of control wide range of small range of flow but Signal to controller valve in relation to flow set point large delta pressure change Is: measuring element is at valve with increasing Load Proportional to flow in series In bypass * Proportional to flow Squared in series In bypass * linear Linear linear Equal Percentage equal percentage equal percentage equal percentage equal percentage * When control valve closes. Decreasing delta pressure with increasing Load. delta pressure at maximum load > 20% of minimum load delta pressure. Increasing delta pressure with increasing Load. . Increasing delta pressure with increasing Load. delta pressure at maximum load < 200% of minimum load delta pressure.

decreasing Delta pressure with increasing load. delta Pressure at maximum load >20% of Minimum load delta pressure.5 m) Of nominal pipe volume]. decreasing delta Pressure with increasing load. large volume [process has a Receiver. or Transmission line exceeding 100 ft (30.Source: Pressure Control System Application Liquid process Gas process. Best inherent characteristic Equal percentage Equal percentage Linear Equal percentage . distribution system. less than 10 ft (3 m) of pipe between control valve and Load. delta Pressure at maximum load <20% of Minimum load delta pressure. large volume. Gas process. small volume. Gas process.

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