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j^VICE SCHOOLS V WAR DEPARTMENT. / Document No. 636. Office of The Adjutant General. ')•/ * <*.»' .

WAR DEPARTMENT. A. BLISS.22. H. (3) .G. Washington^ July. Acting Chief ofMaff. MoCAIN. The followingpamphlet on Close Combat Weapons is published for the information of all concerned. Official: Major General.24. o. The Adjutant General.] order of the Secretary op War: TASKER H. [062. P. 1917.

Strict compliance with this injunction is enjoined upon every officer into whose hands any of these confidential documents may come. General's Office. Washington. 1917. The Adjutant General. are to be regarded as strictly confidential. InEurope these documents are not to be carried into the front line trenches. P. They are to be kept at alltimes in your personal possession and are not to be copied.The Adjutant War Department. (4) . June 19. which may be furnished to you from this office. To allOfficers of the Army: Youare advised that this and allsubsequent documents of a similar character. H. order oir the Secretary of War. McOAIN. nor are any parts of their contents to be communicated either directly or indirectly to the press. nor farther to the front than the usual post of the officers to whom issued. nor to any person not in the military or naval service of the United States.

. Page. should be skilled in the throwing of grenades and familiarized with all the circumstances of grenade combat. . range and rapidity of the throw of each grenadier. Translation from the French of a German officialdocument of Jan- vary 1. The grenade plays as large a part in close combat as does the rifle or pistol. 1. irrespective of the branch. Capture of blockhoxise or machine-gun position Destruction of obstacles Grenade mortars Rifle grenades. Anenergetic volley of short duration will suffice to paralyze the enemy. The precision. Attack Defense Storage and transportation. SECRET AND CONFIDENTIAL—FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY—NOT TO BE TAKEN INTO FIRST LINE TRENCHES.CLOSE COMBAT WEAPONS. (5) . 1917.) GENERAL NOTES. are of decisive importance in the success of grenade combat. July. as well as a well regulated supply of munitions. . 1917. 2. Edited at the Army War College. - Hand grenades General notes. Allmen belonging to the fighting force. . \u0084 5 5 6 7 7 8 13 14 15 16 HAND GRENADES (Handgranaten. Instruction . 4595°—17 . CONTENTS.

The following is the usual equipment: A steel helmet is worn. 5. to annihilate or paralyze an adversary stationed in or behind a shelter who can not be reached by firearms. Neither haversacks nor cartridge boxes are ordinarily carried (cart­ ridges are carried in the pocket of the jacket or in the pouch). each man. capture of isolated trench elements. two sandbags filled with grenades and hung around the neck over both shoulders. If. The equipment ofmen supplied with grenades differs according to their duty. bag with four days' reserve rations. and farms) generally require. on account of the effect of their explosion.during an attack. and artillery). Itis necessary to take special measures for the replenishment of grenades. receives from six to eight handle grenades. "or during the progressive occupation of enemy — trenches only a few men are generally used for throwing. If they encounter an incompletely destroyed obstacle at this time. rifleor carbine slung over the shoulder. . 4. gas mask. should cover the en'emy's trenches with grenades. whereas the ovoid grenade produces a great number of very effective fragments. then lie prone to await the explosion. Grenade attacks executed as independent enterprises (offensive reconnaissance. and two small canteens. 6. as well as the commander of the detach­ ment. Ovoid grenades are thrown from under cover as much as possible. ATTACK. of blockhouses. small woods. and if they find themselves withinthrowing range. or special pockets for hand grenades. 8. trench mortars. the assailants silence the fire of the enemy's trenches. 7. while they are running. and then jump into the trenches without allowing anything to hinder them. whilethe rest pass them the hand grenades and guard them. in order to make him cease allresistance. The men and groups having special duties to perform at certain points of tactical importance in close combat may receive a larger supply of grenades. pioneer tool. during an attack.6 3. or a slightly larger number of ovoid grenades. all the men. The handle grenades (Stielhandgranaten) do not operate by their fragments. Inan attack against isolated enemy positions for example. Grenades serve specially. The grenades actually inuse in the German Army are supplied with time fuses. They can be thrown farther. 9. against flanking positions. Generally. it should be destroyed by means of a prolonged — hail ofhand grenades. occupation of craters. the support of other forces (machine guns. or pistol. beside minute preparation. thanks to their superior shape and reduced weight.

It is necessary to indicate in an exact manner. Hand grenades should be deposited in sufficient quantities in the subterranean shelters for the picket detachments and the reserves. The use of grenades is of importance only when firearms can not be used. the batteries.. receive fortheir own defense a suitable stock of grenades. Storage and Transportation. The shelters for the personnel should. and recognizable even at night. whenever . the positions of the close defense guns. is placed in hermetically sealed boxes. consisting of primed grenades. 10. Hand grenades should be distributed accordingly. Grenades with time fuses. thrown at the enemy at the moment when he rushes forward to storm the trench. These localities must not be used . 13. 12. the positions oftrench mortars and others oflikeorder. at a maximum. Experienced grenadiers should. The observation and combat posts. but pro­ vision should be made so that they can be rapidly obtained in all other parts of the position. 14. in the bomb-proof subterranean shelters situated in the rear positions. or when the enemy has penetrated to some point of our own trenches. 11. so that the troops will not lack them for counter attacks. in dead angles. often explode only after the enemy has passed them. to act as reserves. The advance posts and patrols always receive grenades. supported by wooden planks. and in the recesses and places under workshops. in the interior wallof the trench. Other supplies of grenades should be deposited in the positions and lines to the rear. 15. even in " the bomb-proof subterranean shelters. or tp prime grenades. There should be no accumulation of primed grenades. 17. which are deposited in a recess. above all. 18.7 DEFENSE. in the neighborhood of the flanking machine guns. the path to be followed inreaching these depots. The first supply. The best weapons for repelling an enemy attack are machine guns and rifles. 16. in the combat trenches (barri­ caded). Unprimed grenades may be placed in quantities of 400. etc. or when the enemy entrenches near our own posi­ tions. itis best to distribute grenades to allmen stationed in the first line. in shell craters. and in commander or of the platoon com­ the vicinity of the company " mander. In case of a criticalsituation. be stationed at the exits ofthe communicating trenches. thus causing no damage.

only goods of a nondangerous nature should be carried at the same time. The hand grenades (as Well as the spherical and lenticular grenades. Grenades are transported either in the cases in which they arrive from the interior (these cases should never be opened before they are used). as well as for their maintenance and transportation. the reassortment. Thus accidents. that grenades are not used for any other purpose than that for which they were intended. particularly in moments of leisure. a firmconviction that the grenade presents absolutely ho danger to the man throwing it(ifhe handles it as prescribed). whichstillexist in the supplies) are carried in covered chests with compartments. and an absolute confidence in its results and efficiency. are avoided. In the depots the best means of storing is to leave the grenades in their original cases. according to the position and the nature of the surround­ ings. 21. be placed not less than 20 meters (21. primed and unprimed. 20. because rain. the unit commander gives more exact instruction. 22. All commanders should see. Exact instructions should be given for the priming of the grenades in the depots. the fuses and unset grenades should foe arranged separately. The handle grenades are carried six to eight in a sandbag (a man can carry four on his shoulders).87 yards) from the 19. The aim of the instruction should be perfect safety in the use of grenades. To give the men a taste for these drills and waken their ambition. other than those caused by the enemy's fire. In transporting grenades in wagons or on narrow-gauge railways. The men should be inculcated withthe principle that they are to keep and use their grenades withas much care as their other arms. To carry on the above. under their own responsibility. wind. The detonators and fuses are carried by special men in closed chests. Iffor any reason they are removed from their cases. INSTRUCTION. — 23. they should be transported without being primed. grenade recesses. The drills should be frequent. The men should be equipped as for an attack. and the confidence of the troops in the handling of grenades is increased. and cold^influence the range and precision of the throw. or in sacks or small boxes. Instruction should be pushed continually and energetically. it is recommended that they be . In the latter case. and the drillsshould be held in all weather.8 possible. for the replenishment. and the storage of grenades. Itis usually only forcombat that grenades are brought primed into the first line. the distribution.

TWr y a aa. All the men of the fighting force should receive grenade instruction. These drillgrounds should also permit of throwing on sloping ground. Figure 1gives a model for a small drill ground.a '-. on which the German positions and the enemy's positions in all their details are marked out. ) ) a a <v \ °*a. and should possess. as well as the features of the terrain (shell craters. 0000*O ( o o o r/^flfr o. elements of overturned trenches.). The instructors. 25. should be familiarized \u25a0with all. Of = • \ a. - a °­ °- \* a^ Bfi \u25a0 *a. The instruction is given on drillgrounds specially prepared.9 rewarded by being excused fromsome duty. etc. and sergeants. xxxxww *-v-^-* Wire entang/ement Afeeh ­ O O eioned officers and men should be selected to form the personnel of the "sturmtrupps" (assaulting troops) and of the "stosstrupps" (following-up troops). . a: Q }} a aa w bs :-­ 0 r a *:" c 0 oV O O°| 0 O *1 >^ *-Ok *.the details. In the Infantry and the Pioneers as large a number as possible of experienced and intrepid noncommis­ \*—3om « Q. A • sporting contest acts as a stimulant. or that prizes be offered to the best grenadiers. Avoid having the drills last too long. 24. The troops should themselves establish drillgrounds in the neighbor­ hood ofeach cantonment. forest. destroyed obstacles. 100rt*>. as far as possible. a. as well as the sergeants and officers up to the company commander.: « a^i oil « p o °« o aa a. practical experience of combat. ® \lO 0 ' a i 1i 1 a a «\u25a0\u25a0""** *M a. officers.

-. and the meas­ Fig. The instruction begins by talks on the various models of grenades. they may be required to throw by the numbers. it is advantageous to establish tracks as shown in figure 2. and di­ mensions to the real grenades.. Grenades should always be thrown at definite targets. It is only under these conditions that he willnot forget to reproduce them during the excitement of combat. he «2J -.3. and running.. throw the grenade. weight. Wl l ft nr Hs. their transport. A throw oftarfetS. j. their use. I )f 27. It continues with drills in the throwing of grenades. on the preservation of grenaides. \u25a0\u25a0\u25a0 \u25a0 i.up for a moment. particularly on the composition and action of the fuses.U—m iU . a 29.„ fi) & ~ 7 he should rise. Inorder to ac­ Po£/t/pnofthet/)rower custom the men to throw surely and not too fast in the grenade drills. always execute all T. (2) -U lyingprone is executed without the man's Q rising. should then lie prone. or with with sham sham grenades i corresponding inshape.A'. j. the grenades fallingoutside of the track do not count. In training to throw at. 28.Z. Itis important in this drill to preserve the accuracy and direction. their priming.10 26. standing. kneeling. or in rising to a kneeling position J -§> d for a short time only. in the latter case. The drillis Trench executed by one man after another. The drills should be executed mdi vidually and in groups.ij ~: £ \u0084»^. only rising after (?) D/fferentkindS ' the explosion has taken place. Even withsham grenades. to be executed I I\u25a0 I f thm l th fnafi I oremarlaa without the fuse. lying prone. a great dis­ tance. \~Y? the motions that would be necessary in handling primed grenades. and drop down quickly. and the distance Attained is announced. on the mode of action of the fuse and of the charge or explosive. If a man has thrown his grenade while running. These mo­ tions should pass through the subcon­ ecious mind of the grenadier and be 4 executed automatically. ures of security to be taken inregard to them..

8 yards) (fig. The object of the drillis attained when the grenade lands within 1 meter (about 1 yard) of the indicated target and the fuse explodes at once. withand without fuses. for this drill use drill grenades with fuses. Very special importance should be attached to drillsin throw­ ing from one trench to another. and. both trenches should be occupied. at the same time. In order to obtain a plunging fire. If they are composed of well-drilledmen. The throwing of grenades from one sap head to another is to be practiced like the preceding drill. few drills. distant about 20 to 30 meters (21. or a cord stretched between two posts of 4 meters (4. Use two trenches with sap heads. In all trench drills. the two groups may practice simul­ taneously. The man should identify his target at a glance. The two groups of grenadiers practice one after the other.11 30.4). at the com­ mand of the sergeant. In throwing by groups. The same drill willafterwards be executed from a sheltered position with loaded grenades. then both. First. The men in the trench should not be placed too near together. drillthe men one at a time inlanding the gre­ nade in the enemy's trench under time conditions such that the enemy can not pick itup and throw itout of the trench. a man placed in the opposing trench should seek to take shelter from grenades as rapidly as possible. set the grenade and throw it. establish between the two trenches a fence of about 4 meters (4. over which the grenade should be thrown. First occupy only one trench. 31. Use drill grenades. 32.374 yards) in height. On the drillground laid out as shown in figure 3.87 to 32. first without a protecting .374 yards) in height. After a Mrefence 4/nfttfA. as they will crowd each other and willnot find sufficient shelter from the grenades thrown at them. By preference. the man throws a grenade at the designated wooden target. care must betaken that the grenade is not knocked out of the hand by hitting the wallof the trench.

traverses. The safety measures adopted should never be of a nature to awaken fear in the men. 35. 34. requires special training. The throwing of grenades from behind trees and stumps. and shell craters). Spectators should be placed well under shelter. corresponding as nearly as possible with that sought in actual combat (trenches. The grenadiers should be able to obtain complete shelter. When the men have acquired sufficient ease inthrowing. . or should keep at a proper distance.12 grating and then over the top of a grating. The instructor should arrange the drillso that he can followand conduct it. first alone and then in groups. Allaccidents should be absolutely avoided. To permit of the use of enemy grenades found in the captured trenches. When the adversary has erected similar gratings. use grenades supplied with a hook. Drill also inthrowing froma shell crater at an enemy placed in another crater. 36. at a definite target. 33. They stay caught to the grating and destroy it. Such of these grenades thus picked up as are not needed for the immediate instruction of the troops should be sent to the rear to be converted into drillgrenades. so as not to cause the men to lose confidence in the grenades. drill them with loaded grenades. itis necessary to drilleach man in the throwing of these grenades. these can easily be made by hand out of wire. Only those men who have successfully thrown many loaded grenades can be considered as having terminated their instruction.

The rest of the group at D.13 S7. against a counter offensive from the front. stay in the vicinity of the rear traverse and protect the flanks against a lateral enemy attack by means of two men armed with a rifle or pistol. The leader of the group. in order to prevent the enemy bringing up grenades. and lastly inzigzag trenches or those formed by shell craters. observes the throwing and indicates the direction and distance of the jT&Z Trenches formed by craters. t CAPTURE OF A BLOCKHOUSE OR OF A MACHINE-GUN POSITION. by means of a rifle or pistol. and 7. for of the type represented by figure 8 should be constructed. He also protects the group. the rest of the group makes a . 6. To the regular instruction outlined above are added drillswith a given object. the other throws ovoid grenades beyond the first. Substitutes should immediately occupy the posts whichhave become vacant. One attacks the nearest traverse by means of handle grenades. The two grenadiers placed at Aat first act alone. The liaison men at 0 pass the grenades toward the front. then in winding trenches. For the distribution of groups. The losses are announced by the umpires. Each man in the group should be instructed in the different rdles to be filled. While one or two crack shots or a machine gun occupy the attention of the enemy machine guns or blockhouse. who are used as carriers. the progressive capture of trenches and the fighting against blockhouses and machine guns. throw.placed laterally. For this drill. see figures 5. by holding the embrasures continually under fire. The advance in the trenches should first be practiced in rectangular trenches. The men are distributed in such a manner that they can avoid enemy grenades fallinginto the trenches. This drillis also practiced with an adversary. as. 38. B.

In case of necessity. Take a rod or . To transmit the explosion fromone grenade to another. They are inno way suitable. c/tevaux defrJse Vcurd wiredbrush wood. 42.14 rush to the side. I Frenches obstructed with %un *»»«*/ co/'/sofm're. Two men creep up with the . taking advantage of all the accidents of terrain. for loading a mine chamber. until the enemy is put out of action and they can take the works. especially of shell craters. model to draw from in conducting the instruction.pole whose length corresponds with the depth of the wire entanglements. place in each mouth a detonator held in place by means of a littlewooden wedge. grenades may be used for the destruc­ tion of Obstacles. Vockhouse Zm. interval between them of about 15 centimeters (5. when there are no other explosives or in­ flammable materials at hand. A long charge (Gestruckte Ladung) serves to cut a breach through a wire entanglement. attach the grenades to itso as to leave an. They then overwhelm the embrasures and the entrance to the blockhouse withgrenades. DESTRUCTION OF OBSTACLES. Only the gen­ eral outline of the attack and the end in view need be uniform. however. and approaches the flank and the rear of the enemy till"within grenade range.B.9 inches). Paragraphs 29 and 32 must not be understood as laying down an obligatory mode of instruction. 40. The mouths of the grenades should allbe headed in the same direction. 41. They are only intended as a Fis.

prepare a small. rti. > directly at or under the obstacle. Obstacles of metal grating and of abatis of branches can also be destroyed by throwing a concentrated charge . The dispersion in range is 50 . long charge. The charge is prepared for lightingby fastening into the last grenade a handle with a detonator (see fig. and then ex­ ploded by pulling out the igniter. 43. If this / type of operation can not be adopt­ ed. throw grenades fur­ nished with hooks. 45. Grenade mortars are used principally to attain an objective which can not be reached by hand grenades.9. They have a range of 300 meters (328 yards). removes the igniter and throws the charge into the center of the obstacle. The dispersion in direction varies from 3to 5 meiers (3.15 long charge and slide itunder the wire entanglements or throw it on the latter. 9) A man placed in a sheltered position fires the detonator by means of a string of sufficient length. Aconcentrated charge is prepared by attaching six or a larger number of grenade bodies to a grenade. 10). which is at­ tached about half way up the obstacle. A man creeps to the edge of the wire entanglements to be de­ stroyed. To destroy an obstacle in the shape of a metallic grating.28 to 5. Itis not necessary in this case to attach a detonator to each grenade body (see fig. 44.46 yards). GRENADE MORTARS (GRANATENWERFER). . Hepreparesthe charge for lighting(byfastening the handle to a detonator).

grenade mortars should be. two or three minutes before the start.the points from which the fire comes. if he has already penetrated. or by surprise volleys by night or day. The chief advantage of the grenade mortar. may oblige him to abandon the position by covering with projectiles the elements of the trench occupied by him. established. is used more to annoy the enemy than to obtain any radical effect. During an advance the grenade mortars follow the assaulting columns and are rapidly in­ stalled in the captured lines or in the neighboring shell craters. etc. Itis wellto combine rifle grenade fire withinfantry fire coming from different points. In the defense. 46." which accom­ panies each grenade mortar. For the organization of the personnel of the grenade mortar service. in groups of two to six in a flanking position. This is the reason their manufacture has been abandoned. The simultaneous entrance of several rifles into action is recom­ mended to prevent the enemy's defiling. so as to hamper the enemy in determining . This result is obtained by firinground by round.. etc. meters (54. see the instructions "Grenade Mortar 16. on account ofthe small accuracy that charac­ terizes it (wind. For this reason. Their action is particularly effective for flanking fire. and to hamper him in his works. : o . better still. serve to constantly subdue the enemy. on account of the close proximity of the opposing position. in comparison withthe trench mortar. particularly when our artillery fire. at a maximum. for covering dead angles and for strong fire on a large surface. 48. or. to occasion him daily losses. whenever possible. lies in the fact that the fireis difficultforthe enemy to locate. uninterruptedly. It is necessary to make frequent changes of position. 47.). behind the first line. The riflegrenade.16 minute. They then fire on the rear ofthe enemy and help inrepulsing counter attacks. grenade mortals stationed in or. can not effectively fire on the more advanced trenches of the enemy.68 yards). During our attacks the grenade x mortars have proved excellent in the preparation of the assault. During an enemy attack barrage fire executed by grenade mortars may render itdifficult for the enemy to make inroads into our posi­ tion. The rapidity of fire is six rounds a RIFLE GRENADE (GEWEHRGRANATE) 49.

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