Give Fish Chance Gi ___h_a_____ ___ ___ Fi Ch

___ Fish and Seafood: An ___ ______ _ _________ Ecological and_____ Crisis g ______ Ethical
Presented by Charley Korns Northwest VEG

Fish: Older than Dinosaurs
Fish have been on the earth for more than 450 million years, long before dinosaurs. There are over 25,000 identified species of fish. It is estimated that there may still be over 15,000 fish species that have not yet been identified. There are more species of fish than all h ff h h ll the species of amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals combined combined.

Overview i
1. 1 Eating Fish - or Not 2. The Extent of Global Fishing 3. 3 Methods of Ocean Fishing & the 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Consequences Fish Factory Farming y g Pollution Related Disease and Illness Tips on Being Fish-Free and Local Options for Dining and Shopping ‘Sustainable’ Seafood

Eating Fish - or N t E ti Fi h Not

U.S. Annual Per Capita p Consumption (lbs.)
Year Red Meat Poultry Fish & Shellfish

1910 1940 1970 2000 2005

96.0 96 0 92.4 131.9 113.7 113 7 110.0

11.8 11 8 12.3 33.8 67.9 67 9 73.6

11.2 11 2 11.0 11.7 15.2 15 2 16.1

USDA / Economic Research Service

What is the name for someone who eats fish but no other animals?
a.Fishaholic b.Tuna head c. P Pescatarian t i d. d Aquaddict

Answer: Pescetarian i
A Pescetarian eats the flesh of fish q or of other non-mammalian aquatic animals but will not eat the flesh of q q non-aquatic animals or aquatic mammalian animals. Other animal p products like eggs and dairy may gg y y be part of a pescetarian diet.

Over 7 Million Vegetarians
7.3 million Americans older g , than 18 are vegetarian, and more than a million are vegan – 3.2%, and 0.5% of the , population.
Almost 15 percent of Americans say they never eat fish or seafood.
Harris Interactive Poll for Vegetarian Times, 2008

The Extent and Impact of Commercial Fishing g

Millions in Motion
At any g y given moment, 4 million commercial fishing vessels are py g plying the ocean.

The Fate of the Ocean, Mother Jones, March/April 2006

What’s the (Ocean) Catch?
95 million tons of Fish, Crustaceans, & M ll k C t Mollusks in 2004
China, Peru and the USA a e the are t e top producing p oduc g countries.
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Over-fishing fi i
All of the world's fishing stocks will collapse before 2050 -- if over-fishing and other human impacts continue at their current pace. Already, nearly one-third of species that are fished, including bluefin tuna, tuna Atlantic cod Alaskan king crab cod, crab, and Pacific salmon have collapsed, and the pace is accelerating accelerating.
(2006) Impacts of biodiversity loss on ocean ecosystem services. Science 314:787-790

Over-fishing fi i
On May 1, 2008, salmon fishing was y , , g banned along the West Coast for the first time in 160 years.

Wild Atlantic salmon in Maine rivers in 2000 were at an all-time low and faced a number of threats that could drive them to extinction. As a result, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the National Marine Fisheries Service listed the species as endangered.
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service,

Over-fishing fi i
It’s possible that only 10% of all large fish (tuna, swordfish, marlin) and ground fish (cod, halibut, skate, and flounder) are left anywhere in the ocean (2003 st d ) study).

Myers, R.A., & Worm B. (2003) Rapid worldwide depletion of predatory fish communities. Nature 423:280-283

Over-fishing g

Bluefin tuna, once plentiful, are now so rare that this year a Hong Kong based trader Kong-based bought one fish for about the same price as a top-of-the-range Mercedes. On the Tokyo p g y market, one fish can for $150,000.

Peak Fish
The biomass, or total weight of fish biomass weight, caught from the world’s oceans reached a maximum in the late 1980s. Since then, , despite increasing technology and more advanced fishing methods, the global fish haul has been flat or sinking. Annual global catch has declined since 1988 -- at th rate of about 400 000 t t the t f b t 400,000 tons a year.
The Fate of the Ocean, Mother Jones, March/April 2006

Can you name the phobia that means a fear of fish?

a.Limnophobia b. Entomophobia c. Ichthyophobia d. Pantophobia
Angler Fish

Answer: C - Ichthyophobia y p
• If you have a fear of lakes lakes, you suffer from limnophobia • of insects, you have fi t h entomophobia p • and of everything, its pantophobia (vague and persistent dread of some unknown evil).

Enormity of the Methods
It ain’t a few kids with fishing poles

Longline Fishing i i i
Most widely used fishing gear on earth; each year an estimated 2 billion longline hooks are set worldwide worldwide, mainly for tuna and swordfish dfi h

Longline Fishing i i i
Single boat sets monofilament line across 60 or more miles of ocean Each line bears vertical gangion lines that dangle, baited with up to 10,000 hooks

Longline Fishing

Bottom Trawling i
Bottom trawling involves gg g g , y dragging huge, heavy nets along the sea floor. Large p metal plates and rubber wheels attached to these nets move g along the bottom and crush nearly everything in their path.

Bottom Trawling g

Bottom Trawling
The equivalent of fishing the th sea floor with fl ith bulldozers, trawlers level an area 150 times larger than the total area of forests clearcut on land each year year.
The fisheries with the highest levels of bycatch are shrimp y p fisheries: over 80 percent of a catch may consist of marine p p species other than the shrimp being targeted.
The Fate of the Ocean, Mother Jones, March/April 2006

Bottom Trawling
If allowed to continue, the bottom , trawlers of the high seas will destroy deep sea species, before we h have even di discovered much of d h f what is out there.

Robot Fish

Drift Nets
In the North Atlantic, shark and Atlantic monkfish nets are set 1,600 feet below the surface, then left surface untended to sail and randomly ensnare life life. In stormy seas, they may be lost or abandoned, abandoned yet they continue to fill with prey

Drift Nets

Bycatch Victims
For every 5 pounds of fish caught, more than 1 pound of bycatch is dumped overboard, dead or dying.

Bycatch Victims i i
Different types of fishing practices result in different animal/species being killed as bycatch: nets kill dolphins, porpoises and whales longline fishing kills birds bottom trawling devastates marine ecosystems.

Bycatch Victims i i
It has been estimated that 100 y million sharks and rays are caught and discarded each y year. An estimated 300,000 whales, dolphins and porpoises also die as bycatch each year, because they are unable to escape when caught in nets.

Longline Bycatch Victims i i i
Each year, l h longlines kill thousands li h d of unintended species that take the bait, bait including approximately: 40,000 sea turtles 100,000 100 000 albatrosses and 200,000 200 000 other seabirds millions of sharks

The Fate of the Ocean, Mother Jones, March/April 2006

Longline Bycatch Victims

A Tangential Massacre
Canada s Canada's annual commercial seal hunt is the largest commercial hunt of marine mammals on the planet. Over the past three years, nearly 1 million seals have been killed, mainly by clubbing. Harp seals are the primary target of the commercial seal hunt. In 2006, 98 percent i l lh I 2006 of the harp seals killed were pups under 3 months of age. age

Fish Farms - Aquaculture i

Fish Farms - Confinement i fi
More than 2 billion fish (mainly catfish and trout) are raised on factory farms each year in the United States. By weight, more than one-third of all aquatic animals eaten in the United States are raised in these facilities that typically confine 50,000 to 90,000 fish in a single 100 x 100- foot pen. pen
HSUS, The Los Angeles Times

Fish Farms - Net Loss of Fish i f i
The production of farmed salmon results in a net loss to the world's total fish production, as it takes 2-4 p pounds of ocean fish, turned into , feed, to yield one pound of salmon. Excessive harvesting of small, bony small fish in Peru and Chile has meant loss of prey for birds and marine life. life
Worldwatch Institute

Fish Farms - A Dirty Business i i i

Organic Consumers Association

Fish Farms - A Dirty Business i i i
Disease and parasites, which would normally exist in relatively low levels in fish scattered around the oceans, can run oceans rampant in densely packed fish farms. farms.
Organic Consumers Association

Fish Farms - Degrading Human Health
This harvesting of fish for feed also has d h adverse effects on human health. ff t h h lth
In the coastal town of Chimbote, Chile, fish fi h waste in the air and waterways from t i th i d t f fishmeal factories has reduced the inhabitants inhabitants' life expectancy 10 years below the national average.
Worldwatch Institute

Fish Farms - The Great Escape
• A storm in Maine freed more than 100,000 salmon who swam out of the pens into the wild - the largest known escape of aquaculture fish in the eastern United States at that time (December 2000). • Farm-raised fish, bred for market qualities unlike the hardiness that wild salmon must have to survive, can pass their weaknesses on by mating with the few wild fish left. ild left
Boston Globe, 2/23/01

Polluted Waters
Millions of tons of toxins produced by our culture all end up, eventually, in the water. Largest share comes from animal g agriculture in the form of herbicide, pesticide, fungicide, and chemical fertilizer runoff from the fields, and sewage from factory farms.
Will Tuttle, The World Peace Diet

Polluted Waters
Toxins that pollute the air are eventually washed into lakes and oceans Solid waste sites and l dfill are also d landfills l leached by water, which carries their hi h i th i toxins into rivers and aquifers. if
Will Tuttle, The World Peace Diet

Polluted Waters
To T eat animals who live in our earth’s t i l h li i th’ waters is to eat our own noxious pollution, concentrated many times. ll ti t t d ti Fish clean the water of toxins and impurities: they can be seen as earth’s kidneys, absorbing contaminants into their flesh.

Will Tuttle, The World Peace Diet

Dead Zones
These zones are lowTh l oxygen ocean areas where h dl anything h hardly thi lives. Now there are 300 dead zones around the world, compared to 10 in 1960.
Jane Subchenco, Zoology Professor, Oregon State University Oregonian, 8/3/08

Mercury i Fish in i
Mercury contamination is of the biggest concern in the larger, longergg g , g living fish. Fish such as tuna, swordfish tuna swordfish, Chilean sea bass, Alaskan halibut, tilefish and King mackerel have been show to have extremely high levels of mercury mercury.

Mercury i Fish in i
Even low-level mercury poisoning has been found to cause memory loss, hair loss, fatigue, depression, difficulty concentrating, tremors and headaches. headaches
The symptoms stopped when fish was eliminated f li i d from their di (i a study h i diet (in d published in a NIH journal, Environmental Health Perspectives)

Mercury i Fish in i
The EPA estimates that one in eight American women of childbearing age has unsafe levels of mercury in her blood. As many as 600,000 of the 4 million p babies born in 2000 were exposed to unacceptable levels because their mothers ate a diet rich in fish.

Food Poisoning i i
Seafood is the number one cause of food poisoning in the United States. p g Many of our waterways are polluted with human and animal feces, and , this waste carries dangerous bacteria like E. coli.

Reuters, CSPI: Seafood, Eggs Biggest Causes of Food Poisoning in U.S,” CNN, 7 Aug. 2000.

Food Poisoning from Fish i i f i
Ciguatera poisoning: This happens when you eat a reef fish (any fish living in warm tropical water) that has eaten a certain poisonous food. This poison does not go away when a a hen the fish is cooked or frozen.
amberjack, grouper, snapper, sturgeon amberjack grouper snapper sturgeon, king mackerel, barracuda and moray eel

Food Poisoning from Fish i i f i
Scombroid poisoning: A substance like histamine builds up in some fish when they get too warm after they’re caught. Histamine is a chemical that serves as a kind of alarm to let your immune system know that an infection is attacking part of the body.
any fish that has not been refrigerated properly properly. Be especially careful when you eat fish such as tuna, sardines, mahi-mahi or anchovies

Got Parasites? i ?
Anisakiasis is a parasitic disease contracted from infected seafood which is eaten raw or marinated Although rare, marinated. rare this is a type of round worm which can be p picked up from eating sashimi, sushi, and p g , , ceviche.
Symptoms can range from an acute syndrome with nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain or vomiting diarrhea within 12 hours of eating infected seafood to other problems which can last weeks to months. months

Allergies to Fish i i
More than 6 5 million Americans have a seafood 6.5 allergy1 shellfish allergy is reported by 1-in-50 gy p y Americans fish allergy is reported by 1-in-250 The onset of seafood allergy is likely to begin in adulthood, 60 percent with shellfish allergies and 40 percent with fish, and frequent and severe p , q reactions are reported by sufferers.2

Food Allergy & Anaphylaxis Network 22004 study "Prevalence of Seafood Allergy in the U.S.


Fish Feel Pain i i
Fish suffer when caught, farmed and killed. Numerous studies, including a recent one by the Roslin Institute and the University of Edinburgh, have found conclusive evidence that fish do feel pain.

Fish Are Smart i
Fish are more intelligent than they appear. In many areas, such as memory, memory their cognitive powers match or exceed those of higher g vertebrates including non-human primates. Older fish teach younger fish about y g predators, for example, including the sound of trawler engines.
University of Edinburgh biologist Culum Brown

Going Veg! i
Reasons to stop eating fish: You won’t be participating in the environmental onslaught upon species i t l l ht i and habitat You won t be supporting industries that won’t cause harm to fish and deprive them of their life. You won’t be consuming additional protein, cholesterol and fat that is not essential to your health health.

Sneaky Fish Ingredients i i
It’s easy to avoid fish if you know where to look and when to ask questions.
Thai Th i restaurant menus include t t i l d vegetarian meals but often use fish fi h sauce, especially in curries i ll i i and Pad Thai; ask for your dish without th added fish. ith t the dd d fi h

Anchovies are a small, common saltwater fish, green with blue reflections fish due to a silver stripe that runs from the base of the caudal fin It is a maximum fin. 9” in length. They are a key ingredient in Spaghetti alla Puttanesca some Puttanesca, pizza toppings, Worcestershire sauce, Cesar Salad, and many fish sauces Salad sauces.

Isinglass i l
Isinglass is a gelatinous semitransparent substance obtained by cleaning and drying the air bladders of the sturgeon, cod, hake, and other fishes Isinglass is fishes. manufactured the United States & six other countries It is used in the countries. clarification of wines and beers, as a stiffening for jellies, glues and cements.

Familiar Beers ii
BridgePort Brewing Company: vegan friendly Deschutes Brewery: vegan friendly Full Sail Brewing Co.: vegan friendly Lucky Labrador Brewing Company: Organic brew is vegan; others are not vegan friendly
Trader Joe's brand beers: vegan friendly Widmer Brothers Brewing Co.: mostly vegan friendly f i dl Wolaver's: vegan friendly

Missing fi ? i i fish?
So, you’ve stopped eating fish but find yourself missing it it.
Could be you’re not getting enough Omega 3’s, or it might be a matter of finding something to eat that resembles fish …

Local Alternatives to Fish i i Veggie fish pockets at
No Fish Go Fish: 5th & Yamhill (cart) & 3962 SE Hawthorne

Soy So fish fillets at Vege Thai @ 3272 SE Hawthorne … and Vegetarian House @ 22 NW 4th Ave. … and Nhut Quang @ 3438 NE 82nd. Ave.

Local Alternatives to Fish i i
Tofu-based Fishwich & fish & chips at Vita Café, Vit C fé 3024 NE Alberta St.

Sea Vegetable Salad g at Blossoming Lotus, 925 NW Davis St.

Local Alternatives to Fish i i
Frozen faux fish options at Food p Fight! Vegan Grocery, 1217 SE Stark St St k St. … and d many Asian markets

Coming C i soon t F d Fi ht F to Food Fight: Faux T Tuna! !

Omega 3
Fish are not the sole source of Omega 3 fatty acids. Other options include: Flax oil and seeds Hemp oil and seeds Walnuts Supplements (look for non-gelatin p ) capsules)

‘Sustainable’ Seafood Pitch
New Seasons Market example N S M k t l
Problems facing our oceans today: 1. Overfishing
 2. Bycatch
 2 Bycatch 3. Farming
 4. Habitat Destruction
 Our Commitment to Choice
Some people have asked why we continue t sell species th t we k k d h ti to ll i that know may be threatened. Our goal is to share information with you, our customers, so that you can make a decision b t h t’ i ht for d i i about what’s right f you and your f il d family.

‘Sustainable’ Seafood
Why You Want to Avoid It

Even where certain fish species’ populations are h lth the waters may not be (mercury, healthy, th t tb ( dioxins, other chemicals). The FDA’ Th FDA’s seafood program is riddled with f d i iddl d ith deficiencies, is woefully under-funded, and provides no assurance of safety for consumers. If preferences shift widely to “sustainable” sustainable populations, those too will become depleted. Be kind to all animals don’t eat them animals, don t them.


3. 3 4. 4

#2: Center for Science in the Public Interest, news release, GAO Gives Failing Grade to FDA Seafood HACCP Program,Feb. 13, 2001

Famous Vegans
Alicia Silverstone actress Silverstone, Carl Lewis, athlete Dan Piraro, cartoonist Ed Begley Jr actor Jr., Elijah Wood, actor James Cromwell, actor and animal rights advocate Joaquin Phoenix, actor Phoenix KD Lang, singer Kevin Nealon, comedian and actor Martina Na atilo a Ma tina Navratilova, tennis player pla e Moby, musician Sinead O'Connor, singer and songwriter Woody Harrelson, actor W d H l t

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